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Sample records for absolute branching ratios

  1. Absolute partial decay branching-ratios in 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2013-04-01

    The a-transfer reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* has been performed at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV to populate excited states in 13C and 16O. Absolute branching ratios have been unambiguously determined for states in the excitation energy range 13.85 to 15.87 MeV and reduced widths are extracted.

  2. How learn the branching ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, N. N.; Rogozina, E. V.

    2014-10-01

    Enfant terrible of charmonium spectroscopy, the resonance X(3872), generated a stream of interpretations and ushered in a new exotic XYZ spectroscopy. In the meantime, many (if not all) characteristics of X(3872) are rather ambiguous. We construct spectra of decays of the resonance X(3872) with good analytical and unitary properties which allows to define the branching ratio of the decay studying only one more decay, for example, the X(3872) → π+π- J/ψ(1 S) decay. We next define the range of values of the coupling constant of the X(3872) resonance with the system. Finally, we show that our spectra are effective means of selection of models for the resonance X(3872).

  3. Absolute partial decay-branch measurements in 13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz.; Malcolm, J. D.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.

    2012-10-01

    The 9Be(6Li,d)13C* reaction at a beam energy of 42 MeV has been investigated using a large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array and the high-resolution Q3D magnetic spectrograph. The Q3D facilitated the unambiguous determination of the reaction channel via identification of the deuteron ejectile, thereby providing the spectrum of excited states in 13C in the range from 10.7 to 15.0 MeV. The silicon array was used to detect and identify the 13C recoil-breakup products with efficiencies of up to 49%. The results obtained for the absolute partial branching ratios represent the first complete measurements for states in this energy region and allow the extraction of reduced widths. The quantities measured for Γn0/Γtot and Γn1/Γtot are 0.91±0.11 and ≤0.13 (10.753 MeV), 0.51±0.04 and 0.51±0.04 (10.818 MeV), 0.68±0.03 and 0.42±0.02 (10.996 MeV), 0.49±0.08 and 0.71±0.11 (11.848 MeV), and 0.49±0.08 and 0.53±0.08 (12.130 MeV), respectively. For the two observed higher-lying energy levels, Γα0/Γtot and Γn1/Γtot have been measured as 0.54±0.02 and 0.45±0.02 (13.760 MeV) and 0.94±0.03 and 0.13±0.02 (14.582 MeV), respectively. The consequences for the proposed molecular structures in 13C are explored following the extraction of reduced widths.

  4. Radiative lifetimes, branching rations, and absolute transition probabilities in Cr II and Zn II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeson, S. D.; Lawler, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    New absolute atomic transition probability measurements are reported for 12 transitions in Cr II and two transitions in Zn II. These transition probabilities are determined by combining branching ratios measured by classical techniques and radiative lifetimes measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence. The measurements are compared with branching fractions, radiative lifetimes, and transition probabilities in the literature. The 206 nm resonance multiplets in Cr II and Zn II are included in this work. These multiplets are very useful in determining the distribution of the elements in the gas versus grain phases in the interstellar medium.

  5. Branching Ratios for The Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Bhatia, A. K.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket instrument is a two-channel imaging spectrograph that observes the solar corona and transition region with high spectral resolution and a rapid cadence made possible by unprecedented sensitivity. The upcoming flight will incorporate a new wavelength channel covering the range 524-630 Angstroms, the previously-flown 300-370 Angstroms channel, and the first flight demonstration of cooled active pixel sensor (APS) arrays. The new 524-630 Angstrom channel incorporates a Toroidal Varied Line Space (TVLS) grating coated with B4C/Ir, providing broad spectral coverage and a wide temperature range of 0.025 to 10 MK. Absolute radiometric calibration of the two channels is being performed using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and NIST-calibrated AXUV-100G photodiode. Laboratory observations of He I 584 Angstroms and He II 304 Angstroms provide absolute radiometric calibrations of the two channels at those two respective wavelengths by using the AXUV photodiode as a transfer standard. The spectral responsivity is being determined by observing line pairs with a common upper state in the spectra of Ne I-III and Ar II-III. Calculations of A-values for the observed branching ratios are in progress.

  6. Improved Absolute Approximation Ratios for Two-Dimensional Packing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harren, Rolf; van Stee, Rob

    We consider the two-dimensional bin packing and strip packing problem, where a list of rectangles has to be packed into a minimal number of rectangular bins or a strip of minimal height, respectively. All packings have to be non-overlapping and orthogonal, i.e., axis-parallel. Our algorithm for strip packing has an absolute approximation ratio of 1.9396 and is the first algorithm to break the approximation ratio of 2 which was established more than a decade ago. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme (mathcal{PTAS}) for strip packing where rotations by 90 degrees are permitted and an algorithm for two-dimensional bin packing with an absolute worst-case ratio of 2, which is optimal provided mathcal{P} not= mathcal{NP}.

  7. Measurement of Absolute Carbon Isotope Ratios: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Giacomo, J. A.; Dueker, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) produced absolute isotope ratio measurements for 14C/13C as tested against >500 samples of NIST SRM-4990-C (OxII 14C standard) to an accuracy of 2.2±0.6‰ over a period of one year with measurements made to 1% counting statistics. The spectrometer is not maximized for 13C/12C, but measured ∂13C to 0.4±0.1‰ accuracy, with known methods for improvement. An AMS produces elemental anions from a sputter ion source and includes a charge-changing collision in a gas cell to isolate the rare 14C from the common isotopes and molecular isobars. Both these physical processes have been modeled to determine the parameters providing such absolute measures. Neutral resonant ionization in a cesium plasma produces mass-independent ionization, while velocity dependent charge-state distributions in gas collisions produce relative ion beam intensities that are linear in mass at specific collision energies. The mechanisms are not specific to carbon isotopes, but stand alone absolute IRMS (AIR-MS) instruments have not yet been made. Aside from the obvious applications in metrology, AIR-MS is particularly valuable in coupled separatory MS because no internal or external standards are required. Sample definition processes can be compared, even if no exact standard reference sample exists. Isotope dilution measurements do not require standards matching the dilution end-points and can be made over an extended, even extrapolated, range.

  8. Improved measurement of the K+-->pi+nunu; branching ratio.

    PubMed

    Anisimovsky, V V; Artamonov, A V; Bassalleck, B; Bhuyan, B; Blackmore, E W; Bryman, D A; Chen, S; Chiang, I-H; Christidi, I-A; Cooper, P S; Diwan, M V; Frank, J S; Fujiwara, T; Hu, J; Ivashkin, A P; Jaffe, D E; Kabe, S; Kettell, S H; Khabibullin, M M; Khotjantsev, A N; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, M; Komatsubara, T K; Konaka, A; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kudenko, Yu G; Kushnirenko, A; Landsberg, L G; Lewis, B; Li, K K; Littenberg, L S; Macdonald, J A; Mildenberger, J; Mineev, O V; Miyajima, M; Mizouchi, K; Mukhin, V A; Muramatsu, N; Nakano, T; Nomachi, M; Nomura, T; Numao, T; Obraztsov, V F; Omata, K; Patalakha, D I; Petrenko, S V; Poutissou, R; Ramberg, E J; Redlinger, G; Sato, T; Sekiguchi, T; Shinkawa, T; Strand, R C; Sugimoto, S; Tamagawa, Y; Tschirhart, R; Tsunemi, T; Vavilov, D V; Viren, B; Yershov, N V; Yoshimura, Y; Yoshioka, T

    2004-07-16

    An additional event near the upper kinematic limit for K+-->pi(+)nunu; has been observed by experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Combining previously reported and new data, the branching ratio is B(K+-->pi(+)nunu;)=(1.47(+1.30)(-0.89))x10(-10) based on three events observed in the pion momentum region 211branching ratio, the additional event had a signal-to-background ratio of 0.9. PMID:15323812

  9. Stability of earthquake clustering models: Criticality and branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J.; Harte, David S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  10. Absolute Measurement of Hadronic Branching Fractions of the D{sub s}{sup +} Meson

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.

    2008-04-25

    The branching fractions of D{sub s}{sup {+-}} meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D{sub s}{sup {+-}} decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D{sub s}{sup +}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +})=(5.50{+-}0.23{+-}0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup +} decay mode.

  11. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements of Exclusive D{sup +} Semileptonic Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, G.S.; Miller, D.H.; Pavlunin, V.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Adams, G.S.; Chasse, M.; Cravey, M.; Cummings, J.P.; Danko, I.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C.S.; Park, W.; Thorndike, E.H.; Coan, T.E.; Gao, Y.S.; Liu, F.; Artuso, M.

    2005-10-28

    Using data collected at the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring, we present improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions of D{sup +} decays to K{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, K*{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, and {rho}{sup 0}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, and the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement of D{sup +}{yields}{omega}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}. We also report the most precise tests to date of isospin invariance in semileptonic D{sup 0} and D{sup +} decays.

  12. Branching ratio deviations from statistical behavior in core photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Tommaso, Devis; Decleva, Piero

    2005-08-01

    Accurate calculations of carbon 1s photoionization cross sections have been performed at the density functional level with the B-spline linear combination of atomic orbitals approach. The molecules considered are FCCH, FCCCH3, FCCCN, F2CCH2, CF3COOCH2CH3, and C3H5O. The variation of the branching ratios relative to inequivalent C 1s ionizations have been evaluated from threshold to about 100 eV photoelectron kinetic energy. Large deviations from the statistical ratios are observed at low energies, which remain often significant several tens of eV above threshold. The importance of taking into account core branching ratios for peak deconvolution and quantitative analysis, as well as an additional tool for structural information, is pointed out. Strong shape resonant effects are found to largely cancel in branching ratios. Their nature and variation along the series is analyzed in the framework of excitations into σ* valence orbitals.

  13. Half-life of Th232 and the branching ratio of Bi212

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Farley, T.A.; Lazar, N.

    1956-01-01

    The half-life of Th232 has been calculated by determining an absolute gamma-disintegration rate for Tl208 in equilibrium with Th232 for three old thorium nitrate salts and one natural thorite sample. The branching ratio, ??(??+??), for Bi212, a necessary parameter in the calculation, was also measured. The half-life of Th232 was found to be 1.42??1010 years within an estimated error of 5%, which is essentially in agreement with the presently accepted value. The branching ratio, ??(??+??), of Bi212 was found to be 0.362??0.006, about 7.4% higher than the currently accepted value. ?? 1956 The American Physical Society.

  14. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D0-->K-pi+.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2008-02-01

    We measure the absolute branching fraction for D(0)-->K(-)pi(+) using partial reconstruction of B(0)-->D(*+)Xl(-)nu(l) decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D(*+)-->D(0)pi(+) are used. Based on a data sample of 230 x 10(6) BB pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC, we obtain B(D(0)-->K(-)pi(+)) = (4.007+/-0.037+/-0.072)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:18352359

  15. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions of B+/- --> K+/-X(cc).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Minamora, J S; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Schott, G; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Edgar, C L; Hodgkinson, M C; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Graziani, G; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-02-10

    We study the two-body decays of B+/- mesons to K+/- and a charmonium state X(cc) in a sample of 210.5 fb(-1) of data from the BABAR experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions beta(B+/- --> K+/-X(cc)) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit beta(B+/- --> K+/- X(3872)) < 3.2 x 10(-4) at 90% C.L. and the inferred lower limit beta(X(3872)J/psipi+ pi-) > 4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872). PMID:16486923

  16. New measurement of the K+-->pi+ nunu branching ratio.

    PubMed

    Artamonov, A V; Bassalleck, B; Bhuyan, B; Blackmore, E W; Bryman, D A; Chen, S; Chiang, I-H; Christidi, I-A; Cooper, P S; Diwan, M V; Frank, J S; Fujiwara, T; Hu, J; Ives, J; Jaffe, D E; Kabe, S; Kettell, S H; Khabibullin, M M; Khotjantsev, A N; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, M; Komatsubara, T K; Konaka, A; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kudenko, Yu G; Kushnirenko, A; Landsberg, L G; Lewis, B; Li, K K; Littenberg, L S; Macdonald, J A; Mildenberger, J; Mineev, O V; Miyajima, M; Mizouchi, K; Mukhin, V A; Muramatsu, N; Nakano, T; Nomachi, M; Nomura, T; Numao, T; Obraztsov, V F; Omata, K; Patalakha, D I; Petrenko, S V; Poutissou, R; Ramberg, E J; Redlinger, G; Sato, T; Sekiguchi, T; Shinkawa, T; Strand, R C; Sugimoto, S; Tamagawa, Y; Tschirhart, R; Tsunemi, T; Vavilov, D V; Viren, B; Wang, Zhe; Yershov, N V; Yoshimura, Y; Yoshioka, T

    2008-11-01

    Three events for the decay K+-->pi+ nunu have been observed in the pion momentum region below the K+-->pi+pi0 peak, 140 < Ppi < 199 MeV/c, with an estimated background of 0.93+/-0.17(stat.) -0.24+0.32(syst.) events. Combining this observation with previously reported results yields a branching ratio of B(K+-->pi+ nunu) = (1.73(-1.05)+1.15) x 10(-10) consistent with the standard model prediction. PMID:19113260

  17. Isolation and determination of absolute configurations of insect-produced methyl-branched hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bello, Jan E; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2015-01-27

    Although the effects of stereochemistry have been studied extensively for volatile insect pheromones, little is known about the effects of chirality in the nonvolatile methyl-branched hydrocarbons (MBCHs) used by many insects as contact pheromones. MBCHs generally contain one or more chiral centers and so two or more stereoisomeric forms are possible for each structure. However, it is not known whether insects biosynthesize these molecules in high stereoisomeric purity, nor is it known whether insects can distinguish the different stereoisomeric forms of MBCHs. This knowledge gap is due in part to the lack of methods for isolating individual MBCHs from the complex cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) blends of insects, as well as the difficulty in determining the absolute configurations of the isolated MBCHs. To address these deficiencies, we report a straightforward method for the isolation of individual cuticular hydrocarbons from the complex CHC blend. The method was used to isolate 36 pure MBCHs from 20 species in nine insect orders. The absolute stereochemistries of the purified MBCHs then were determined by digital polarimetry. The absolute configurations of all of the isolated MBCHs were determined to be (R) by comparison with a library of synthesized, enantiomerically pure standards, suggesting that the biosynthetic pathways used to construct MBCHs are highly conserved within the Insecta. The development of a straightforward method for isolation of specific CHCs will enable determination of their functional roles by providing pure compounds for bioassays. PMID:25583471

  18. Isolation and determination of absolute configurations of insect-produced methyl-branched hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Jan E.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of stereochemistry have been studied extensively for volatile insect pheromones, little is known about the effects of chirality in the nonvolatile methyl-branched hydrocarbons (MBCHs) used by many insects as contact pheromones. MBCHs generally contain one or more chiral centers and so two or more stereoisomeric forms are possible for each structure. However, it is not known whether insects biosynthesize these molecules in high stereoisomeric purity, nor is it known whether insects can distinguish the different stereoisomeric forms of MBCHs. This knowledge gap is due in part to the lack of methods for isolating individual MBCHs from the complex cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) blends of insects, as well as the difficulty in determining the absolute configurations of the isolated MBCHs. To address these deficiencies, we report a straightforward method for the isolation of individual cuticular hydrocarbons from the complex CHC blend. The method was used to isolate 36 pure MBCHs from 20 species in nine insect orders. The absolute stereochemistries of the purified MBCHs then were determined by digital polarimetry. The absolute configurations of all of the isolated MBCHs were determined to be (R) by comparison with a library of synthesized, enantiomerically pure standards, suggesting that the biosynthetic pathways used to construct MBCHs are highly conserved within the Insecta. The development of a straightforward method for isolation of specific CHCs will enable determination of their functional roles by providing pure compounds for bioassays. PMID:25583471

  19. Measurements of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Λc+ Baryon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Eren, E. E.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We report the first measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of Λc+ baryon at the Λc+Λ¯c - production threshold, in the 30 years since the Λc+ discovery. In total, 12 Cabibbo-favored Λc+ hadronic decay modes are analyzed with a double-tag technique, based on a sample of 567 pb-1 of e+e- collisions at √{s }=4.599 GeV recorded with the BESIII detector. A global least-squares fitter is utilized to improve the measured precision. Among the measurements for twelve Λc+ decay modes, the branching fraction for Λc+→p K-π+ is determined to be (5.84 ±0.27 ±0.23 )%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In addition, the measurements of the branching fractions of the other 11 Cabibbo-favored hadronic decay modes are significantly improved.

  20. Measurements of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Λ_{c}^{+} Baryon.

    PubMed

    Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Eren, E E; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-02-01

    We report the first measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of Λ_{c}^{+} baryon at the Λ_{c}^{+}Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-} production threshold, in the 30 years since the Λ_{c}^{+} discovery. In total, 12 Cabibbo-favored Λ_{c}^{+} hadronic decay modes are analyzed with a double-tag technique, based on a sample of 567  pb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} collisions at sqrt[s]=4.599  GeV recorded with the BESIII detector. A global least-squares fitter is utilized to improve the measured precision. Among the measurements for twelve Λ_{c}^{+} decay modes, the branching fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→pK^{-}π^{+} is determined to be (5.84±0.27±0.23)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In addition, the measurements of the branching fractions of the other 11 Cabibbo-favored hadronic decay modes are significantly improved. PMID:26894702

  1. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction of D0 to K- pi+

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Button-Shafer, J.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /Frascati /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Maryland U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /Pisa U. /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2007-04-25

    The authors measure the absolute branching fraction for D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} using partial reconstruction of {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}X{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} are used. Based on a data sample of 230 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC, they obtain {Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = (4.007 {+-} 0.037 {+-} 0.070)%, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  2. Investigation of photoelectron spectroscopy. [for obtaining branching ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of obtaining true and meaningful branching ratios from the photoelectron spectra is investigated. The problem consists of understanding the transmission of an electron energy analyzer for electrons with different energies, understanding the effects of using partially polarized radiation from different vacuum monochromators, and in understanding the effects of the angular distribution of photoelectrons ejected from different orbitals. An analysis of the degree of polarization of monochromatic radiation and of the problem of varying angular distributions led to the construction of a cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer set at the special angle of 54 deg 44 min so that no discrimination would occur for electrons of different angular distributions. With the analyzer properly calibrated for transmission of electrons of different energies, data were taken at several wavelengths and for several atmospheric gases.

  3. Measurement of the K+ --> pi+ nu nu branching ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.; Anisimovsky, V.V.; Aoki, M.; Ardebili, M.; Artamonov, A.V.; Atiya, M.; Bassalleck, B.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bhuyan, B.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; /British Columbia U. /Tsinghua U., Beijing /TRIUMF

    2008-03-01

    Experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied the rare decay K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}} and other processes with an exposure of 1.77 x 10{sup 12} k{sup +}'s. The data were analyzed using a blind analysis technique yielding one candidate event with an estimated background of 0.30 {+-} 0.03 events. Combining this result with the observation of two candidate events by the predecessor experiment E787 gave the branching ratio B(K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}}) = (1.47{sub -0.89}{sup +1.30}) x 10{sup -10}, consistent with the standard model prediction of (0.74 {+-} 0.20) x 10{sup -10}. This is a more detailed report of results previously published [V.V. Anisimovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 031801 (2004)].

  4. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fractions for $D^-_s\\!\\rightarrow\\!\\ell^-\\bar{\

    SciTech Connect

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, David Nathan; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /more authors..

    2010-10-27

    The absolute branching fractions for the decays D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} ({ell} = e, {mu}, or {tau}) are measured using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 521 fb{sup -1} collected at center of mass energies near 10.58 GeV with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The number of D{sub s}{sup -} mesons is determined by reconstructing the recoiling system DKX{gamma} in events of the type e{sup +}e{sup -}DKXD*{sub s}{sup -}, where D*{sub s}{sup -} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{gamma} and X represents additional pions from fragmentation. The D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {ell}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {ell}} events are detected by full or partial reconstruction of the recoiling system DKX{gamma}{ell}. The branching fraction measurements are combined to determine the D{sub s}{sup -} decay constant f{sub D{sub s}} = (258.6 {+-} 6.4 {+-} 7.5) MeV, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  5. Pressure-Dependent Yields and Product Branching Ratios in the Broadband Photolysis of Chlorine Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickolaisen, Scott L.; Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1996-01-01

    The photolysis of chlorine nitrate was studied using broadband flash photolysis coupled with long-path ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Branching ratios for the Cl + NO3 and ClO + NO2 product channels were determined from time-dependent measurements of ClO and NO3 concentrations. Yields of the ClO and NO3 products displayed a dependence on the bath gas density and the spectral distribution of the photolysis pulse. Product yields decreased with increasing bath gas density regardless of the spectral distribution of the photolysis pulse; however, the decrease in product yield was much more pronounced when photolysis was limited to longer wavelengths. For photolysis in a quartz cell (lambda > 200 nm) the yield decreased by a factor of 2 over the pressure 10-100 Torr. In a Pyrex cell (lambda > 300 nm), the yield decreased by a factor of 50 over the same pressure range. When photolysis was limited to lambda > 350 nm, the yield decreased by a factor of 250. Branching ratios for the photolysis channels [ClONO2 + h.nu yields ClO + NO2 (1a) and ClONO2 + h.nu yields Cl + NO3 (lb)] were determined from the relative ClO and NO3 product yields at various pressures. Although the absolute product yield displayed a pressure dependence, the branching between the two channels was independent of pressure. The relative branching ratios (assuming negligible contributions from other channels) are 0.61 +/- 0.20 for channel 1a and 0.39 +/- 0.20 for channel lb for photolysis with lambda > 200 nm and 0.44 +/- 0.08 for channel 1a and 0.56 +/- 0.08 for channel 1b for photolysis with lambda > 300 nm. The implications of these results for the chemistry of the lower stratosphere are discussed.

  6. Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements for D+ and D0 Inclusive Semileptonic Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Meyer, T. O.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Pivarski, J.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Schwarthoff, H.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Weinberger, M.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Potlia, V.; Stoeck, H.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Cawlfield, C.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Kim, D.; Lowrey, N.; Naik, P.; Sedlack, C.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Gong, D. T.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Smith, A.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Zweber, P.; Ernst, J.; Severini, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Aquines, O.; Li, Z.; Lopez, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Huang, G. S.; Miller, D. H.; Pavlunin, V.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Coan, T. E.; Gao, Y. S.; Liu, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Butt, J.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Redjimi, R.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, K.; Csorna, S. E.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Briere, R. A.; Brock, I.; Chen, J.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We present measurements of the inclusive branching fractions for the decays D+→Xe+νe and D0→Xe+νe, using 281pb-1 of data collected on the ψ(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector. We find B(D0→Xe+νe)=(6.46±0.17±0.13)% and B(D+→Xe+νe)=(16.13±0.20±0.33)%. Using the known D meson lifetimes, we obtain the ratio ΓD+sl/ΓD0sl=0.985±0.028±0.015, confirming isospin invariance at the level of 3%. The positron momentum spectra from D+ and D0 have consistent shapes.

  7. Improved measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb^{-1} of data collected at √{s}=3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction B(D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=(8.72 ± 0.07_stat. ± 0.18_sys.)%, which is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties but with significantly improved precision. Combining the Particle Data Group values of B(D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ ), B(D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e), and the lifetimes of the D^0 and D^+ mesons with the value of B(D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }) measured in this work, we determine the following ratios of partial widths: Γ (D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ )/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=0.963± 0.044 and Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ })/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e)=0.988± 0.033.

  8. Measurement of the absolute branching fractions for D0 decays into K - π +, K - π + π + π -, overlineK 0 π + π -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Mankel, R.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reβing, D.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kapitza, H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Eckstein, P.; Schmidtler, M.; Schram, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Waldi, R.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Kuipers, H.; Mai, O.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Frankl, C.; Schneider, M.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Barsuk, S.; Belyaev, I.; Danilov, M.; Droutskoy, A.; Gershtein, E.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Korolko, I.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Lubimov, V.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration

    1994-12-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II we have measured the absolute branching ratios of the D0 meson, Br( D0→ K-π+)=(3.41±0.12±0.28)%, Br( D0→ K-π+π+π-)=(6.80± 0.27±0.57)%, and Br(D 0→ overlineK 0 π + π -)=(5.03±0.39±0.49)% .

  9. Measurement of absolute branching fractions of inclusive semileptonic decays of charm and charmed-strange mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Robichaud, A. N.; Tatishvili, G.; White, E. J.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hunt, J. M.

    2010-03-01

    We have measured the inclusive semileptonic branching fractions of D{sup 0}, D{sup +}, and D{sub s}{sup +} mesons. For these measurements, we have used the full CLEO-c open-charm data samples, 818 pb{sup -1} at E{sub CM}=3.774 GeV, giving D{sup 0}D{sup 0} and D{sup +}D{sup -} events, and 602 pb{sup -1} at E{sub CM}=4.170 GeV, giving D{sub s}*{sup {+-}D}{sub s}{sup {+-}}events. We obtain B(D{sup 0{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=(6.46{+-}0.09{+-}0.11)%, B(D{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=(16.13{+-}0.10{+-}0.29)%, and B(D{sub s}{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=(6.52{+-}0.39{+-}0.15)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. From these and lifetimes obtained elsewhere, we obtain the ratios of semileptonic decay widths {Gamma}(D{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})/{Gamma}(D{sup 0{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=0.985{+-}0.015{+-}0.024 and {Gamma}(D{sub s}{sup +{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})/{Gamma}(D{sup 0{yields}}Xe{sup +{nu}}{sub e})=0.828{+-}0.051{+-}0.025. The ratio of D{sup +} and D{sup 0} is consistent with the isospin symmetry prediction of unity, and the ratio of D{sub s}{sup +} and D{sup 0} differs from unity, as expected.

  10. Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Lymphocyte/Monocyte Ratio, and Absolute Lymphocyte Count/Absolute Monocyte Count Prognostic Score in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ching-Liang; Lu, Chieh-Sheng; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chen, Yu-Guang; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), and absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score (ALC/AMC PS) have been described as the most useful prognostic tools for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We retrospectively analyzed 148 Taiwanese patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma under rituximab (R)-CHOP-like regimens from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Tri-Service General Hospital and investigated the utility of these inexpensive tools in our patients. In a univariate analysis, the NLR, LMR, and ALC/AMC PS had significant prognostic value in our DLBCL patients (NLR: 5-year progression-free survival [PFS], P = 0.001; 5-year overall survival [OS], P = 0.007. LMR: PFS, P = 0.003; OS, P = 0.05. ALC/AMC PS: PFS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001). In a separate multivariate analysis, the ALC/AMC PS appeared to interact less with the other clinical factors but retained statistical significance in the survival analysis (PFS, P = 0.023; OS, P = 0.017). The akaike information criterion (AIC) analysis produced scores of 388.773 in the NLR, 387.625 in the LMR, and 372.574 in the ALC/AMC PS. The results suggested that the ALC/AMC PS appears to be more reliable than the NLR and LMR and may provide additional prognostic information when used in conjunction with the International Prognostic Index.

  11. A shock tube study of the branching ratios of propene + OH reaction.

    PubMed

    Badra, Jihad; Khaled, Fethi; Giri, Binod Raj; Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-28

    Absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of the OH radical with propene (C3H6) and five deuterated isotopes, propene-1-D1 (CDHCHCH3), propene-1,1-D2 (CD2CHCH3), propene-1,1,2-D3 (CD2CDCH3), propene-3,3,3-D3 (CH2CHCD3), and propene-D6 (C3D6), were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 818-1460 K and pressures near 1 atm. The reaction progress was followed by monitoring the OH radical near 306.7 nm using UV laser absorption. Kinetic isotope effects in the measured rate coefficients are discussed and rationalized for the site-specific H-abstraction by the OH radical. The first experimental measurements for the branching ratio of the title reaction are reported and compared with transition state theory calculations. The allylic H-atom abstraction of propene by OH radicals was found to be the most dominant reaction pathway followed by propen-1-yl and propen-2-yl channels over the entire temperature range of this study. The derived Arrhenius expressions for various site-specific rate coefficients over 818-1442 K are (the subscript in the rate coefficient identifies the position of H or D atom according to the IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes): PMID:25493300

  12. Tables of stark level transition probabilities and branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The transition probabilities which are given in terms of n prime k prime and n k are tabulated. No additional summing or averaging is necessary. The electric quantum number k plays the role of the angular momentum quantum number l in the presence of an electric field. The branching ratios between stark levels are also tabulated. Necessary formulas for the transition probabilities and branching ratios are given. Symmetries are discussed and selection rules are given. Some disagreements for some branching ratios are found between the present calculation and the measurement of Mark and Wierl. The transition probability multiplied by the statistical weight of the initial state is called the static intensity J sub S, while the branching ratios are called the dynamic intensity J sub D.

  13. The sensitivity of the Higgs boson branching ratios to the W boson width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, William

    2016-07-01

    The Higgs boson branching ratio into vector bosons is sensitive to the decay widths of those vector bosons because they are produced with at least one boson significantly off-shell. Γ (H → VV) is approximately proportional to the product of the Higgs boson coupling and the vector boson width. ΓZ is well measured, but ΓW gives an uncertainty on Γ (H → WW) which is not negligible. The ratio of branching ratios, BR (H → WW) / BR (H → ZZ) measured by a combination of ATLAS and CMS at LHC is used herein to extract a width for the W boson of ΓW =1.8-0.3+0.4 GeV by assuming Standard Model couplings of the Higgs bosons. This dependence of the branching ratio on ΓW is not discussed in most Higgs boson coupling analyses.

  14. Determination of absolute interferometric phase using the beam-amplitude ratio technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, D.L.; Hensley, W.H.

    1996-03-01

    Determination of the absolute phase difference (i.e., not modulo 2{pi}) is a key problem in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) for topographic mapping. One way of solving this problem requires use of a technique different from the basic interferometry to resolve a `coarse` angle measurement that lies within the IFSAR ambiguity angle. The method investigated in this paper involves taking advantage of the difference in the amplitude ratio versus elevation angle that occurs when the elevation beams of the two IFSAR antennas are pointed in slightly different directions. The performance of the technique is a function of the angular separation of the two beams, the elevation beamwidth, and the symmetry of the two beam-amplitude patterns. The performance required of the technique is set by the ambiguity angle of the interferometer. This paper presents an analysis of the beam-amplitude ratio technique and shows experimental results.

  15. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fractions of$B^\\pm \\to K^\\pm X_{c\\bar c}$

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U. /Basilicata U., Potenza

    2005-11-02

    We study the two-body decays of B{sup {+-}} mesons to K{sup {+-}} and a charmonium state, X{sub c{bar c}}, in a sample of 210.5 fb{sup -1} of data from the BABAR experiment. We perform measurements of absolute branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}} X{sub c{bar c}}) using a missing mass technique, and report several new or improved results. In particular, the upper limit {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}}(3872)) < 3.2 x 10{sup -4} at 90% CL and the inferred lower limit {Beta}(X(3872) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) > 4.2% will help in understanding the nature of the recently discovered X(3872).

  16. Vibrational branching ratios and photoelectron angular distributions in 5σ photoionisation of CO

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J. A.; Dill, Dan; Dehmer, Joseph L.

    1981-10-28

    Vibrationally resolved photoelectron angular distributions have been calculated for the 5σ photoionisation channel of CO using the multiple-scattering method. Vibrational branching ratios and vibrationally unresolved integrated cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions are also reported and compared with available measurements. Both angular distributions and branching ratios exhibit striking non-Franck-Condon behaviour caused primarily by the f-wave shape resonance in the sigma photoionisation continuum. Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment exist for the weaker vf=2,3 vibrational levels and interaction with nearby two-electron excitation is proposed as a likely cause.

  17. Branching ratios of {alpha} decay to excited states of even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. Z.; Zhang, H. F.; Dong, J. M.; Royer, G.

    2009-01-15

    Branching ratios of {alpha} decay to members of the ground state rotational band and excited 0{sup +} states of even-even nuclei are calculated in the framework of the generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) by taking into account the angular momentum of the {alpha} particle and the excitation probability of the daughter nucleus. The calculation covers isotopic chains from Hg to Fm in the mass regions 180=}224. The calculated branching ratios of the {alpha} transitions are in good agreement with the experimental data and some useful predictions are provided for future experiments.

  18. The branching ratio in the infrared predissociation of aniline-water-methanol + ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alauddin, Md.; Song, Jae Kyu; Park, Seung Min

    2010-09-01

    The infrared (IR) photodissociation of aniline-water-methanol cluster ion was investigated in the 2600-3900 cm -1 region to examine the factors which play key roles in determining the branching ratio of a concurrent predissociation reaction. The dominant channel in the IR predissociation of AWM + (A: aniline, W: water, M: methanol) was AWM + → AM + at all vibrational modes although the calculated binding energies of water and methanol were nearly the same. Also, the branching ratio was slightly dependent on the specific excited mode, ranging from 0.036 to 0.074; the most effective mode to kick out methanol was OH vibration of methanol.

  19. Delayed-neutron branching ratios of precursors in the fission product region

    SciTech Connect

    Rudstam, G.; Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L. )

    1993-01-01

    Delayed-neutron branching ratios in the fission product region have been tabulated, and average values have been determined. In order to provide data complementary to published values an experiment covering the mass range 79-150 has been carried out at the OSIRIS isotope-separator on-line facility at Studsvik. This experiment has resulted in branching ratios for some precursors ([sup 84]Ge, [sup 133]Sn, and [sup 150]La) for which such data have not been reported before. In several other cases the new results are accurate than older determinations. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Determination of RW3-to-water mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio for absolute dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Seet, Katrina Y T; Hanlon, Peta M; Charles, Paul H

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of absorbed dose to water in a solid-phantom may require a conversion factor because it may not be radiologically equivalent to water. One phantom developed for the use of dosimetry is a solid water, RW3 white-polystyrene material by IBA. This has a lower mass-energy absorption coefficient than water due to high bremsstrahlung yield, which affects the accuracy of absolute dosimetry measurements. In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of mass-energy absorption coefficient ratios, relative to water, from measurements in plastic water and RW3 with an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (6 and 10 MV photon beams) as well as Monte Carlo modeling in BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc. From this, the solid-phantom-to-water correction factor was determined for plastic water and RW3. PMID:21960410

  1. High-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ emitter 74Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, R.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Svensson, C. E.; Towner, I. S.; Andreoiu, C.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Chester, A.; Cross, D. S.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Glister, J.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Leach, K. G.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Tardiff, E. R.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2013-10-01

    A high-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ decay of 74Rb was performed at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion-beam facility. The scintillating electron-positron tagging array (SCEPTAR), composed of 10 thin plastic scintillators, was used to detect the emitted β particles; the 8π spectrometer, an array of 20 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors, was used for detecting γ rays that were emitted following Gamow-Teller and nonanalog Fermi β+ decays of 74Rb; and the Pentagonal Array of Conversion Electron Spectrometers (PACES), an array of 5 Si(Li) detectors, was employed for measuring β-delayed conversion electrons. Twenty-three excited states were identified in 74Kr following 8.241(4)×108 detected 74Rb β decays. A total of 58 γ-ray and electron transitions were placed in the decay scheme, allowing the superallowed branching ratio to be determined as B0=99.545(31)%. Combined with previous half-life and Q-value measurements, the superallowed branching ratio measured in this work leads to a superallowed ft value of 3082.8(65) s. Comparisons between this superallowed ft value and the world-average-corrected Ft¯ value, as well as the nonanalog Fermi branching ratios determined in this work, provide guidance for theoretical models of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections in this mass region.

  2. Branching ratios of B{sub c} meson decays into tensor meson in the final state

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Neelesh

    2010-01-01

    Two-body hadronic weak decays of B{sub c} meson involving tensor meson in the final state are studied by using the Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise II model. Decay amplitudes are obtained using the factorization scheme in the spectator quark model. Branching ratios for the charm changing and bottom changing decay modes are predicted.

  3. Branching ratios for the decay of n = 3 hydrogen atoms in axial and transverse electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rouze, N.; Havener, C.C.; Westerveld, W.B.; Risley, A.J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The branching ratios for the n = 3 to n = 2 Balmer- decay of hydrogen atoms in axial and transverse electric fields in the range 0--1000 V/cm have been calculated with use of a density-matrix formalism to take into account the time evolution of the atomic states in the presence of an electric field. The branching ratios are useful when the production of 2s hydrogen atoms is measured with the use of an electric field and when it is desired to correct for cascade contributions from the n = 3 level. The total n = 3 to n = 2 branching ratio is found to depend on each of the 14 independent quantities which determine the axially symmetric n = 3 density matrix, thus emphasizing the need to determine the complete density matrix including the off-diagonal coherence terms. If the off-diagonal density-matrix elements are not known, it is preferable to use transverse electric fields since, in this configuration, the contributions to the branching ratios from the off-diagonal terms are less than with axial electric fields. For transverse fields of approximately 200 V/cm, the contribution from the off-diagonal terms are nearly zero.

  4. The sensitivity of gas-phase models of dense interstellar clouds to changes in dissociative recombination branching ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, T. J.; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.; Herbst, E.

    1988-01-01

    The approach of Bates to the determination of neutral product branching ratios in ion-electron dissociative recombination reactions has been utilized in conjunction with quantum chemical techniques to redetermine branching ratios for a wide variety of important reactions of this class in dense interstellar clouds. The branching ratios have then been used in a pseudo time-dependent model calculation of the gas phase chemistry of a dark cloud resembling TMC-1 and the results compared with an analogous model containing previously used branching ratios. In general, the changes in branching ratios lead to stronger effects on calculated molecular abundances at steady state than at earlier times and often lead to reductions in the calculated abundances of complex molecules. However, at the so-called 'early time' when complex molecule synthesis is most efficient, the abundances of complex molecules are hardly affected by the newly used branching ratios.

  5. Branching ratio for the superallowed beta-decay of 10C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eronen, Tommi; Bencomo, M.; Chen, L.; Hardy, J. C.; Horvat, V.; Iacob, V.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Saastamoinen, A.

    2016-03-01

    Superallowed β decays play a key role in testing the Standard Model of Particle Physics. These decays occur between nuclear analog states having spin-parity of 0+ and isospin T = 1 . Currently, and in the foreseeable future, they offer the most accurate value for the Vud matrix element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix. Each superallowed transition is characterized with an Ft value combining both experimental and theoretical quantities. We have just made a preliminary new measurement of the 10C branching ratio, which currently is the least precisely known quantity for any of the ``traditional nine'' superallowed transitions. Furthermore, 10C is the only case that appears to have its corrected Ft value outside the world average value, which could be explained with the existence of a scalar current. We performed the branching-ratio measurement with a β- γ coincidence setup using a scintillator for β and an HPGe with +/-0.15% calibrated relative efficiency for γ detection. Since the branching ratio is obtained from the ratio of intensities of 718 keV and 1022 keV γ lines, most systematic uncertainties cancel out. I will show an overview of the experiment and preliminary results.

  6. Quantum-state Dependence of Product Branching Ratios in Vacuum Ultraviolet Photodissociation of N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Gao, Hong; Chung Chang, Yih; Hammouténe, D.; Ndome, H.; Hochlaf, M.; Jackson, William M.; Ng, C. Y.

    2016-03-01

    The branching ratios for the N(4S) + N(2D), N(4S) + N(2P), and N(2D) + N(2D) channels are measured for the photodissociation of {{{N}}}2({X}1{{{{Σ }}}g}+;v\\prime\\prime =0,J\\prime\\prime ) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of 100,808-122,159 cm-1 using the VUV-VUV pump-probe approach combined with velocity-map-imaging-photoion detection. No evidence of forming the ground-state N(4S) + N(4S) products is found. No potential barrier is observed for the N(2D) + N(2D) channel, but the N(4S) + N(2P) channel has a small potential barrier of ≈740 cm-1. The branching ratios are found to depend on the symmetry of predissociative N2 states instead of the total VUV excitation energy, indicating that N2 photodissociation is nonstatistical. When the branching ratios for N(4S) + N(2D) and N(4S) + N(2P) products are plotted as a function of the VUV excitation energy for the valence N2 1Πu and {}1{{{{Σ }}}{{u}}}+ states, oscillations in these ratios are observed demonstrating how these channels are competing with each other. These data can be used to select both the velocity and internal states of the atomic products by picking the quantum state that is excited. High-level ab initio potential energy curves of the excited N2 states are calculated to provide insight into the mechanisms for the observed branching ratios. The calculations predict that the formation of both N(4S) + N(2D) and N(4S) + N(2P) channels involves potential energy barriers, in agreement with experimental observations. A discussion of the application of the present results to astronomy, planetary sciences, and comets is given.

  7. B^0_s and lambda^0_b lifetimes and branching ratios at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Behari, S.; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2006-12-01

    The authors review B{sub s}{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime and branching ratio measurements from the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II. Using up to 1 fb{sup -1} data samples per experiment, {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime in J/{Psi}{Lambda}{sup 0} decays, B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime difference in K{sup +}K{sup -} and D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} decays and B{sub s}{sup 0} branching ratio in D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +} {nu}X decays are reported.

  8. Branching-ratio approximation for the self-exciting Hawkes process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiman, Stephen J.; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a model-independent approximation for the branching ratio of Hawkes self-exciting point processes. Our estimator requires knowing only the mean and variance of the event count in a sufficiently large time window, statistics that are readily obtained from empirical data. The method we propose greatly simplifies the estimation of the Hawkes branching ratio, recently proposed as a proxy for market endogeneity and formerly estimated using numerical likelihood maximization. We employ our method to support recent theoretical and experimental results indicating that the best fitting Hawkes model to describe S&P futures price changes is in fact critical (now and in the recent past) in light of the long memory of financial market activity.

  9. Study on branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries of D → PV decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qin; Li, Hsiang-Nan; Lü, Cai-Dian; Yu, Fu-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    We study the non-leptonic two-body decays of D mesons decaying into one pseudoscalar meson (P) and one vector meson (V) in the factorization-asisted topological-amplitude approach. In this approach, the decay amplitudes are factorized into two parts, the short-distance contribution (Wilson coefficients) and the long-distance contribution (hadronic matrix elements). We predict the branching ratios of D → PV decays using a global fit with the non-perturbative parameters. Our results agree well with the experimental data. We also predict the direct CP asymmetries by combining short-distance dynamics associated with penguin operators and long-distance hadronic matrix elements determined by branching ratios. The large asymmetries in D+ → π+ρ0 and Ds+-> K+φ may be measurable in the LHCb and future Belle II experiments.

  10. B {sup {yields}} {pi}{pi} decays: Branching ratios and CP asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaidalov, A. B. Vysotsky, M. I.

    2007-04-15

    Theoretically motivated smallness of the penguin amplitude in B {sup {yields}} {pi}{pi} decays allows one to calculate the value of the unitarity-triangle angle {alpha}(o{sub 2}) with good accuracy. The relatively large branching ratio of the decay into {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} is explained by the large value of FSI phase difference between decay amplitudes with I = 0 and I = 2.

  11. Product Branching Ratios of the Reaction of CO with H-3(+) and H2D+

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, H.G.

    2009-11-20

    The reaction of CO with H{sub 3}{sup +} and H{sub 2}D{sup +} has been studied to investigate thermal rate coefficients and product branching ratios in the temperature range [20, 350] K, by using a direct ab initio molecular dynamics method. In trajectory simulations, the energies and forces are calculated using a scaling all correlation second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (SAC-MP2) method with the correlation consistent polarized valence triplet-zeta basis (cc-pVTZ). Results show that total thermal rate coefficients for both the CO + H{sub 3}{sup +}and the CO + H{sub 2}D{sup +} reactions have a weakly positive temperature dependence. At room temperature, the rate coefficients are predicted to be (1.42 {+-} 0.03) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} with a product branching ratio of [HOC{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}] = 0.36 {+-} 0.01 for the CO + H{sub 3}{sup +} reaction, and (1.26 {+-} 0.03) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} with the product branching ratios: 0.37 {+-} 0.01 (([HOC{sup +}] + [DOC{sup +}])/([HCO{sup +}] + [DOC{sup +}])), 0.54 {+-} 0.02 ([DCO{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}]), and 0.49 {+-} 0.02 ([DOC{sup +}]/[HOC{sup +}]) for CO + H{sub 2}D{sup +}. The product branching ratios have a noticeable temperature dependence as well as a pronounced isotopic effect for the H/DOC{sup +} product channel.

  12. Relative branching ratio of the η→ π0γγ decay channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knecht, N.; Papandreou, Z.; Lolos, G. J.; Benslama, K.; Huber, G. M.; Li, S.; Bekrenev, V.; Briscoe, W. J.; Grosnick, D.; Isenhower, D.; Koetke, D. D.; Kozlenko, N. G.; Kruglov, S.; Manley, D. M.; Manweiler, R.; McDonald, S.; Olmsted, J.; Shafi, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.

    2004-06-01

    The η→π0γγ rare decay was measured at the AGS with the Crystal Ball photon spectrometer and its relative branching ratio was extracted to be B1=(8.3±2.8±1.4)×10-4, based on the analysis of 3×107 detected η mesons. This leads to a lower partial width for this eta channel than past measurements and is in line with chiral perturbation theory calculations.

  13. A measurement of the inclusive b-->sγ branching ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Boix, G.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Graugès, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Casper, D.; Cattaneo, M.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.-C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Halley, A. W.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Marinelli, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Robertson, N. A.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Etienne, F.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    1998-06-01

    The flavour changing neutral current decay b-->sγ has been detected in hadronic Z decays collected by ALEPH at LEP. The signal is isolated in lifetime-tagged bb¯ events by the presence of a hard photon associated with a system of high momentum and high rapidity hadrons. The background processes are normalised from the data themselves. The inclusive branching ratio is measured to beconsistent with the Standard Model expectation via penguin processes. © 1998

  14. Measurement of the branching ratio of UPSILON(2S). --> pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/+UPSILON(1S)

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.J.; Potter, D.; Sannes, F.; Skubic, P.; Stone, R.; Brody, A.; Chen, A.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kooy, H.; Lariccia, P.; Moneti, G.C.; Bridges, D.L.; Alam, M.S.; Csorna, S.E.; Hicks, R.; Panvini, R.S.; Poucher, J.S.; Andrews, D.; Avery, P.; Berkelman, K.; Cabenda, P.; Cassel, D.G.; DeWire, J.W.; Ehrlich, R.; Ferguson, T.; Gentile, T.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Gittelman, B.; Hartill, D.L.; Herrup, D.; Herzlinger, M.; Kreinick, D.L.; Mistry, N.B.; Nordberg, E.; Perchonok, R.; Plunkett, R.; Shinsky, K.A.; Siemann, R.H.; Silverman, A.; Stein, P.C.; Stone, S.; Talman, R.; Thonemann, H.G.; Weber, D.; Wilcke, R.; Sadoff, A.J.; Bebek, C.; Haggerty, J.; Izen, J.M.; Longuemare, C.; Loomis, W.A.; Mackay, W.W.; Pipkin, F.M.; Rohlf, J.; Tanenbaum, W.; Wilson, R.; Chadwick, K.; Ganci, P.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lobkowicz, F.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Poling, R.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rucinski, G.; Thorndike, E.H.

    1981-05-04

    We have observed the decay of the UPSILON(2S) into the UPSILON(1S), obtaining a branching ratio of 19.1 +- 3.1 +- 2.9% for the mode UPSILON(2S)..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/UPSILON(1S). The di-pion mass spectrum peaks at large invariant mass, and the angular distribution of the di-pion system is consistent with s-wave production.

  15. Fluorescence branching ratios in nitric oxide - Emission from the A2 Sigma(+) (v prime = 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, T. J.; Burris, J., Jr.; Barnes, J.

    1985-01-01

    The most complete set of branching ratios from the v-prime = 1 level of the A-state in NO measured to data is reported. The assumption that virtually all of the emitted radiation has been sampled is used to extract Franck-Condon factors from the v-prime = 1 manifold. A comparison with previously published results indicates that, except for the (1,0) band, there is reasonably good agreement.

  16. Improved Measurement of the π→eν Branching Ratio

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; vom Bruch, D.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; et al

    2015-08-01

    A new measurement of the branching ratio Re/μ=Γ(π+ → e+ν + π+ → e+νγ)/Γ(π+ → μ+ν + π+→μ+νγ) resulted in Rexpe/μ=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)] x 10-4. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%.

  17. Curve Crossing and Branching Ratios in the Dissociative Recombination of HD{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Zajfman, D.; Amitay, Z.; Lange, M.; Hechtfischer, U.; Knoll, L.; Schwalm, D.; Wester, R.; Wolf, A.; Urbain, X.

    1997-09-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the branching ratios in the dissociative recombination of HD{sup +} with low energy electrons. The results give direct insight into the dynamics of the avoided curve crossing process between the dissociative state and the Rydberg series of the neutral molecule. Excellent agreement between the experimental results and the theory, based on a Landau-Zener formulation of the crossing process, is obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Factors Affecting the Branching Ratio of Photodissociation: Thiophenol Studied through Quantum Wavepacket Dynamics.

    PubMed

    An, Heesun; Choi, Heechol; Lee, Yoon Sup; Baeck, Kyoung Koo

    2015-05-18

    The photodissociation dynamics of thiophenol (PhSH) excited to the 1(1) ππ* state was investigated by time-dependent quantum wavepacket propagation within two-dimensional (2D) space consisting of the S-H bond and -SH torsion. We systematically studied the dependence of the branching ratio (Ã/X(~)) between the two electronic states of the phenylthiyl radical (PhS(.) ) on several factors of the 2D potential energy surfaces (PESs). The effect of a reduced initial barrier to the first ππ*/πσ* conical intersection (CI) was found to be marginal, whereas the effects of a reduced torsional barrier of -SH on the excited ππ* state and the mitigated slope of the πσ* PES between the first (ππ*/πσ*) and the second (πσ*/S0 ) CIs were noticeable. The effect of the slope on the branching ratio has never been previously noticed. It was shown that the branching ratio can be sufficiently above unity without pre-excitation of the torsion mode of -SH, which has been assumed so far. PMID:25756225

  19. Some triple-filament lead isotope ratio measurements and an absolute growth curve for single-stage leads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Delevaux, M.E.; Ulrych, T.J.

    1969-01-01

    Triple-filament analyses of three standard lead samples are used to calibrate a mass spectrometer in an absolute sense. The bias we measure is 0.0155 percent per mass unit, and the precision (for 95% confidence limits) is ??0.13% or less for all ratios relative to 204Pb. Although its precision is not quite so good as that of the lead-tetramethyl method in the analysis of large samples, the triple-filament method is less complex and is an attractive alternative for smaller sample sizes down to 500 ??g. Triple-filament data are presented for six possibly single-stage lead ores and one feldspar. These new data for ores are combined with corrected tetramethyl data for stratiform lead deposits to compute absolute parameters for a universal single-stage lead isotope growth curve. Absolute isotopic ratios for primeval lead have been determined by Oversby and because all the previous data for both meteorites and lead ores were similarly fractionated, the absolute value of 238U 204Pb = 9.09 ?? 0.06 for stratiform leads is little different from the value 8.99 ?? 0.05 originally computed by Ostic, Russell and Stanton. Absolute values for lead isotope ratios for all interlaboratory standard samples presently available from the literature are tabulated. ?? 1969.

  20. Branching ratio measurements and isospin violation in B-meson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The approximate symmetry of the strong interactions under isospin transformations is among the most precise tools available to control hadronic matrix elements. It is crucial in extracting fundamental parameters, but also provides avenues for the search of phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The precision of the resulting predictions requires special care when determining the quantities they are to be tested with. Specifically, in the extraction of branching ratios often isospin symmetry is assumed at one point or another implicitly, implying a significant bias for precision analyses. We extract a bias-free value for the production asymmetry between charged and neutral B meson pairs at B factories and discuss its consequences for the determination of branching fractions generally, and isospin-violating observables like the rate asymmetries in B → J / ψK or B →K* γ decays specifically.

  1. High-precision calculation of the branching ratio of the 40K decay constant.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, F.

    2008-12-01

    40K is of great importance in Earth science, particularly for K/Ar, 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ca geochronology. The decay scheme of the 40K includes two different modes of decay, beta and electron capture followed by gamma-ray emission, which yield two different products, 40Ca* and 40Ar*. The relative probability that 40K decay following one of the two schemes is known as the branching ratio. An original method of calculation to obtain the value of the 40K branching ratio (λβ- /λtot) based on the K/Ar technique, is proposed. λβ- /λtot is obtained by combining the 40Ar*/40K value of Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) secondary standard derived from four primary 40Ar/39Ar standards, with the current best estimates of the age of FCs and the value of the 40K total decay constant. The latest estimation of the 40K total decay constant and the age of FCs by Mundil et al. (2006), through comparison with U/Pb ages, yields a λβ- /λtot value of 89.59 ± 0.03% (1σ; relative error = ± 0.035%). Indirect measurement of the age of FCs by orbital tuning (Kuiper et al., 2008) combined with the value of 40K total decay constant measured by liquid scintillation counting by Kossert and Gunther (2004) yields a statistically indistinguishable value for the branching ratio of 89.61 ± 0.03%, with an average between the two values of 89.60 ± 0.04%. The method proposed here allows can easily be applied to further constrain the value of the 40K branching ratio as future refinements of the 40K decay constant and FCs age are produced, although it is expected that the adopted value will be close to λβ- /λtot = 89.60 ± 0.04%. Kossert and Gunther, 2004. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 60, 459-464. Kuiper et al., 2008. Science 320, 500-504. Mundil et al. 2006, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52)

  2. Molecular branching ratio method for intensity calibration of optical systems in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review is given of the molecular branching ratio method for intensity calibration in the vacuum ultraviolet. Ways are described for determining both relative and quantitative responses in the wavelength range 1000 A to 3000 A. The molecular band systems which are discussed are the following: H2(B 1 Sigma u +)-(X 1 Sigma g +), H2(C 1 Pi u)-(X 1 Sigma g +), N2(A 1 Pi g)-(X 1 Sigma g +), CO(A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma +), NO(A 2 Sigma +)-(X 2 Pi r), and NO(+) (A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma +).

  3. Improved Measurement of the π→eν Branching Ratio.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Aoki, M; Blecher, M; Britton, D I; Bryman, D A; Vom Bruch, D; Chen, S; Comfort, J; Ding, M; Doria, L; Cuen-Rochin, S; Gumplinger, P; Hussein, A; Igarashi, Y; Ito, S; Kettell, S H; Kurchaninov, L; Littenberg, L S; Malbrunot, C; Mischke, R E; Numao, T; Protopopescu, D; Sher, A; Sullivan, T; Vavilov, D; Yamada, K

    2015-08-14

    A new measurement of the branching ratio R_{e/μ}=Γ(π^{+}→e^{+}ν+π^{+}→e^{+}νγ)/Γ(π^{+}→μ^{+}ν+π^{+}→μ^{+}νγ) resulted in R_{e/μ}^{exp}=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)]×10^{-4}. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%. PMID:26317713

  4. Evaluation of partial widths and branching ratios from resonance wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Goldzak, Tamar; Gilary, Ido; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2010-11-15

    A quantum system in a given resonance state has different open channels for decay. Partial widths are the decay rates of the resonance (metastable) state into the different open channels. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the partial widths from the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation with outgoing boundary conditions. We show that the sum of the partial widths obtained from the resonance wave function is equal to the total width. The difference with respect to previous studies on partial widths and branching ratios is discussed.

  5. Measurement of the Lambda 0(b) -> Lambda +(c) pi- branching ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Yi; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a measurement of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} branching ratio in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using 65 pb{sup -1} data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The measurement starts from reconstructing two decay modes: {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, where {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}; and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, where D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}. The authors obtained 96 {+-} 13 {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} and 321 {+-} 22 {bar B}{sup 0} candidates from the CDF Run II Two-Track Hadronic Trigger data sample. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then measured based on the equation: f{sub {Lambda}{sub b}} BR({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {pi}{sup -})/f{sub d} BR({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +} {pi}{sup -}) = BR(D{sup +} {yields} K{pi}{pi}) N{sub {Lambda}{sub b}} {epsilon}{sub B{sup 0}}/BR({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{pi}) N{sub {bar B}{sup 0}} {epsilon}{sub {Lambda}{sub b}}. The measurement gives f{sub {Lambda}{sub b}} BR({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/f{sub d} BR({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = 0.66 {+-} 0.11(stat) {+-} 0.09(syst) {+-} 0.18(BR). The {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} branching ratio is then extracted, giving BR({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (6.6 {+-} 1.2(stat.) {+-} 0.9(syst.) {+-} 2.3(BR+FR)) x 10{sup -3}. The {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} sample they reconstructed in this analysis is the largest fully reconstructed {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} sample in existence. The result they report here on the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} branching ratio is the world's first such measurement.

  6. Flavor changing kaon decays from hypercp: Measurements of the K+ ---> pi+- mu+ mu- branching ratios

    SciTech Connect

    E. Craig Dukes et al.

    2004-01-12

    The Fermilab HyperCP collaboration is making precision studies of charged hyperon and kaon decays, as well as searches for rare and forbidden hyperon and kaon decays. We report here on measurements of the branching ratios of the flavor-changing neutral-current decays: K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}, and compare our results to theoretical predictions. This is the first observation of the K{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} decay.

  7. Branching ratios from B{sub s} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew S. Martin

    2004-05-28

    CDF Run II relative branching ratio measurements for 65 pb{sup -1} of data in the channels B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {-+}}, {Lambda} {sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and B {yields} h{sup +}h{sup -} are presented. Further, an observation of B{sub s} {yields} K{sup {+-}} K{sup {-+}} and a measurement of A{sub CP} are presented.

  8. The influence of diameter ratio on the stress distribution around 90{degree} branch pipe connection due to internal pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Harsokoesoemo, D.; Santoso, G.

    1994-12-31

    Numerical stress calculation results of stress distribution around 90{degree} branch pipe connection due to internal pressure for several main and branch pipe diameter ratios using finite element program MECHANICA (RASNA) are presented in this paper. The calculation results are presented in two types of diagrams, one is in the form of stress versus its location on the main and branch pipe curves for 4 different diameter ratios and the other as stress concentration factor versus diameter ratios curves for the case d/t = D/T and t = T and for three pipe schedule number 40, 80 and 160.

  9. Measurement of the inclusive charmless semileptonic branching ratio of B mesons and determination of |V ub|.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Aspinwall, M L; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-02-20

    We report a measurement of the inclusive charmless semileptonic branching fraction of B mesons in a sample of 89 x 10(6) (-)BB events recorded with the BABAR detector at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. Events are selected by fully reconstructing the decay of one B meson and identifying a charged lepton from the decay of the other B meson. The number of signal events is extracted from the mass distribution of the hadronic system accompanying the lepton and is used to determine the ratio of branching fractions B((-)B-->X(u)lnu;)/B((-)B-->Xlnu;)=[2.06+/-0.25(stat)+/-0.23(syst)+/-0.36(theo)]x10(-2). Using the measured branching fraction for inclusive semileptonic B decays, we find B((-)B-->X(u)lnu;)=[2.24+/-0.27(stat)+/-0.26(syst)+/-0.39(theo)]x10(-3) and derive the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |V(ub)|=[4.62+/-0.28(stat)+/-0.27(syst)+/-0.48(theo)]x10(-3). PMID:14995840

  10. Branching ratios of autoionization from Eu 476p1/26d [J] autoionizing states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun-Gang; Shen, Li; Liang, Hong-Rui; Dai, Chang-Jian

    2015-08-01

    The autoionization branching ratios from Eu 4f76p1/26d [J] autoionizing states to its 4f76s+ (9So), 4f76s+ (7So), and 4f75d+ (9Do) final ionic states are investigated with the combination of the three-step laser excitation and the velocity-map imaging technique. These different autoionizing states are excited via 4f76s6d 8DJ [J = 5/2, 7/2, and 9/2] intermediate states, respectively. The experimental photoelectron images are obtained, from which energy distributions of ejected electrons are achieved with the mathematical transformation. Furthermore, the energy dependence of the branching ratio is investigated within the autoionization resonance, by which population inversion is observed as an important characteristic. The J-dependence is also studied systematically. The validity of the well-known isolated core excitation technique used for obtaining the autoionization spectrum is also studied. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174218).

  11. Branching ratios, radiative lifetimes, and transition dipole moments for tantalum nitride, TaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Jacob L.; Steimle, Timothy; Kokkin, Damian L.; Sharfi, David J.; Mawhorter, Richard J.

    2016-07-01

    The dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from excitation in the regions of the [17.58]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0), [18.42]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0), [19.22]1 - X1Σ+ (0, 0), and [19.40]1 - X1Σ+ (0, 0) bands of tantalum nitride, 181TaN, have been recorded and analyzed. The branching ratios and radiative lifetimes for the [17.58]0+(v = 0), [18.42]0+(v = 0), [19.22]1+(v = 0), and [19.40]1(v = 0) states have been determined. From these values the transition dipole moments for visible bands are determined. Vibrational spacing in the X1Σ+ state and the spin-orbit splitting of the a3Δ state are measured and compared with predicted values. The dispersed fluorescence spectra and determined branching ratios reveal that the most effective mechanism for populating the a3Δ1 (J = 1, v = 0) state, which will be used in future P- and T-violation measurements, is via excitation of the [18.42]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0) band followed by subsequent spontaneous or stimulated emission.

  12. Branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries in D→PV decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qin; Li, Hsiang-nan; Lü, Cai-Dian; Yu, Fu-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    We study the two-body hadronic D→PV decays, where P (V) denotes a pseudoscalar (vector) meson, in the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach proposed in our previous work. This approach is based on the factorization of short-distance and long-distance dynamics into Wilson coefficients and hadronic matrix elements of four-fermion operators, respectively, with the latter being parametrized in terms of several nonperturbative quantities. We further take into account the ρ-ω mixing effect, which improves the global fit to the branching ratios involving the ρ0 and ω mesons. Combining short-distance dynamics associated with penguin operators and the hadronic parameters determined from the global fit to branching ratios, we predict direct CP asymmetries. In particular, the direct CP asymmetries in the D0→K0K¯*0, K¯0K*0, D+→π+ρ0, and Ds+→K+ω, K+ϕ decays are found to be of O(10-3), which can be observed at the LHCb and future Belle II experiment. We also predict the CP asymmetry observables of some neutral D meson decays.

  13. On Branching Ratios of Bs Decays and the Search for New Physics in Bs0→μ+μ-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The LHCb experiment has recently established a sizable width difference between the mass eigenstates of the Bs-meson system. This phenomenon leads to a subtle difference at the 10% level between the experimental branching ratios of Bs decays extracted from time-integrated, untagged data samples and their theoretical counterparts. Measuring the corresponding effective Bs-decay lifetimes, both branching ratio concepts can be converted into each other. The rare decay Bs0→μ+μ- and the search for New Physics through this channel is also affected by this effect, which enhances the Standard-Model reference value of the branching ratio by O(10%), while the effective lifetime offers a new observable to search for physics beyond the Standard Model that is complementary to the branching ratio.

  14. Branching ratios between the abstraction and addition channels in the reactions of OH radicals with monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, C.; Loison, J. C.; Caralp, F.; Flaud, P. M.; Villenave, E.

    2009-04-01

    Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere is described as a mass transfer of volatile organic compound oxidation products with low vapour pressures in particular phases. Among the different aerosol components, the SOA represent an important fraction, but, the fundamental processes governing their physics and chemistry in the atmosphere are poorly understood. So it is important to characterize and understand the mechanisms of their formation. It is well-known that atmospheric oxidation of monoterpenes is an important process in tropospheric SOA formation. Consequently, the identification and quantification of reaction products from the oxidation of monoterpenes in the gas phase have been receiving great attention over the past years. However, the atmospheric degradation leads to the formation of a plethora of reaction products and proceeds through a very complex mechanism that is still not fully characterised. In our study, we have focused on SOA formation from OH + monoterpene reactions and more precisely on the primary oxidation steps of γ-terpinene and d-limonene by OH radicals. Indeed, the primary reaction of monoterpenes with hydroxyl radicals can in principle occur by two reaction pathways: OH-addition and H-abstraction. In this work, we have determined branching ratios of these reactions. Although there seems to be a consensus in the literature that OH-monoterpene reactions proceed almost exclusively by addition, several measurements have shown that in some case H-abstraction can represent up to 30% of the total reaction rate constant. Therefore it is necessary to determine this branching ratio in order to know, in particular, the main peroxy radicals formed and propose a mechanism for the gas phase oxidation of terpene by hydroxyl radicals. (γ-terpinene + OH) and (d-limonene + OH) reactions have been studied i) at atmospheric pressure, using laser photolysis coupled with UV absorption radical detection, and ii) at low pressure, using

  15. Prognostic Implication of the Absolute Lymphocyte to Absolute Monocyte Count Ratio in Patients With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine or Equivalent Regimens.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P; Dimopoulou, Maria N; Angelopoulou, Maria K; Petevi, Kyriaki; Pangalis, Gerassimos A; Moschogiannis, Maria; Dimou, Maria; Boutsikas, George; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros; Gainaru, Gabriella; Plata, Eleni; Flevari, Pagona; Koutsi, Katerina; Papageorgiou, Loula; Telonis, Vassilios; Tsaftaridis, Panayiotis; Sachanas, Sotirios; Yiakoumis, Xanthoula; Tsirkinidis, Pantelis; Viniou, Nora-Athina; Siakantaris, Marina P; Variami, Eleni; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Meletis, John; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Konstantopoulos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Low absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) to absolute monocyte count (AMC) ratio (ALC/AMC) is an independent prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but different cutoffs (1.1, 1.5, and 2.9) have been applied. We aimed to validate the prognostic significance of ALC/AMC in 537 homogenously treated (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine or equivalents ± radiotherapy) classical HL patients at various cutoffs. The median ALC/AMC was 2.24 (0.44-20.50). The median AMC was 0.653 × 10(9)/L (0.050-2.070). Lower ALC/AMC was associated with established markers of adverse prognosis. In total, 477 (89%), 418 (78%), and 189 (35%) patients had an ALC/AMC ratio of ≥1.1, ≥1.5, and ≥2.9; respectively; 20% had monocytosis (≥0.9 × 10(9)/L). Ten-year time to progression (TTP) was 77% versus 55% for patients with ALC/AMC ≥1.1 and <1.1 (p = .0002), 76% versus 68% for ALC/AMC ≥1.5 and <1.5 (p = .049), 77% versus 73% for ALC/AMC ≥2.9 and <2.9 (p = .35), and 79% versus 70% for ALC/AMC ≥2.24 and <2.24 (p = .08), respectively. In stages ΙΑ/ΙΙΑ and in patients ≥60 years old, ALC/AMC had no significant effect on TTP. In advanced stages, ALC/AMC was significant only at the cutoff of 1.1 (10-year TTP 67% vs. 48%; p = .016). In younger, advanced-stage patients, the differences were more pronounced. In multivariate analysis of TTP, ALC/AMC < 1.1 (p = .007) and stage IV (p < .001) were independent prognostic factors; ALC/AMC was independent of International Prognostic Score in another model. ALC/AMC was more predictive of overall survival than TTP. At the cutoff of 1.1, ALC/AMC had independent prognostic value in multivariate analysis. However, the prognostically inferior group comprised only 11% of patients. Further research is needed prior to the widespread use of this promising marker. PMID:26921291

  16. Knowledge-based probabilistic representations of branching ratios in chemical networks: The case of dissociative recombinations

    SciTech Connect

    Plessis, Sylvain; Carrasco, Nathalie; Pernot, Pascal

    2010-10-07

    Experimental data about branching ratios for the products of dissociative recombination of polyatomic ions are presently the unique information source available to modelers of natural or laboratory chemical plasmas. Yet, because of limitations in the measurement techniques, data for many ions are incomplete. In particular, the repartition of hydrogen atoms among the fragments of hydrocarbons ions is often not available. A consequence is that proper implementation of dissociative recombination processes in chemical models is difficult, and many models ignore invaluable data. We propose a novel probabilistic approach based on Dirichlet-type distributions, enabling modelers to fully account for the available information. As an application, we consider the production rate of radicals through dissociative recombination in an ionospheric chemistry model of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. We show how the complete scheme of dissociative recombination products derived with our method dramatically affects these rates in comparison with the simplistic H-loss mechanism implemented by default in all recent models.

  17. Measurement of the Branching Ratio Lambda_c+ -> p pi+ pi-

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Hinojosa, Guillermo; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2008-03-01

    The confirmation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charm baryon decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is reported. All data analyzed are from SELEX, a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that took data during 1996 and 1997, mainly with a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to the Cabibbo-favored mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.103 {+-} 0.022.

  18. Higgs branching ratios in constrained minimal and next-to-minimal supersymmetry scenarios surveyed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskidt, C.; de Boer, W.; Kazakov, D. I.; Wayand, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the CMSSM the heaviest scalar and pseudo-scalar Higgs bosons decay largely into b-quarks and tau-leptons because of the large tan ⁡ β values favored by the relic density. In the NMSSM the number of possible decay modes is much richer. In addition to the CMSSM-like scenarios, the decay of the heavy Higgs bosons is preferentially into top quark pairs (if kinematically allowed), lighter Higgs bosons or neutralinos, leading to invisible decays. We provide a scan over the NMSSM parameter space to project the 6D parameter space of the Higgs sector on the 3D space of the Higgs masses to determine the range of branching ratios as function of the Higgs boson mass for all Higgs bosons. Specific LHC benchmark points are proposed, which represent the salient NMSSM features.

  19. First observation of the decay Bs0-->Ds-Ds+ and measurement of its branching ratio.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; 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    2008-01-18

    We report the observation of the exclusive decay Bs0-->Ds-Ds+ at the 7.5 standard deviation level using 355 pb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II detector in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. We measure the relative branching ratio B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)/B(B0-->D-Ds+)=1.44(-0.44)(+0.48). Using the world average value for B(B0-->D-Ds+), we find B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)=(9.4(-4.2)(+4.4))x10(-3). This provides a lower bound DeltaGammasCP/Gammas>or=2B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)>1.2x10(-2) at 95% C.L. PMID:18232856

  20. Carrier-envelope phase control over the branching ratios in strong-field dissociation of HD+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigsbee, Brandon; Wang, Yujun; Esry, Brett

    2014-05-01

    We have theoretically explored the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) effect on the dissociation of HD+ with short, intense laser pulses. The branching ratios (BR) of the dissociating fragments are calculated for several laser wavelengths ranging from 800 nm to 4000 nm with two-cycle pulse durations. The CEP dependence of the BR is shown to be stronger with increasing wavelength. In addition, we explore the feasibility of CEP control over the BR with relatively long pulses by exploiting the dynamics of the nonadiabatic coupling which has a strong dependence on the internuclear distance and energy of the dissociating wave packet. J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.

  1. Measurement of the K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} branching ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.; Atiya, M.; Bhuyan, B.; Chiang, I-H.; Diwan, M. V.; Frank, J. S.; Haggerty, J.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S. H.; Li, K. K.; Littenberg, L. S.; Redlinger, G.; Strand, R. C.; Viren, B.; Anisimovsky, V. V.; Ivashkin, A. P.; Khabibullin, M. M.; Khotjantsev, A. N.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.

    2008-03-01

    Experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied the rare decay K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} and other processes with an exposure of 1.77x10{sup 12} K{sup +}'s. The data were analyzed using a blind analysis technique yielding one candidate event with an estimated background of 0.30{+-}0.03 events. Combining this result with the observation of two candidate events by the predecessor experiment E787 gave the branching ratio B(K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu})=(1.47{sub -0.89}{sup +1.30})x10{sup -10}, consistent with the standard model prediction of (0.74{+-}0.20)x10{sup -10}. This is a more detailed report of results previously published [V. V. Anisimovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 031801 (2004)].

  2. Strong-field control over the product branching ratios in molecular dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigsbee, Brandon; Zohrabi, Mohammad; Ablikim, Utuq; Guevara, Nicolais; Carnes, Kevin; Ben-Itzhak, Itzik; Esry, Brett

    2012-06-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of strong-field control over the fragmentation channel in molecular dissociation by intense, single-color laser fields with emphasis on the effect of chirped pulses. In particular, the branching ratio between H+D^+ and H^++D from an HD^+ target is examined as a function of kinetic energy release for 790 nm pulses with intensities on the order of 10^14 W/cm^2 and pulse lengths ranging from 25 to 65 fs. Theoretical calculations based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation are compared to measurements using a coincidence 3-D momentum imaging technique. Both demonstrate that control is indeed possible and depends, as expected, on details of the laser pulse such as its chirp.

  3. Direct CP Violation, Branching Ratios and Form Factors B --> pi, B --> K in B decays

    SciTech Connect

    O. Leitner; X.-H. Guo; A.W. Thomas

    2004-11-01

    The B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K transitions involved in hadronic B decays are investigated in a phenomenological way through the framework of QCD factorization. By comparing our results with experimental branching ratios from the BELLE, BABAR and CLEO collaborations for all the B decays including either a pion or a kaon, we propose boundaries for the transition form factors B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K depending on the CKM matrix element parameters {rho} and {eta}. From this analysis, the form factors required to reproduce the experimental data for branching ratios are F{sup B {yields} {pi}} = 0.31 {+-} 0.12 and F{sup B {yields} K} = 0.37 {+-} 0.13. We calculate the direct CP violating asymmetry parameter, a{sub CP}, for B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi} and B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} K decays, in the case where {rho} - {omega} mixing effects are taken into account. Based on these results, we find that the direct CP asymmetry for B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}K{sup -}, and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {bar K}{sup 0}, reaches its maximum when the invariant mass {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is in the vicinity of the {omega} meson mass. The inclusion of {rho} - {omega} mixing provides an opportunity to erase, without ambiguity, the phase uncertainty mod{pi} in the determination of th CKM angles {alpha} in case of b {yields} u and {gamma} in case of b {yields} s.

  4. Decision-making using absolute cardiovascular risk reduction and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ker, J A; Oosthuizen, H; Rheeder, P

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Many clinical guidelines have adopted a multifactorial cardiovascular risk assessment to identify high-risk individuals for treatment. The Framingham risk chart is a widely used risk engine to calculate the absolute cardiovascular risk of an individual. Cost-effective analyses are typically used to evaluate therapeutic strategies, but it is more problematic for a clinician when faced with alternative therapeutic strategies to calculate cost effectiveness. Aim We used a single simulated-patient model to explore the effect of different drug treatments on the calculated absolute cardiovascular risk. Methods The Framingham risk score was calculated on a hypothetical patient, and drug treatment was initiated. After every drug introduced, the score was recalculated. Single-exit pricing of the various drugs in South Africa was used to calculate the cost of reducing predicted cardiovascular risk. Results The cost-effective ratio of an antihypertensive treatment strategy was calculated to be R21.35 per percentage of risk reduction. That of a statin treatment strategy was R22.93 per percentage of risk reduction. Using a high-dose statin, the cost-effective ratio was R12.81 per percentage of risk reduction. Combining the antihypertensive and statin strategy demonstrated a cost-effective ratio of R23.84 per percentage of risk reduction. A combination of several drugs enabled the hypothetical patient to reduce the risk to 14% at a cost-effective ratio of R17.18 per percentage of risk reduction. Conclusion This model demonstrates a method to compare different therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk with their cost-effective ratios. PMID:18516355

  5. Measurement of the B-->pi l nu branching fraction and determination of absolute value of V(ub) with tagged B mesons.

    PubMed

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Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-11-24

    We report a measurement of the B-->pi l nu branching fraction based on 211 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector. We use samples of B0 and B+ mesons tagged by a second B meson reconstructed in a semileptonic or hadronic decay and combine the results assuming isospin symmetry to obtain B(B(0)-->pi- l+ nu) = (1.33+/-0.17stat+/-0.11syst) x 10(-4). We determine the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element absolute value V(ub) by combining the partial branching fractions measured in ranges of the momentum transfer squared and theoretical calculations of the form factor. Using a recent lattice QCD calculation, we find absolute value V(ub) = (4.5+/-0.5stat+/-0.3syst(+0.7) -0.5FF x 10(-3), where the last error is due to the normalization of the form factor. PMID:17155736

  6. Measuring the branching ratio of the rare decay pi0 --> e+ e-

    SciTech Connect

    Niclasen, Rune

    2006-02-01

    A precise branching ratio measurement of the rare decay {pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} has been made. The measurement was made with the rare kaon decay experiment KTeV at Fermilab where the source of {pi}{sup 0}s was K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decaying in flight. A total of 794 fully reconstructed K{sub L} {yields} 3{pi}{sup 0} events consistent with two of the intermediate {pi}{sup 0}s decaying into {gamma}{gamma} and one into e{sup +}e{sup -} were collected. An estimated 53.2 {+-} 11.0 of these events were expected to be background. Normalizing to the {pi}{sup 0} Dalitz decay they found Br({pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}, (m{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}/m{sub {pi}{sup 0}}){sup 2} > 0.95) = (6.44 {+-} 0.25(stat) {+-} 0.22(syst)) x 10{sup -8} where internal radiation, {pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}({gamma}), was limited by the requirement (m{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}/m{sub {pi}{sup 0}}){sup 2} > 0.95 which separated it from the tree level Dalitz decay, {pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}P{gamma}.

  7. Measurement of the 169Tm (n ,3 n ) 167Tm cross section and the associated branching ratios in the decay of 167Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Krishichayan, Norman, E. B.; Scielzo, N. D.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thomas, K. J.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wang, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    The cross section for the 169Tm(n ,3 n ) 167Tm reaction was measured from 17 to 22 MeV using quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the 2H(d ,n ) 3He reaction. This energy range was studied to resolve the discrepancy between previous (n ,3 n ) cross-section measurements. In addition, the absolute γ -ray branching ratios following the electron-capture decay of 167Tm were measured. These results provide more reliable nuclear data for an important diagnostic that is used at the National Ignition Facility to estimate the yield of reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the inertial-confinement-fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules.

  8. Pyrolysis of Cyclopentadienone: Mechanistic Insights from a Direct Measurement of Product Branching Ratios.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Thomas K; Scheer, Adam M; Nimlos, Mark R; Robichaud, David J; Troy, Tyler P; Ahmed, Musahid; Daily, John W; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Stanton, John F; Ellison, G Barney

    2015-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of cyclopentadienone (C5H4═O) has been studied in a flash pyrolysis continuous flow microreactor. Passing dilute samples of o-phenylene sulfite (C6H4O2SO) in He through the microreactor at elevated temperatures yields a relatively clean source of C5H4═O. The pyrolysis of C5H4═O was investigated over the temperature range 1000-2000 K. Below 1600 K, we have identified two decomposition channels: (1) C5H4═O (+ M) → CO + HC≡C-CH═CH2 and (2) C5H4═O (+ M) → CO + HC≡CH + HC≡CH. There is no evidence of radical or H atom chain reactions. To establish the thermochemistry for the pyrolysis of cyclopentadienone, ab initio electronic structure calculations (AE-CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pCVQZ//AE-CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ and anharmonic FC-CCSD(T)/ANO1 ZPEs) were used to find ΔfH0(C5H4═O) to be 16 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) and ΔfH0(CH2═CH-C≡CH) to be 71 ± 1 kcal mol(-1). The calculations predict the reaction enthalpies ΔrxnH0(1) to be 28 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) (ΔrxnH298(1) is 30 ± 1 kcal mol(-1)) and ΔrxnH0(2) to be 66 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) (ΔrxnH298(2) is 69 ± 1 kcal mol(-1)). Following pyrolysis of C5H4═O, photoionization mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative concentrations of HCC-CHCH2 and HCCH. Reaction 1 dominates at low pyrolysis temperatures (1000-1400 K). At temperatures above 1400 K, reaction 2 becomes the dominant channel. We have used the product branching ratios over the temperature range 1000-1600 K to extract the ratios of unimolecular rate coefficients for reactions 1 and 2 . If Arrhenius expressions are used, the difference of activation energies for reactions 1 and 2 , E2 - E1, is found to be 16 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) and the ratio of the pre-exponential factors, A2/A1, is 7.0 ± 0.3. PMID:25608038

  9. Absolute measurements of total peroxy nitrate mixing ratios by thermal dissociation blue diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paul, Dipayan; Osthoff, Hans D

    2010-08-01

    Peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) have long been recognized as important trace gas constituents of the troposphere. Here, we describe a blue diode laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer for rapid and absolute measurements of total peroxyacyl nitrate (SigmaPAN) abundances at ambient concentration levels. The PANs are thermally dissociated and detected as NO2, whose mixing ratios are quantified by optical absorption at 405 nm relative to a reference channel kept at ambient temperature. The effective NO2 absorption cross-section at the diode laser emission wavelength was measured to be 6.1 x 10(-19) cm2 molecule(-1), in excellent agreement with a prediction based on a projection of a high-resolution literature absorption spectrum onto the laser line width. The performance, i.e., accuracy and precision of measurement and matrix effects, of the new 405 nm thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer was evaluated and compared to that of a 532 nm thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer using laboratory-generated air samples. The new 405 nm spectrometer was considerably more sensitive and compact than the previously constructed version. The key advantage of laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy is that the measurement can be considered absolute and does not need to rely on external calibration. PMID:20698583

  10. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions of the Υ(4S) to Charged and Neutral B Mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godang, Romulus; Kinoshita, Kay

    2002-04-01

    Using 2.73 fb-1 of CLEO II data taken on the Υ(4S) and 1.43 fb-1 taken at a center of mass energy 60 MeV below the Υ(4S), we measure the ratio of production fractions times the ratio of semileptonic branching fractions, f_+-b_+\\over f_00b0 through the decays barB arrow D^*l^- barν_l, reconstructed using a partial reconstruction method. Assuming that b_+\\over b0 is equal to the lifetime ratio τ_+\\overτ0 and using the world average value of τ_+\\overτ_0, the ratio of branching fractions of the Υ(4S) to charged and neutral B mesons will be presented.

  11. A measurement of the branching ratio of K+-- ->pi+--mu+mu- decays in the Hyper CP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zyla, Piotr; other HyperCP Collaborators

    2001-11-26

    Large samples of hyperon and kaon decays were collected with the Hyper CP spectrometer during two fixed-target runs at Fermilab. Based on an analysis of 110 million K pm decays from the 1997 data sample we present a branching ratio for K pm right arrow pi pm mu+ mu-. This is the first observation of K- right arrow pi- mu+ mu- decay.

  12. Branching ratios and polarization in B{yields}VV,VA,AA decays

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Yang, K.-C.

    2008-11-01

    We present a detailed study of charmless two-body B decays into final states involving two vector mesons (VV) or two axial-vector mesons (AA) or one vector and one axial-vector meson (VA), within the framework of QCD factorization, where A is either a {sup 3}P{sub 1} or {sup 1}P{sub 1} axial-vector meson. The main results are as follows. (i) In the presence of next-to-leading-order nonfactorizable corrections, effective Wilson coefficients a{sub i}{sup h} are helicity-dependent. For some penguin-dominated modes, the constructive (destructive) interference in the negative-helicity (longitudinal-helicity) amplitude of the B{yields}VV decay will render the former comparable to the latter and push up the transverse polarization. (ii) In QCD factorization, the transverse polarization fraction can be large for penguin-dominated charmless VV modes by allowing for sizable penguin-annihilation contributions. (iii) Using the measured K*{sup 0}{rho}{sup -} channel as an input, we predict the branching ratios and polarization fractions for other B{yields}K*{rho} decays. (iv) The smallness of the axial-vector decay constant of the {sup 1}P{sub 1} axial-vector meson can be tested by measuring various b{sub 1}{rho} modes to see if {gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup -}{rho}{sup +})<<{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup +}{rho}{sup -}) and {gamma}(B{sup -}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup -}{rho}{sup 0})<<{gamma}(B{sup -}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup 0}{rho}{sup -}). (v) For the penguin-dominated modes a{sub 1}K* and b{sub 1}K*, it is found that the former are dominated by transverse polarization amplitudes, whereas the latter are governed by longitudinal polarization states. (vi) The rates of B{yields}K{sub 1}(1270)K* and K{sub 1}(1400)K* are generally very small. The decay modes K{sub 1}{sup -}K*{sup +} and K{sub 1}{sup +}K*{sup -} are of particular interest as they are the only AV modes which receive contributions solely from weak annihilation. (vii) For tree-dominated B{yields}AA decays, the a

  13. Measurement of $B_s^0 \\to D_s^{(*)+} D_s^{(*)-}$ Branching Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2012-04-01

    The decays B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}s are reconstructed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.8 fb{sup -1} collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider. All decay modes are observed with a significance of more than 10 {sigma}, and we measure the B{sub s}{sup 0} production rate times B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching ratios relative to the normalization mode B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}d{sup -} to be 0.183 {+-} 0.021 {+-} 0.017 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, 0.424 {+-} 0.046 {+-} 0.035 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup {+-}} D{sub s}{sup {-+}}, 0.654 {+-} 0.072 {+-} 0.065 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup *+} D{sub s}{sup *-}, and 1.261 {+-} 0.095 {+-} 0.112 for the inclusive decay B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic. These results are the most precise single measurements to date and provide important constraints for indirect searches for non-standard model physics in B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing.

  14. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gotia, Hanzel T.; Munro, James B.; Knowles, Donald P.; Daubenberger, Claudia A.; Bishop, Richard P.; Silva, Joana C.

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field. PMID:26930209

  15. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Gotia, Hanzel T; Munro, James B; Knowles, Donald P; Daubenberger, Claudia A; Bishop, Richard P; Silva, Joana C

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field. PMID:26930209

  16. The molecular branching ratio method for calibration of optical systems in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    The intensity distribution of bands belonging to six molecular band systems is discussed with special emphasis on their usefulness for intensity calibration of optical systems in the vacuum ultraviolet (1000A Lambda 3000A). The theory of molecular band intensities is outlined and the technique of measuring the spectral response curve is described. Several methods for establishing an absolute intensity calibration are discussed.

  17. Absolute intensities for the Q-branch of the 3 nu(sub 2) (-) nu(sub 1) (465.161/cm) band of nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirota, J. Marcos; Reuter, Dennis C.

    1993-12-01

    The absolute intensities of four lines, Q 15-Q 18 in the 03(sup 1)0-10(sup 0)0 band, of N2O have been measured using a tunable diode laser spectrometer at temperatures between 380 and 420 K and pressures between 4 and 15 torr. Even though these transitions are weak and produced only about 2% of absorption at the line center for a pathlength of 52 m, they were measured with a signal to noise ratio of about 20 due to the high sensitivity of the instrument. The band strength derived is 1.03 x 10(exp -24) cm/molec at 296 K.

  18. Absolute intensities for the Q-branch of the 3 nu(sub 2) (-) nu(sub 1) (465.161/cm) band of nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirota, J. Marcos; Reuter, Dennis C.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute intensities of four lines, Q 15-Q 18 in the 03(sup 1)0-10(sup 0)0 band, of N2O have been measured using a tunable diode laser spectrometer at temperatures between 380 and 420 K and pressures between 4 and 15 torr. Even though these transitions are weak and produced only about 2% of absorption at the line center for a pathlength of 52 m, they were measured with a signal to noise ratio of about 20 due to the high sensitivity of the instrument. The band strength derived is 1.03 x 10(exp -24) cm/molec at 296 K.

  19. Precise Branching Ratios to Unbound 12C States from 12N and 12B (beta)-Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Hyldegaard, S; Forssen, C; Alcorta, M; Barker, F C; Bastin, B; Borge, M G; Boutami, R; Brandenburg, S; Buscher, J; Dendooven, P; Diget, C A; Van Duppen, P; Eronen, T; Fox, S; Fulton, B R; Fynbo, H U; Huikari, J; Huyse, M; Jeppesen, H B; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Jungmann, K; Kankainen, A; Kirsebom, O; Madurga, M; Moore, I; Navratil, P; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Onderwater, G G; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Raabe, R; Riisager, K; Rinta-Antila, S; Rogachevskiy, A; Saastamoinen, A; Sohani, M; Tengblad, O; Traykov, E; Vary, J P; Wang, Y; Wilhelmsen, K; Wilschut, H W; Aysto, J

    2008-08-20

    Two complementary experimental techniques have been used to extract precise branching ratios to unbound states in {sup 12}C from {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B {beta}-decays. In the first the three {alpha}-particles emitted after {beta}-decay are measured in coincidence in separate detectors, while in the second method {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B are implanted in a detector and the summed energy of the three {alpha}-particles is measured directly. For the narrow states at 7.654 MeV (0{sup +}) and 12.71 MeV (1{sup +}) the resulting branching ratios are both smaller than previous measurements by a factor of {approx_equal} 2. The experimental results are compared to no-core shell model calculations with realistic interactions from chiral perturbation theory, and inclusion of three-nucleon forces is found to give improved agreement.

  20. CP asymmetry, branching ratios, and isospin breaking effects of B{yields}K*{gamma} with the perturbative QCD approach

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumori, M.; Sanda, A.I.; Keum, Y.-Y.

    2005-07-01

    The main contribution to the radiative B{yields}K*{gamma} mode is from penguin operators which are quantum corrections. Thus, this mode may be useful in the search for physics beyond the standard model. In this paper, we compute the branching ratio, direct CP asymmetry, and isospin breaking effects within the standard model in the framework of perturbative QCD, and discuss how new physics might show up in this decay.

  1. First measurement of the b^0_s semileptonic branching ratio to an orbitally excited d _s** state

    SciTech Connect

    Rieger, Jason; /Indiana U.

    2007-12-01

    In a data sample of approximately 1.3 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the orbitally excited charm state D{sub s1}{sup {+-}}(2536)has been observed with a measured mass of 2535.7 {+-} 0.6(stat) {+-} 0.5(syst) MeV/c{sup 2} via the decay mode B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X followed by D{sub s1}{sup {+-}}(2536) {yields} D*{sup {+-}}K{sub S}{sup 0}. By normalizing to the known branching ratio Br({bar b} {yields} D*{sup -} {mu}{sup +}{nu}X) and to the number of reconstructed D* mesons with an associated identified muon, a first-ever measurement is made of the product branching ratio ({bar b} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) {center_dot} Br(D{sub s1}{sup -} {yields} D*{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0}). Assuming that D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536) production in semileptonic decay is entirely from B{sub s}{sup 0}, an extraction of the semileptonic branching ratio Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) is made. Comparisons are made with theoretical expectations.

  2. Tables of Transition Probabilities and Branching Ratios for Electric Dipole Transitions Between Arbitrary Levels of Hydrogen-Like Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    Branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms due to electric-dipole transitions are tabulated for the initial principal and angular momentum quantum number n, lambda, and final principal and angular momentum quantum numbers n, lambda. In table 1, transition probabilities are given for transitions n, lambda, yields n, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In this table, 2 or = n' or = 10, o or = lambda' or = n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. In addition, averages with respect to lambda' and sums with respect to n, and lifetimes are given. In table 2, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields ni, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In these tables, 2 or = n' or = 10, 0 or = lambda', n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. Averages with respect to lambda' are also given. In table 3, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields in lambda, where 1 or = n or = 5, 0 or = lambda or = n-1, n n' or = 15, and 0 or = lambda' or = n(s), where n(s), is the smaller of the two numbers n'-1 and 6. Averages with respect to lambda' are given.

  3. Measured branching ratios for O II2D and 2P transitions in the wavelength range 530 to 800 A. [airglow spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.; Cunningham, A. J.; Christensen, A. B.

    1981-01-01

    Branching ratios for four sets of extreme ultraviolet transitions terminating on the 2D0 and 2P0 metastable levels of ionized oxygen have been measured. The emissions were excited in both an open window hollow cathode and a capillary discharge lamp, and the branching ratios were derived from the observed intensity ratios of the multiplet pairs. The results are in good agreement with theoretical values and compare favorably, within experimental uncertainties, with line ratios obtained by EUV spectroscopy of the airglow.

  4. Analysis of τ 1-prong exclusive branching ratios using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. M.; Matorras, F.; Ruiz, A.

    1997-02-01

    A FFNN has been used to identify six different 1-prong τ decays among the τ+τ- events collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The method operates with better efficiency-purity than the classical methods for the previously studied channels and allows the possibility of analysing a new one. It has been applied to 1993 and 1994 data to obtain the branching fractions of these channels. A first estimation of the systematic errors has been performed.

  5. (1 + 1) resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization via the A2Sigma(+) state of NO - Ionic rotational branching ratios and their intensity dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.; Mckoy, V.; Dixit, S. N.; Huo, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Rotational branching ratios resulting from the (1 + 1) resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of NO via the 0-0 transition of the A-X band for the four possible branches that can be assigned as R(21.5) are explored using calculation performed in the frozen-core approximation at the Hartree-Fock level. The four different branches, of which three are distinctly different in the perturbative limit, have rather different branching ratios. The mixed R12 + Q22(21.5) branch, which is not intense and has the lowest transition energy, appears to give the best agreement with experimental branching ratio for parallel detection. The agreement is less satisfactory for perpendicular detection. Neither the effect of finite-acceptance angle of the photoelectron detector nor high intensities can explain the discrepancy.

  6. A Measurement of the holographic minimum observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand,; De Wolf, E.A.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Brussels U., IIHE /CERN /Punjab U. /Fermilab /Hawaii U. /Imperial Coll., London /IIT, Chicago /Jammu U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /Stevens Tech. /Tufts U.

    1997-01-01

    Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.

  7. Measuring Volatile/Solid Carbon Branching Ratios for Fischer-Tropsch-Type Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuth, J. A.; Johnson, N. M.; Carayon, A.

    2014-09-01

    Nebular CO can be converted to volatile organics or carbonaceous grain coatings on grain surfaces. The coating catalyzes further reaction and is easy to accrete into planetesimals. We measured the volatile/solid ratio vs. time, temperature & catalyst.

  8. Measurement of W and Z boson production and extraction of the W width and branching ratios at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Badgett, W.F.; CDF Collaboration

    1994-08-01

    We present results from W and Z boson production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV using the CDF detector. We measure the W and Z cross sections times lepton branching ratio, {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} W){center_dot}B(W {yields} l{nu}{sub l}) and {sigma}(p {bar p} {yields} Z){center_dot} B(Z {yields} k{sup +}l{sup {minus}}) l = e, {mu}. We also measure the ratio: R{sub l} = {sigma} {center_dot} B(W {yields} l{nu}{sub l})/{sigma} {center_dot} B(Z {yields} ll). From R{sub l}, we extract the W electron and muon branching ratios, BR(W {yields} l{nu}{sub l}, and the total W width, {Gamma}{sub W}. In addition, high transverse mass W {yields}e{nu}{sub e}, candidates provide an alternate, direct measurement of {Gamma}{sub W}.

  9. Branching ratios and CP asymmetries of B{yields}K{eta}{sup (')} decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Zhenjun; Zhang Zhiqing; Liu Xin; Guo Libo

    2008-12-01

    We calculate the branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries of the four B{yields}K{eta}{sup (')} decays in the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach. Besides the full leading-order contributions, the partial next-to-leading-order (NLO) contributions from the QCD vertex corrections, the quark-loops, and the chromomagnetic penguins are also taken into account. The NLO pQCD predictions for the CP-averaged branching ratios are Br(B{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{eta}){approx_equal}3.2x10{sup -6}, Br(B{sup {+-}}{yields}K{sup {+-}}{eta}{sup '}){approx_equal}51.0x10{sup -6}, Br(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}{eta}){approx_equal}2.1x10{sup -6}, and Br(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}{eta}{sup '}){approx_equal}50.3x10{sup -6}. The NLO contributions can provide a 70% enhancement to the LO Br(B{yields}K{eta}{sup '}), but a 30% reduction to the LO Br(B{yields}K{eta}), which play the key role in understanding the observed pattern of branching ratios. The NLO pQCD predictions for the CP-violating asymmetries, such as A{sub CP}{sup dir}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{eta}{sup '}){approx}2.3% and A{sub CP}{sup mix}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{eta}{sup '}){approx}63%, agree very well with currently available data. This means that the deviation {delta}S=A{sub CP}{sup mix}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{eta}{sup '})-sin2{beta} in pQCD approach is also very small.

  10. Precise measurement of Ke4 form factors and branching ratios at the NA48/2 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, S.; NA48/2 Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The NA48/2 experiment at CERN [V. Fanti et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth.A574 433-471 (2007).] collected ˜18ṡ10 charged kaon decays during the years 2003/4. Along with the primary goals of the collaboration, i.e., the measurement of the CP-violating asymmetry in the K→πππ and K→πππ channels, the collected data allowed to perform many other interesting analyses. In this paper the measurement of the K→eνππ and K→eνππ decays' branching ratios (BR) and form factors will be reviewed.

  11. Microscopic Calculation of Astrophysical S-factor and Branching Ratio for the 3H(α, γ)7Li Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, Alexander S.; Igashov, Sergey Yu.; Tchuvill'sky, Yury M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work the radiative capture reaction 3H(α, γ)7Li has been investigated. The astrophysical S-factor and the branching ratio of the reaction have been calculated within a microscopic approach - the algebraic version of the resonating-group model. The lowest compatible with the Pauli exclusion principle wave functions of the translation-invariant oscillator shell model are adopted as the internal wave functions of the colliding clusters. The modified Hasegawa-Nagata NN-potential was employed in the calculations. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Photoionization branching ratios and vibrational intensity distribution for N2, CO; and CO2 between 53 and 75 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Gardner, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The probability of radiation producing ions in specific electronic and vibrational levels was documented. For example, when a narrow band-pass of solar ionizing photons is incident on an atmospheric species it is now possible to describe, accurately, how the radiant energy is shared among the various electronic states of the ions produced. The molecules studied were N2, CO, and CO2. These molecules were photoionized by radiation between 53 and 75 nm. The effects of autoionization are discussed and continuum vibrational intensities are tabulated and compared with theoretical Franck-Condon factors where available. The branching ratios and partial cross sections for ionization into various electronic states are tabulated.

  13. Mm-Wave Spectroscopy and Determination of the Radiative Branching Ratios of 11BH for Laser Cooling Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truppe, Stefan; Holland, Darren; Hendricks, Richard James; Hinds, Ed; Tarbutt, Michael

    2014-06-01

    We aim to slow a supersonic, molecular beam of 11BH using a Zeeman slower and subsequently cool the molecules to sub-millikelvin temperatures in a magneto-optical trap. Most molecules are not suitable for direct laser cooling because the presence of rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom means there is no closed-cycle transition which is necessary to scatter a large number of photons. As was pointed out by Di Rosa, there exists a class of molecules for which the excitation of vibrational modes is suppressed due to highly diagonal Franck-Condon factors. Furthermore, Stuhl et al. showed that angular momentum selection rules can be used to suppress leakage to undesired rotational states. Here we present a measurement of the radiative branching ratios of the A^1Π→ X^1Σ transition in 11BH - a necessary step towards subsequent laser cooling experiments. We also perform high-resolution mm-wave spectroscopy of the J'=1← J=0 rotational transition in the X^1Σ (v=0) state near 708 GHz. From this measurement we derive new, accurate hyper fine constants and compare these to theoretical descriptions. The measured branching ratios suggest that it is possible to laser cool 11BH molecules close to the recoil temperature of 4 μK using three laser frequencies only. M. D. Di Rosa, The European Physical Journal D, 31, 395, 2004 B. K. Stuhl et al., Physical Review Letters, 101, 243002, 2008

  14. Calculation of Beta Decay Half-Lives and Delayed Neutron Branching Ratio of Fission Fragments with Skyrme-QRPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Futoshi

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear β-decay and delayed neutron (DN) emission is important for the r-process nucleosynthesis after the freeze-out, and stable and safe operation of nuclear reactors. Even though radioactive beam facilities have enabled us to measure β-decay and branching ratio of neutron-rich nuclei apart from the stability line in the nuclear chart, there are still a lot of nuclei which one cannot investigate experimentally. In particular, information on DN is rather scarce than that of T1/2. To predict T1/2 and the branching ratios of DN for next JENDL decay data, we have developed a method which comprises the quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation (QRPA) and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model (HFSM). In this work, we calculate fission fragments with T1/2 ≤ 50 sec. We obtain the rms deviation from experimental half-life of 3:71. Although the result is still worse than GT2 which has been adopted in JENDL decay data, DN spectra are newly calculated. We also discuss further subjects to be done in future for improving the present approach and making next generation of JENDL decay data.

  15. Branching ratios and CP violations of B→K0*(1430)K* decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Xiao, Zhen-Jun; Zou, Zhi-Tian

    2013-11-01

    We investigate B→K0*(1430)K* decays in the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach, where B denotes Bu, Bd, and Bs mesons, respectively, and the scalar K0*(1430) is considered as a meson based on the model of the conventional two-quark structure. With the light-cone distribution amplitude of K0*(1430) defined in two scenarios, namely Scenario 1 and Scenario 2, we make the first estimation for the branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries for those concerned decay modes in the pQCD factorization approach. For all considered B→K0*(1430)K* decays in this paper, only one preliminary upper limit on the branching ratio of B0→K0*(1430)0K¯*0 measured at 90% C.L. by the Belle Collaboration is available now. It is therefore of great interest to examine the predicted physical quantities at two B factories, the Large Hadron Collider experiments, and the forthcoming Super-B facility, and then to test the reliability of the pQCD approach employed to study the considered decay modes involving a p-wave scalar meson as one of the final state mesons. Furthermore, these pQCD predictions combined with the future precision measurements are also helpful to explore the complicated QCD dynamics involved in the light scalars.

  16. Photodissociation of ozone in the Hartley band: Potential energy surfaces, nonadiabatic couplings, and singlet/triplet branching ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinke, R.; McBane, G. C.

    2010-01-01

    The lowest five A1' states of ozone, involved in the photodissociation with UV light, are analyzed on the basis of multireference configuration interaction electronic structure calculations with emphasis on the various avoided crossings in different regions of coordinate space. Global diabatic potential energy surfaces are constructed for the lowest four states termed X, A, B, and R. In addition, the off-diagonal potentials that couple the initially excited state B with states R and A are constructed to reflect results from additional electronic structure calculations, including the calculation of nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The A/X and A/R couplings are also considered, although in a less ambitious manner. The photodissociation dynamics are studied by means of trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations with the branching ratio between the singlet, O(D1)+O2(Δ1g), and triplet, O(P3)+O2(Σ3g-), channels being the main focus. The semiclassical branching ratio agrees well with quantum mechanical results except for wavelengths close to the threshold of the singlet channel. The calculated O(D1) quantum yield is approximately 0.90-0.95 across the main part of the Hartley band, in good agreement with experimental data. TSH calculations including all four states show that transitions B→A are relatively unimportant and subsequent transitions A→X/R to the triplet channel are negligible.

  17. Reaction Mechanism and Product Branching Ratios of the CH + C3H6 Reaction: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joao Marcelo; Mebel, Alexander M

    2016-03-24

    The mechanism of CH(X(2)Π) reaction with propene has been studied with ab initio CCSD(T)-F12/CBS//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) calculations of the C4H7 potential energy surface and RRKM/master equation calculations of unimolecular rate constants for the various isomerization and dissociation steps available to the C4H7 radicals. Product branching ratios were calculated and were found to strongly depend on the initial chemically activated C4H7 complex formed in a barrierless entrance channel. If the reaction is initiated via either CH addition to the double bond in propene or CH insertions into the terminal sp(2) C-H or single C-C bonds, then 1,3-butadiene + H are predicted to be the dominant products, ethene + C2H3 radical are minor but non-negligible products, and a small amount of 1,2-butadiene + H is also produced. The reaction then proceeds through a key CH3CHCH(•)CH2 intermediate, which loses an H atom to form either 1,3- or 1,2-butadiene or isomerizes to (•)CH2CH2CHCH2 and then dissociates to ethene + C2H3 radical. If CH inserts into a C-H bond in the CH3 group the (•)CH2CH2CHCH2 complex is formed directly and then the major reaction products are predicted to be ethene + C2H3 radical and 1,3-butadiene + H. Finally, if CH inserts into the middle sp(2) C-H bond, a branched CH3C((•)CH2)CH2 complex is produced, which predominantly decomposes to allene + CH3 radical. A comparison of the calculated reaction mechanism with available experimental data indicates that the CH addition entrance channel is favorable, in which case the computed branching ratios are in agreement with the experimental result of Loison and Bergeat, who measured the H elimination branching ratio of 78 ± 10%. However, the computed branching ratios quantitatively disagree with the experimental data by Trevitt et al., who observed a nearly 100% yield of the C4H6 + H products and also larger yields of 1,2-butadiene and 1-butyne than the calculations predict. The deviation of the theoretical results

  18. Branching ratio measurement of a Λ system in Tm3+:YAG under a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchet, A.; Habib, J. S.; Crozatier, V.; Lorgeré, I.; Goldfarb, F.; Bretenaker, F.; Gouët, J.-L. Le; Guillot-Noël, O.; Goldner, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    A three-level Λ system in Tm3+ doped YAG crystal is experimentally investigated in the prospect of quantum information processing. Zeeman effect is used to lift the nuclear spin degeneracy of this ion. In a previous paper [de Seze , Phys. Rev. B 73, 085112 (2006)] we measured the gyromagnetic tensor components and concluded that adequate magnetic field orientation could optimize the optical connection of both ground state sublevels to each one of the excited state sublevels, thus generating Λ systems. Here we report on the direct measurement of the transition probability ratio along the two legs of the Λ . Measurement techniques combine frequency selective optical pumping with optical nutation or photon echo processes.

  19. Product branching ratios in photodissociation of phenyl radical: A theoretical ab initio/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus study

    SciTech Connect

    Mebel, Alexander M.; Landera, Alexander

    2012-06-21

    Ab initio CCSD(T)/CBS//B3LYP/6-311G** calculations of the potential energy surface for possible dissociation channels of the phenyl radical are combined with microcanonical Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations of reaction rate constants in order to predict statistical product branching ratios in photodissociation of c-C{sub 6}H{sub 5} at various wavelengths. The results indicate that at 248 nm the photodissociation process is dominated by the production of ortho-benzyne via direct elimination of a hydrogen atom from the phenyl radical. At 193 nm, the statistical branching ratios are computed to be 63.4%, 21.1%, and 14.4% for the o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}+ H, l-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} ((Z)-hexa-3-ene-1,5-diyne) + H, and n-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} products, respectively, in a contradiction with recent experimental measurements, which showed C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} as the major product. Although two lower energy pathways to the i-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} products are identified, they appeared to be kinetically unfavorable and the computed statistical branching ratio of i-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} does not exceed 1%. To explain the disagreement with experiment, we optimized conical intersections between the ground and the first excited electronic states of C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and, based on their structures and energies, suggested the following photodissociation mechanism at 193 nm: c-C{sub 6}H{sub 5} 1{yields} absorption of a photon {yields} electronically excited 1{yields} internal conversion to the lowest excited state {yields} conversion to the ground electronic state via conical intersections at CI-2 or CI-3{yields} non-statistical decay of the vibrationally excited radical favoring the formation of the n-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} products. This scenario can be attained if the intramolecular vibrational redistribution in the CI-2 or CI-3 structures in the ground electronic state is slower than their dissociation to n-C{sub 4}H

  20. Dynamics of nonadiabatic reactions (theory). I. Branching ratios for early and late seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayne, H. R.; Polanyi, J. C.; Tully, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The 3D classical trajectory surface hopping (TSH) method has been applied in a ``model'' study of factors governing nonadiabatic reaction, A+BC→AB+C* and →AB+C. In the diabatic approximation the potential-energy surfaces (pes) were a LEPS surface for F+H2 (→AB+C*) and a repulsive pes Vrep (→AB+C). These intersected in the exit valley to give an early or a late seam (E or L, perpendicular to the exit valley). The splitting at the avoided crossing 2ɛ was adjusted to ɛ=1.26 or 5.02 kcal/mol. The ratio of reactive cross sections onto the upper and lower adiabatic pes ρ* was investigated for mass combinations H+HL, L+HL, L+HH, and H+LL with E and L seams, and for small and large ɛ. The effect on ρ* of reapportioning a constant total energy (ETOT=13.84 kcal/mol) between reagent translation T and vibration V was examined for these 16 cases. Since the velocity in the coordinate of separation increased with increased T (yielding increased product translation; ΔT→ΔT') ρ* also tended to increase with T. The extreme mass combinations H+HL and L+HH exhibited modified ρ* due to markedly differing widths in the entry and exit valley. The strongly skewed pes for H+LL led to multiple crossing of the seam which reduced ρ*. For other mass combinations ρ* was reduced by the inability of the low T' component of the product to hop across the 2ɛ gap. In all cases ρ* was an index of the local dynamics at the seam, and hence shed light on the intermediate motions en route to the asymptotic outcome V', R', T'.

  1. Study of Branching Ratio And Polarization Fraction in Neutral B Meson Decays to Negative Rho Meson Positive Kaon Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Baosen; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-03-07

    We present the preliminary results on the search for B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}. The data sample comprises 122.7 million B{bar B} pairs in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance collected during 1999-2003 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We obtain an upper limit of the branching ratio at 90% confidence level as {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}) < 17.2 x 10{sup -6}. The fitted result on the polarization fraction shows no evidence that the decay is longitudinally dominated as predicted by various theoretical models.

  2. Measurement of the K{sup +{yields}{pi}0{mu}+{nu}}{sub {mu}{gamma}}branching ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.; Chiang, I-H.; Diwan, M. V.; Frank, J. S.; Haggerty, J. S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jain, V.; Kettell, S. H.; Li, K. K.; Littenberg, L. S.; Ng, C.; Strand, R. C.; Witzig, C.; Bazarko, A. O.; Ito, M. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Stone, J. R.; Bergbusch, P. C.; Bryman, D. A.

    2010-05-01

    A measurement of the decay K{sup +{yields}{pi}0{mu}+{nu}}{sub {mu}{gamma}}has been performed with the E787 detector at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Forty events were observed in the signal region with the background expectation of (16.5{+-}2.7) events. The branching ratio was measured to be (1.58{+-}0.46(stat.){+-}0.08(syst.))x10{sup -5} in the kinematic region E{sub {gamma}>}30 MeV and {theta}{sub {mu}{gamma}>}20 deg., where E{sub {gamma}}is the energy of the emitted photon and {theta}{sub {mu}{gamma}}is the angle between the muon and the photon in the K{sup +} rest frame. The results were consistent with theoretical predictions.

  3. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  4. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)<1, it is subcritical. For stock prices we find b(x)=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x, consistent with an "efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality. PMID:20365434

  5. A Limit on the Branching Ratio of the Flavor-Changing Top Quark Decay T→Zc

    SciTech Connect

    Paramonov, Alexander Andreevich

    2009-06-01

    We have used the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF-II) to set upper limits on the branching ratio of the flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) top quark decay t → Zc using a technique employing ratios of W and Z production, measured in 1.52 fb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ data. The analysis uses a comparison of two decay chains, p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$ → WbWb → ℓvbjjb and p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$ ZcWb → ℓ+- cjjb, to cancel systematic uncertainties in acceptance, efficiency, and luminosity. We validate the MC modeling of acceptance and efficiency for lepton identification over the multi-year dataset also using a ratio of W and Z production, in this case the observed ratio of inclusive production of W to Z-bosons, a technique that will be essential for precision comparisons with the standard model at the LHC. We introduce several methods of determining backgrounds to the W and Z samples. To improve the discrimination against SM backgrounds to top quark decays, we calculate the top mass for each event with two leptons and four jets assuming it is a t$\\bar{t}$ event with one of the top quarks decaying to Zc. The upper limit on the Br(t → Zc) is estimated from a likelihood constructed with the {ell}+- cjjb top mass distribution and the number of ℓvbjjb events. Limits are set as a function of the helicity of the Z-boson produced in the FCNC decay. For 100%-longitudinally-polarized Z-bosons we find a limit of 8.3% (95% C.L.).

  6. Gas/solid carbon branching ratios in surface-mediated reactions and the incorporation of carbonaceous material into planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Carayon, Alicia

    2016-06-01

    We report the ratio of the initial carbon available as CO that forms gas-phase compounds compared to the fraction that deposits as a carbonaceous solid (the gas/solid branching ratio) as a function of time and temperature for iron, magnetite, and amorphous iron silicate smoke catalysts during surface-mediated reactions in an excess of hydrogen and in the presence of N2. This fraction varies from more than 99% for an amorphous iron silicate smoke at 673 K to less than 40% for a magnetite catalyst at 873 K. The CO not converted into solids primarily forms methane, ethane, water, and CO2, as well as a very wide range of organic molecules at very low concentration. Carbon deposits do not form continuous coatings on the catalytic surfaces, but instead form extremely high surface area per unit volume "filamentous" structures. While these structures will likely form more slowly but over much longer times in protostellar nebulae than in our experiments due to the much lower partial pressure of CO, such fluffy coatings on the surfaces of chondrules or calcium aluminum inclusions could promote grain-grain sticking during low-velocity collisions.

  7. Gas/solid carbon branching ratios in surface-mediated reactions and the incorporation of carbonaceous material into planetesimals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Carayon, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    We report the ratio of the initial carbon available as CO that forms gas-phase compounds compared to the fraction that deposits as a carbonaceous solid (the gas/solid branching ratio) as a function of time and temperature for iron, magnetite, and amorphous iron silicate smoke catalysts during surface-mediated reactions in an excess of hydrogen and in the presence of N2. This fraction varies from more than 99% for an amorphous iron silicate smoke at 673 K to less than 40% for a magnetite catalyst at 873 K. The CO not converted into solids primarily forms methane, ethane, water, and CO2, as well as a very wide range of organic molecules at very low concentration. Carbon deposits do not form continuous coatings on the catalytic surfaces, but instead form extremely high surface area per unit volume "filamentous" structures. While these structures will likely form more slowly but over much longer times in protostellar nebulae than in our experiments due to the much lower partial pressure of CO, such fluffy coatings on the surfaces of chondrules or calcium aluminum inclusions could promote grain-grain sticking during low-velocity collisions.

  8. Acute Administration of Branched-Chain Amino Acids Increases the Pro-BDNF/Total-BDNF Ratio in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Morais, Meline O S; Furlanetto, Camila B; Kist, Luiza W; Pereira, Talita C B; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by an inborn error in metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids. High levels of BCAAs are associated with neurological dysfunction and the role of pro- and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neurological dysfunction of MSUD is still unclear. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of an acute BCAA pool administration on BDNF levels and on the pro-BDNF cleavage-related proteins S100A10 and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in rat brains. Our results demonstrated that acute Hyper-BCAA (H-BCAA) exposure during the early postnatal period increases pro-BDNF and total-BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Moreover, tPA levels were significantly decreased, without modifications in the tPA transcript levels in the hippocampus and striatum. On the other hand, the S100A10 mRNA and S100A10 protein levels were not changed in the hippocampus and striatum. In the 30-day-old rats, we observed increased pro-BDNF, total-BDNF and tPA levels only in the striatum, whereas the tPA and S100A10 mRNA expression and the immunocontent of S100A10 were not altered. In conclusion, we demonstrated that acute H-BCAA administration increases the pro-BDNF/total-BDNF ratio and decreases the tPA levels in animals, suggesting that the BCAA effect may depend, at least in part, on changes in BDNF post-translational processing. PMID:25681161

  9. Study of the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD in e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}DD scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Li Haibo; Qin Xiaoshuai; Yang Maozhi

    2010-01-01

    Based on the data of BES and Belle, the production of DD in the e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}DD scattering process is studied in this paper. We analyze the continuum and resonant contributions in the energy region from 3.7 to 4.4 GeV. In the {chi}{sup 2} fit to data, we obtain the resonance parameters of {psi}(3770), the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD decay by confronting the data to the theoretical formula where both the contributions of the resonances, continuum and interference effects are included. We obtain the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD decay is 97.2%{+-}8.9%, as well as the branching ratio of {psi}(4040), {psi}(4160){yields}DD decays.

  10. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  11. Product branching ratios of the NH({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) + NO and NH({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) + NO{sub 2} reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Quandt, R.W.; Hershberger, J.F.

    1995-11-16

    The title reactions were studied at 298 K using time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy. For the NH ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) + NO reaction, N{sub 2}O + H were found to be the primary products, with a branching ratio of 0.77 {+-} 0.08, in good agreement with other recent measurements. For the NH ({sup 3} {Sigma}{sup -}) + NO{sub 2} reaction, the measured branching ratio was 0.41 {+-} 0.15 into the N{sub 2}O + OH channel and 0.59 {+-} 0.15 into the NO + HNO channel. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Measurement of the b → τ -ν-τX branching ratio and an upper limit on B - → τ -ν-τ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Kim, H.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Wildish, T.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    Using 1.45 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP, the b → τ -ν-τX branching ratio is measured to be 2.75 ± 0.30 ± 0.37%. In addition an upper limit of 1.8 × 10 -3 at 90% confidence level is placed upon the exclusive branching ratio of B- → τ -ν-τ. These measurements are consistent with SM expectations, and put the constraint tan {β}/{M h ±} < 0.52 GeV -1 at 90% confidence level on all Type II two Higgs doublet models (such as the MSSM).

  13. Full-Dimensional Quantum Dynamical Studies of the Cl + HOD → HCl/DCl + OD/OH Reaction: Bond Selectivity and Isotopic Branching Ratio.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongwei; Lee, Soo-Ying; Lu, Yunpeng; Guo, Hua

    2015-12-17

    Full-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations are carried out to study the mode specificity, bond selectivity, and isotopic branching ratio of the Cl + HOD reaction on an accurate global potential energy surface. Total reaction cross sections have been computed for several low-lying vibrational states of HOD. Our results confirm the experimental observed vibrationally promoted bond cleavage, in which the breaking of the OH(OD) bond is strongly enhanced by the OH(OD) excitation. These results are rationalized by the recently proposed sudden vector projection model. In addition, the OH/OD branching ratio as a function of energy is investigated and rationalized by a reorientation effect. PMID:26244377

  14. Measurement of ratios of branching fractions and CP-violating asymmetries of B±→D*K± decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Walker, D.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Nash, J. A.; Vazquez, W. Panduro; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Schott, G.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; da Costa, J. Firmino; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Lepeltier, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; George, K. A.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Alwyn, K. E.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Koeneke, K.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; McLachlin, S. E.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Benelli, G.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Biesiada, J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Gioi, L. Li; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2008-11-01

    We report a study of B±→D*K± decays with D* decaying to Dπ0 or Dγ, using 383×106 B Bmacr pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B Factory. The D meson decays under study include a non-CP mode (K±π∓), CP-even modes (K±K∓,π±π∓), and CP-odd modes (KS0π0,KS0ϕ,KS0ω). We measure ratios (RCP±*) of branching fractions of decays to CP eigenmode states and to flavor-specific states as well as CP asymmetries (ACP±*). These measurements are sensitive to the unitarity triangle angle γ. We obtain ACP+*=-0.11±0.09±0.01, RCP+*=1.31±0.13±0.04, and ACP-*=0.06±0.10±0.02, RCP-*=1.10±0.12±0.04, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. Translating our results into an alternative parametrization, widely used for related measurements, we obtain x+*=0.11±0.06±0.02 and x-*=0.00±0.06±0.02. No significant CP-violating charge asymmetry is found in either the flavor-specific mode D→K±π∓ or in B±→D*π± decays.

  15. GEANT4 simulations for in trap decay spectroscopy for electron capture branching ratio measurements using the TITAN facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeraji, Shakil; Andreoiu, C.; Jang, F.; Ma, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Mane, E.; Gwinner, G.; Dilling, J.; Lennarz, A.; Frekers, D.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Brunner, T.; Delheij, P.; Simon, M. C.

    2012-10-01

    The TITAN-EC project has developed a unique technique to measure electron capture branching ratios (ECBRs) of short lived intermediate nuclide involved in double beta decay. The ECBR information is important for determination of nuclear matrix elements of double-β decay for both double beta decay (2νββ) and neutrino-less double beta decay (0νββ) processes. An important feature of this technique is the use of open access penning trap. Radioactive ions are stored in the trap and their decays are observed. Electrons produced from β decay are guided out of the trap by the Penning trap's strong magnetic field and the x-ray from EC are detected by seven Si(Li) detectors placed radially around trap using thin Be windows. This set-up provides a lower background for the x-ray detection compared to earlier ECBC measurements where the beam is implanted in mylar tape. Detailed GEANT4 simulations have been performed to characterize the efficiency of the detectors and understand their response. In addition the impact of different sizes and shapes of the ion cloud inside the trap has also been investigated to optimize the experimental set-up.

  16. The mechanical influences of the graded distribution in the cross-sectional shape, the stiffness and Poisson׳s ratio of palm branches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wangyu; Wang, Ningling; Jiang, Xiaoyong; Peng, Yujian

    2016-07-01

    The branching system plays an important role in maintaining the survival of palm trees. Due to the nature of monocots, no additional vascular bundles can be added in the palm tree tissue as it ages. Therefore, the changing of the cross-sectional area in the palm branch creates a graded distribution in the mechanical properties of the tissue. In the present work, this graded distribution in the tissue mechanical properties from sheath to petiole were studied with a multi-scale modeling approach. Then, the entire palm branch was reconstructed and analyzed using finite element methods. The variation of the elastic modulus can lower the level of mechanical stress in the sheath and also allow the branch to have smaller values of pressure on the other branches. Under impact loading, the enhanced frictional dissipation at the surfaces of adjacent branches benefits from the large Poisson׳s ratio of the sheath tissue. These findings can help to link the wind resistance ability of palm trees to their graded materials distribution in the branching system. PMID:26807774

  17. Determination of rate constants and branching ratios for TCE degradation by zero-valent iron using a chain decay multispecies model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A.; Illman, Walter A.

    2015-06-01

    The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios.

  18. S II and S III branching ratios in the 600- to 1200-A interval. [applied to modeling of Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. D.; Cunningham, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Branching ratios are presented of singly and doubly ionized sulfur EUV emissions. They are determined by measuring the relative photon intensities of each of the branching components. For several transitions in S II for which mean lifetimes have been measured with fast-beam spectroscopy, the data presented here are used to determine transition probabilities. The S II transitions originate from the 2P, 4s-prime 2D, and 4s 2P terms and terminate on the metastable states of the ion. The S III transitions originate from the 3d 3D0, 4s 3P0, 3p3 3S0, 4s 1P0, and 3s3p3 1P0 terms and terminate on the metastable and ground ionic states. The results for S III include branching ratios involving intercombination transitions that affect ongoing modeling of the energy budget of the Io plasma torus.

  19. Some implications of revised OI /7990 A/ and OI /11287 A/ branching ratios. [for Orion Nebula, Seyfert galaxy, Arcturus and comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, A. B.

    1979-01-01

    Recent laboratory, geophysical, and theoretical determinations of the O I (7990 A) and O I (11,287 A) branching ratios indicate that the generally used values based on the NBS transition parameters need revision. The O I (7990 A) branching ratio is about 300 times smaller than the NBS value, and the O I (11,287 A) is about one-quarter as large. The transitions are important in the generation of permitted atomic oxygen spectra in several types of astronomical source, including the Orion Nebula (M42), the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151, Arcturus, and comets. The absence of the O I (7990 A) emission in M42 and NGC 4151 is consistent with its very small branching ratio, and previous conclusions based on its absence, such as the rejection of starlight excitation in the Seyfert galaxy, require reinvestigation. The reduction of the O I (11,287 A) branching ratio is pertinent to hydrogen L-beta fluorescence excitation of O I (1304 A) and O I (8446 A) emission and requires an upward revision of oxygen production rates in comets.

  20. Measurement of Ratios of Branching Fractions and CP-Violating Asymmetries of B+/- --> D*K +/- decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, R.N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2008-08-01

    The authors report a study of B{sup {+-}} {yields} D*K{sup {+-}} decays with D* decaying to D{pi}{sup 0} or D{gamma}, using 383 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory. The D meson decays under study include a non-CP mode (K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}), CP-even modes (K{sup {+-}}K{sup {-+}}, {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}) and CP-odd modes (K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{phi}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{omega}). They measure ratios (R*{sub CP{+-}}) of branching fractions of decays to CP eigenmode states and to flavor-specific states as well as CP asymmetries A*{sub CP{+-}} = -0.11 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.01, R*{sub CP+} = 1.31 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.04, and A*{sub CP-} = 0.06 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02, R*{sub CP-} = 1.10 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.04, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. Translating the results into an alternative parameterization, widely used for related measurements, they obtain x*{sub +} = 0.11 {+-} 0.06 {+-} 0.02 and x*{sub -} = 0.00 {+-} 0.06 {+-} 0.01. No significant CP-violating charge asymmetry is found in either the flavor-specific mode D {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} or in B{sup {+-}} {yields} D*{pi}{sup {+-}} decays.

  1. Functional ratios among leaf, xylem and phloem areas in branches change with shade tolerance, but not with local light conditions, across temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Copini, Paul; Weemstra, Monique; Sterck, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Leaf, xylem and phloem areas drive the water and carbon fluxes within branches and trees, but their mutual coordination is poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that xylem and phloem areas increase relative to leaf area when species are selected for, or branches are exposed to, higher levels of light intensity. Trees of 10 temperate, broadleaved and deciduous, tree species were selected. Fifty-centimetre-long branches were collected from shaded and exposed conditions at a height of 3-4 m. We measured the total leaf area, xylem area, phloem area and leaf traits, as well as the area of the constituent cell types, for a stem section at the branch base. Xylem area : leaf area and phloem area : leaf area ratios did not differ consistently between sun and shade branches, but, as expected, they decreased with species' shade tolerance. Similar trends were observed for conductive cell areas in xylem and phloem. Trees of light-demanding species maintain higher water loss and carbon gain rates per leaf area by producing more xylem area and phloem area than shade-tolerant species. We call for more comparative branch studies as they provide an integrated biological perspective on functional traits and their role in the ecology of tree species. PMID:26527414

  2. -delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Pomorski, M.; Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, M. M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

  3. Measurement of the Branching fraction ratio B ---> D K / B ---> D pi with the CDF II detector

    SciTech Connect

    Squillacioti, Paola; /INFN, Pisa /Siena U.

    2006-11-01

    In this thesis the author has described the first measurement performed at a hadron collider of the branching fraction of the Cabibbo-suppressed mode B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}{sup 0} K{sup +}. The analysis has been performed with 360 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II detector.

  4. Measurement of the Absolute Branching FractionsB to D\\pi, D^*\\pi, D^{**}\\pi with aMissing Mass Method

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2006-11-30

    We present branching fraction measurements of charged and neutral B decays to D{pi}{sup -}, D*{pi}{sup -} and D**{pi}{sup -} with a missing mass method, based on a sample of 231 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. One of the B mesons is fully reconstructed and the other one decays to a reconstructed charged {pi} and a companion charmed meson identified by its recoil mass, inferred by kinematics. Here D** refers to the sum of all the non-strange charm meson states with masses in the range 2.2-2.8 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  5. PRODUCT BRANCHING RATIOS OF THE REACTION OF CO WITH H{sup +} {sub 3} AND H{sub 2}D{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Huagen

    2009-11-20

    The reaction of CO with H{sup +} {sub 3} and H{sub 2}D{sup +} has been studied to investigate thermal rate coefficients and product branching ratios in the temperature range [20, 350] K, by using a direct ab initio molecular dynamics method. In trajectory simulations, the energies and forces are calculated using a scaling all correlation second-order Mphiller-Plesset perturbation theory (SAC-MP2) method with the correlation consistent polarized valence triplet-zeta basis (cc-pVTZ). Results show that total thermal rate coefficients for both the CO + H{sup +} {sub 3}and the CO + H{sub 2}D{sup +} reactions have a weakly positive temperature dependence. At room temperature, the rate coefficients are predicted to be (1.42 +- 0.03) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} with a product branching ratio of [HOC{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}] = 0.36 +- 0.01 for the CO + H{sup +} {sub 3} reaction, and (1.26 +- 0.03) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} with the product branching ratios: 0.37 +- 0.01 (([HOC{sup +}] + [DOC{sup +}])/([HCO{sup +}] + [DOC{sup +}])), 0.54 +- 0.02 ([DCO{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}]), and 0.49 +- 0.02 ([DOC{sup +}]/[HOC{sup +}]) for CO + H{sub 2}D{sup +}. The product branching ratios have a noticeable temperature dependence as well as a pronounced isotopic effect for the H/DOC{sup +} product channel.

  6. Effect of orbital and rotational angular momentum averaging on branching ratios of dynamical resonances in the reaction H + p-H2 yields o-H2 + H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mladenovic, Mirjana; Zhao, Meishan; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.; Sun, Yan

    1988-01-01

    The paper reports extensive quantum mechanical calculations of the product vibrational branching ratios in the reaction H + p-H2 yields o-H2 + H. The calculations involve total angular momentum up to 2 and excited as well as ground initial rotational states, and they are completely converged with up to 513 channels in individual total angular momentum/parity blocks. Comparisons are made with recent experiments by Nieh and Valentini.

  7. Vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of CO2 in the region between 650 Å and 840 Å

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 119 Vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of CO2 in the region between 650 Å and 840 Å (Web, free access)   CO2 is studied using dispersed synchrotron radiation in the 650 Å to 850 Å spectral region. The vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are analyzed to generate relative vibrational transition amplitudes and the angular asymmetry parameters describing the various transitions observed.

  8. A complete look at the multi-channel dissociation of propenal photoexcited at 193 nm: branching ratios and distributions of kinetic energy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Chanchal; Lee, Shih-Huang

    2011-04-28

    We observed fifteen photofragments upon photolysis of propenal (acrolein, CH(2)CHCHO) at 193 nm using photofragment translational spectroscopy and selective vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization. All the photoproducts arise from nine primary and two secondary dissociation pathways. We measured distributions of kinetic energy of products and determined branching ratios of dissociation channels. Dissociation to CH(2)CHCO + H and CH(2)CH + HCO are two major primary channels with equivalent branching ratios of 33%. The CH(2)CHCO fragment spontaneously decomposes to CH(2)CH + CO. A proportion of primary products CH(2)CH from the fission of bond C-C of propenal further decompose to CHCH + H but secondary dissociation HCO → H + CO is negligibly small. Binary dissociation to CH(2)CH(2) (or CH(3)CH) + CO and concerted three-body dissociation to C(2)H(2) + CO + H(2) have equivalent branching ratios of 14%-15%. The other channels have individual branching ratios of ∼1%. The production of HCCO + CH(3) indicates the formation of intermediate methyl ketene (CH(3)CHCO) and the production of CH(2)CCH + OH and CH(2)CC + H(2)O indicate the formation of intermediate hydroxyl propadiene (CH(2)CCHOH) from isomerization of propenal. Distributions of kinetic energy release and dissociation mechanisms are discussed. This work provides a complete look and profound insight into the multi-channel dissociation mechanisms of propenal. The combination of a molecular beam apparatus and synchrotron VUV ionization allowed us to untangle the complex mechanisms of nine primary and two secondary dissociation channels. PMID:21423979

  9. Simultaneous and Direct Measurement of the Neutron - Branching Ratio of URANIUM-238 in the Region of the Giant Quadrupole Resonance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Countryman, Peter John

    We have measured the coincidence cross-sections ^{238}U(alpha, alpha'{rm n| f} ) and ^{238}U( alpha,alpha'f), and inclusive cross-sections ^{238} U(alpha,alpha') using the 120 MeV alpha particle beam at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The (alpha, alpha'{rm n| f} ) experiment simultaneously measured the cross-sections for ^{238}U(alpha, alpha'f) and ^{238 }U(alpha,alpha' {rm n| f}) at theta _{alpha'} ~ 17^circ, a local maximum for the angular distributions of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and monopole resonances (GQ_0R and GM _0R). The branching ratio Gamma _{rm n}/Gamma_{ rm f} obtained from this experiment is therefore not subject to many of the systematic errors which go into the individual cross-sections. The energy of the scattered alpha-particle (E _{alpha'}) and the neutron time-of-flight were measured for each event. Fission events were detected using a large solid-angle array, so that the fission neutrons could be removed from the neutron decay spectra. This enabled us to make the first measurement of the neutron decay from an actinide nucleus. Inelastic scattering cross-sections are presented for the range of excitation energy from 0. to 20. MeV. In a separate experiment, the cross-section {rm d^2sigma(alpha,alpha 'rm f)}over {rm d Omega_{alpha'}{dE}_{alpha'} } was measured for uranium at seven scattering angles in the range theta_{alpha '} = 7^circ -21^{circ}. We extracted the transition strength as a function of excitation energy for the GQ_0R and GM _0R. In (alpha,alpha 'f), we find 25% of the L = 2 energy-weighted sum-rule (from 8 to 12 MeV), and 50% of the L = 0 sum-rule (12 to 16 MeV). The strength agrees well with a recent (e,e^'f) experiment. We used the strengths extracted from the ( alpha,alpha'f) experiment along with the (alpha,alpha' {n| f}) data to place limits on (Gamma_{rm n }/Gamma_{rm f}) _{rm GQR} and ( Gamma_{rm n}/Gamma_ {rm f})_{rm GMR}. We obtained (Gamma_ {rm n}/Gamma_{rm f})_{rm GQR} = 6 +/- 4 (statistical

  10. Combined prognostic value of absolute lymphocyte/monocyte ratio in peripheral blood and interim PET/CT results in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Simon, Zsofia; Barna, S; Miltenyi, Z; Husi, K; Magyari, F; Jona, A; Garai, I; Nagy, Z; Ujj, G; Szerafin, L; Illes, A

    2016-01-01

    Decreased absolute lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) in peripheral blood has been reported as an unfavorable prognostic marker in Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to investigate whether combining LMR and interim PET/CT scan result (PET2) confers stronger prognostic value than PET2 alone. 121 HL patients were investigated. LMR was calculated from a blood sample taken at the time of diagnosis. PET2 was carried out after the second chemotherapy cycle. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and significance was determined by log-rank test. Effect of variants on survival results was examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Best LMR cut-off value was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Best LMR cut-off value was 2.11 in the case of our patients (LMR > 2.11: favorable, LMR ≤ 2.11: unfavorable). Overall and progression-free survivals (OS/PFS) were significantly worse both in lower LMR (≤ 2.11) (OS: P = 0.041, PFS: P = 0.044) and PET2 positive groups (OS: P < 0.001, PFS: P < 0.001). In PET2 positive patient group (n = 32) the low LMR result meant a significantly worse OS (0.030) and PFS (0.001). Both LMR and PET2 proved to be independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis, and strengthened each other's effect. PMID:26462809

  11. Measurement of the branching fraction ratio B (Bc+→ψ (2 S )π+)/B (Bc+→J /ψ π+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Using p p collision data collected by LHCb at center-of-mass energies √{s } =7 TeV and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 , the ratio of the branching fraction of the Bc+→ψ (2 S ) π+ decay relative to that of the Bc+→J /ψ π+ decay is measured to be 0.268 ±0.032 (stat ) ±0.007 (syst ) ±0.006 (BF ) . The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainties on the branching fractions of the J /ψ →μ+μ- and ψ (2 S ) →μ+μ- decays. This measurement is consistent with the previous LHCb result, and the statistical uncertainty is halved.

  12. A Combination of CDF and D0 limits on the branching ratio of B0(s)(d) ---> mu+ mu- decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, R.; Glenzinski, D.; Herndon, M.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Landsberg, G.; Lehner, F.; Lin, C.J.; Mrenna, S.; /Zurich U. /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison /Texas A-M /Brown U.

    2005-08-01

    The authors combine the results of CDF and D0 searches for the rare decays B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The experiments use 364 pb{sup -1} and 300 pb{sup -1} of data respectively. The limits on the branching ratios are obtained by normalizing the estimated sensitivity to the decay B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup +} taking into account the fragmentation ratios f{sub u}/f{sub s(d)}. The combined results exclude branching ratios of BR(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 1.5 x 10{sup -7} and BR(B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 4.0 x 10{sup -8} at 95% confidence level. These are the most stringent limits on these decays at the present time.

  13. B physics: first evidence for b_s0 --> phi phi decay and measurements of branching ratio and a_cp for b+ --> phi k+

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, D.; The CDF Collaboration

    2005-05-31

    We present the first evidence of charmless decays of the B{sub s}{sup 0} meson, the decay B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{phi}, and a measurement of the Branching Ratio BR(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{phi}) using 180 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. In addition, the BR and direct CP asymmetry for the B{sup +} {yields} {phi}K{sup +} decay are measured.

  14. Measurement of the product of the leptonic width of the J/ψ meson and the branching ratio for its decay to hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kharlamova, T. A.; Collaboration: KEDR Collaboration

    2015-05-15

    A preliminary result of the KEDR/VEPP-4M experiment devoted to measuring the cross section for electron-positron annihilation to hadrons (e{sup +}e{sup −} → hadrons) in the energy region of J/ψ-resonance production is presented. The value found for the product of the J/ψ-meson width with respect to decay to electrons and the branching ratio for J/ψ-meson decay to hadrons is Γ{sub ee}B{sub h} = 4.67±0.04(stat.)± 0.22(syst.) keV.

  15. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions Br(Bs -> Ds- pi+)/Br(B -> D- pi+) at CDF-II

    SciTech Connect

    Furic, Ivan Kresimir; /MIT

    2004-03-01

    The measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing is one of the flagship analyses for the Run II B physics program. The sensitivity of the measurement to the frequency of B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillations strongly depends on the number of reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons. They present the measurement of the ratio of branching fractions Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}), which directly influences the number of B{sub s}{sup 0} events available for the measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing at CDF-II. They analyze 115 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF-II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a novel displaced track trigger. They reconstruct 78 {+-} 11 B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays at 1153 {+-} 45 B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays with good signal to background ratio. This is the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays. They find the ratio of production fractions multiplied by the ratio of branching fractions to be: f{sub s}/f{sub d} {center_dot} Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.325 {+-} 0.046(stat) {+-} 0.034(syst) {+-} 0.084 (BR). Using the world average value of f{sub s}/f{sub d} = 0.26 {+-} 0.03, we infer that the ratio of branching fractions is: Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 1.25 {+-} 0.18(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst) {+-} 0.32(BR) {+-} 0.14(PR) where the last uncertainty is due to the uncertainty on the world average measurement of the ratio of B{sub s}{sup 0} to B{sup 0} production rates, f{sub s}/f{sub d}.

  16. Measurement of the branching ratios of D(+) and D(+)(s) hadronic decays to four-body final states containing a K(S).

    PubMed

    Link, J M; Reyes, M; Yager, P M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferi, A; de Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; dos Reis, A C; Simão, F R; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Ramirez, J E; Vaandering, E W; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F L; Sarwar, S; Zallo, A; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Boschini, M; Caccianiga, B; D'Angelo, P; DiCorato, M; Dini, P; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, A; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Agostino, L; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Merlo, M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Segoni, I; Viola, L; Vitulo, P; Hernandez, H; Lopez, A M; Mendez, H; Mendez, L; Mirles, A; Montiel, E; Olaya, D; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Rivera, C; Xiong, W; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Cho, K; Handler, T; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2001-10-15

    We have studied hadronic four-body decays of D(+) and D(+)(s) mesons with a K(S) in the final state using data recorded during the 1996-1997 fixed-target run of the Fermilab high energy photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We report a new branching ratio measurement of gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K-pi(+)pi(+))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0768+/-0.0041+/-0.0032. We make the first observation of three new decay modes with branching ratios gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K+pi(+)pi(-))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0562+/-0.0039+/-0.0040, gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K+K-pi(+))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0077+/-0.0015+/-0.0009, and gamma(D(+)(s)-->K(S)K+pi(+)pi(-))/gamma(D(+)(s)-->K(S)K-pi(+)pi(+)) = 0.586+/-0.052+/-0.043, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. PMID:11690200

  17. First Observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed Decays Xi+(c) ---> Sigma+ pi- pi+ and Xi+(c) ---> Sigma- pi+ pi+ and Measurement of their Branching Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Engelfried, J.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, Georgiy; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Ayan, Ahmet Sedat; Balatz, M.Y.; Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Bondar, N.F.; Cooper, Peter S.; /Fermilab /Michigan U., Flint

    2008-04-01

    The authors report the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. They observe 56 {+-} 13 over a background of 21, and 23 {+-} 7 over a background of 12 events, respectively, for the signals. The data were accumulated using the SELEX spectrometer during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, chiefly from a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} are measured to be B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/B({xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.50 {+-} 0.20, and B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})/B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.23 {+-} 0.11, respectively. They also report branching ratios for the same decay modes of the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} relative to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}.

  18. Vibrational Branching Ratios and Asymmetry Parameters in the Photoionization of CO2 in the Region Between 650 Å and 840 Å

    PubMed Central

    Parr, A. C.; West, J. B.; King, M. R. F.; Ueda, K.; Dehmer, P. M.; Dehmer, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters for CO2 have been determined in the wavelength region of 650 Å to near the ionization onset at about 840 Å. The study was performed using synchrotron radiation from the Daresbury storage ring that was dispersed with a 5 m grating monochomator that afforded resolution of 0.1 Å to 0.2 Å. This resolution allowed the study of the branching ratios and asymmetry parameters with enough detail to see the changes in the parameters within the pronounced autoionization structure in CO2 in this wavelength region. While the electron spectrometer resolution was not sufficient to resolve the spin orbit and Renner-Teller splitting in the photoelectron spectra, we are able to fit the data with a model that identifies the major structure in terms of the symmetric stretch and elements of the asymmetric stretch and bending modes. A calculation of the expected relative vibrational excitations based upon the Franck-Condon principle clearly showed non-Franck-Condon behavior in some of the vibrational-electronic transitions.

  19. New strategy for B{sub s} branching ratio measurements and the search for new physics in B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}{mu}+{mu}-}

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, Robert; Serra, Nicola; Tuning, Niels

    2010-08-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider will soon allow us to enter a new era in the exploration of B{sub s} decays. A particularly promising channel for the search of ''new physics'' is B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}{mu}+{mu}-}. The systematic key uncertainty affecting the measurement of this--and in fact all B{sub s}-decay branching ratios--is the ratio of fragmentation functions f{sub d}/f{sub s}. As the currently available methods for determining f{sub d}/f{sub s} are not sufficient to meet the high precision at LHCb, we propose a new strategy using B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup -}. It allows us to obtain a lower experimental bound on BR(B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}{mu}+{mu}-}) which offers a powerful probe for new physics. In order to go beyond this bound and to determine f{sub d}/f{sub s} with a theoretical precision matching the experimental one it is sufficient to know the SU(3)-breaking correction to a form-factor ratio from nonperturbative methods at the level of 20%. Thanks to our strategy, we can detect new physics in B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}{mu}+{mu}-} at LHCb with 5{sigma} for a branching ratio as small as twice the standard model value, which represents an improvement of the new-physics reach by about a factor of 2 with respect to the current LHCb expectation.

  20. Measurement of Branching Ratios for Non-leptonic Cabibbo-suppressed Decays of the Charmed-Strange Baryon Ξc+

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez Jauregui, Eric

    2008-08-01

    We studied several Ξc+ decay modes, most of them with a hyperon in the final state, and determined their branching ratios. The data used in this analysis come from the fixed target experiment SELEX, a multi-stage spectrometer with high acceptance for forward interactions, that took data during 1996 and 1997 at Fermilab with 600 GeV=c (mainly Σ-, π-) and 540 GeV/c (mainly p) beams incident on copper and carbon targets. The thesis mainly details the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, Ξc+ → Σ+π-π+ and Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+ are measured to be: Γ(Ξc+ → Σ-π+π+)/Γ(Ξc+ → Ξ-π+π+) = 0.184 ± 0.086. Systematic studies have been performed in order to check the stability of the measurements varying all cuts used in the selection of events over a wide interval and we do not observe evidence of any trend, so the systematic error is negligible in the final results because the quadrature sum of the total error is not affected. The branching ratios for the same decay modes of the Λc+ are measured to check the methodology of the analysis. The branching ratio of the decay mode Λc+ → Σ+π-π+ is measured relative to Λc+ → pK- π+, while the one of the decay mode Λc+ → Σ-π+π+is relative to Λc+→ Σ+π-π+, as they have been reported earlier. The results for the control modes are:

  1. Branching Ratios and Vibrational Distributions in Water-Forming Reactions of OH and OD Radicals with Methylamines.

    PubMed

    Butkovskaya, N I; Setser, D W

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of OH and OD radicals with (CH3)3N, (CH3)2NH, and CH3NH2 were studied by Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR) of the water product molecules from a fast-flow reactor at 298 K. The rate constants (4.4 ± 0.5) × 10(-11), (5.2 ± 0.8) × 10(-11), and (2.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) were determined for OD + (CH3)3N, (CH3)2NH, and CH3NH2, respectively, by comparing the HOD emission intensities to the HOD intensity from the OD reaction with H2S. Abstraction from the nitrogen site competes with abstraction from the methyl group, as obtained from an analysis of the HOD and D2O emission intensities from the OD reactions with the deuterated reactants, (CD3)2NH and CD3NH2. After adjustment for the hydrogen-deuterium kinetic isotope effect, the product branching fractions of the hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen for di- and monomethylamine were found to be 0.34 ± 0.04 and 0.26 ± 0.05, respectively. Vibrational distributions of the H2O, HOD, and D2O molecules are typical for direct hydrogen atom abstraction from polar molecules, even though activation energies are negative because of the formation of pre-transition-state complexes. Comparison is made to the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with ammonia and with other compounds with primary C-H bonds to discuss specific features of disposal of energy to water product. PMID:27504785

  2. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  3. Two-loop effective theory analysis of pi (K)-->enu[over ]_{e}[gamma] branching ratios.

    PubMed

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Rosell, Ignasi

    2007-12-01

    We study the ratios R_{e/mu};{(P)} identical withGamma(P-->enu[over ]_{e}[gamma])/Gamma(P-->munu[over ]_{mu}[gamma]) (P=pi, K) in Chiral Perturbation Theory to order e;{2}p;{4}. We complement the two-loop effective theory results with a matching calculation of the counterterm, finding R_{e/mu};{(pi)}=(1.2352+/-0.0001)x10;{-4} and R_{e/mu};{(K)}=(2.477+/-0.001)x10;{-5}. PMID:18233356

  4. Kerosene-water separation in T-junction with orientation upward branch with a 60° angle: Variation of diameter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspitasari, Dewi; Indarto, Purnomo, Khasani

    2016-06-01

    Research on the T-junction is still underway for the flow of liquid-liquid (kerosene-water). Some research on the characteristics of kerosene-water separation was performed using T-junction oriented upward branch with a 60° angle. To observe the effect of diameters ratio on the phase separation that produced T-junction then made a test section with a horizontal pipe diameter 36 mm, while the side arm 36 mm diameter, 26 mm and 19 mm (diameters ratio of 1, 0.7 and 0.5) by using plexiglass pipe type. Based on experimental results and visualization of data flow in the test section, to the value obtained 60% water cut, the maximum separation efficiency of 94%, FK = 0.94 and FW = 0.001 with a diameter ratio of 1. For other diameter ratio of 0.7 and 0.5 respectively separation efficiency of 66%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.34 for 0.7 and separation efficiency of 84%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.16 for 0.5, the best value is obtained at a water cut 60% too. All the best conditions to achieve the above-stratified flow pattern.

  5. Branching ratios and CP asymmetries of B{yields}a{sub 1}(1260){pi} and a{sub 1}(1260)K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, K.-C.

    2007-11-01

    We present the studies of the decays B{yields}a{sub 1}(1260){pi} and a{sub 1}(1260)K within the framework of QCD factorization. Because of the G-parity, unlike the vector meson, the chiral-odd two-parton light-cone distribution amplitudes of the a{sub 1} are antisymmetric under the exchange of quark and antiquark momentum fractions in the SU(2) limit. The branching ratios for a{sub 1}{pi} modes are sensitive to tree-penguin interference. The resultant B(B{sup 0}{yields}a{sub 1}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}}) are in good agreement with the data. However, using the current Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angles, {beta}=22.0 deg. and {gamma}=59.0 deg., our results for the mixing-induced parameter S and {alpha}{sub eff} differ from the measurements of the time-dependent CP asymmetries in the decay B{sup 0}{yields}a{sub 1}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}} at about the 3.7{sigma} level. This puzzle may be resolved by using a larger {gamma} > or approx. 80 deg. For a{sub 1}K modes, the annihilation topologies give sizable contributions and are sensitive to the first Gegenbauer moment of the leading-twist tensor (chiral-odd) distribution amplitude of the a{sub 1} meson. The B{yields}a{sub 1}K amplitudes resemble the corresponding B{yields}{pi}K ones very much. Taking the ratios of corresponding CP-averaged a{sub 1}K and {pi}K branching ratios, we can extract information relevant to the electroweak penguins and annihilations. The existence of new physics in the electroweak penguin sector and final-state interactions during decays can thus be explored.

  6. Experimental and theoretical studies of the O(3P) + C2H4 reaction dynamics: Collision energy dependence of branching ratios and extent of intersystem crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bina; Han, Yong-Chang; Bowman, Joel M.; Leonori, Francesca; Balucani, Nadia; Angelucci, Luca; Occhiogrosso, Angela; Petrucci, Raffaele; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio

    2012-12-01

    The reaction of O(3P) with C2H4, of importance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry, stands out as paradigm reaction involving not only the indicated triplet state potential energy surface (PES) but also an interleaved singlet PES that is coupled to the triplet surface. This reaction poses great challenges for theory and experiment, owing to the ruggedness and high dimensionality of these potentials, as well as the long lifetimes of the collision complexes. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) scattering experiments with soft electron ionization detection are used to disentangle the dynamics of this polyatomic multichannel reaction at a collision energy Ec of 8.4 kcal/mol. Five different primary products have been identified and characterized, which correspond to the five exothermic competing channels leading to H + CH2CHO, H + CH3CO, CH3 + HCO, CH2 + H2CO, and H2 + CH2CO. These experiments extend our previous CMB work at higher collision energy (Ec ˜ 13 kcal/mol) and when the results are combined with the literature branching ratios from kinetics experiments at room temperature (Ec ˜ 1 kcal/mol), permit to explore the variation of the branching ratios over a wide range of collision energies. In a synergistic fashion, full-dimensional, QCT surface hopping calculations of the O(3P) + C2H4 reaction using ab initio PESs for the singlet and triplet states and their coupling, are reported at collision energies corresponding to the CMB and the kinetics ones. Both theory and experiment find almost an equal contribution from the triplet and singlet surfaces to the reaction, as seen from the collision energy dependence of branching ratios of product channels and extent of intersystem crossing (ISC). Further detailed comparisons at the level of angular distributions and translational energy distributions are made between theory and experiment for the three primary radical channel products, H + CH2CHO, CH3 + HCO, and CH2 + H2CO. The very good agreement between theory and

  7. Experimental and theoretical studies of the O(3P) + C2H4 reaction dynamics: collision energy dependence of branching ratios and extent of intersystem crossing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bina; Han, Yong-Chang; Bowman, Joel M; Leonori, Francesca; Balucani, Nadia; Angelucci, Luca; Occhiogrosso, Angela; Petrucci, Raffaele; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio

    2012-12-14

    The reaction of O((3)P) with C(2)H(4), of importance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry, stands out as paradigm reaction involving not only the indicated triplet state potential energy surface (PES) but also an interleaved singlet PES that is coupled to the triplet surface. This reaction poses great challenges for theory and experiment, owing to the ruggedness and high dimensionality of these potentials, as well as the long lifetimes of the collision complexes. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) scattering experiments with soft electron ionization detection are used to disentangle the dynamics of this polyatomic multichannel reaction at a collision energy E(c) of 8.4 kcal∕mol. Five different primary products have been identified and characterized, which correspond to the five exothermic competing channels leading to H + CH(2)CHO, H + CH(3)CO, CH(3) + HCO, CH(2) + H(2)CO, and H(2) + CH(2)CO. These experiments extend our previous CMB work at higher collision energy (E(c) ∼ 13 kcal∕mol) and when the results are combined with the literature branching ratios from kinetics experiments at room temperature (E(c) ∼ 1 kcal∕mol), permit to explore the variation of the branching ratios over a wide range of collision energies. In a synergistic fashion, full-dimensional, QCT surface hopping calculations of the O((3)P) + C(2)H(4) reaction using ab initio PESs for the singlet and triplet states and their coupling, are reported at collision energies corresponding to the CMB and the kinetics ones. Both theory and experiment find almost an equal contribution from the triplet and singlet surfaces to the reaction, as seen from the collision energy dependence of branching ratios of product channels and extent of intersystem crossing (ISC). Further detailed comparisons at the level of angular distributions and translational energy distributions are made between theory and experiment for the three primary radical channel products, H + CH(2)CHO, CH(3) + HCO, and CH(2) + H(2)CO

  8. Ionic rotational branching ratios in resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization of NO via the A2Sigma(+)(3s sigma) and D2Sigma(+)(3p sigma) states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.; Mckoy, V.; Dixit, S. N.; Huo, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented for the rotationally resolved photoelectron spectra resulting from a (2 + 1) one-color resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of NO via the rotationally clean S21(11.5) and mixed S11(15.5) + R21(15.5) branches of the 0-0 transition in the D-X band. The calculations were done in the fixed-nuclei frozen core approximation. The resulting photoionization spectra, convoluted with a Lorentzian detection function, agree qualitatively with experimental results of Viswanathan et al. (1986) and support their conclusion that the nonspherical nature of the molecular potential creates a substantial l-mixing in the continuum, which in turn leads to the intense Delta N = 0 peak. The rather strong photoelectron energy dependence of the rotational branching ratios of the D 2Sigma(+) S21(11.5) line was investigated and compared to the weak energy dependence of the A 2Sigma(+) R22(21.5) line.

  9. New measurement of BR(D+ ---> rho0 mu+ nu) / BR(D+ ---> anti-K*0 mu+ nu) branching ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez /South Carolina U. /Tennessee U. /Vanderbilt U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-11-01

    Using data collected by the FOCUS experiment at Fermilab, the authors present a new measurement of the charm semileptonic branching ratio BR(D{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}{nu})/BR(D{sup +}{yields}{bar K}*{sup 0} {mu}{sup +}{nu}). From a sample of 320 {+-} 44 and 11,372 {+-} 161 D{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}{nu} and D{sup +} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}{nu} events respectively, they find BR(D{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}{nu})/BR(D{sup +}{yields}{bar K}*{sup 0} {mu}{sup +}{nu}) = 0.041 {+-} 0.006(stat) {+-} 0.004(syst).

  10. Quasiclassical trajectory study of the C(1D) + H2 reaction and isotopomeric variants: kinetic isotope effect and CD/CH branching ratio.

    PubMed

    Joseph, S; Caridade, P J S B; Varandas, A J C

    2011-07-14

    The recently proposed ab initio single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy for the methylene molecule has been used to perform quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations for the title reaction. Thermal and initial state-specific (v = 0, j = 0) rate constants for the C((1)D) + H(2)/HD/D(2) reactions have been obtained over a wide range of temperatures. Cross sections for the reaction C((1)D) + H(2) and its deuterated isotopes have also been calculated, as well as the CD/CH branching ratios for the C((1)D) + HD reaction. It is found that the CD + H product channel in the C((1)D) + HD reaction is preferred relative to the CH + D channel. The estimated rate constants are predicted to be in the order k(H2) > k(HD) > k(D2) and the calculated cross sections and rate constants compared with available theoretical and experimental data. PMID:21644798

  11. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions b(bs --> ds- ds+) /b (b0 --> d- ds+) with the CDF detector

    SciTech Connect

    Iyutin, Boris; /MIT

    2007-03-01

    In this thesis they report the measurement of ratios of branching fractions: {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}D{sub s}{sup +})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), using 355 pb{sup -1} of data collected by CDF detector at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV.

  12. Search for D0-D¯0 Mixing and Branching-Ratio Measurement in the Decay D0→K+π-π0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Ronan, M. T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Sanchez, P. Del Amo; Barrett, M.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Morgan, S. E.; Watson, A. T.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Boyd, J. T.; Burke, J. P.; Cottingham, W. N.; Walker, D.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spradlin, P.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dvoretskii, A.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Ford, W. T.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Brandt, T.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Grenier, P.; Latour, E.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Gradl, W.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Wu, J.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bard, D. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Vazquez, W. Panduro; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Ziegler, V.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Schott, G.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Oyanguren, A.; Pruvot, S.; Rodier, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, W. F.; Wormser, G.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, K. A.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Lodovico, F. Di; Menges, W.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Lafferty, G. D.; Naisbit, M. T.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Chen, C.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lae, C. K.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Kim, H.; McLachlin, S. E.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Brunet, S.; Côté, D.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Losecco, J. M.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Rahimi, A. M.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Pompili, A.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Chauveau, J.; Briand, H.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; Hamon, O.; Hartfiel, B. L.; John, M. J. J.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Ocariz, J.; Roos, L.; Therin, G.; Gladney, L.; Panetta, J.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Mazur, M. A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Wagoner, D. E.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Tehrani, F. Safai; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; de Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Legendre, M.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Berger, N.; Claus, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Cristinziani, M.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Halyo, V.; Hast, C.; Hryn'Ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; van Bakel, N.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Cossutti, F.; Ricca, G. Della; Dittongo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Pappagallo, M.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Flood, K. T.; Hollar, J. J.; Kutter, P. E.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.

    2006-12-01

    We analyze 230.4fb-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e+e- collider at SLAC to search for evidence of D0-D¯0 mixing using regions of phase space in the decay D0→K+π-π0. We measure the time-integrated mixing rate RM=(0.023-0.014+0.018(stat.)±0.004(syst.))%, and RM<0.054% at the 95% confidence level, assuming CP invariance. The data are consistent with no mixing at the 4.5% confidence level. We also measure the branching ratio for D0→K+π-π0 relative to D0→K-π+π0 to be (0.214±0.008(stat.)±0.008(syst.))%.

  13. Theoretical temperature-dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the 3F4 to 3H6 levels of Tm(3+) in ten garnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filer, Elizabeth D.; Barnes, Norman P.; Morrison, Clyde A.

    1991-01-01

    The calculated energy levels, the branching ratios, and the estimated thresholds for thulium operating on the 3F4 to 3H6 transitions are reported. Garnet materials with the general formula A3B2C3O12 are evaluated. Calculations are performed for the A side under the assumption of D2 symmetry. X-ray data available in the literature are used to evaluate the crystal-field components, A sub nm. Even-n components are employed to calculate the crystal-field splittings within the manifold. Thermal occupation factors are determined in a straightforward manner using a Boltzmann distribution for the respective manifolds. Odd-n components are applied to calculate the transition probabilities for electric field transitions. It is determined that the magnetic dipole contributions to the transition probability are comparable to the electric dipole contributions in some cases. Thresholds as a function of the density of thulium atoms are calculated.

  14. Dissociation of multicharged CO molecular ions produced in collisions with 97-MeV Ar14+: Dissociation fractions and branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohrer, K.; Sampoll, G.; Watson, R. L.; Chabot, M.; Heber, O.; Horvat, V.

    1992-10-01

    Data on the production and dissociation of COQ+ molecular ions (where Q=1 through 7) obtained by ion-ion coincidence time-of-flight measurements were analyzed to determine production yields, dissociation fractions, and branching ratios. A detailed comparison of the dissociation fractions for CO+ and CO2+ for several collision systems in the same perturbative regime revealed them to be quite similar, whereas the dissociation fraction for CO+ produced by valence-electron photoionization is a factor of 1.8 to 3.6 larger. The results for Q>=2 indicated a preference for dissociation channels leading to symmetric or nearly symmetric charge division. An enhancement of the total ionization yields for Q>4 was observed, and it suggests that electron transfer followed by LMM Auger decay plays an important role in determining the final charges of the dissociation products.

  15. Search for D0-D0 mixing and branching-ratio measurement in the decay D0-->K+ pi- pi0.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P

    2006-12-01

    We analyze 230.4 fb;{-1} of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e;{+}e;{-} collider at SLAC to search for evidence of D0-D[over ];{0} mixing using regions of phase space in the decay D;{0}-->K;{+}pi;{-}pi;{0}. We measure the time-integrated mixing rate R_{M}=(0.023_{-0.014};{+0.018}(stat.)+/-0.004(syst.))%, and R_{M}<0.054% at the 95% confidence level, assuming CP invariance. The data are consistent with no mixing at the 4.5% confidence level. We also measure the branching ratio for D;{0}-->K;{+}pi;{-}pi;{0} relative to D;{0}-->K;{-}pi;{+}pi;{0} to be (0.214+/-0.008(stat.)+/-0.008(syst.))%. PMID:17155794

  16. Measurement of the branching ratio B(D+ -> ρ0 l+ νl)/B(D+ ->K*0 l+ νl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitala, E. M.; Amato, S.; Anjos, J. C.; Appel, J. A.; Ashery, D.; Banerjee, S.; Bediaga, I.; Blaylock, G.; Bracker, S. B.; Burchat, P. R.; Burnstein, R. A.; Carter, T.; Carvalho, H. S.; Copty, N. K.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Darling, C.; Denisenko, K.; Fernandez, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gounder, K.; Halling, A. M.; Herrera, G.; Hurvits, G.; James, C.; Kasper, P. A.; Kwan, S.; Langs, D. C.; Leslie, J.; Lundberg, B.; Maytal-Beck, S.; Meadows, B.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Milburn, R. H.; de Miranda, J. M.; Napier, A.; Nguyen, A.; D'Oliveira, A. B.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Peng, K. C.; Perera, L. P.; Purohit, M. V.; Quinn, B.; Radeztsky, S.; Rafatian, A.; Reay, N. W.; Reidy, J. J.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Rubin, H. A.; Santha, A. K. S.; Santoro, A. F. S.; Schwartz, A. J.; Sheaff, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Stanton, N. R.; Stenson, K.; Summers, D. J.; Takach, S.; Thorne, K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Watanabe, S.; Weiss-Babai, R.; Wiener, J.; Witchey, N.; Wolin, E.; Yi, D.; Yoshida, S.; Zaliznyak, R.; Zhang, C.

    1997-02-01

    We report a measurement of the branching ratio B(D+ -> ρ0 l+ νl)/B(D+ -> K*0 l+ νl) from the Fermilab charm hadroproduction experiment E791. Based on signals of 49 +/- 17 events in the D+ -> ρ0 e+ νe mode and 54 +/- 18 events in the D+ -> ρ0 μ+ νμ mode, we measureB(D+ -> ρ0 e+ νe)/B(D+ -> K*0 e) νe) = 0.045 +/- 0.014 +/- 0.009,B(D+ -> ρ0 μ+ νμ)/B(D+ -> K*0 μ+ νμ) = 0.051 +/- 0.015 +/- 0.009. Combining the results from both the electronic and muonic modes, we obtainB(D+ -> ρ0 l+ νl)/B(D+ -> K*0 l+ νl) = 0.047 +/- 0.013. This result is compared to theoretical predictions.

  17. Cross-Section Measurement of the 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm Reaction and Constraining the Branching Ratio of 167Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, Brian; Gooden, Matthew; Thomas, Keenan; Krishichayan, F.; Norman, Eric; Scielzo, Nick; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner

    2015-10-01

    The cross section of the 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm reaction has been measured from 17.5 to 21.5 MeV using activation technique. This energy region was chosen to resolve the two different trends of the previous (n,3n) cross section measurements on 169Tm. In addition, the branching ratio of the 207.8 keV γ-ray line stemming from electron capture of 167Tm was measured to be 0.419(16). The result of these measurements provide more accurate diagnostic estimation of the so called reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the internal confinement fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility.

  18. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  19. Dynamics of multidissociation paths of acetaldehyde photoexcited at 157 nm: Branching ratios, distributions of kinetic energy, and angular anisotropies of products

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shih-Huang

    2009-11-07

    After the photolysis of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) at 157.6 nm in a molecular-beam apparatus using photofragment translational spectroscopy and vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization to detect products, we observed 13 photofragments associated with six primary dissociation channels and secondary dissociation of products CH{sub 3}CO and HCO. We measured time-of-flight spectra and spatial angular anisotropies of products and evaluated the branching ratios of products. All photoproducts have nearly isotropic angular distributions with an average |{beta}| value less than 0.05. Primary dissociations to CH{sub 3}CO+H and CH{sub 3}+HCO are two major paths; most CH{sub 3}CO subsequently decomposes spontaneously to CH{sub 3}+CO and CH{sub 2}CO+H and most HCO decomposes to H+CO. The ternary dissociation to CH{sub 3}+CO+H thus accounts for approximately half of the total branching. Dissociations to CH{sub 2}CO+H{sub 2} and CH{sub 2}+CH{sub 2}O are observable, but the production of CH{sub 4}+CO is ambiguous. The productions of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}+OH and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O indicate that isomerization from acetaldehyde to ethenol occurs before fragmentation. After photoexcitation to the n-3p state, most acetaldehyde converts into states T{sub 1} and S{sub 0} but a little isomerizes to ethenol followed by multichannel decomposition.

  20. Reformulated 17O correction of mass spectrometric stable isotope measurements in carbon dioxide and a critical appraisal of historic 'absolute' carbon and oxygen isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Mass-spectrometric stable isotope measurements of CO 2 use molecular ion currents at mass-to-charge ratios m/ z 44, 45 and 46 to derive the elemental isotope ratios n( 13C)/ n( 12C) and n( 18O)/ n( 16O), abbreviated 13C/ 12C and 18O/ 16O, relative to a reference. The ion currents have to be corrected for the contribution of 17O-bearing isotopologues, the so-called ' 17O correction'. The magnitude of this correction depends on the calibrated isotope ratios of the reference. Isotope ratio calibrations are difficult and are therefore a matter of debate. Here, I provide a comprehensive evaluation of the existing 13C/ 12C ( 13R), 17O/ 16O ( 17R) and 18O/ 16O ( 18R) calibrations of the reference material Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) and CO 2 generated from the reference material Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) by reaction with 100% H 3PO 4 at 25 °C (VPDB-CO 2). I find 17R/10-6=382.7-2.1+1.7, 18RVSMOW/10 -6 = 2005.20 ± 0.45, 13R/10-6= 11124 ± 45, 17R/10-6=391.1-2.1+1.7 and 18R/10-6=2088.37±0.90. I also rephrase the calculation scheme for the 17O correction completely in terms of relative isotope ratio differences ( δ values). This reveals that only ratios of isotope ratios (namely, 17R/ 13R and 13R17R/ 18R) are required for the 17O correction. These can be, and have been, measured on conventional stable isotope mass spectrometers. I then show that the remaining error for these ratios of isotope ratios can lead to significant uncertainty in the derived relative 13C/ 12C difference, but not for 18O/ 16O. Even though inter-laboratory differences can be corrected for by a common 'ratio assumption set' and/or normalisation, the ultimate accuracy of the 17O correction is hereby limited. Errors of similar magnitude can be introduced by the assumed mass-dependent relationship between 17O/ 16O and 18O/ 16O isotope ratios. For highest accuracy in the 13C/ 12C ratio, independent triple oxygen isotope measurements are required. Finally, I propose an experiment that

  1. Statistical universal branching ratios for cosmic ray dissociation, photodissociation, and dissociative recombination of the Cn = 2-10, Cn = 2-4H and C3H2 neutral and cationic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, M.; Tuna, T.; Béroff, K.; Pino, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Désequelles, P.; Martinet, G.; Nguyen-Thi, V. O.; Carpentier, Y.; Le Petit, F.; Roueff, E.; Wakelam, V.

    2010-12-01

    Context. Fragmentation-branching ratios of electronically excited molecular species are of first importance for the modeling of gas phase interstellar chemistry. Despite experimental and theoretical efforts that have been done during the last two decades there is still a strong lack of detailed information on those quantities for many molecules such as Cn, CnH or C3H2. Aims: Our aim is to provide astrochemical databases with more realistic branching ratios for Cn (n = 2 to 10), CnH (n = 2 to 4), and C3H2 molecules that are electronically excited either by dissociative recombination, photodissociation, or cosmic ray processes, when no detailed calculations or measurements exist in literature. Methods: High velocity collision in an inverse kinematics scheme was used to measure the complete fragmentation pattern of electronically excited Cn (n = 2 to 10), CnH (n = 2 to 4), and C3H2 molecules. Branching ratios of dissociation where deduced from those experiments. The full set of branching ratios was used as a new input in chemical models and branching ratio modification effects observed in astrochemical networks that describe the dense cold Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 and the photon dominated Horse Head region. Results: The comparison between the branching ratios obtained in this work and other types of experiments showed a good agreement. It was interpreted as the signature of a statistical behavior of the fragmentation. The branching ratios we obtained lead to an increase of the C3 production together with a larger dispersion of the daughter fragments. The introduction of these new values in the photon dominated region model of the Horse Head nebula increases the abundance of C3 and C3H, but reduces the abundances of the larger Cn and hydrocarbons at a visual extinction AV smaller than 4. Conclusions: We recommend astrochemists to use these new branching ratios. The data published here have been added to the online database KIDA (KInetic Database for Astrochemistry

  2. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  3. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(D0 ---> K+ pi-) / B(D0 ---> K- pi+) using the CDF II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Acosta, D.; Adelman, Jahred A.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-05-01

    The authors present a measurement of R{sub B}, the ratio of the branching fraction for the rare decay D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} to that for the Cabibbo-favored decay D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}. Charge conjugate decays are implicitly included. A signal of 2005 {+-} 104 events for the decay D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is obtained using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 0.35 fb{sup -1} produced in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Assuming no mixing, they find R{sub B} = [4.05 {+-} 0.21(stat) {+-} 0.11(syst)] x 10{sup -3}. This measurement is consistent with the world average, and comparable in accuracy with the best measurements from other experiments.

  4. Absolute spectrum and charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in the energy region from 0.2 GeV to 100 GeV at 600 m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pascale, M. P.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Golden, R. L.; Grimani, C.; Kimbell, B. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Stochaj, S. J.; Webber, W. R.; Basini, G.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of muons in the region from 250 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c using a superconducting magnetic spectrometer. The absolute differential spectrum of muons obtained in this experiment at 600 m above sea level is in good agreement with the previous measurements at sea level. The differential spectrum can be represented by a power law with a varying index, which is consistent with zero below 450 MeV/c and steepens to a value of -2.7 +/- 0.1 between 20 and 100 GeV/c. The integral f1ux of muons measured in this experiment span a very large range of momentum and is in excellent agreement with the earlier results. The positive to negative muon ratio appears to be constant in the entire momentum range covered in this experiment within the errors and the mean value is 1.220 +/- 0.044. The absolute momentum spectrum and the charge ratio measured in this experiment are also consistent with the theoretical expectations. This is the only experiment which covers a wide range of nearly three decades in momentum from a very low momentum.

  5. The influence of the bromine atom Cooper minimum on the photoelectron angular distributions and branching ratios of the four outermost bands of bromobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powis, I.; Holland, D. M. P.; Antonsson, E.; Patanen, M.; Nicolas, C.; Miron, C.; Schneider, M.; Soshnikov, D. Yu.; Dreuw, A.; Trofimov, A. B.

    2015-10-01

    Angle resolved photoelectron spectra of the X ˜ 2 B 1 , A ˜ 2 A 2 , B ˜ 2 B 2 , and C ˜ 2 B 1 states of bromobenzene have been recorded over the excitation range 20.5-94 eV using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The photoelectron anisotropy parameters and electronic branching ratios derived from these spectra have been compared to theoretical predictions obtained with the continuum multiple scattering approach. This comparison shows that ionization from the 8b2 orbital and, to a lesser extent, the 4b1 orbital is influenced by the Cooper minimum associated with the bromine atom. The 8b2 and 4b1 orbitals are nominally bromine lone-pairs, but the latter orbital interacts strongly with the π-orbitals in the benzene ring and this leads to a reduced atomic character. Simulations of the X ˜ 2 B 1 , B ˜ 2 B 2 , and C ˜ 2 B 1 state photoelectron bands have enabled most of the vibrational structures appearing in the experimental spectra to be assigned. Many of the photoelectron peaks exhibit an asymmetric shape with a tail towards low binding energy. This asymmetry has been examined in the simulations of the vibrationally unexcited peak, due mainly to the adiabatic transition, in the X ˜ 2 B 1 state photoelectron band. The simulations show that the asymmetric profile arises from hot-band transitions. The inclusion of transitions originating from thermally populated levels results in a satisfactory agreement between the experimental and simulated peak shapes.

  6. Reaction Dynamics of O((3)P) + Propyne: I. Primary Products, Branching Ratios, and Role of Intersystem Crossing from Crossed Molecular Beam Experiments.

    PubMed

    Vanuzzo, Gianmarco; Balucani, Nadia; Leonori, Francesca; Stranges, Domenico; Nevrly, Vaclav; Falcinelli, Stefano; Bergeat, Astrid; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2016-07-14

    We performed synergic experimental/theoretical studies on the mechanism of the O((3)P) + propyne reaction by combining crossed molecular beams experiments with mass-spectrometric detection and time-of-flight analysis at 9.2 kcal/mol collision energy (Ec) with ab initio electronic structure calculations at a high level of theory of the relevant triplet and singlet potential energy surfaces (PESs) and statistical calculations of branching ratios (BRs) taking into account intersystem crossing (ISC). In this paper (I) we report the results of the experimental investigation, while the accompanying paper (II) shows results of the theoretical investigation with comparison to experimental results. By exploiting soft electron ionization detection to suppress/mitigate the effects of the dissociative ionization of reactants, products, and background gases, product angular and velocity distributions at different charge-to-mass ratios were measured. From the laboratory data angular and translational energy distributions in the center-of-mass system were obtained for the five competing most important product channels, and product BRs were derived. The reactive interaction of O((3)P) with propyne under single collision conditions is mainly leading to the rupture of the three-carbon atom chain, with production of the radical products methylketenyl + atomic hydrogen (BR = 0.04), methyl + ketenyl (BR = 0.10), and vinyl + formyl (BR = 0.11) and the molecular products ethylidene/ethylene + carbon monoxide (BR = 0.74) and propandienal + molecular hydrogen (BR = 0.01). Because some of the products can only be formed via ISC from the entrance triplet to the low-lying singlet PES, we infer from their BRs an amount of ISC larger than 80%. This value is dramatically large when compared to the negligible ISC reported for the O((3)P) reaction with the simplest alkyne, acetylene. At the same time, it is much larger than that (∼20%) recently observed in the related reaction of the three

  7. Shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sally P; Leyser, Ottoline

    2004-02-01

    The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been inferred from studies of branching mutants in pea and Arabidopsis. PMID:14732444

  8. The 238U/235U isotope ratio of the Earth and the solar system: Constrains from a gravimetrically calibrated U double spike and implications for absolute Pb-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, Stefan; Noordmann, Janine; Brennecka, Greg; Richter, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    The ratio of 238U and 235U, the two primordial U isotopes, has been assumed to be constant on Earth and in the solar system. The commonly accepted value for the 238U/235U ratio, which has been used in Pb-Pb dating for the last ~ 30 years, was 137.88. Within the last few years, it has been shown that 1) there are considerable U isotope variations (~1.3‰) within terrestrial material produced by isotope fractionation during chemical reactions [1-3] and 2) there are even larger isotope variations (at least 3.5‰) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meoteorites that define the currently accepted age of the solar system [4]. These findings are dramatic for geochronology, as a known 238U/235U is a requirement for Pb-Pb dating, the most precise dating technique for absolute ages. As 238U/235U variations can greatly affect the reported absolute Pb-Pb age, understanding and accurately measuring variation of the 238U/235U ratio in various materials is critical, With these new findings, the questions also arises of "How well do we know the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system?" and "How accurate can absolute Pb-Pb ages be?" Our results using a gravimetrically calibrated 233U/236U double spike IRMM 3636 [5] indicate that the U standard NBL 950a, which was commonly used to define the excepted "natural" 238U/235U isotope ratio, has a slightly lower 238U/235U of 137.836 ± 0.024. This value is indistinguishable from the U isotope compositions for NBL 960 and NBL112A, which have been determined by several laboratories, also using the newly calibrated U double spike IRMM 3636 [6]. These findings provide new implications about the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system. Basalts display a very tight range of U isotope variations (~0.25-0.32‰ relative to SRM 950a). Their U isotope composition is also very similar to that of chondrites [4], which however appear to show a slightly larger spread. Accepting terrestrial

  9. A fluid flow in the pipe junction with 6,25 cross-section area ratio. the influence of the adjacent branch angle on the pipe junction characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štigler, J.; Šperka, O.; Klas, R.

    2012-11-01

    This article deals with a fluid flow in the pipe junction. The comparison of the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the experiment with the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the numerical modelling using the CFD software will be discussed in this article. All measurements are done for the case of 50 mm diameter of the straight pipe and 20 mm diameter of the adjacent branch with five different angles. There are six possible flow configurations for this pipe junction. Three of them are cases of the flow combination and three of them are cases of the flow division. Only results for the flow combination are presented in this paper.

  10. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  11. Measurement of branching ratio and B0s lifetime in the decay B0s → J/ψ f0(980) at CDF

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-09-30

    We present a study of Bs0 decays to the CP-odd final state J/ψ f0(980) with J/ψ → µ+µ- and f0(980) → π+π-. Using pp̄ collision data with an integrated luminosity of 3.8 fb-1 collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron we measure a Bs0 lifetime of τ(B0s → J/ψ f0(980)) = 1.70-0.11+0.12(stat) ± 0.03(syst) ps. This is the first measurement of the Bs0} lifetime in a decay to a CP eigenstate and corresponds in the standard model to the lifetime of the heavy Bs0 eigenstate. We also measure the product of branching fractions of B0s → J/ψ f0(980)more » and f0(980) → π+π- relative to the product of branching fractions of B0s → J/ψφ and φ→K+K- to be Rf0/ψ = 0.257 ± 0.020(stat) ± 0.014(syst), which is the most precise determination of this quantity to date.« less

  12. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  13. Measurement of the relative branching ratio of B-s(0) -> J/psi f(0)(980) to B-s(0) -> J/psi phi

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Askew, A.; Asman, B.; Atkins, S.; Atramentov, O.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besancon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Perez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Thery, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Deliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garcia-Guerra, G. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Gruenendahl, S.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffre, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurca, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; de Sa, R. Lopes; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magana-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martinez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; et al.

    2012-01-20

    We present a measurement of the relative branching fraction, R{sub f{sub 0}/{phi}}, of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980), with f{sub 0}(980) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, to the process B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}, with {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. The J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980) final state corresponds to a CP-odd eigenstate of B{sub s}{sup 0} that could be of interest in future studies of CP violation. Using 8 fb{sup -1} of data recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we find R{sub f{sub 0}/{phi}} = 0.275 {+-} 0.041(stat) {+-} 0.061(syst).

  14. Branching Ratio Measurements of B ---> J/psi eta K and B+- ---> D0 K+- with D0 ---> pi+ pi- pi0

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Qinglin; /Colorado State U.

    2006-03-08

    Results are presented for the decays of B {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K and B{sup {+-}} {yields} DK{sup {+-}}, respectively, with experimental data collected with BABAR detector at PEP-II, located at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). With 90 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, we obtained branching fractions of {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sup {+-}}) = [10.8 {+-} 2.3(stat) {+-} 2.4(syst)] x 10{sup -5} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sub S}{sup 0}) = [8.4 {+-} 2.6(stat) {+-} 2.7(syst)] x 10{sup -5}; and we set an upper limit of {Beta}[B{sup {+-}} {yields} X(3872)K{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sup {+-}}] < 7.7 x 10{sup -6} at 90% confidence level. The branching fraction of decay chain {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} DK{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup {+-}}) = [5.5 {+-} 1.0(stat) {+-} 0.7(syst)] x 10{sup -6} with 229 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events at {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, here D represents the neutral D meson. The decay rate asymmetry is A = 0.02 {+-} 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst) for this full decay chain. This decay can be used to extract the unitarity angle {gamma}, a weak CP violation phase, through the interference of decay production of D{sup 0} and {bar D}{sup 0} to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}.

  15. Improved Measurement of the πeν Branching Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; vom Bruch, D.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; Cuen-Rochin, S.; Gumplinger, P.; Hussein, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ito, S.; Kettell, S. H.; Kurchaninov, L.; Littenberg, L. S.; Malbrunot, C.; Mischke, R. E.; Numao, T.; Protopopescu, D.; Sher, A.; Sullivan, T.; Vavilov, D.; Yamada, K.

    2015-08-01

    A new measurement of the branching ratio Re/μ=Γ(π+ → e+ν + π+ → e+νγ)/Γ(π+ → μ+ν + π+→μ+νγ) resulted in Rexpe/μ=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)] x 10-4. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%.

  16. SPRED spectrograph upgrade: high resolution grating and improved absolute calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, B.C.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1986-05-01

    Two improvements to the SPRED multichannel VUV spectrographs used on the TFTR and PBX tokamaks have been made: (1) A new 2100-g/mm grating covering the 100 to 320 A region with 0.4 A resolution (FWHM) has been added to the existing 450 g/mm grating (100 to 1100 A with 2 A resolution), and (2) the TFTR SPRED has been absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation from the NBS SURF II facility, while the PBX system has been calibrated using conventional branching ratios along with line ratios from charge-exchange-recombination-excited lines. The availability of high resolution spectra in the 100 to 320 A range provides improved measurements of metallic ion emissions and, when the instrument views across a neutral beam as in PBX, allows carbon and oxygen densities to be measured via charge exchange recombination spectroscopy.

  17. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  18. Measurement of the B0(s) semileptonic branching ratio to an orbitally excited D**(s) state, Br(B0(s) ---> D-(s1)(2536) mu+ nu X)

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /ABC Federal U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota

    2007-12-01

    In a data sample of approximately 1.3 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the orbitally excited charm state D{sub s1}{sup {+-}}(2536) has been observed with a measured mass of 2535.7 {+-} 0.6(stat) {+-} 0.5(syst) MeV/c{sup 2} via the decay mode B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +} {nu}X. A first measurement is made of the branching ratio product Br({bar B} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) {center_dot} Br(D{sub s1}{sup -} {yields} D*{sup -} K{sub S}{sup 0}). Assuming that D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536) production in semileptonic decay is entirely from B{sub s}{sup 0}, an extraction of the semileptonic branching ratio Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) is made.

  19. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = -0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265-0.972) and 0.389 (0.193-0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145-0.845) and 0.376 (0.161-0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults. PMID:26593945

  20. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = −0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265–0.972) and 0.389 (0.193–0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145–0.845) and 0.376 (0.161–0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults. PMID:26593945

  1. Effect of electric fields on the decay branching ratio of {sup 1}P{sup e} doubly excited states in helium measured by time-resolved fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Zitnik, Matjaz; Mihelic, A.; Bucar, K.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Richter, R.; Alagia, M.; Stranges, S.

    2006-11-15

    We have measured the lifetimes of {sup 1}P{sup e} (n=9-12) doubly excited states in static electric fields (1-6 kV/cm) by observing the decay of the fluorescence signal as a function of time. The effects of the field on these helium states below the second ionization threshold are twofold: their excitation becomes possible due to the Stark mixing with the optically allowed {sup 1}P{sup o} series, and their lifetime is strongly modified by the opening of the autoionization channel, not accessible in zero field. Although the electric field represents only a tiny perturbation of the atomic potential, a substantial shortening of the lifetimes below 100 ps is observed. This is the simplest quantum system where the ratio of autoionization to fluorescence decay probability can be effectively controlled by an electric field of moderate strength.

  2. Study of B+/ --> J/psi pi+/- and B+/ -->J/psi K+/- decays: measurement of the ratio of branching fractions and search for direct CP violation.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de laVassière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-06-18

    We study B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-) and B+/ --> J/psi K+/- decays in a sample of about 89 x 10(6) BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory at SLAC. We observe a signal of 244+/-20 B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-) events and determine the ratio B(B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-))/B(B+/ --> J/psi K+/-) to be [5.37+/-0.45(stat)+/-0.11(syst)]%. The charge asymmetries for the B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-) and B+/ --> J/psi K+/- decays are determined to be A(pi)=0.123+/-0.085(stat)+/-0.004(syst) and A(K)=0.030+/-0.015(stat)+/-0.006(syst), respectively. PMID:15245076

  3. Rare Nonleptonic Decays of the Omega Hyperon: Measurements of the Branching Ratios for Omega-+ --> Xi*0(1530) (anti-Xi*0(1530)) pi-+ and Omega-+ --> Xi-+ pi+- pi-+

    SciTech Connect

    Kamaev, Oleg; /IIT, Chicago

    2007-12-01

    A clean signal of 78 (24) events has been observed in the rare nonleptonic particle (antiparticle) decay modes {Omega}{sup {-+}} {yields} {Xi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} using data collected with the HyperCP spectrometer during Fermilab's 1999 fixed-target run. We obtain B({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = [4.32 {+-} 0.56(stat) {+-} 0.28(syst)] x 10{sup -4} and B({Omega}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 3.13 {+-} 0.71(stat) {+-} 0.20(syst) x 10{sup -4}. This is the first observation of the antiparticle mode. Our measurement for the particle mode agrees with the previous experimental result and has an order-of-magnitude better precision. We extract the contribution from the resonance decay mode {Omega}{sup {-+}} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} ({ovr {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}}){pi}{sup {-+}} to the final state {Xi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}. This the first actual measurement of the resonance-mode branching ratios, gives B({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}) = [4.55 {+-} 2.33(stat) {+-} 0.38(syst)] x 10{sup -5}, B({Omega}{sup +} {yields} {ovr {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}}{pi}{sup +}) = [1.40 {+-} 2.83(stat) {+-} 0.12(syst)] x 10{sup -5} and disagrees with the current Particle Data Group review value, being {approx} 14 times smaller. Since the central value of the resonance-mode branching ratio is less than two standard deviations away from zero, we also calculate branching ratio upper limits at 90% confidence level: B({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}) < 7.61 x 10{sup -5} and B({Omega}{sup +} {yields} {ovr {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}} {pi}{sup +}) < 5.61 x 10{sup -5}. This analysis provides new data on nonleptonic hyperon decays which allows studies of how weak interaction processes occur in the presence of strong interactions.

  4. Measurement of the branching ratio Γ (Λb0 → ψ (2 S)Λ0) / Γ (Λb0 → J / ψΛ0) with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. 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H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. 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S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. 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G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-12-01

    An observation of the Λb0 → ψ (2 S)Λ0 decay and a comparison of its branching fraction with that of the Λb0 → J / ψΛ0 decay has been made with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV at the LHC using an integrated luminosity of 20.6 fb-1. The J / ψ and ψ (2 S) mesons are reconstructed in their decays to a muon pair, while the Λ0 → pπ- decay is exploited for the Λ0 baryon reconstruction. The Λb0 baryons are reconstructed with transverse momentum pT > 10 GeV and pseudorapidity | η | < 2.1. The measured branching ratio of the Λb0 → ψ (2 S)Λ0 and Λb0 → J / ψΛ0 decays is Γ (Λb0 → ψ (2 S)Λ0) / Γ (Λb0 → J / ψΛ0) = 0.501 ± 0.033 (stat) ± 0.019 (syst), lower than the expectation from the covariant quark model.

  5. Measurement of the branching ratio of B ¯ →D(*)τ-ν¯ τ relative to B ¯→D(*)ℓ-ν¯ℓ decays with hadronic tagging at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huschle, M.; Kuhr, T.; Heck, M.; Goldenzweig, P.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Aziz, T.; Badhrees, I.; Bakich, A. M.; Bansal, V.; Barberio, E.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bobrov, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chang, P.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Frey, A.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gillard, R.; Glattauer, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Grygier, J.; Hamer, P.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Hasenbusch, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Heider, M.; Heller, A.; Horiguchi, T.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsu, C.-L.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Inguglia, G.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Katrenko, P.; Kawasaki, T.; Keck, T.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, N.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, I. S.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Masuda, M.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Moll, A.; Moon, H. K.; Mussa, R.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Nayak, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Oswald, C.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pesántez, L.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pulvermacher, C.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Steder, M.; Stypula, J.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Trusov, V.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Uno, S.; Usov, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamaoka, J.; Yashchenko, S.; Ye, H.; Yook, Y.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    We report a measurement of the branching fraction ratios R (D(*)) of B ¯→D(*)τ-ν¯τ relative to B ¯→D(*)ℓ-ν¯ℓ (where ℓ=e or μ ) using the full Belle data sample of 772 ×106B B ¯ pairs collected at the ϒ (4 S ) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The measured values are R (D )=0.375 ±0.064 (stat)±0.026 (syst) and R (D*)=0.293 ±0.038 (stat)±0.015 (syst) . The analysis uses hadronic reconstruction of the tag-side B meson and purely leptonic τ decays. The results are consistent with earlier measurements and do not show a significant deviation from the standard model prediction.

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Predissociation dynamics in the 3 p π D1Πu± ( υ = 3 ) and 4 p σ B″ 1Σu+ ( υ = 1 ) states of H2 revealed by product branching ratios and fragment angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingnan; Mo, Yuxiang

    2016-04-01

    The predissociation dynamics of H2+ XUV → H2* → H ( 1 s ) + H ( 2 s , 2 p ) has been studied by measuring the fragment branching ratios between the H(2s) and H(2p) states and the fragment angular distributions using the XUV (extreme ultraviolet) laser pump and UV (ultraviolet) laser probe method. The fragment angular distributions for the predissociation of the 3 p π D1Πu+ ( υ = 3 ) state show parallel transitions, demonstrating that the main components of the dissociating state have 1Σu+ symmetry. The measured fragment branching ratios, H(2s)/(H(2s) + H(2p)), for the transitions R(0), R(1), and P(2) in 3 p π D1 Pi;u+ ( υ = 3 ) ← X1 Σg+ ( υ″ = 0 ) are in good agreement with one of the previous theoretical predictions. The predissociations of the 3 p π D1 Πu- ( υ = 3 ) state arising from the Q(1), Q(2), and Q(3) lines have also been observed. The angular distributions and the state distributions of the excited fragments (all found from the H(2p) state) illustrate that the dissociating states for the Q lines have the expected Πu- symmetry. The predissociation dynamics of the transition 4 p σ B″ 1 Σu+ ( υ = 1 ) ← X1 Σgg+ ( υ″ = 0 ) was also studied. Their fragment angular distributions show the expected parallel transitions, and most of the fragments are in the H(2s) states. The Beutler-Fano profiles and the associated spectroscopic parameters for the predissociations have also been obtained by measuring the fragment yield of H(2s, 2p) as a function of excitation photon energies.

  9. OCT angiography by absolute intensity difference applied to normal and diseased human retinas

    PubMed Central

    Ruminski, Daniel; Sikorski, Bartosz L.; Bukowska, Danuta; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Krawiec, Krzysztof; Malukiewicz, Grazyna; Bieganowski, Lech; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    We compare four optical coherence tomography techniques for noninvasive visualization of microcapillary network in the human retina and murine cortex. We perform phantom studies to investigate contrast-to-noise ratio for angiographic images obtained with each of the algorithm. We show that the computationally simplest absolute intensity difference angiographic OCT algorithm that bases only on two cross-sectional intensity images may be successfully used in clinical study of healthy eyes and eyes with diabetic maculopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion. PMID:26309740

  10. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  11. Exclusive Ds semileptonic branching fraction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietala, J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Pedlar, T.; Shipsey, I.

    2015-07-01

    We measure absolute branching fractions for six exclusive Ds semileptonic decays. We use data collected in the CLEO-c detector from e+e- annihilations delivered by the Cornell Electron Storage Ring with a center-of-mass energy near 4170 MeV. We find B (Ds→ϕ e ν )=(2.14 ±0.17 ±0.08 )% , B (Ds→η e ν )=(2.28 ±0.14 ±0.19 )% , and B (Ds→η'e ν )=(0.68 ±0.15 ±0.06 )% for the largest modes, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. We also obtain B (Ds→K0e ν )=(0.39 ±0.08 ±0.03 )% , B (Ds→K*e ν )=(0.18 ±0.04 ±0.01 )% , and B (Ds→f0e ν ,f0→π π )=(0.13 ±0.03 ±0.01 )% for f0 masses within 60 MeV of 980 MeV. We use our results to determine the η -η' and f0 mixing angles with s s ¯, and we combine our results with lattice calculations to estimate |Vc s|. This measurement improves upon the Ds semileptonic branching ratio precision and provides a new approach for future work that eliminates the Ds* daughter photon reconstruction.

  12. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26022836

  13. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  14. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Wania Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Tavares, Andre C.

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  15. Measurement of the Branching Ratios Gamma(D*+s -> D+s pi0)/Gamma(D*+s ->D+s gamma) and Gamma(D*0 ->D0 pi0)/Gamma(D*0 -> D0gamma)

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-08-23

    Data samples corresponding to the isospin-violating decay D*{sub s}{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and the decays D*{sub s}{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}, D*{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and D*{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{gamma} are reconstructed using 90.4 fb{sup -1} of data recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The following branching ratios are extracted: {Lambda}(D*{sub s}{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0})/{Lambda}(D*{sub s}{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}{gamma}) = 0.062 {+-} 0.005(stat.) {+-} 0.006(syst.) and {Lambda}(D*{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})/{Lambda}(D*{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{gamma}) = 1.74 {+-} 0.02(stat.) {+-} 0.13(syst.). Both measurements represent significant improvements over present world averages.

  16. Measurements of branching fraction ratios and CP-asymmetries in suppressed B-→ D(→ K+π-)K- and B-→ D(→ K+π-)π- decays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-08-01

    We report the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B-→ D(→ K+π-)K- and B-→ D(→ K+π-)π- decays, sensitive to the CKM phase {gamma}, using data from 7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. We reconstruct a signal for the B-→ D(→ K+π-)K- suppressed mode with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, and measure the ratios of the suppressed to favored branching fractions R(K) = [22.0 ± 8.6(stat) ± 2.6(syst)] x 10-3, R+(K) = [42.6 ± 13.7(stat) ± 2.8(syst)] x 10-3, R-(K) = [3.8 ± 10.3(stat) ± 2.7(syst)] x 10-3more » as well as the direct CP-violating asymmetry A(K) = -0.82±0.44(stat)±0.09(syst) of this mode. Corresponding quantities for B- → D(→ K+π-)π- decay are also reported.« less

  17. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions B (B¯ 0→D* +τ-ν¯ τ)/B (B¯ 0→D* +μ-ν¯ μ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    The branching fraction ratio R (D *) ≡B (B¯ 0→D* +τ-ν¯ τ)/B (B¯ 0→D* +μ-ν¯ μ) is measured using a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3.0 fb-1 of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The tau lepton is identified in the decay mode τ-→μ-ν¯μντ. The semitauonic decay is sensitive to contributions from non-standard-model particles that preferentially couple to the third generation of fermions, in particular, Higgs-like charged scalars. A multidimensional fit to kinematic distributions of the candidate B¯0 decays gives R (D *) =0.336 ±0.027 (stat )±0.030 (syst ) . This result, which is the first measurement of this quantity at a hadron collider, is 2.1 standard deviations larger than the value expected from lepton universality in the standard model.

  18. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ})/B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ}).

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fohl, K; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Geraci, A; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusardi, N; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F

    2015-09-11

    The branching fraction ratio R(D^{*})≡B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ})/B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ}) is measured using a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3.0  fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The tau lepton is identified in the decay mode τ^{-}→μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ}ν_{τ}. The semitauonic decay is sensitive to contributions from non-standard-model particles that preferentially couple to the third generation of fermions, in particular, Higgs-like charged scalars. A multidimensional fit to kinematic distributions of the candidate B[over ¯]^{0} decays gives R(D^{*})=0.336±0.027(stat)±0.030(syst). This result, which is the first measurement of this quantity at a hadron collider, is 2.1 standard deviations larger than the value expected from lepton universality in the standard model. PMID:26406820

  19. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  20. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  1. Measurement of the Ratios of Branching Fractions B(Bs -> Ds pi pi pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi pi pi) and B(Bs -> Ds pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi)

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati /Taiwan, Inst. Phys.

    2006-10-01

    Using 355 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, they study the fully reconstructed hadronic decays B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub (s)}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub (s)}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. They present the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = 1.05 {+-} 0.10(stat.) {+-} 0.22(syst.). They also update their measurement of {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} {pi}{sup +})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -} {pi}{sup +}) to 1.13 {+-} 0.08(stat.) {+-} 0.23(syst.) improving the statistical uncertainty by more than a factor of two. They find {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}) = [3.8 {+-} 0.3(stat.) {+-} 1.3(syst.)] x 10{sup -3} and {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = [8.4 {+-} 0.8(stat.) {+-} 3.2(syst.)] x 10{sup -3}.

  2. Fragmentation of multiply charged hydrocarbon molecules C{sub n}H{sup q+} (n{<=} 4, q{<=} 9) produced in high-velocity collisions: Branching ratios and kinetic energy release of the H{sup +} fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Beroff, K.; Pino, T.; Carpentier, Y.; Van-Oanh, N. T.; Chabot, M.; Tuna, T.; Martinet, G.; Le Padellec, A.; Lavergne, L.

    2011-09-15

    Fragmentation branching ratios for channels involving H{sup +} emission and associated kinetic energy release of the H{sup +} fragment [KER(H{sup +})] have been measured for multicharged C{sub n}H{sup q+} molecules produced in high velocity (3.6 a.u.) collisions between C{sub n}H{sup +} projectiles and helium atoms. For CH{sup q+} (q{<=} 4) molecules, measured KER(H{sup +}) were found well below predictions of the simple point charge Coulomb model (PCCM) for all q values. Multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations for ground as well as electronic excited states were performed which allowed a perfect interpretation of the CH{sup q+} experimental results for low charges (q = 2-3) as well as for the highest charge (q = 4). In this last case we could show, on the basis of ionization cross sections calculations and experimental measurements performed on the same systems at slightly higher velocity (4.5 a.u.), the prominent role played by inner-shell ionization followed by Auger relaxation and could extract the lifetime of this Auger relaxation giving rise to the best agreement between the experiment and the calculations. For dissociation of C{sub 2}H{sup q+} and C{sub 3}H{sup q+} with the highest charges (q{>=} 5), inner-shell ionization contributed in a prominent way to the ion production. In these two cases it was shown that measured KER(H{sup +}) were in good agreement with PCCM predictions when those were corrected for Auger relaxation with the same Auger lifetime value as in CH{sup 3+}.

  3. Unimolecular photodissociation dynamics of ketene (CH{sub 2}CO): The singlet/triplet branching ratio and experimental observation of the vibrational level thresholds of the transition-state

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.K.

    1993-05-01

    The rotational distributions of CO products from the dissociation of ketene at photolysis energies 10 cm{sup {minus}1} below, 56, 110, 200, 325, 425, 1,107, 1,435, 1,720, and 2,500 cm{sup {minus}1} above the singlet threshold, are measured in a supersonic free jet of ketene. The CO(v{double_prime} = 0) rotational distributions at 56, 110, 200, 325, and 425 cm{sup {minus}1} are bimodal. The peaks at low J`s, which are due to CO from the singlet channel, show that the product rotational distribution of CO product from ketene dissociation on the singlet surface is well described by phase space theory (PST). For CO(v{double_prime} = 0) rotational distributions at higher excess energies, the singlet and triplet contributions are not clearly resolved, and the singlet/triplet branching ratios are estimated by assuming that PST accurately predicts the CO rotational distribution from the singlet channel and that the distribution from the triplet channel changes little from that at 10 cm{sup {minus}1} below the singlet threshold. At 2,500 cm{sup {minus}1} excess energy, the CO(v{double_prime} = 1) rotational distribution is obtained, and the ratio of CO(v{double_prime} = 1) to CO(v{double_prime} = 0) products for the singlet channel is close to the variational RRKM calculation, 0.038, and the separate statistical ensembles (SSE) prediction, 0.041, but much greater than the PST prediction, 0.016. Rate constants for the dissociation of ketene (CH{sub 2}CO) and deuterated ketene (CD{sub 2}CO) have been measured at the threshold for the production of the CH(D){sub 2} and CO. Sharp peaks observed in photofragment excitation (PHOFEX) spectra probing CO (v = 0, J = 2) product are identified with the C-C-O bending mode of the transition state. RRKM calculations are carried out for two limiting cases for the dynamics of K-mixing in highly vibrationally excited reactant states.

  4. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length. PMID:26040560

  5. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Falcke, Martin; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-07-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measured in lamellipodia. These networks reproduce both the weak and strong force response of lamellipodia as measured in force-velocity experiments. We compare properties of branched and unbranched networks. The ratio of the network average of the force per branched filament to the average force per unbranched filament depends on the orientation distribution of the filaments. The ratio exhibits compression dependence and may go up to about 4.5 in networks with a narrow orientation distribution. With orientation distributions measured in lamellipodia, it is about two and essentially independent from network compression, graft elasticity and filament persistence length.

  6. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  7. Branch Mode Selection during Early Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  8. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    PubMed

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  9. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  10. Absolute isotopic abundances of TI in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, F. R.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1985-03-01

    The absolute isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The absolute Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46Ti/48Ti. Therefore, the absolute compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. The authors provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components.

  11. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  12. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  13. Reaction Dynamics of O((3)P) + Propyne: II. Primary Products, Branching Ratios, and Role of Intersystem Crossing from Ab Initio Coupled Triplet/Singlet Potential Energy Surfaces and Statistical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Gimondi, Ilaria; Cavallotti, Carlo; Vanuzzo, Gianmarco; Balucani, Nadia; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio

    2016-07-14

    The mechanism of the O((3)P) + CH3CCH reaction was investigated using a combined experimental/theoretical approach. Experimentally the reaction dynamics was studied using crossed molecular beams (CMB) with mass-spectrometric detection and time-of-flight analysis at 9.2 kcal/mol collision energy. Theoretically master equation (ME) simulations were performed on a potential energy surface (PES) determined using high-level ab initio electronic structure calculations. In this paper (II) the theoretical results are described and compared with experiments, while in paper (I) are reported and discussed the results of the experimental study. The PES was investigated by determining structures and vibrational frequencies of wells and transition states at the CASPT2/aug-cc-pVTZ level using a minimal active space. Energies were then determined at the CASPT2 level increasing systematically the active space and at the CCSD(T) level extrapolating to the complete basis set limit. Two separate portions of the triplet PES were investigated, as O((3)P) can add either on the terminal or the central carbon of the unsaturated propyne bond. Minimum energy crossing points (MECPs) between the triplet and singlet PESs were searched at the CASPT2 level. The calculated spin-orbit coupling constants between the T1 and S0 electronic surfaces were ∼25 cm(-1) for both PESs. The portions of the singlet PES that can be accessed from the MECPs were investigated at the same level of theory. The system reactivity was predicted integrating stochastically the one-dimensional ME using Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory to determine rate constants on the full T1/S0 PESs, accounting explicitly for intersystem crossing (ISC) using the Landau-Zener model. The computational results are compared both with the branching ratios (BRs) determined experimentally in the companion paper (I) and with those estimated in a recent kinetic study at 298 K. The ME results allow to interpret the main system reactivity: CH

  14. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  15. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  16. Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908

  17. Characterizing Branched Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Heller, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Branched flow appears in a variety of physical systems spanning length scales from microns to thousands of kilometers. For instance, it plays an important role in both electron transport in two dimensional electron gases and the propagation of tsunamis in the ocean. Branches have typically been identified with caustics in the theoretical literature, but concentrations of flux recognizable as branches can arise from other mechanisms. We propose a generalized definition of branching based on a local measure of the stability of trajectories. We analytically and numerically study the characteristics of Hamiltonian flow in phase space and characterize the relationship between branch formation and trajectory stability.

  18. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  19. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  20. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  1. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  2. First observation of B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) and measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+)/B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+)pi(-)).

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-11-01

    A combined mass and particle identification fit is used to make the first observation of the decay B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) and measure the branching fraction of B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) relative to B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+)pi(-). This analysis uses 1.2 fb(-1) integrated luminosity of pp collisions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We observe a B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) signal with a statistical significance of 8.1 sigma and measure B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) /B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+)pi(-) 0.097+/-0.018(stat) +/- 0.009(syst). PMID:20365917

  3. Phytochrome B Promotes Branching in Arabidopsis by Suppressing Auxin Signaling1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Reddy, Srirama; Finlayson, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Many plants respond to competition signals generated by neighbors by evoking the shade avoidance syndrome, including increased main stem elongation and reduced branching. Vegetation-induced reduction in the red light:far-red light ratio provides a competition signal sensed by phytochromes. Plants deficient in phytochrome B (phyB) exhibit a constitutive shade avoidance syndrome including reduced branching. Because auxin in the polar auxin transport stream (PATS) inhibits axillary bud outgrowth, its role in regulating the phyB branching phenotype was tested. Removing the main shoot PATS auxin source by decapitation or chemically inhibiting the PATS strongly stimulated branching in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) deficient in phyB, but had a modest effect in the wild type. Whereas indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were elevated in young phyB seedlings, there was less IAA in mature stems compared with the wild type. A split plate assay of bud outgrowth kinetics indicated that low auxin levels inhibited phyB buds more than the wild type. Because the auxin response could be a result of either the auxin signaling status or the bud’s ability to export auxin into the main shoot PATS, both parameters were assessed. Main shoots of phyB had less absolute auxin transport capacity compared with the wild type, but equal or greater capacity when based on the relative amounts of native IAA in the stems. Thus, auxin transport capacity was unlikely to restrict branching. Both shoots of young phyB seedlings and mature stem segments showed elevated expression of auxin-responsive genes and expression was further increased by auxin treatment, suggesting that phyB suppresses auxin signaling to promote branching. PMID:24492336

  4. Optimal branching designs in respiratory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keunhwan; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    In nature, the size of the flow channels systematically decreases with multiple generations of branching, and a mother branch is ultimately divided into numerous terminal daughters. One important feature of branching designs is an increase in the total cross-sectional area along with generation, which provide more time and area for mass transfer at the terminal branches. However, the expansion of the total cross-sectional area can be costly due to the maintenance of redundant branches or the additional viscous resistance. Accordingly, we expect to find optimal designs in natural branching systems. Here we present two examples of branching designs in respiratory systems: fish gills and human lung airways. Fish gills consist of filaments with well-ordered lamellar structures. By developing a mathematical model of oxygen transfer rate as a function of the dimensions of fish gills, we demonstrate that the interlamellar distance has been optimized to maximize the oxygen transfer rate. Using the same framework, we examine the diameter reduction ratio in human lung airways, which branch by dichotomy with a systematic reduction of their diameters. Our mathematical model for oxygen transport in the airways enables us to unveil the design principle of human lung airways.

  5. To branch or not to branch: Numerical modeling of dynamically branching faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedontney, N. L.; Templeton Barrett, E. L.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2009-12-01

    Branched fault geometries, and branched rupture paths, occur in strike-slip as well as dip-slip settings [e.g., Poliakov et al., JGR, 2002; Kame et al., JGR, 2003]. The Wenchuan earthquake illustrates such a branched geometry [Hubbard and Shaw, 2009] in a fold and thrust belt, and surface ruptures provide constraints on which faults were activated co-seismically. Additionally, a branched structure, the Central Basin Decollement [Shaw & Suppe, 1996], underlies the Los Angeles Basin. By simulating the dynamic rupture path selection, using explicit finite element methods here, we are able to estimate which faults should be activated under given conditions. Factors that influence coseismic branch activation have been extensively studied [Poliakov et al.; Kame et al.; Oglesby et al., 2003, 2004; Bhat et al., 2004, 2007]. The results show that the rupture velocity, pre-stress orientation and fault geometry influence rupture path selection. We show further that the ratio of σ1/σ3 (equivalently, the seismic S ratio) and the relative frictional fault strength also play a significant role in determining which faults are activated. Our methodology has recently included the use of a regularized friction routine [Ranjith & Rice, 2001; Cochard & Rice, 2000] which reduces the growth of numerical noise throughout the simulations. A difficulty arises in the treatment of surface interactions at the branch junction. When local opening does not occur there, slip on the branch fault must vanish at the junction, a constraint that we impose on the FE model. However, the FE contact routine used demands that slip always be constrained to zero on one or the other fault at such a junction, which is problematic when opening occurs. There is then no fundamental basis for constraining slip at the junction to zero on either fault, and the choice made affects the slip distributions and rupture path selection. Many analyses that we perform are elastic and the same material is used on both sides

  6. Observation of B0(s) ---> psi(2S)phi and measurement of ratio of branching fractions B(B0(s) ---> psi(2S)phi) / B(B0(s) ---> J/psi phi)

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Acosta, D.; Adelman, Jahred A.; Affolder, Anthony A.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U. /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara

    2006-02-01

    The authors report the first observation of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {psi}(2S){phi} decay in p{bar p} collisions {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using 360 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. They observe 20.2 {+-} 5.0 and 12.3 {+-} 4.1 B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {psi}(2S){phi} candidates, in {psi}(2S) {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and {psi}(2S) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay modes, respectively. They present a measurement of the relative branching fraction {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {psi}(2S){phi})/{Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}) = 0.52 {+-} 0.13(stat.) {+-} 0.04(syst.) {+-} 0.06(BR) using the {psi}(2S) {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay mode.

  7. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  8. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  9. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  10. The Circumstellar Shell of the Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Star HD 56126: 12C12C/12C13C Isotope Ratio and 12C16O Column Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Eric J.; Lambert, David L.

    1998-11-01

    We have made the first detection of circumstellar absorption lines of the 12C13C A 1Πu-X 1Σ+g (Phillips) system 1-0 band and the 12C16O X 1Σ+ first-overtone 2-0 band in the spectrum of the post-AGB star HD 56126 (IRAS 07134+1005). All current detections of circumstellar molecular absorption lines toward HD 56126 (12C2, 12C13C, 12C14N, 13C14N, and 12C16O) yield the same heliocentric velocity of VCSE = 77.6 +/- 0.4 km s-1. The 12C2, 12C13C, and 12C16O lines give rotational temperatures and integrated column densities of Trot = 328 +/- 37 K, log Nint = 15.34 +/- 0.10 cm-2, Trot = 256 +/- 30 K, log Nint = 13.79 +/- 0.12 cm-2, and Trot = 51 +/- 37 K, log Nint = 18.12 +/- 0.13 cm-2, respectively. The rotational temperatures are lower for molecules with a higher permanent dipole moment. Derived relative column densities ratios are 12C2/12C13C = 36 +/- 13 and 12C16O/(12C2 + 12C13C) = 606 +/- 230. Combined with data from a previous paper, we find relative column densities of 12C16O/(12C14N + 13C14N) = 475 +/- 175 and 12C14N/13C14N = 38 +/- 2. Under chemical equilibrium conditions, 12C13C is formed twice as easily as 12C2. The isotopic exchange reaction for 12C2 is too slow to significantly alter the 12C2/12C13C ratio, and the 12C2 to 12C13C ratio is a good measure of half the carbon isotope ratio: 12C/13C = 2 × 12C2/12C13C = 72 +/- 26. This is in agreement with our prediction that the isotopic exchange reaction for 12C14N is efficient and our observation in Paper III of 12C14N/13C14N = 38 +/- 2. A fit of the C2 excitation model of van Dishoeck & Black to the relative population distribution of C2 yields nc σ/I = 3.3 +/- 1.0 × 10-14. At r ~= 1016 cm, this translates into nc = 1.7 × 107 cm-3 and Ṁ~=2.5×10-4 M⊙ yr-1.

  11. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  12. Branch retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Sadaf; Mirza, Sajid Ali; Shokh, Ishrat

    2008-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusions (RVO) are the second commonest sight threatening vascular disorder. Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) are the two basic types of vein occlusion. Branch retinal vein occlusion is three times more common than central retinal vein occlusion and- second only to diabetic retinopathy as the most common retinal vascular cause of visual loss. The origin of branch retinal vein occlusion undoubtedly includes both systemic factors such as hypertension and local anatomic factors such as arteriovenous crossings. Branch retinal vein occlusion causes a painless decrease in vision, resulting in misty or distorted vision. Current treatment options don't address the underlying aetiology of branch retinal vein occlusion. Instead they focus on treating sequelae of the occluded venous branch, such as macular oedema, vitreous haemorrhage and traction retinal detachment from neovascularization. Evidences suggest that the pathogenesis of various types of retinal vein occlusion, like many other ocular vascular occlusive disorders, is a multifactorial process and there is no single magic bullet that causes retinal vein occlusion. A comprehensive management of patients with retinal vascular occlusions is necessary to correct associated diseases or predisposing abnormalities that could lead to local recurrences or systemic event. Along with a review of the literature, a practical approach for the management of retinal vascular occlusions is required, which requires collaboration between the ophthalmologist and other physicians: general practitioner, cardiologist, internist etc. as appropriate according to each case. PMID:19385476

  13. Frequency ratios and the discrimination of pure tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E G; Trehub, S E

    1994-10-01

    We examined the effect of frequency ratios on the discrimination of patterns of alternating pure tones (ABABA). Listeners heard a repeating pattern presented in transposition (same frequency ratios between successive tones, different absolute frequencies) and were required to indicate when the pattern changed (different frequency ratios and absolute frequencies). Changes from patterns with simple frequency ratios to those with more complex ratios were more readily detected than were changes from complex ratios to simpler ratios. PMID:7984402

  14. Absolute oscillator strengths for the valence and inner (P 2p,2s) shell photoabsorption, photoionization, and ionic photofragmentation of PF 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Jennifer W.; Brion, C. E.

    1997-08-01

    Absolute oscillator strengths (cross-sections) for the photoabsorption of phosphorus pentafluoride (PF 5) have been measured for the first time in the valence and phosphorus 2p discrete regions using high-resolution (0.0-0.1 eV fwhm), dipole ( e, e) spectroscopy. Long-range data (10-300 eV) have also been obtained at lower resolution (1 eV fwhm), from which the absolute oscillator strength scale has been determined using the valence-shell Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum-rule. The accuracy of the present measurement has been tested using the S(-2) sum rule normalization. Evaluation of the S(-2) sum using the presently reported absolute photoabsorption oscillator strength data gives a dipole polarizabilit for PF 5 in good agreement with the experimental value. The photoionization efficiencies, photoion branching ratios, and absolute partial oscillator strengths for molecular and dissociative photoionization have also been determined for PF 5 by dipole ( e, e+ion) coincidence spectroscopy from the first ionization threshold up to and above the phosphorus 2p edge.

  15. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  16. Enhancing the branching ratios in the dissociation channels for O{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 18} molecule by designing optimum laser pulses: A study using stochastic optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Talukder, Srijeeta; Chaudhury, Pinaki; Sen, Shrabani; Sharma, Rahul; Adhikari, Satrajit

    2015-10-14

    We propose a strategy of using a stochastic optimization technique, namely, simulated annealing to design optimum laser pulses (both IR and UV) to achieve greater fluxes along the two dissociating channels (O{sup 18} + O{sup 16}O{sup 16} and O{sup 16} + O{sup 16}O{sup 18}) in O{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 18} molecule. We show that the integrated fluxes obtained along the targeted dissociating channel is larger with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. The flux ratios are also more impressive with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. We also look at the evolution contours of the wavefunctions along the two channels with time after the actions of both the IR and UV pulses and compare the profiles for unoptimized (initial) and optimized fields for better understanding the results that we achieve. We also report the pulse parameters obtained as well as the final shapes they take.

  17. Theoretical branching ratios for the 5I7 to 5I7 levels of Ho(3+) in the garnets A3B2C3O12 (A = Y,La,Lu,Gd; B = Al,Lu,Sc,Ga; C = Al,Ga)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filer, Elizabeth D.; Morrison, Clyde A.; Turner, Gregory A.; Barnes, Norman P.

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an experimental study investigating triply ionized holmium in 10 garnets using the point-change model to predict theoretical energy levels and temperature-dependent branching ratios for the 5I7 to 5I8 manifolds for temperatures between 50 and 400 K. Plots were made for the largest lines at 300 K. YScAG was plotted twice, once for each set of X-ray data available. Energy levels are predicted based on theoretical crystal-field parameters, and good agreement to experiment is found. It is suggested that the present set of theoretical crystal-field parameters provides good estimates of the energy levels for the other hosts on which there are no experimental optical data. X-ray and index-of-refraction data are used to evaluate the performance of 10 lasers via a quantum mechanical model to predict the position of the energy levels and the temperature-dependent branching rations of the 5I7 to 5I8 levels of holmium. The fractional population inversion required for threshold is also evaluated.

  18. Absolute and Convective Instability in Fluid-Conveying Flexible Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Langre, E.; Ouvrard, A. E.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of internal plug flow on the lateral stability of fluid conveying flexible pipes is investigated by determining the absolute/convective nature of the instability from the analytically derived linear dispersion relation. The fluid-structure interaction is modeled following the work of Gregory and Paidoussis (1966). The different domains of stability, convective instability, and absolute instability are explicitly derived in parameter space. The effect of flow velocity, mass ratio between the fluid and the structure, stiffness of the elastic foundation and axial tension is considered. Absolute instability prevails over a wide range of parameters. Convective instability only takes place at very high mass ratio, small stiffness and small axial tension. Relation is made with previous work of Brazier-Smith & Scott (1984) and Crighton (1991), considered here as a short wave approximation.

  19. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  20. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  1. Branch classification: A new mechanism for improving branch predictor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.Y.; Hao, E.; Patt, Y.; Yeh, T.Y.

    1996-04-01

    There is wide agreement that one of the most significant impediments to the performance of current and future pipelined superscalar processors is the presence of conditional branches in the instruction stream. Speculative execution is one solution to the branch problem, but speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative execution requires a very accurate branch predictor; 95% accuracy is not good enough. This paper proposes branch classification, a methodology for building more accurate branch predictors. Branch classification allows an individual branch instruction to be associated with the branch predictor best suited to predict its direction. Using this approach, a hybrid branch predictor can be constructed such that each component branch predictor predicts those branches for which it is best suited. To demonstrate the usefulness of branch classification, an example classification scheme is given and a new hybrid predictor is built based on this scheme which achieves a higher prediction accuracy than any branch predictor previously reported in the literature.

  2. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  3. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  4. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  5. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  6. Absolute/convective instability of planar viscoelastic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatiotemporal linear stability analysis is used to investigate the onset of local absolute instability in planar viscoelastic jets. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the FENE-P constitutive equation which requires the specification of a non-dimensional polymer relaxation time (the Weissenberg number, We), the maximum polymer extensibility, L, and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities, β. A two-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of co- or counter-flow while N-1 sets the thickness of the jet shear layer. We examine how the variation of these fluid and flow parameters affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. Initially setting the Reynolds number to Re = 500, we find that the first varicose jet-column mode dictates the presence of absolute instability, and increasing the Weissenberg number produces important changes in the nature of the instability. The region of absolute instability shifts towards thin shear layers, and the amount of back-flow needed for absolute instability decreases (i.e., the influence of viscoelasticity is destabilizing). Additionally, when We is sufficiently large and N-1 is sufficiently small, single-stream jets become absolutely unstable. Numerical experiments with approximate equations show that both the polymer and solvent contributions to the stress become destabilizing when the scaled shear rate, η = /W e dU¯1/dx 2L ( /d U ¯ 1 d x 2 is the base-state velocity gradient), is sufficiently large. These qualitative trends are largely unchanged when the Reynolds number is reduced; however, the relative importance of the destabilizing stresses increases tangibly. Consequently, absolute instability is substantially enhanced, and single-stream jets become absolutely unstable over a sizable portion of the parameter space.

  7. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  8. Ionization Branching Ratio Control with a Resonance Attosecond Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Argenti, Luca; Lindroth, Eva

    2010-07-30

    We investigate the possibility to monitor the dynamics of autoionizing states in real-time and control the yields of different ionization channels in helium by simulating extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pump IR-probe experiments focused on the N=2 threshold. The XUV pulse creates a coherent superposition of doubly excited states which is found to decay by ejecting electrons in bursts. Prominent interference fringes in the photoelectron angular distribution of the 2s and 2p ionization channels are observed, along with significant out-of-phase quantum beats in the yields of the corresponding parent ions.

  9. Branching Ratio of the Electromagnetic Decay of the Σ+(1385)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Keller, D.; Hicks, K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; et al

    2012-03-01

    The CLAS detector was used to obtain the first ever measurement of the electromagnetic decay of the Σ*+(1385) from the reaction γp → K0 Σ*+(1385). A real photon beam with a maximum energy of 3.8 GeV was incident on a liquid-hydrogen target, resulting in the photoproduction of the kaon and Σ* hyperon. Kinematic fitting was used to separate the reaction channel from the background processes. The fitting algorithm exploited a new method to kinematically fit neutrons in the CLAS detector, leading to the partial width measurement of 250.0 ± 56.9(stat)-41.2+34.3(sys) keV. A U-spin symmetry test using the SU(3) flavor-multiplet representationmore » yields predictions for the Σ*+(1385) → Σ+γ and Σ*0(1385) → Λγ partial widths that agree with the experimental measurements.« less

  10. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  11. Technical activities of the configuration aeroelasticity branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A number of recent technical activities of the Configuration Aeroelasticity Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed in detail. The information on the research branch is compiled in twelve separate papers. The first of these topics is a summary of the purpose of the branch, including a full description of the branch and its associated projects and program efforts. The next ten papers cover specific projects and are as follows: Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of supersonic cruise configurations; Aeroelastic effects of spoiler surfaces mounted on a low aspect ratio rectangular wing; Planform curvature effects on flutter of 56 degree swept wing determined in Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT); An introduction to rotorcraft testing in TDT; Rotorcraft vibration reduction research at the TDT; A preliminary study to determine the effects of tip geometry on the flutter of aft swept wings; Aeroelastic models program; NACA 0012 pressure model and test plan; Investigation of the use of extension twist coupling in composite rotor blades; and Improved finite element methods for rotorcraft structures. The final paper describes the primary facility operation by the branch, the Langley TDT.

  12. Atomic branching in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Juan A.; Randić, Milan

    A graph theoretic measure of extended atomic branching is defined that accounts for the effects of all atoms in the molecule, giving higher weight to the nearest neighbors. It is based on the counting of all substructures in which an atom takes part in a molecule. We prove a theorem that permits the exact calculation of this measure based on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix of the graph representing a molecule. The definition of this measure within the context of the Hückel molecular orbital (HMO) and its calculation for benzenoid hydrocarbons are also studied. We show that the extended atomic branching can be defined using any real symmetric matrix, as well as any Hermitian (self-adjoint) matrix, which permits its calculation in topological, geometrical, and quantum chemical contexts.

  13. Underwater branch connection study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This report was prepared with the object of developing guidelines for designing underwater connections of branch pipelines to main lines at existing tap valves and with hot taps in diver accessible water depths. The report considers ANSI Classes 600 and 900 branch pipelines of up to twelve inches in diameter that conform to API Specification 5L minimum. Loads due to gravity, buoyancy, intemal and external pressure, thermal expansion, hydrodynamics and random events are considered. External corrosion, temperature, cover, bottom conditions, stability, testing, commissioning, trenching, and pigging are also addressed. A general discussion of these issues is included in the body of the report. Methods of analysis are included in the appendices and in various references. Lotus 123'' spreadsheets that compute the expansion stresses resulting from pressure and temperature at points on a generic piping geometry are presented. A program diskette is included with the report. The report summarizes, and draws from, the results of a survey of the relevant practice and experience of fifteen gas pipeline operating companies. The survey indicates that most existing branch connections do not provide for pigging of the lateral lines, but that there is a growing consensus that cleaning and inspection pigging of lateral lines is desirable or necessary.

  14. Giving More Realistic Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, Pramode Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Trigonometry is a well known branch of Mathematics. The study of trigonometry is of great importance in surveying, astronomy, navigation, engineering, and in different branches of science. This paper reports on the discovery of flaws in the traditional definitions of trigonometric ratios of an angle, which (in most cases) make use of the most…

  15. Measurement of the ratio of top-quark branching fractions top quark decaying to W boson and bottom quark and top quark decaying to W boson and any quark in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels at the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Dmitri

    According to the Standard Model, the top quark decays to a W boson and a b quark virtually 100% of the time. The measurements of tt¯ production cross section depend strongly on that assumption. We test this hypothesis with a measurement of R = Bt→Wb/ Bt→Wq , where q is any quark, using a combination of event kinematics and b-tagging techniques. The measurement is carried out using a data, sample produced in pp¯ collisions at 1.96 TeV and collected at the Collider Detector at Fermilab between March 2002 and September 2003 with an integrated luminosity of ˜ 162 pb -1. The branching ratio R is determined from the relative tt¯ tagging rates making the measurement independent of any assumption on the tt¯ cross section. Any two tagging rates are sufficient to determine R but the problem is overconstrained if more than two tagged subsamples are used. The tt¯ events are classified by the number of leptons in the final state. In lepton-plus-jets channel only one of the W bosons decays leptonically, whereas in dilepton channel both W bosons decay leptonically. The measurement of R is performed in both lepton-plus-jets and dilepton samples. In the lepton-plus-jets channel the background is estimated using the artificial neural network (ANN) technique. The ANN approach allows us to measure the signal fraction in samples with any number of tags. By applying this method alone the branching ratio was measured to be R = 1.06+0.27-0.24stat. +/-0.16syst. . Alternatively, the tagged background contamination in lepton-plus-jets channel is determined from a traditional a priori method using data driven and Monte Carlo based techniques. A similar approach is used to determine the tt¯ content in the dilepton sample. The combination of ANN background measurement in lepton-plusjets data sample with the a priori lepton-plus-jets and dilepton estimations leads to improved sensitivity in the final value of R = 1.12+0.21-0.19stat. +0.17-0. 13syst. Finally, we construct the

  16. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  17. [Masquerading bundle branch block].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    We here describe a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) of a 72-year-old female with a prior history of breast cancer and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction, ejection fraction of 23%, with mild enlarged left ventricle. The 12-lead ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a mean heart rate of about 100 bpm, QRS duration 160 ms, QT interval 400 ms, right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). The combination of RBBB features in the precordial leads and LAFB features in the limb leads is known as ''masquerading bundle branch block''. In most cases of RBBB and LAFB, the QRS axis deviation is located between - 80 to -120 degrees. Rarely, when predominant left ventricular forces are present, the QRS axis deviation is near about -90 degrees, turning the pattern into an atypical form. In a situation of RBBB associated with LAFB, the S wave can be absent or very small in lead I. Such a situation is the result of not only purely LAFB but also with left ventricular hypertrophy and/or focal block due to scar (extensive anterior myocardial infarction) or fibrosis (cardiomyopathy). Sometimes, this specific ECG pattern is mistaken for LBBB. RBBB with LAFB may imitate LBBB either in the limb leads (known as 'standard masquerading' - absence of S wave in lead I), or in the precordial leads (called 'precordial masquerading' - absence of S wave in leads V₅ and V₆). Our ECG showed both these types of masquerading bundle branch block - absence of S wave in lead I and in leads V₅ and V₆. PMID:24469750

  18. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  19. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  20. Measurements of branching fraction ratios and CP-asymmetries in suppressed B-→ D(→ K+π-)K- and B-→ D(→ K+π-- decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-08-01

    We report the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B-→ D(→ K+π-)K- and B-→ D(→ K+π-- decays, sensitive to the CKM phase {gamma}, using data from 7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. We reconstruct a signal for the B-→ D(→ K+π-)K- suppressed mode with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, and measure the ratios of the suppressed to favored branching fractions R(K) = [22.0 ± 8.6(stat) ± 2.6(syst)] x 10-3, R+(K) = [42.6 ± 13.7(stat) ± 2.8(syst)] x 10-3, R-(K) = [3.8 ± 10.3(stat) ± 2.7(syst)] x 10-3 as well as the direct CP-violating asymmetry A(K) = -0.82±0.44(stat)±0.09(syst) of this mode. Corresponding quantities for B- → D(→ K+π-- decay are also reported.

  1. Search for D0 - anti-D0 Mixing and Branching-Ratio Measurement in the Decay D0 to K+ pi- pi0

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.

    2006-09-26

    The authors present a search for D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing using regions of phase space in which the rate of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decays D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} relative to Cabibbo-favored decays D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} is reduced. They analyze 230.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. They present results with and without the assumption of CP conservation. Assuming CP conservation, they measure the time-integrated mixing rate R{sub M} = (0.023{sub -0.014}{sup +0.018}(stat.) {+-} 0.004(syst.))%, and R{sub M} < 0.054% at the 95% confidence level. They find that the data are consistent with no mixing at the 4.5% confidence level. Considering the entire allowed phase space, they measure the branching ratio for D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} relative to D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} to be (0.214 {+-} 0.008(stat.) {+-} 0.008(syst.))%.

  2. Measurements of branching fraction ratios and CP-asymmetries in suppressed B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Brucken, E.; Devoto, F.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Casal, B.; Cuevas, J.; Gomez, G.; Palencia, E.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Amerio, S.; Dorigo, T.; Totaro, P.; Amidei, D.

    2011-11-01

    We report the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -}, sensitive to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase {gamma}, using data from 7 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. We reconstruct a signal for the B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup -} suppressed mode with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, and measure the ratios of the suppressed to favored branching fractions R(K)=[22.0{+-}8.6(stat){+-}2.6(syst)]x10{sup -3}, R{sup +}(K)=[42.6{+-}13.7(stat){+-}2.8(syst)]x10{sup -3}, R{sup -}(K)=[3.8{+-}10.3(stat){+-}2.7(syst)]x10{sup -3} as well as the direct CP-violating asymmetry A(K)=-0.82{+-}0.44(stat){+-}0.09(syst) of this mode. Corresponding quantities for B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -} decay are also reported.

  3. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  4. Convective-to-absolute instability transition in a viscoelastic capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial elastic tension.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A Said; Herrada, M A; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Montanero, J M

    2015-08-01

    The convective-to-absolute instability transition in an Oldroyd-B capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial stress is examined theoretically. There is a critical Weber number below which the jet is absolutely unstable under axisymmetric perturbations. We analyze the dependence of this critical parameter with respect to the Reynolds and Deborah numbers, as well as the unrelaxed axial stress. For small Deborah numbers, the unrelaxed stress destabilizes the viscoelastic jet, increasing the critical Weber number for which the convective-to-absolute instability transition takes place. If the Deborah number takes higher values, then the transitional Weber number decreases as the unrelaxed stress increases until two solution branches cross each other. The dominant branch for large axial stress leads to a threshold of this quantity above which the viscoelastic jet becomes absolutely unstable independently of the Weber number. The threshold depends on neither the Reynolds nor the Deborah number for sufficiently large values of these parameters. PMID:26382502

  5. Convective-to-absolute instability transition in a viscoelastic capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial elastic tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. Said; Herrada, M. A.; Gañán-Calvo, A. M.; Montanero, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    The convective-to-absolute instability transition in an Oldroyd-B capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial stress is examined theoretically. There is a critical Weber number below which the jet is absolutely unstable under axisymmetric perturbations. We analyze the dependence of this critical parameter with respect to the Reynolds and Deborah numbers, as well as the unrelaxed axial stress. For small Deborah numbers, the unrelaxed stress destabilizes the viscoelastic jet, increasing the critical Weber number for which the convective-to-absolute instability transition takes place. If the Deborah number takes higher values, then the transitional Weber number decreases as the unrelaxed stress increases until two solution branches cross each other. The dominant branch for large axial stress leads to a threshold of this quantity above which the viscoelastic jet becomes absolutely unstable independently of the Weber number. The threshold depends on neither the Reynolds nor the Deborah number for sufficiently large values of these parameters.

  6. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., plus 11-12-10 through 11-12-17 and 11-12-48, bear to the railroad's system total for the same accounts..., switching and other, on the ratio that the total branch salary and wages bear to the total system salaries... assigned to the branch on the ratio that the total branch salary and wages bear to the system...

  7. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., plus 11-12-10 through 11-12-17 and 11-12-48, bear to the railroad's system total for the same accounts..., switching and other, on the ratio that the total branch salary and wages bear to the total system salaries... assigned to the branch on the ratio that the total branch salary and wages bear to the system...

  8. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., plus 11-12-10 through 11-12-17 and 11-12-48, bear to the railroad's system total for the same accounts..., switching and other, on the ratio that the total branch salary and wages bear to the total system salaries... assigned to the branch on the ratio that the total branch salary and wages bear to the system...

  9. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., plus 11-12-10 through 11-12-17 and 11-12-48, bear to the railroad's system total for the same accounts..., switching and other, on the ratio that the total branch salary and wages bear to the total system salaries... assigned to the branch on the ratio that the total branch salary and wages bear to the system...

  10. Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCN and DCN

    SciTech Connect

    May, O.; Kubala, D.; Allan, M.

    2010-07-15

    Absolute partial cross sections for the formation of CN{sup -} in dissociative electron attachment to HCN and DCN have been measured using a time-of-flight ion spectrometer combined with a trochoidal electron monochromator to be 940pm{sup 2} for CN{sup -}/HCN and 340pm{sup 2} for CN{sup -}/DCN at peaks of the bands due to the {sup 2{Pi}}-shape resonance. The dissociative electron attachment bands were then recorded under higher resolution, 60 meV, with a trochoidal monochromator plus quadrupole mass filter combination and found to have a nearly vertical onset at the threshold energy and to peak at 1.85 eV. Broad structure was observed on the bands, assigned to formation of vibrationally excited CN{sup -}, from which the branching ratios could be determined to be 1,0.49, and 0.22 for the formation of CN{sup -} in the v=0,1, and 2 states, respectively. The results are compared to the recent multidimensional ab initio calculations of Chourou and Orel [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032709 (2009)].

  11. Measurement of the ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions of $$B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm}$$ and $$B^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi K^{\\pm}$$ and $$\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp})/\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm})$$ in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 7 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-01-13

    The ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions (σ(B±c)B(B±c→J/ψπ±))/(σ(B±)B(B±→J/ψK±)) is studied in proton-proton collisions at a center of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The kinematic region investigated requires B c ± and B± mesons with transverse momentum p T > 15 GeV and rapidity |y|< 1.6. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 fb-1. The ratio is determined to be [0.48±0.05(stat)± 0.03(syst)±0.05 (τBc)]%. The B c ± → J/ψπ ± π ± π ∓ decay is also observed in the same data sample. Using a model-independent method developed tomore » measure the efficiency given the presence of resonant behaviour in the three-pion system, the ratio of the branching fractions B(B±c→J/ψπ±π±π∓)/B(B±c→J/ψπ±) is measured to be 2.55±0.80(stat)±0.33(syst)+0.04-0.01(τBc), consistent with the previous LHCb result.« less

  12. Engine performance and the determination of absolute ceiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report contains a brief study of the variation of engine power with temperature and pressure. The variation of propeller efficiency in standard atmosphere is obtained from the general efficiency curve which is developed in NACA report no. 168. The variation of both power available and power required are then determined and curves plotted, so that the absolute ceiling may be read directly from any known sea-level value of the ratio of power available to power required.

  13. Improving HST Pointing & Absolute Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallo, Matthew; Nelan, E.; Kimmer, E.; Cox, C.; Casertano, S.

    2007-05-01

    Accurate absolute astrometry is becoming increasingly important in an era of multi-mission archives and virtual observatories. Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Guidestar Catalog II (GSC2) has reduced coordinate error to around 0.25 arcsecond, a factor 2 or more compared with GSC1. With this reduced catalog error, special attention must be given to calibrate and maintain the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) and Science Instruments (SIs) alignments in HST to a level well below this in order to ensure that the accuracy of science product's astrometry keywords and target positioning are limited only by the catalog errors. After HST Servicing Mission 4, such calibrations' improvement in "blind" pointing accuracy will allow for more efficient COS acquisitions. Multiple SIs and FGSs each have their own footprints in the spatially shared HST focal plane. It is the small changes over time in primarily the whole-body positions & orientations of these instruments & guiders relative to one another that is addressed by this work. We describe the HST Cycle 15 program CAL/OTA 11021 which, along with future variants of it, determines and maintains positions and orientations of the SIs and FGSs to better than 50 milli- arcseconds and 0.04 to 0.004 degrees of roll, putting errors associated with the alignment sufficiently below GSC2 errors. We present recent alignment results and assess their errors, illustrate trends, and describe where and how the observer sees benefit from these calibrations when using HST.

  14. Absolute Instability in Coupled-Cavity TWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, D. M. H.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Chernin, D.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper will present results of our analysis of absolute instability in a coupled-cavity traveling wave tube (TWT). The structure mode at the lower and upper band edges are respectively approximated by a hyperbola in the (omega, k) plane. When the Briggs-Bers criterion is applied, a threshold current for onset of absolute instability is observed at the upper band edge, but not the lower band edge. The nonexistence of absolute instability at the lower band edge is mathematically similar to the nonexistence of absolute instability that we recently demonstrated for a dielectric TWT. The existence of absolute instability at the upper band edge is mathematically similar to the existence of absolute instability in a gyroton traveling wave amplifier. These interesting observations will be discussed, and the practical implications will be explored. This work was supported by AFOSR, ONR, and L-3 Communications Electron Devices.

  15. Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-12-01

    Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.

  16. Transcatheter ablation of an iatrogenic renal artery pseudoaneurysm with absolute alcohol: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Beig, Jahangir; Hafeez, Imran; Tramboo, Nisar Ahmed; Rather, Hilal; Yaqoob, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    A 25 year old male was admitted with features of life threatening renal haemorrhage after undergoing open nephrolithotomy for a staghorn calculus of the right kidney. CECT abdomen and selective renal angiography revealed a 2.5 × 3.0 cm pseudoaneurysm arising from the lower segmental branch of right renal artery, leaking into retroperitoneal space. After an initial failed attempt of transcatheter embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and 10% lipiodol mixture, the pseudoaneurysm was successfully ablated with absolute alcohol. Our case demonstrates that absolute alcohol ablation is a safe and effective modality for controlling haemorrhage from an iatrogenic renal artery pseudoaneurysm. PMID:25634415

  17. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  18. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  19. The control of branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  20. Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…

  1. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  2. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  3. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  4. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  5. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  6. Absolute intensity measurement of the 4-0 vibration-rotation band of carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Valero, F. P. J.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute intensity of the 4-0 vibration band of CO is measured in spectra obtained using a 25-m base-path multiple-traversal absorption cell and a 5-m scanning spectrometer. The intensities of individual vibration-rotation lines in this band are determined from measurements of their equivalent widths, and absolute values for the rotationless transition moment and the vibration-rotation interaction factor are derived from the measured line strengths. The experimentally obtained vibration-rotation function is compared with a theoretical curve; agreement between theory and experiment is found to be good for the P-branch but poor for the R-branch. It is noted that numerical solutions to the radial Schroedinger equation lead to vibration-rotation function values that are in good agreement with the experiment.

  7. Modeling branching in cereals

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Jochem B.; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level. This paper introduces the principles of modeling tillering in FSPM, using (I) a probability approach, forcing the dynamics of tillering to correspond to measured probabilities. Such models are particularly suitable to evaluate the effect structural variables on system performance. (II) Dose–response curves, representing a measured or assumed response of tillering to an environmental cue. (III) Mechanistic approaches to tillering including control by carbohydrates, hormones, and nutrients. Tiller senescence is equally important for the structural development of cereals as tiller appearance. Little study has been made of tiller senescence, though similar concepts seem to apply as for tiller appearance. PMID:24133499

  8. SnapShot: Branching Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Bhat, Ramray; Widelitz, Randall B; Bissell, Mina J

    2014-08-28

    Ectodermal appendages such as feathers, hair, mammary glands, salivary glands, and sweat glands form branches, allowing much-increased surface for functional differentiation and secretion. Here, the principles of branching morphogenesis are exemplified by the mammary gland and feathers. PMID:25171418

  9. Branching mechanisms in surfactant micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Subas; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    The mechanisms of branch formation in surfactant micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) in presence of sodium salicylate (NaSal) counter ions in water are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The curvature energy associated with the formation of micelle branches and the effect of branching on the solution viscosity are quantified. Highly curved surfaces are energetically stabilized by a higher density of binding counter ions near the branch points. Simulations show that micellar branches result in a significant reduction in the solution viscosity as observed in experiments [Dhakal & Sureshkumar, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 024905 (2015)]. This reduction in viscosity has long been attributed to the sliding motion of micelle branches across the main chain. However, to date, such dynamics of micelle branches have never been visualized in either experiments or simulations. Here, we explicitly illustrate and quantify, for the first time, how branches slide along the micelle contour to facilitate stress relaxation. We acknowledged the computational resources provided by XSEDE which is supported by NSF Grant Number OCI-1053575 and the financial support by National Science Foundation under Grants 1049489 and 1049454.

  10. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  11. Extreme horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be extreme Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. They exist both in the disk and halo populations (globular clusters) of the Galaxy. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, but also low mass main sequence stars are quite common. Systems with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions may qualify as Supernova Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite,in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries amongst are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched subluminous O stars, the hotter sisters of the sdB stars, because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. The rivaling ''late hot flasher'' scenario is also discussed. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre.

  12. Measurement of the ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions of $B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi K^{\\pm}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp})/\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm})$ in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-01-13

    The ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions (σ(B±c)B(B±c→J/ψπ±))/(σ(B±)B(B±→J/ψK±)) is studied in proton-proton collisions at a center of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The kinematic region investigated requires B c ± and B± mesons with transverse momentum p T > 15 GeV and rapidity |y|< 1.6. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 fb-1. The ratio is determined to be [0.48±0.05(stat)± 0.03(syst)±0.05 (τBc)]%. The B c ± → J/ψπ ± π ± π decay is also observed in the same data sample. Using a model-independent method developed to measure the efficiency given the presence of resonant behaviour in the three-pion system, the ratio of the branching fractions B(B±c→J/ψπ±π±π)/B(B±c→J/ψπ±) is measured to be 2.55±0.80(stat)±0.33(syst)+0.04-0.01Bc), consistent with the previous LHCb result.

  13. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  14. Branch target buffer design and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perleberg, Chris H.; Smith, Alan J.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to two major issues in the design of branch target buffers (BTBs), with the goal of achieving maximum performance for a given number of bits allocated to the BTB design. The first issue is BTB management; the second is what information to keep in the BTB. A number of solutions to these problems are reviewed, and various optimizations in the design of BTBs are discussed. Design target miss ratios for BTBs are developed, making it possible to estimate the performance of BTBs for real workloads.

  15. Mechanism of branching in negative ionization fronts.

    PubMed

    Arrayás, Manuel; Fontelos, Marco A; Trueba, José L

    2005-10-14

    When a strong electric field is applied to nonconducting matter, narrow channels of plasma called streamers may form. Branchlike patterns of streamers have been observed in anode directed discharges. We explain a mechanism for branching as the result of a balance between the destabilizing effect of impact ionization and the stabilizing effect of electron diffusion on ionization fronts. The dispersion relation for transversal perturbation of a planar negative front is obtained analytically when the ratio D between the electron diffusion coefficient and the intensity of the externally imposed electric field is small. We estimate the spacing lambda between streamers and deduce a scaling law lambda approximately D(1/3). PMID:16241810

  16. Absolute optical instruments without spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.

    2015-11-01

    Until now, the known set of absolute optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric absolute optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known absolute optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.

  17. Branch strategies - Modeling and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubey, Pradeep K.; Flynn, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors provide a common platform for modeling different schemes for reducing the branch-delay penalty in pipelined processors as well as evaluating the associated increased instruction bandwidth. Their objective is twofold: to develop a model for different approaches to the branch problem and to help select an optimal strategy after taking into account additional i-traffic generated by branch strategies. The model presented provides a flexible tool for comparing different branch strategies in terms of the reduction it offers in average branch delay and also in terms of the associated cost of wasted instruction fetches. This additional criterion turns out to be a valuable consideration in choosing between two strategies that perform almost equally. More importantly, it provides a better insight into the expected overall system performance. Simple compiler-support-based low-implementation-cost strategies can be very effective under certain conditions. An active branch prediction scheme based on loop buffers can be as competitive as a branch-target-buffer based strategy.

  18. Tension in Highly Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We propose a systematic method of designing branched macromolecules capable of building up high tension in their covalent bonds, which can be controlled by changing solvent quality. This tension is achieved exclusively due to intramolecular interactions by focusing lower tensions from its numerous branches to a particular section of the designed molecule. The simplest molecular architecture, which allows this tension amplification, is a so-called pom-pom macromolecule consisting of a relatively short linear spacer and two z-arm stars at its ends. Tension developed in the stars due to crowding of their branches is amplified by a factor of z and focused to the spacer. There are other highly branched macromolecules, such as molecular brushes - comb polymers with high density of side branches, that have similar focusing and amplification properties. In addition molecular brushes transmit tension along their backbone. Adsorption or grafting of these branched molecules on a substrate results in further increase in tension as compared to molecules in solution. Molecular architectures similar to pom-pom and molecular brushes with a high tension amplification parts can be used in numerous sensor applications. Unique conformations of molecular brushes in a pre-wetting layer allow direct visualization by atomic force microscope. Detailed images of individual molecules spreading along the surface enable critical evaluation of theories of chain dynamics in polymer monolayer. Strong spreading of densely branched macromolecules on a planar substrate can lead to high tension in the molecular backbone sufficient to break covalent bonds.

  19. On the calculation of the absolute grand potential of confined smectic-A phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Baus, Marc; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    We determine the absolute grand potential Λ along a confined smectic-A branch of a calamitic liquid crystal system enclosed in a slit pore of transverse area A and width L, using the rod-rod Gay-Berne potential and a rod-wall potential favouring perpendicular orientation at the walls. For a confined phase with an integer number of smectic layers sandwiched between the opposite walls, we obtain the excess properties (excess grand potential Λexc, solvation force fs and adsorption Γ) with respect to the bulk phase at the same μ (chemical potential) and T (temperature) state point. While usual thermodynamic integration methods are used along the confined smectic branch to estimate the grand potential difference as μ is varied at fixed L, T, the absolute grand potential at one reference state point is obtained via the evaluation of the absolute Helmholtz free energy in the (N, L, A, T) canonical ensemble. It proceeds via a sequence of free energy difference estimations involving successively the cost of localising rods on layers and the switching on of a one-dimensional harmonic field to keep layers integrity coupled to the elimination of inter-layers and wall interactions. The absolute free energy of the resulting set of fully independent layers of interacting rods is finally estimated via the existing procedures. This work opens the way to the computer simulation study of phase transitions implying confined layered phases.

  20. The root of branching river networks.

    PubMed

    Perron, J Taylor; Richardson, Paul W; Ferrier, Ken L; Lapôtre, Mathieu

    2012-12-01

    Branching river networks are one of the most widespread and recognizable features of Earth's landscapes and have also been discovered elsewhere in the Solar System. But the mechanisms that create these patterns and control their spatial scales are poorly understood. Theories based on probability or optimality have proven useful, but do not explain how river networks develop over time through erosion and sediment transport. Here we show that branching at the uppermost reaches of river networks is rooted in two coupled instabilities: first, valleys widen at the expense of their smaller neighbours, and second, side slopes of the widening valleys become susceptible to channel incision. Each instability occurs at a critical ratio of the characteristic timescales for soil transport and channel incision. Measurements from two field sites demonstrate that our theory correctly predicts the size of the smallest valleys with tributaries. We also show that the dominant control on the scale of landscape dissection in these sites is the strength of channel incision, which correlates with aridity and rock weakness, rather than the strength of soil transport. These results imply that the fine-scale structure of branching river networks is an organized signature of erosional mechanics, not a consequence of random topology. PMID:23222614

  1. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  2. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  3. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Daqiu; Gong, Saijie; Hao, Zhaojun; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ) application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application. PMID:26473855

  4. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., switching and other, on the ratio that the total branch salary and wages bear to the total system salaries...-11-XX accounts branch to system; (ii) Fringe benefits—Switching, Account 12-12-00, total of all 11-12... on branch costs for freight cars as determined from the car-day and car-mile cost calculations...

  5. Absolute spectrophotometry of Neptune - 3390 to 7800 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstralh, J. T.; Neff, J. S.

    1983-07-01

    Absolute spectrophotometry of Neptune from 3390 to 7800 Å, with spectral resolution of 10 Å in the interval 3390 - 6055 and 20 Å in the interval 6055 - 7800 Å, is reported. The results are compared with filter photometry (Appleby, 1973; Wamsteker, 1973; Savage et al., 1980) and with synthetic spectra computed on the basis of a parameterization proposed by Podolak and Danielson (1977) for aerosol scattering and absorption. A CH4/H2 ratio is derived for the convectively mixed part of Neptune's atmosphere, and constrains optical properties of hypothetical aerosol layers.

  6. Albendazole sulfoxide enantiomers: preparative chiral separation and absolute stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Tiago C; Batista, João M; Furlan, Maysa; He, Yanan; Nafie, Laurence A; Santana, Cesar C; Cass, Quezia B

    2012-03-23

    The enantiomeric separation of albendazole sulfoxide was carried out by simulated moving bed chromatography with variable zones (VARICOL). An overall recovery of 97% was achieved and enantiomeric ratios of 99.5% for raffinate and 99.0% for extract were attained. A total of 880 mg of (+)-albendazol sulfoxide and 930 mg of its antipode were collected after 55 cycles or 11 h of process, resulting in a mass rate of 2 g/day. Furthermore the absolute configuration of the enantiopure compounds was determined for the first time by vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) with the aid of theoretical calculations as (-)-(S) and (+)-(R)-albendazole sulfoxide. PMID:22341660

  7. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  8. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Soorkia, Satchin; Selby, Talitha M.

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  9. Beta decay of the fission product 125Sb and a new complete evaluation of absolute gamma ray transition intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, M. U.; Ali, N.; Hussain, S.; Mujahid, S. A.; MacMahon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The radionuclide 125Sb is a long-lived fission product, which decays to 125Te by negative beta emission with a half-life of 1008 day. The beta decay is followed by the emission of several gamma radiations, ranging from low to medium energy, that can suitably be used for high-resolution detector calibrations, decay heat calculations and in many other applications. In this work, the beta decay of 125Sb has been studied in detail. The complete published experimental data of relative gamma ray intensities in the beta decay of the radionuclide 125Sb has been compiled. The consistency analysis was performed and discrepancies found at several gamma ray energies. Evaluation of the discrepant data was carried out using Normalized Residual and RAJEVAL methods. The decay scheme balance was carried out using beta branching ratios, internal conversion coefficients, populating and depopulating gamma transitions to 125Te levels. The work has resulted in the consistent conversion factor equal to 29.59(13) %, and determined a new evaluated set of the absolute gamma ray emission probabilities. The work has also shown 22.99% of the delayed intensity fraction as outgoing from the 58 d isomeric 144 keV energy level and 77.01% of the prompt intensity fraction reaching to the ground state from the other excited states. The results are discussed and compared with previous evaluations. The present work includes additional experimental data sets which were not included in the previous evaluations. A new set of recommended relative and absolute gamma ray emission probabilities is presented.

  10. Experimental research on the local resistance characteristics of branch pipe in dense phase pneumatic conveying desulfurized gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zong Ming; Pan, Hong Li; Duan, Guang Bin; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Pneumatic conveying experiment was carried out in branch pipe branch whose angle would change. In the paper, compressed air was conveying power while dry desulfurized gypsum was conveying materials. The trend of local resistance whose gas-solid flow come through branches with different geometric structure was investigated with different gas-solid flow velocity and solids loading ratio. The result showed that the local resistance loss of branch pipe would increase with the increment of the angle between the branch pipe and the main pipe, the ratio of solid-gas in the pipe and the superficial gas velocity.

  11. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed. PMID:19831037

  12. Usefulness of the Sum Absolute QRST Integral to Predict Outcomes in Patients Receiving Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Jonatan; Borgquist, Rasmus; Reitan, Christian; Ghafoori, Elyar; Chatterjee, Neal A; Kabir, Muammar; Platonov, Pyotr G; Carlson, Jonas; Singh, Jagmeet P; Tereshchenko, Larisa G

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces mortality and morbidity in selected patients with heart failure (HF), but up to 1/3 of patients are nonresponders. Sum absolute QRST integral (SAI QRST) recently showed association with mechanical response on CRT. However, it is unknown whether SAI QRST is associated with all-cause mortality and HF hospitalizations in patients undergoing CRT. The study population included 496 patients undergoing CRT (mean age 69 ± 10 years, 84% men, 65% left bundle branch block [LBBB], left ventricular ejection fraction 23 ± 6%, 63% ischemic cardiomyopathy). Preimplant digital 12-lead electrocardiogram was transformed into orthogonal XYZ electrocardiogram. SAI QRST was measured as an arithmetic sum of areas under the QRST curve on XYZ leads and was dichotomized based on the median value (302 mV ms). All-cause mortality served as the primary end point. A composite of 2-year all-cause mortality, heart transplant, and HF hospitalization was a secondary end point. Cox regression models were adjusted for known predictors of CRT response. Patients with preimplant low mean SAI QRST had an increased risk of both the primary (hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.2) and secondary (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.2) end points after multivariate adjustment. SAI QRST was associated with secondary outcome in subgroups of patients with LBBB (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.0) and with non-LBBB (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6). In patients undergoing CRT, preimplant SAI QRST <302 mV ms was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and HF hospitalization. After validation in another prospective cohort, SAI QRST may help to refine selection of CRT recipients. PMID:27265674

  13. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  14. Structural development of redwood branches and its effects on wood growth.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Russell D; Sillett, Stephen C; Carroll, Allyson L

    2014-03-01

    Redwood branches provide all the carbohydrates for the most carbon-heavy forests on Earth, and recent whole-tree measurements have quantified trunk growth rates associated with complete branch inventories. Providing all of a tree's photosynthetic capacity, branches represent an increasing proportion of total aboveground wood production as trees enlarge. To examine branch development and its effects on wood volume growth, we dissected 31 branches from eight Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. and seven Sequoiadendron giganteum Lindl. trees. The cambium-area-to-leaf-area ratio was maintained with size and age but increased with light availability, whereas the heartwood-deposition-area-to-leaf-area ratio increased with size and age but was insensitive to light availability. The proportion of foliage mass arrayed in <1-cm-diameter epicormic shoots increased with decreasing light and was higher in Sequoia (20-60%) than in Sequoiadendron (3-16%). Well-illuminated branches concentrated leaves higher and distally, while shaded branches distributed leaves lower and proximally. In similar light environments, older branches distributed leaves lower and more proximally than younger branches. Branch size, light, species, heartwood area, a heartwood-area-species interaction, and ovulate cone mass predicted 87.5% of the variability in wood volume growth of branches. After accounting for the positive effects of size and light, wood volume growth declined with heartwood area and age. The effect of age was trivial compared to the effect of heartwood area, suggesting that heartwood expansion caused the age-related decline in wood volume growth. Additionally, Sequoiadendron branches of similar size and light environment with more ovulate cones produced less wood, even though these cones were long-lived and photosynthetic, reflecting the energetic cost of seed production. These results contributed to a conceptual model of branch development in which light availability, injury

  15. The luminosities of horizontal branches and RR Lyrae stars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. H.; Rose, M. B.; Brown, P. J.; Ketcheson, D. I.; Maxwell, J. E.; Smith, K. M.; Wooley, R. C.

    2004-05-01

    We have utilized the latest stellar models of the Y2 (Yonsei-Yale) collaborators and color-magnitude diagrams of globular clusters to infer ages and absolute magnitudes of their horizontal branches (HB). The intrinsic (B - V), color indices of the turn-offs, (B - V)TO0,of the globular clusters were used to find ages. For 47 clusters that appear to be coeval (within ± 0.7 Gyr), we find an average age of 12.5 Gyr. We adopt this age and infer the absolute magnitudes of the turn-offs, MTOV, from the clusters [Fe/H] values. The absolute magnitudes of the horizontal branches or RR Lyrae stars are the n determined from the difference between the apparent magnitudes of the horizontal branches (or RR Lyrae stars) and the apparent magnitude of the turn-offd, VTO. We conclude: 1) the slope of the MV(HB), [Fe/H] relation is ~0.3 for clusters with [Fe/H] values between -0.5 to -1.5. The relation has zero slope for [Fe/H] values smaller than -1.5. 2) For [Fe/H] < -1.3, the MV(HB) or MV values of RR Lyrae stars are not only a function of [Fe/H], but the horizontal-branch type in the sense that the clusters with the blue horizontal branches have more luminous horizontal branches than clusters with red horizontal branches. The same results are found by inferring the luminosities of the HBs from pulsating blue stragglers.

  16. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  17. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959

  18. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  19. Measurement of Absolute Excitation Cross Sections in Highly-Charged Ions Using Electron Energy Loss and Merged Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Smith, Steven J.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis during this decade on understanding energy balance and phenomena observed in high electron temperature plasmas. The UV spectral return from FUSE, the X-ray spectral return from the HETG on Chandra and the LETGS 011 XMM-Newton are just beginning. Line emissions are almost entirely from highly-charged ions (HCIs) of C, N, 0, Ne, Mg, S, Si, Ca, and Fe. The Constellation-X mission will provide X-ray spectroscopy up to photon energies of 0.12 nm (10 keV) where primary line emitters will be HCIs. A variety of atomic parameters are required to model the stellar and solar plasma. These include cross sections for excitation, ionization, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, direct and indirect recombination, lifetimes and branching ratios, and dependences on l, m mixing by external E and B fields. In almost all cases the atomic quantities are calculated, and few comparisons to experiment have been carried out. Collision strengths and Einstein A-values are required to convert the observed spectral intensities to electron temperatures and densities in the stellar plasma. The JPL electron energy-loss and merged beam approach has been used to measure absolute collision strengths in a number of ions, with critical comparison made to the best available theories.

  20. SU-E-T-189: First Experimental Verification of the Accuracy of Absolute Dose Reconstruction From PET-CT Imaging of Yttrium 90 Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Veltchev, I; Fourkal, E; Doss, M; Ma, C; Meyer, J; Yu, M; Horwitz, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In the past few years there have been numerous proposals for 3D dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of patients undergoing radioembolization treatment of the liver with yttrium-90 microspheres. One of the most promising techniques uses convolution of the measured PET activity distribution with a pre-calculated Monte Carlo dose deposition kernel. The goal of the present study is to experimentally verify the accuracy of this method and to analyze the significance of various error sources. Methods: Optically stimulated luminescence detectors (OSLD) were used (NanoDot, Landauer) in this experiment. Two detectors were mounted on the central axis of a cylinder filled with water solution of yttrium-90 chloride. The total initial activity was 90mCi. The cylinder was inserted in a larger water phantom and scanned on a Siemens Biograph 16 Truepoint PET-CT scanner. Scans were performed daily over a period of 20 days to build a calibration curve for the measured absolute activity spanning 7 yttrium-90 half-lives. The OSLDs were mounted in the phantom for a predetermined period of time in order to record 2Gy dose. The measured dose was then compared to the dose reconstructed from the activity density at the location of each dosimeter. Results: Thorough error analysis of the dose reconstruction algorithm takes into account the uncertainties in the absolute PET activity, branching ratios, and nonlinearity of the calibration curve. The measured dose for 105-minute exposure on day 10 of the experiment was 219(11)cGy, while the reconstructed dose at the location of the detector was 215(47)cGy. Conclusion: We present the first experimental verification of the accuracy of the convolution algorithm for absolute dose reconstruction of yttrium-90 microspheres. The excellent agreement between the measured and calculated point doses will encourage the broad clinical adoption of the convolution-based dose reconstruction algorithm, making future quantitative dose

  1. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2011-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

  2. 17 CFR 166.4 - Branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch offices. 166.4 Section 166.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CUSTOMER PROTECTION RULES § 166.4 Branch offices. Each branch office of each Commission registrant must use the name of the firm of which it is a branch for all...

  3. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  4. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  5. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  6. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  7. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  8. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  9. Nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production σ as = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in absolutely irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to absolutely irreversible processes as = 1 -λS , where λS is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: σ characterizing ordinary irreversibility and λS describing absolute irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the absolute irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.

  10. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  11. Precision absolute positional measurement of laser beams.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry

    2013-04-20

    We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the absolute measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 μm in position and ±20 μrad in angle. PMID:23669658

  12. Theoretical horizontal-branch evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1987-01-01

    The general features of the theoretical evolution of canonical horizontal-branch (HB) stars are briefly reviewed with specific emphasis on the track morphology in the HR diagram and the determination of the globular cluster helium abundance. The observational evidence for the occurrence of semiconvection is discussed together with some remaining theoretical uncertainty.

  13. 76 FR 13272 - Branch Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Branch Offices AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION... 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury will... approval number, to Information Collection Comments, Chief Counsel's Office, Office of Thrift...

  14. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  15. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50. PMID:24010026

  16. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  17. Deltoid Branch of Thoracoacromial Vein

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Wei; Wu, Ching-Feng; Fu, Jui-Ying; Ko, Po-Jen; Yu, Sheng-Yueh; Kao, Tsung-Chi; Hsieh, Hong-Chang; Wu, Ching-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An entry vessel is crucial for intravenous port implantation. A safe alternative entry vessel that can be easily explored is crucial for patients without feasible cephalic vein or for those who need port reimplantation because of disease relapse. In this study, we tried to analyze the safety and feasibility of catheter implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein. From March 2012 to November 2013, 802 consecutive oncology patients who had received intravenous port implantation via the superior vena cava were enrolled in this study. The functional results and complications of different entry vessels were compared. The majority of patients (93.6%) could be identified as thoracoacromial vessel. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located on the medial aspect of the deltopectoral groove beneath the pectoralis major muscle (85.8%) and in the deep part of the deltopectoral groove (14.2%). Due to the various calibers employed and tortuous routes followed, we utilized 3 different methods for catheter implantation, including vessel cutdown (47.4%), wire assisted (17.9%), and modified puncture method (34.6%). The functional results and complication rate were similar to other entry vessels. The deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein is located in the neighborhood of the cephalic vein. The functional results of intravenous port implantation via the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial vein are similar to other entry vessels. It is a safe alternative entry vessel for intravenous port implantation. PMID:25929903

  18. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  19. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  20. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  1. Viscous linear stability of axisymmetric low-density jets: Parameters influencing absolute instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Hallberg, M. P.; Strykowski, P. J.

    2010-02-01

    Viscous linear stability calculations are presented for model low-density axisymmetric jet flows. Absolute growth transitions for the jet column mode are mapped out in a parametric space including velocity ratio, density ratio, Reynolds number, momentum thickness, and subtle differences between velocity and density profiles. Strictly speaking, the profiles used in most jet stability studies to date are only applicable to unity Prandtl numbers and zero pressure gradient flows—the present work relaxes this requirement. Results reveal how subtle differences between the velocity and density profiles generally used in jet stability theory can dramatically alter the absolute growth rate of the jet column mode in these low-density flows. The results suggest heating/cooling or mass diffusion at the outer nozzle surface can suppress absolute instability and potentially global instability in low-density jets.

  2. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  3. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  4. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365

  5. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365

  6. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  7. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  8. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  9. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  10. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  11. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Barnes, C.W. |; Loughlin, M. |

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  12. Absolute enantioselective separation: optical activity ex machina.

    PubMed

    Bielski, Roman; Tencer, Michal

    2005-11-01

    The paper describes methodology of using three independent macroscopic factors affecting molecular orientation to accomplish separation of a racemic mixture without the presence of any other chiral compounds, i. e., absolute enantioselective separation (AES) which is an extension of a concept of applying these factors to absolute asymmetric synthesis. The three factors may be applied simultaneously or, if their effects can be retained, consecutively. The resulting three mutually orthogonal or near orthogonal directors constitute a true chiral influence and their scalar triple product is the measure of the chirality of the system. AES can be executed in a chromatography-like microfluidic process in the presence of an electric field. It may be carried out on a chemically modified flat surface, a monolithic polymer column made of a mesoporous material, each having imparted directional properties. Separation parameters were estimated for these media and possible implications for the natural homochirality are discussed. PMID:16342798

  13. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  14. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  15. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  16. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  17. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  18. Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie

    2010-06-23

    The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

  19. Blood pressure targets and absolute cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-08-01

    In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (≥60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ≥60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ≥20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ≥20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ≥20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340

  20. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  1. Absolute distance measurements by variable wavelength interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bien, F.; Camac, M.; Caulfield, H. J.; Ezekiel, S.

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a laser interferometer which provides absolute distance measurements using tunable lasers. An active feedback loop system, in which the laser frequency is locked to the optical path length difference of the interferometer, is used to tune the laser wavelengths. If the two wavelengths are very close, electronic frequency counters can be used to measure the beat frequency between the two laser frequencies and thus to determine the optical path difference between the two legs of the interferometer.

  2. Absolute dosimetry for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Kurt W.; Campiotti, Richard H.

    2000-06-01

    The accurate measurement of an exposure dose reaching the wafer on an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic system has been a technical challenge directly applicable to the evaluation of candidate EUV resist materials and calculating lithography system throughputs. We have developed a dose monitoring sensor system that can directly measure EUV intensities at the wafer plane of a prototype EUV lithographic system. This sensor system, located on the wafer stage adjacent to the electrostatic chuck used to grip wafers, operates by translating the sensor into the aerial image, typically illuminating an 'open' (unpatterned) area on the reticle. The absolute signal strength can be related to energy density at the wafer, and thus used to determine resist sensitivity, and the signal as a function of position can be used to determine illumination uniformity at the wafer plane. Spectral filtering to enhance the detection of 13.4 nm radiation was incorporated into the sensor. Other critical design parameters include the packaging and amplification technologies required to place this device into the space and vacuum constraints of a EUV lithography environment. We describe two approaches used to determine the absolute calibration of this sensor. The first conventional approach requires separate characterization of each element of the sensor. A second novel approach uses x-ray emission from a mildly radioactive iron source to calibrate the absolute response of the entire sensor system (detector and electronics) in a single measurement.

  3. Horizontal-branch stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of canonical theory for the evolution of horizontal-branch (HB) stars are examined. Particular attention is given to how an HB star maintains the appropriate composition distribution within the semiconvective zone and how this composition is affected by the finite time-dependence with which convective boundaries actually move. Newly developed models based on time-dependent overshooting are presented for both the core-helium-exhaustion and main HB phases.

  4. Geodynamics Branch research report, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The research program of the Geodynamics Branch is summarized. The research activities cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) and Geopotential Research Mission. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  5. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. Interactions between axillary branches of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ongaro, Veronica; Bainbridge, Katherine; Williamson, Lisa; Leyser, Ottoline

    2008-03-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean, in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches. In these two-branch shoots, a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other, prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals, which are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis, using consecutive branches on the bolting stem. As with the classical studies in pea and bean, these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth. Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch, but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch, illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals. Using mutants, we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch, the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak, and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem. PMID:19825548

  7. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  8. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-01

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions. PMID:23046176

  9. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits,...

  14. Managing occurrence branching in qualitative simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, L.

    1996-12-31

    Qualitative simulators can produce common sense abstractions of complex behaviors given only partial knowledge about a system. One of the problems which limits the applicability of qualitative simulators is the intractable branching of successor states encountered with model of even modest size. Some branches may be unavoidable due to the complex nature of a system. Other branches may be accidental results of the model chosen. A common source of intractability is occurrence branching. Occurrence branching occurs when the state transitions of two variables are unordered with respect to each other. This paper extends the QSIM model to distinguish between interesting occurrence branching and uninteresting occurrence branching. A representation, algorithm, and simulator for efficiently handling uninteresting branching is presented.

  15. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary GW Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Gökay, G.; Saral, G.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.; Cerit, S.; Terzioğlu, Z.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system GW Cnc. We analyzed the photometric data obtained in 2010 and 2011 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and the spectroscopic data obtained in 2010 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) by using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain the absolute and geometrical parameters. We derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.257M⊙ , M2 = 0.971M⊙ , R1 = 0.526R⊙ and R2 = 0.961R⊙ with an orbital inclination i(∘) = 83.38 ± 0.25 and we determined the GW Cnc system to be a W-type W UMa over-contact binary with a mass ratio of q = 3.773 ± 0.007 .

  16. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Cheng, Z F; Hou, S Y; Zhuang, G; Luo, J

    2014-11-01

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained. PMID:25430327

  17. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  18. Large eddy simulation predictions of absolutely unstable round hot jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguslawski, A.; Tyliszczak, A.; Wawrzak, K.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents a novel view on the absolute instability phenomenon in heated variable density round jets. As known from literature the global instability mechanism in low density jets is released when the density ratio is lower than a certain critical value. The existence of the global modes was confirmed by an experimental evidence in both hot and air-helium jets. However, some differences in both globally unstable flows were observed concerning, among others, a level of the critical density ratio. The research is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method with a high-order numerical code. An analysis of the LES results revealed that the inlet conditions for the velocity and density distributions at the nozzle exit influence significantly the critical density ratio and the global mode frequency. Two inlet velocity profiles were analyzed, i.e., the hyperbolic tangent and the Blasius profiles. It was shown that using the Blasius velocity profile and the uniform density distribution led to a significantly better agreement with the universal scaling law for global mode frequency.

  19. Risking Exposure: Branch Campus Writers Go Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitler, Helen Collins

    For students who live and study at a branch campus of a mid-sized state university in southwest Pennsylvania, the 30 miles between them and their parent university represents a geographic gulf. No courier carries mail or deliveries between the main campus and the branches, and as a result, students at the branches have no access to the campus…

  20. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  1. Tree branch angle: maximizing effective leaf area.

    PubMed

    Honda, H; Fisher, J B

    1978-02-24

    In a computer simulation of branching pattern and leaf cluster in Terminalia catappa, right and left branch angles were varied, and the effective leaf surface areas were calculated. Theoretical branch angles that result in maximum effective leaf area are close to the values observed in nature. PMID:17757590

  2. Guide to the Seattle Archives Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Richard, Comp.

    The guide presents an overview of the textual and microfilmed records located at the Seattle Branch of the National Archives of the United States. Established in 1969, the Seattle Archives Branch is one of 11 branches which preserve and make available for research those U.S. Government records of permanent value created and maintained by Federal…

  3. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  4. Introduction of Branching Degrees of Octane Isomers.

    PubMed

    Perdih, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The concept of branching degrees is introduced. In the case of octane isomers it is derived from the values of a set of their physicochemical properties, calculating for each isomer the average of the normalized values and these averages are defined as branching degrees of octane isomers. The sequence of these branching degrees of octane isomers does not differ much from the »regular« one defined earlier. 2,2-Dimethylhexane appears to be less branched than 3,4-dimethylhexane and 3-ethyl, 2-methylpentane, whereas 2,3,4-trimethylpentane appears to be less branched than 3-ethyl, 3-methylpentane. While the increasing number of branches gives rise to increasing branching degrees, the peripheral position of branches and the separation between branches decreases the value of the branching degree. The central position of branches increases it. A bigger branch increases it more than a smaller one. The quantification of these structural features and their correlations with few indices is given as well. PMID:27333567

  5. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  6. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  7. Radial velocity studies and absolute parameters of contact binaries. I - AB Andromedae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    1988-01-01

    New radial velocity curves have been obtained for the contact binary AB And, using the cross-correlation technique. A mass ratio of 0.479 is determined, which is revised to 0.491 when the velocities are corrected for proximity effects using a light curve model. These values differ by less than ten percent from the photometric mass ratio. An analysis of the symmetric B and V light curves reported by Rigterink in 1973 using the spectroscopic mass ratio yields a consistent set of light and velocity curve elements. These also produce a reasonably good fit to the infrared J and K light curves reported by Jameson and Akinci in 1979. Absolute elements are determined, and these indicate that both components have a main-sequence internal structure. These absolute parameters, together with the Galactic kinematics, suggest an age for the system similar to or greater than that of the Sun.

  8. The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, George; Moose, Robert E.; Wessells, Claude W.

    1989-03-01

    The National Geodetic Survey absolute gravity program will utilize the high precision afforded by the JILAG-4 instrument to support geodetic and geophysical research, which involves studies of vertical motions, identification and modeling of other temporal variations, and establishment of reference values. The scientific rationale of these objectives is given, the procedures used to collect gravity and environmental data in the field are defined, and the steps necessary to correct and remove unwanted environmental effects are stated. In addition, site selection criteria, methods of concomitant environmental data collection and relative gravity observations, and schedule and logistics are discussed.

  9. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  10. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  11. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  12. Absolute angular positioning in ultrahigh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Schief, H.; Marsico, V.; Kern, K.

    1996-05-01

    Commercially available angular resolvers, which are routinely used in machine tools and robotics, are modified and adapted to be used under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. They provide straightforward and reliable measurements of angular positions for any kind of UHV sample manipulators. The corresponding absolute reproducibility is on the order of 0.005{degree}, whereas the relative resolution is better than 0.001{degree}, as demonstrated by high-resolution helium-reflectivity measurements. The mechanical setup and possible applications are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  14. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  15. Determination of the absolute contours of optical flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primak, W.

    1969-01-01

    Emersons procedure is used to determine true absolute contours of optical flats. Absolute contours of standard flats are determined and a comparison is then made between standard and unknown flats. Contour differences are determined by deviation of Fizeau fringe.

  16. Sensitivity to relative reinforcer rate in concurrent schedules: independence from relative and absolute reinforcer duration.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, A P; Blampied, N M

    2001-01-01

    Twelve pigeons responded on two keys under concurrent variable-interval (VI) schedules. Over several series of conditions, relative and absolute magnitudes of reinforcement were varied. Within each series, relative rate of reinforcement was varied and sensitivity of behavior ratios to reinforcer-rate ratios was assessed. When responding at both alternatives was maintained by equal-sized small reinforcers, sensitivity to variation in reinforcer-rate ratios was the same as when large reinforcers were used. This result was observed when the overall rate of reinforcement was constant over conditions, and also in another series of concurrent schedules in which one schedule was kept constant at VI ached 120 s. Similarly, reinforcer magnitude did not affect the rate at which response allocation approached asymptote within a condition. When reinforcer magnitudes differred between the two responses and reinforcer-rate ratios were varied, sensitivity of behavior allocation was unaffected although response bias favored the schedule that arranged the larger reinforcers. Analysis of absolute response rates ratio sensitivity to reinforcement occurrred on the two keys showed that this invariance of response despite changes in reinforcement interaction that were observed in absolute response rates on the constant VI 120-s schedule. Response rate on the constant VI 120-s schedule was inversely related to reinforcer rate on the varied key and the strength of this relation depended on the relative magnitude of reinforcers arranged on varied key. Independence of sensitivity to reinforcer-rate ratios from relative and absolute reinforcer magnitude is consistent with the relativity and independence assumtions of the matching law. PMID:11256865

  17. Novel 3D Microscopic Analysis of Human Placental Villous Trees Reveals Unexpected Significance of Branching Angles

    PubMed Central

    Haeussner, Eva; Buehlmeyer, Antonia; Schmitz, Christoph; von Koch, Franz Edler; Frank, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    The villous trees of human placentas delineate the fetomaternal border and are complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. Thus far, they have primarily been analyzed as thin, two-dimensional (2D) histological sections. However, 2D sections cannot provide access to key aspects such as branching nodes and branch order. Using samples taken from 50 normal human placentas at birth, in the present study we show that analysis procedures for 3D reconstruction of neuronal dendritic trees can also be used for analyzing trees of human placentas. Nodes and their branches (e.g., branching hierarchy, branching angles, diameters, and lengths of branches) can be efficiently measured in whole-mount preparations of isolated villous trees using high-end light microscopy. Such data differ qualitatively from the data obtainable from histological sections and go substantially beyond the morphological horizon of such histological data. Unexpectedly, branching angles of terminal branches of villous trees varied inversely with the fetoplacental weight ratio, a widely used clinical parameter. Since branching angles have never before been determined in the human placenta, this result requires further detailed studies in order to fully understand its impact. PMID:25155961

  18. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. )

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.

  19. Absolute rates of hole transfer in DNA.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Kittusamy; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Lewis, Frederick D; Berlin, Yuri A; Ratner, Mark A; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2005-10-26

    Absolute rates of hole transfer between guanine nucleobases separated by one or two A:T base pairs in stilbenedicarboxamide-linked DNA hairpins were obtained by improved kinetic analysis of experimental data. The charge-transfer rates in four different DNA sequences were calculated using a density-functional-based tight-binding model and a semiclassical superexchange model. Site energies and charge-transfer integrals were calculated directly as the diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, respectively, for all possible combinations of nucleobases. Taking into account the Coulomb interaction between the negative charge on the stilbenedicarboxamide linker and the hole on the DNA strand as well as effects of base pair twisting, the relative order of the experimental rates for hole transfer in different hairpins could be reproduced by tight-binding calculations. To reproduce quantitatively the absolute values of the measured rate constants, the effect of the reorganization energy was taken into account within the semiclassical superexchange model for charge transfer. The experimental rates could be reproduced with reorganization energies near 1 eV. The quantum chemical data obtained were used to discuss charge carrier mobility and hole-transport equilibria in DNA. PMID:16231945

  20. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485

  1. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  2. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  3. Absolute Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.

    1994-12-01

    We present absolute spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in absolute calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).

  4. Pressure difference-flow rate variation in a femoral artery branch casting of man for steady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.; Crawford, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    In-vitro, steady flow in a casting of the profunda femoris branch of the femoral artery of man was studied by measuring pressure differences in the main lumen and also in the branch over a large Reynolds number range from 200 to 1600. Effects of viscous and inviscid flows in this femoral artery branch were demonstrated quantitatively. The critical ratio of the flow rate in the branch to the upstream main lumen in this casting was found to be 0.4, above which the inviscid flow analysis indicated a pressure rise and below which it yielded a pressure drop in the main lumen across the branch junction. Pressure rises were experimentally found to occur both in the main lumen and in the branch for certain ranges of the aforementioned ratio.

  5. Buckling of Branched Cytoskeletal Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, D. A.; Schwarz, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    In vitro experiments of growing dendritic actin networks demonstrate reversible stress-softening at high loads, above some critical load. The transition to the stress-softening regime has been attributed to the elastic buckling of individual actin filaments. To estimate the critical load above which softening should occur, we extend the elastic theory of buckling of individual filaments embedded in a network to include the buckling of branched filaments, a signature trait of growing dendritic actin networks. Under certain assumptions, there will be approximately a seven-fold increase in the classical critical bucking load, when compared to the unbranched filament, which is entirely due to the presence of a branch. Moreover, we go beyond the classical buckling regime to investigate the effect of entropic fluctuations. The result of compressing the filament in this case leads to an increase in these fluctuations and eventually the harmonic approximation breaks down signifying the onset of the buckling transition. We compute corrections to the classical critical buckling load near this breakdown.

  6. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  7. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  8. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a...

  9. Uranium isotopic composition and absolute ages of Allende chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Budde, G.; Kleine, T.

    2015-11-01

    A handful of events, such as the condensation of refractory inclusions and the formation of chondrules, represent important stages in the formation and evolution of the early solar system and thus are critical to understanding its development. Compared to the refractory inclusions, chondrules appear to have a protracted period of formation that spans millions of years. As such, understanding chondrule formation requires a catalog of reliable ages, free from as many assumptions as possible. The Pb-Pb chronometer has this potential; however, because common individual chondrules have extremely low uranium contents, obtaining U-corrected Pb-Pb ages of individual chondrules is unrealistic in the vast majority of cases at this time. Thus, in order to obtain the most accurate 238U/235U ratio possible for chondrules, we separated and pooled thousands of individual chondrules from the Allende meteorite. In this work, we demonstrate that no discernible differences exist in the 238U/235U compositions between chondrule groups when separated by size and magnetic susceptibility, suggesting that no systematic U-isotope variation exists between groups of chondrules. Consequently, chondrules are likely to have a common 238U/235U ratio for any given meteorite. A weighted average of the six groups of chondrule separates from Allende results in a 238U/235U ratio of 137.786 ± 0.004 (±0.016 including propagated uncertainty on the U standard [Richter et al. 2010]). Although it is still possible that individual chondrules have significant U isotope variation within a given meteorite, this value represents our best estimate of the 238U/235U ratio for Allende chondrules and should be used for absolute dating of these objects, unless such chondrules can be measured individually.

  10. Diterpenoids from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Ming; Liu, Ye; Chen, Xu; Jin, An; Zhou, Ming; Tian, Tian; Ruan, Han-Li

    2016-04-01

    Five new abietane diterpenoids, named abifadines A-E (1-5), and nine known ones (6-14), together with two known podocarpenes (15 and 16), were isolated from the branch and leaf of Abies fargesii. Their structures including the relative configurations were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα irradiation. All the isolates were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicities. Only compounds 5 and 12 exhibited weak anti-proliferative effects against three cancer cell lines (B16, MCF7, and HepG2) with IC50 values range from 14.8 to 42.8μM. The antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Monilia albicans of all compounds were also tested, but none of them showed significant activities. PMID:26969787

  11. HIPPARCOS CALIBRATION OF THE TIP OF THE RED GIANT BRANCH

    SciTech Connect

    Tabur, Vello; Kiss, Laszlo L.; Bedding, Timothy R.

    2009-09-20

    We have detected the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the solar neighborhood using near-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and DIRBE catalogs, and revised Hipparcos parallaxes. We confirm that the revised Hipparcos parallaxes are superior to the original ones, and that this improvement is necessary to detect the TRGB. We find a tip absolute magnitude of M{sub K} = -6.85 +- 0.03, in agreement with that expected from previous tip measurements of the Large Magellanic Cloud, Small Magellanic Cloud, and Bulge. This represents the first geometric calibration of the TRGB and extends previous calibrations, based on metal-poor globular clusters, to solar metallicities. We attempted to use the TRGB to confirm the presence of the Lutz-Kelker bias, with inconclusive results. Attempts to detect the tip in the I band also produced inconsistent results, due to a lack of precise, homogeneous photometry for these bright stars.

  12. Floral bud damage compensation by branching and biomass allocation in genotypes of Brassica napus with different architecture and branching potential

    PubMed Central

    Pinet, Amélie; Mathieu, Amélie; Jullien, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Plant branching is a key process in the yield elaboration of winter oilseed rape (WOSR). It is also involved in plant tolerance to flower damage because it allows the setting of new fertile inflorescences. Here we characterize the changes in the branching and distribution of the number of pods between primary and secondary inflorescences in response to floral bud clippings. Then we investigate the impacts of the modifications in branching on the biomass allocation and its consequence on the crop productivity (harvest index). These issues were addressed on plants with contrasted architecture and branching potential, using three genotypes (Exocet, Pollen, and Gamin) grown under two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Clipping treatments of increasing intensities were applied to either inflorescences or flower buds. We were able to show that restoration of the number of pods after clipping is the main lever for the compensation. Genotypes presented different behaviors in branching and biomass allocation as a function of clipping treatments. The number of fertile ramifications increased for the high intensities of clipping. In particular, the growth of secondary ramifications carried by branches developed before clipping has been observed. The proportions of yield and of number of pods carried by these secondary axes increased and became almost equivalent to the proportion carried by primary inflorescences. In terms of biomass allocation, variations have also been evidenced in the relationship between pod dry mass on a given axis and the number of pods set, while the shoot/root ratio was not modified. The harvest index presented different responses: it decreased after flower buds clipping, while it was maintained after the clipping of the whole inflorescences. The results are discussed relative to their implications regarding the identification of interesting traits to be target in breeding programs in order to improve WOSR tolerance. PMID:25759703

  13. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  14. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  15. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  16. The influence of cell penetrating peptide branching on cellular uptake of QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, Joyce; Delehanty, James; Susumu, Kimihiro; Anderson, George; Muttenhaler, Markus; Dawson, Philip; Medintz, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) serve as a valuable platform for understating the intricacies of nanoparticle cellular uptake and fate for the development of theranostics. Developing novel internalization peptides that maximize cellular uptake while minimizing the amount of peptide is important to allow space on the nanoparticle for other cargo (e.g. drugs). We have designed a range of branched, dendritic internalization peptides composed of polyarginine (Arg9) branches (1 to 16 repeats) attached a dendritic wedge based on the sequence WP9G2H6. By attaching these branched dendritic peptides to QD's, we can study the influence of branching on cellular uptake as a function of time, ratio, and degree of branching.

  17. Absolute and convective instability of a viscous liquid jet surrounded by a viscous gas in a vertical pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. P.; Lian, Z. W.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute and convective instability of a viscous liquid jet emanating into a viscous gas in a vertical pipe is analyzed in a parameter space spanned by the Reynolds number, the Froude number, the Weber number, the viscosity ratio, the density ratio, and the diameter ratio. The numerical results of the analysis are used to demonstrate that reduction in gravity tends to enhance the Rayleigh mode of convective instability which leads to the breakup of a liquid jet into drops of diameters comparable with the jet diameter. On the contrary, the Taylor mode of convective instability that leads to atomization is retarded at reduced gravity. The Rayleigh mode becomes absolutely unstable when the Reynolds number exceeds a critical value for a given set of the rest of the relevant parameters. The domain of absolute instability is significantly enlarged when the effect of gas viscosity is not neglected.

  18. Absolute bioavailability and regional absorption of ticagrelor in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Renli; Maya, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ticagrelor is a direct-acting, reversibly-binding, oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It demonstrates predictable, linear pharmacokinetics. Two studies were undertaken to further elucidate the absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor and its regional absorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Design and methods In two open-label, randomized, cross-over studies, 12 volunteers received a single dose of ticagrelor: oral 90 mg and 15 mg IV (Study 1); or 100 mg oral suspension vs 100 mg immediate release (IR) tablet (Study 2). After the initial cross-over period in Study 2, patients received 100 mg suspension delivered to specific sites in the GI tract using an Enterion capsule. In both studies, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were measured following administration of each formulation. Results The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% (95% confidence interval = 30–42%). Metabolite:parent ratios were higher after oral administration, compared with IV administration (maximum plasma concentration [Cmax] = 0.356 and 0.037; area under the plasma concentration-time curves [AUC] = 0.530 and 0.173, respectively). Following oral administration of the 100 mg IR tablet, the AUC and Cmax of ticagrelor were 78% and 58%, respectively, of those following oral administration of the 100 mg suspension. Exposure to ticagrelor decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: mean Cmax for ticagrelor was 91%, 68%, and 13% that for the oral suspension when released in the proximal small bowel, distal small bowel and ascending colon, respectively; mean AUCs were 89%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Conclusion The mean absolute bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% and the proportion of ticagrelor absorbed decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: the mean AUC for ticagrelor was 89% (proximal small bowel), 73% (distal small bowel), and 32% (ascending colon) that of the mean AUC for the orally

  19. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  20. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  1. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-03-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  2. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  3. Absolute instability of a viscous hollow jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.

    2007-02-01

    An investigation of the spatiotemporal stability of hollow jets in unbounded coflowing liquids, using a general dispersion relation previously derived, shows them to be absolutely unstable for all physical values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The roots of the symmetry breakdown with respect to the liquid jet case, and the validity of asymptotic models are here studied in detail. Asymptotic analyses for low and high Reynolds numbers are provided, showing that old and well-established limiting dispersion relations [J. W. S. Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound (Dover, New York, 1945); S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Dover, New York, 1961)] should be used with caution. In the creeping flow limit, the analysis shows that, if the hollow jet is filled with any finite density and viscosity fluid, a steady jet could be made arbitrarily small (compatible with the continuum hypothesis) if the coflowing liquid moves faster than a critical velocity.

  4. Stitching interferometry: recent results and absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Stitching Interferometry is a method of analysing large optical components using a standard "small" interferometer. This result is obtained by taking multiple overlapping images of the large component, and numerically "stitching" these sub-apertures together. We have already reported the industrial use our Stitching Interferometry systems (Previous SPIE symposia), but experimental results had been lacking because this technique is still new, and users needed to get accustomed to it before producing reliable measurements. We now have more results. We will report user comments and show new, unpublished results. We will discuss sources of error, and show how some of these can be reduced to arbitrarily small values. These will be discussed in some detail. We conclude with a few graphical examples of absolute measurements performed by us.

  5. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  6. Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.

  7. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  8. Predicting AIDS-related events using CD4 percentage or CD4 absolute counts

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Yasmin; Khuder, Sadik; Donabedian, Haig

    2006-01-01

    Background The extent of immunosuppression and the probability of developing an AIDS-related complication in HIV-infected people is usually measured by the absolute number of CD4 positive T-cells. The percentage of CD4 positive cells is a more easily measured and less variable number. We analyzed sequential CD4 and CD8 numbers, percentages and ratios in 218 of our HIV infected patients to determine the most reliable predictor of an AIDS-related event. Results The CD4 percentage was an unsurpassed predictor of the occurrence of AIDS-related events when all subsets of patients are considered. The CD4 absolute count was the next most reliable, followed by the ratio of CD4/CD8 percentages. The value of CD4 percentage over the CD4 absolute count was seen even after the introduction of highly effective HIV therapy. Conclusion The CD4 percentage is unsurpassed as a parameter for predicting the onset of HIV-related diseases. The extra time and expense of measuring the CD4 absolute count may be unnecessary. PMID:16916461

  9. Comparison of discrete ratios by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Drucker, Caroline B; Rossa, Marley A; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving and comparing ratios are crucial skills for humans. Little is known about whether other animals can compare ratios. We trained two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to choose arrays that contained the greater ratio of positive to negative stimuli, regardless of the absolute number of stimuli in each of the two choice arrays. Subjects learned this task, and their performance generalized to novel ratios. Moreover, performance was modulated by the ratio between ratios; subjects responded more quickly and accurately when the ratio between ratios was higher. Control conditions ruled out the possibility that subjects were relying on surface area, although the ratio between ratios of surface area did seem to influence their choices. Our results demonstrate that rhesus monkeys can compare discrete ratios, demonstrating not only proportional reasoning ability but also the ability to reason about relations between relations. PMID:26286201

  10. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  11. Research program of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor); Boccucci, B. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the Fourth Annual Summary of the Research Program of the Geodynamics Branch. The branch is located within the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics of the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The research activities of the branch staff cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including: tectonophysics, space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described in this document include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project and the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX). The reports highlight the investigations conducted by the Geodynamics Branch staff during calendar year 1985. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements and Solid Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Modeling and Sensing Techniques, and Sea Surface Topography. Further information on the activities of the branch or the particular research efforts described herein can be obtained through the branch office or from individual staff members.

  12. Mechanical Components Branch Test Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center formulates, conducts, and manages research focused on propulsion systems for both present and advanced aeronautical and space vehicles. The branch is comprised of research teams that perform basic research in three areas: mechanical drives, aerospace seals, and space mechanisms. Each team has unique facilities for testing aerospace hardware and concepts. This report presents an overview of the Mechanical Components Branch test facilities.

  13. Branching Fractions for {psi}(2S)-to-J/{psi} Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, N.E.; Alexander, J.P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D.G.; Crede, V.; Duboscq, J.E.; Ecklund, K.M.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R.S.; Gibbons, L.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, R.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Hertz, D.; Hsu, L.; Jones, C.D.; Kandaswamy, J.

    2005-06-17

    We describe new measurements of the inclusive and exclusive branching fractions for {psi}(2S) transitions to J/{psi} using e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected with the CLEO detector operating at CESR. All branching fractions and ratios of branching fractions reported here represent either the most precise measurements to date or the first direct measurements. Indirectly and in combination with other CLEO measurements, we determine B({chi}{sub cJ}{yields}{gamma}J/{psi}) and B[{psi}(2S){yields}light hadrons].

  14. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:20420411

  15. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  16. Single Molecule Dynamics of Branched DNA Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Danielle; Sing, Charles; Schroeder, Charles

    This work focuses on extending the field of single polymer dynamics to topologically complex polymers. Here, we report the direct observation of DNA-based branched polymers. Recently, we recently demonstrated a two-step synthesis method to generate star, H-shaped, and comb polymers for single molecule visualization. Following synthesis, we use single-color or dual-color single molecule fluorescence microscopy to directly visualize branched polymer dynamics in flow, in particular tracking side branches and backbones independently. In this way, our imaging method allows for characterization of molecular properties, including quantification of polymer contour length and branch distributions. Moving beyond characterization, we use molecular rheology and single molecule techniques to study the dynamics of single branched polymers in flow. Here, we utilize precision microfluidics to directly observe branched DNA polymer conformations during transient stretching, steady-state extension, and relaxation from high stretch. We specifically measure backbone end-to-end distance as a function of time. Experiments and Brownian dynamics simulations show that branched polymer relaxation is a strong function of the number of branches and position of branch points along the main chain backbone.

  17. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  18. Arterial branching within the confines of fractal L-system formalism.

    PubMed

    Zamir, M

    2001-09-01

    Parametric Lindenmayer systems (L-systems) are formulated to generate branching tree structures that can incorporate the physiological laws of arterial branching. By construction, the generated trees are de facto fractal structures, and with appropriate choice of parameters, they can be made to exhibit some of the branching patterns of arterial trees, particularly those with a preponderant value of the asymmetry ratio. The question of whether arterial trees in general have these fractal characteristics is examined by comparison of pattern with vasculature from the cardiovascular system. The results suggest that parametric L-systems can be used to produce fractal tree structures but not with the variability in branching parameters observed in arterial trees. These parameters include the asymmetry ratio, the area ratio, branch diameters, and branching angles. The key issue is that the source of variability in these parameters is not known and, hence, it cannot be accurately reproduced in a model. L-systems with a random choice of parameters can be made to mimic some of the observed variability, but the legitimacy of that choice is not clear. PMID:11524457

  19. Environmental Control of Branching in Petunia1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Oplaat, Carla; Wohlers, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. PMID:25911529

  20. Absolute age of lunar regolith material from the Sea of Fertility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinogradov, A. P.; Artemov, Y. M.

    1974-01-01

    By averaging the absolute age of lunar regolith materials from the Sea of Fertility for the fine regolith fraction from the core zone V, an age of 4.65 10 to the 9th power + 0.4 10 to the 9th power years was obtained, employing as the primordial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio 0.69884 (ADOR). Also close to this age value is the age estimate based on the Pb-207/Pb-206 ratio. Using the value 0.69898 (BABI) as a primordial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio reduces the calculated age of the fine regolith fraction to 4.25 X 10 to the 9th power years. The fine fraction of lunar regolith from the Sea of Fertility is also characterized by a minimum addition of radiogenic Sr-87, a minimum Rb/Sr ratio, and a maximum K/Rb ratio compared with analogous lunar material from other points.

  1. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  2. Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A method for absolute calibration of a photon-number resolving detector producing analog signals as the output is developed using a twin beam. The method gives both analog-to-digital conversion parameters and quantum detection efficiency for the photon fields. Characteristics of the used twin beam are also obtained. A simplified variant of the method applicable to fields with high signal to noise ratios and suitable for more intense twin beams is suggested.

  3. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Zhao, H L; Liu, Y; Li, E Z; Han, X; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C; Ti, A; Hu, L Q; Zhang, X D

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems. PMID:25273727

  4. Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2014-01-27

    A method for absolute calibration of a photon-number resolving detector producing analog signals as the output is developed using a twin beam. The method gives both analog-to-digital conversion parameters and quantum detection efficiency for the photon fields. Characteristics of the used twin beam are also obtained. A simplified variant of the method applicable to fields with high signal to noise ratios and suitable for more intense twin beams is suggested.

  5. Absolutely lossless compression of medical images.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Robina; Akbar, Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Data in medical images is very large and therefore for storage and/or transmission of these images, compression is essential. A method is proposed which provides high compression ratios for radiographic images with no loss of diagnostic quality. In the approach an image is first compressed at a high compression ratio but with loss, and the error image is then compressed losslessly. The resulting compression is not only strictly lossless, but also expected to yield a high compression ratio, especially if the lossy compression technique is good. A neural network vector quantizer (NNVQ) is used as a lossy compressor, while for lossless compression Huffman coding is used. Quality of images is evaluated by comparing with standard compression techniques available. PMID:17281110

  6. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2016-04-01

    The Avogadro Project is an ongoing international effort, coordinated by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the International Avogadro Coordination (IAC) to redefine the SI unit mole in terms of the Avogadro constant and the SI unit kg in terms of the Planck constant. One of the outgrowths of this effort has been the development of a novel, precise and highly accurate method to measure calibrated (absolute) isotopic ratios that are traceable to the SI (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach has also been able to produce absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement. Silicon isotope variations (reported as delta(Si30)and delta(Si29)) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The utility and comparability of such measurements however depends on calibration with artifact isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs). We will be reporting new measurements on the iRMs NBS-28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, Big Batch and SRM 990 using the Avogadro measurement approach, comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs.

  7. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  8. Absolute surface energy for zincblende semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. B.; Wei, Su-Huai

    2003-03-01

    Recent advance in nanosciences requires the determination of surface (or facet) energy of semiconductors, which is often difficult due to the polar nature of some of the most important surfaces such as the (111)A/(111)B surfaces. Several approaches have been developed in the past [1-3] to deal with the problem but an unambiguous division of the polar surface energies is yet to come [2]. Here we show that an accurate division is indeed possible for the zincblende semiconductors and will present the results for GaAs, ZnSe, and CuInSe2 [4], respectively. A general trend emerges, relating the absolute surface energy to the ionicity of the bulk materials. [1] N. Chetty and R. M. Martin, Phys. Rev. B 45, 6074 (1992). [2] N. Moll, et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 8844 (1996). [3] S. Mankefors, Phys. Rev. B 59, 13151 (1999). [4] S. B. Zhang and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 65, 081402 (2002).

  9. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  10. Absolute decay width measurements in 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.

    2012-09-01

    The reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV has been used to populate excited states in 16O. The deuteron ejectiles were measured using the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph. A large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array was used to register the recoil and break-up products. This complete kinematic set-up has enabled absolute α-decay widths to be measured with high-resolution in the 13.9 to 15.9 MeV excitation energy regime in 16O; many for the first time. This energy region spans the 14.4 MeV four-α breakup threshold. Monte-Carlo simulations of the detector geometry and break-up processes yield detection efficiencies for the two dominant decay modes of 40% and 37% for the α+12C(g.s.) and a+12C(2+1) break-up channels respectively.

  11. Absolute calibration of forces in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.

    2014-07-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.

  12. Absolute spectrophotometry of northern compact planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Perinotto, M.

    2005-06-01

    We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total absolute fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable emission lines. High signal-to-noise emission line fluxes of Hα, Hβ, [Oiii], [Nii], and HeI may serve as emission line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available emission line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an Hβ flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3× 10-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.

  13. Synergistic amylomaltase and branching enzyme catalysis to suppress cassava starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Sorndech, Waraporn; Meier, Sebastian; Jansson, Anita M; Sagnelli, Domenico; Hindsgaul, Ole; Tongta, Sunanta; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Starch provides our main dietary caloric intake and over-consumption of starch-containing foods results in escalating life-style disease including diabetes. By increasing the content of α-1,6 branch points in starch, digestibility by human amylolytic enzymes is expected to be retarded. Aiming at generating a soluble and slowly digestible starch by increasing the content and changing the relative positioning of the branch points in the starch molecules, we treated cassava starch with amylomaltase (AM) and branching enzyme (BE). We performed a detailed molecular analysis of the products including amylopectin chain length distribution, content of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages, absolute molecular weight distribution and digestibility. Step-by-step enzyme catalysis was the most efficient treatment, and it generated branch structures even more extreme than those of glycogen. All AM- and BE-treated samples showed increased resistance to degradation by porcine pancreatic α-amylase and glucoamylase as compared to cassava starch. The amylolytic products showed chain lengths and branching patterns similar to the products obtained from glycogen. Our data demonstrate that combinatorial enzyme catalysis provides a strategy to generate potential novel soluble α-glucan ingredients with low dietary digestibility assets. PMID:26256365

  14. Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch: Research Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch, Newport, Oregon is part of the Western Ecology Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA. The Branch conducts research and provides scientific technical support to Headquarters and Regional O...

  15. Epithelial dynamics of pancreatic branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Villasenor, Alethia; Chong, Diana C.; Henkemeyer, Mark; Cleaver, Ondine

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian pancreas is a highly branched gland, essential for both digestion and glucose homeostasis. Pancreatic branching, however, is poorly understood, both at the ultrastructural and cellular levels. In this article, we characterize the morphogenesis of pancreatic branches, from gross anatomy to the dynamics of their epithelial organization. We identify trends in pancreatic branch morphology and introduce a novel mechanism for branch formation, which involves transient epithelial stratification and partial loss of cell polarity, changes in cell shape and cell rearrangements, de novo tubulogenesis and epithelial tubule remodeling. In contrast to the classical epithelial budding and tube extension observed in other organs, a pancreatic branch takes shape as a multi-lumen tubular plexus coordinately extends and remodels into a ramifying, single-lumen ductal system. Moreover, our studies identify a role for EphB signaling in epithelial remodeling during pancreatic branching. Overall, these results illustrate distinct, step-wise cellular mechanisms by which pancreatic epithelium shapes itself to create a functional branching organ. PMID:21098570

  16. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market... regarding the branch (shares, lending, capital, charge-offs, collections); (6) The field of membership or... for branch operations (balance sheet and income and expense projections) for the first and second...

  17. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that were sweeping…

  18. Existing branches correlatively inhibit further branching in Trifolium repens: possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R. G.; Hay, M. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In Trifolium repens removal of any number of existing branches distal to a nodal root stimulates development of axillary buds further along the stem such that the complement of branches distal to a nodal root remains constant. This study aimed to assess possible mechanisms by which existing branches correlatively inhibit the outgrowth of axillary buds distal to them. Treatments were applied to basal branches to evaluate the roles of three postulated inhibitory mechanisms: (I) the transport of a phloem-mobile inhibitory feedback signal from branches into the main stem; (II) the polar flow of auxin from branches into the main stem acting to limit further branch development; or (III) the basal branches functioning as sinks for a net root-derived stimulatory signal (NRS). Results showed that transport of auxin, or of a non-auxin phloem-mobile signal, from basal branches did not influence regulation of correlative inhibition and were consistent with the possibility that the intra-plant distribution of NRS could be involved in the correlative inhibition of distal buds by basal branches. This study supports existing evidence that regulation of branching in T. repens is dominated by a root-derived stimulatory signal, initially distributed via the xylem, the characterization of which will progress the generic understanding of branching regulation. PMID:21071681

  19. Modeling the Effects of Transmission Type, Gear Count and Ratio Spread on Fuel Economy and Performance Using ALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of varying the absolute and relative gear ratios of a given transmission on fuel economy and performance, considers alternative methods of selecting absolute gear ratios, examines the effect of alternative engines on the selections o...

  20. Asymmetric branching of dissociated photofragments of HD{sup +} in an intense femtosecond laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Souvik; Bhattacharyya, S. S.; Dutta, Bibhas

    2011-06-15

    We have numerically explored the asymmetry in the branching ratio of the photofragments in the photodissociation of HD{sup +} (neutral D and neutral H), leading to the possibility of localization of the electron on a chosen nucleus by careful tuning of the laser parameters. For two different frequencies we show that, starting from an initial stationary wave function, proper tuning of the pulse duration (2{sigma}) and peak intensities (I{sup 0}) of the laser pulses can lead to very different branching ratios of the two reaction channels. The results are interpreted in terms of the propagation of the nonstationary wave packet through regions having dominant radiative or nonradiative interactions at different times. We also investigate what effect the choice of initial vibrational state has on the overall asymmetry in the branching ratio of the dissociation products.

  1. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Communication: Direct measurements of nascent O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) fine-structure distributions and branching ratios of correlated spin-orbit resolved product channels CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) and CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) in VUV photodissociation of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Gao, Hong; Benitez, Yanice; Song, Yu; Ng, C. Y. E-mail: wmjackson@ucdavis.edu; Jackson, W. M. E-mail: wmjackson@ucdavis.edu

    2014-06-21

    We present a generally applicable experimental method for the direct measurement of nascent spin-orbit state distributions of atomic photofragments based on the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-excited autoionizing-Rydberg (VUV-EAR) states. The incorporation of this VUV-EAR method in the application of the newly established VUV-VUV laser velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) apparatus has made possible the branching ratio measurement for correlated spin-orbit state resolved product channels, CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) and CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}), formed by VUV photoexcitation of CO{sub 2} to the 4s(1{sub 0}{sup 1}) Rydberg state at 97,955.7 cm{sup −1}. The total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra obtained from the O{sup +} VMI-PI images of O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) reveal the formation of correlated CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) with well-resolved v = 0–2 vibrational bands. This observation shows that the dissociation of CO{sub 2} to form the spin-allowed CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel has no potential energy barrier. The TKER spectra for the spin-forbidden CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel were found to exhibit broad profiles, indicative of the formation of a broad range of rovibrational states of CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +})  with significant vibrational populations for v = 18–26. While the VMI-PI images for the CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel are anisotropic, indicating that the predissociation of CO{sub 2} 4s(1{sub 0}{sup 1}) occurs via a near linear configuration in a time scale shorter than the rotational period, the angular distributions for the CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel are close to isotropic, revealing a slower predissociation process, which possibly occurs on a triplet surface via an intersystem crossing mechanism.

  4. Toward an understanding of fibrin branching structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelson, Aaron L.; Keener, James P.

    2010-05-01

    The blood clotting enzyme thrombin converts fibrinogen molecules into fibrin monomers which polymerize to form a fibrous three-dimensional gel. The concentration of thrombin affects the architecture of the resulting gel, in particular, a higher concentration of thrombin produces a gel with more branch points per unit volume and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. We propose a mechanism by which fibrin branching can occur and show that this mechanism can lead to dependence of the gel’s structure (at the time of gelation) on the rate at which monomer is supplied. A higher rate of monomer supply leads to a gel with a higher branch concentration and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. The origin of this dependence is explained.

  5. Root branching: mechanisms, robustness, and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, Mouli Ghosh; Jouannet, Virginie; Maizel, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. The degree of root branching impacts the efficiency of water uptake, acquisition of nutrients, and anchorage. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure whose architecture is determined by modulation of primary root growth and root branching. This plasticity relies on the continuous integration of environmental inputs and endogenous developmental programs controlling root branching. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root distribution, initiation, and organogenesis with the main focus on the root system of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also examine the mechanisms linking environmental changes to the developmental pathways controlling root branching. Recent progress that emphasizes the parallels to the formation of root branches in other species is discussed. PMID:23801487

  6. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Istria].

    PubMed

    Labinac-Peteh, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    Istrian branch of Croatian Medical Association was established at the Assembly in 1948. at the General Hospital Pula. From the beginning, the seat of the branch is located in Pula. During the last time the work of branch went through different periods, but has never stopped its activity, leading to the basic postulates of professionality in addition with promotion of collegiality. Istrian branch od Croatian Medical Association now has 630 members, most of members are doctors of medicine, slightly less doctors of dental medicine. At the local level Istrian branch today is recognized as expert entity for the helth and as adviser is involved in work of Department of Health in the Istrian County. PMID:25648003

  7. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  8. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  9. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent BICEP2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid or from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequency uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as LIGO/Virgo, LISA and BBO/DECIGO) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B-mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  10. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Ear