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Sample records for absolute calibration site

  1. The Absolute Reflectance and New Calibration Site of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Wang, Zhenchao; Cai, Wei; Lu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    How bright the Moon is forms a simple but fundamental and important question. Although numerous efforts have been made to answer this question such as use of sophisticated electro-optical measurements and suggestions for calibration sites, the answer is still debated. An in situ measurement with a calibration panel on the surface of the Moon is crucial for obtaining the accurate absolute reflectance and resolving the debate. China’s Chang’E-3 (CE-3) “Yutu” rover accomplished this type of measurement using the Visible-Near Infrared Spectrometer (VNIS). The measurements of the VNIS, which were at large emission and phase angles, complement existing measurements for the range of photometric geometry. The in situ reflectance shows that the CE-3 landing site is very dark with an average reflectance of 3.86% in the visible bands. The results are compared with recent mission instruments: the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC), the Spectral Profiler (SP) on board the SELENE, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on board the Chandrayaan-1, and the Chang’E-1 Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIM). The differences in the measurements of these instruments are very large and indicate inherent differences in their absolute calibration. The M3 and IIM measurements are smaller than LROC WAC and SP, and the VNIS measurement falls between these two pairs. When using the Moon as a radiance source for the on-orbit calibration of spacecraft instruments, one should be cautious about the data. We propose that the CE-3 landing site, a young and homogeneous surface, should serve as the new calibration site.

  2. Corsica: A Multi-Mission Absolute Calibration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefond, P.; Exertier, P.; Laurain, O.; Guinle, T.; Femenias, P.

    2013-09-01

    In collaboration with the CNES and NASA oceanographic projects (TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason), the OCA (Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur) developed a verification site in Corsica since 1996, operational since 1998. CALibration/VALidation embraces a wide variety of activities, ranging from the interpretation of information from internal-calibration modes of the sensors to validation of the fully corrected estimates of the reflector heights using in situ data. Now, Corsica is, like the Harvest platform (NASA side) [14], an operating calibration site able to support a continuous monitoring with a high level of accuracy: a 'point calibration' which yields instantaneous bias estimates with a 10-day repeatability of 30 mm (standard deviation) and mean errors of 4 mm (standard error). For a 35-day repeatability (ERS, Envisat), due to a smaller time series, the standard error is about the double ( 7 mm).In this paper, we will present updated results of the absolute Sea Surface Height (SSH) biases for TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), Jason-1, Jason-2, ERS-2 and Envisat.

  3. Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat using a pseudo invariant calibration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.; Thome, K.J.; Mishra, N.; Chander, G.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Choi, Tae-young

    2013-01-01

    Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been used for on-orbit radiometric trending of optical satellite systems for more than 15 years. This approach to vicarious calibration has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and repeatability at the level of 1-3% depending on the site, spectral channel, and imaging geometries. A variety of sensors have used this approach for trending because it is broadly applicable and easy to implement. Models to describe the surface reflectance properties, as well as the intervening atmosphere have also been developed to improve the precision of the method. However, one limiting factor of using PICS is that an absolute calibration capability has not yet been fully developed. Because of this, PICS are primarily limited to providing only long term trending information for individual sensors or cross-calibration opportunities between two sensors. This paper builds an argument that PICS can be used more extensively for absolute calibration. To illustrate this, a simple empirical model is developed for the well-known Libya 4 PICS based on observations by Terra MODIS and EO-1 Hyperion. The model is validated by comparing model predicted top-of-atmosphere reflectance values to actual measurements made by the Landsat ETM+ sensor reflective bands. Following this, an outline is presented to develop a more comprehensive and accurate PICS absolute calibration model that can be Système international d'unités (SI) traceable. These initial concepts suggest that absolute calibration using PICS is possible on a broad scale and can lead to improved on-orbit calibration capabilities for optical satellite sensors.

  4. Absolute Calibration of Optical Satellite Sensors Using Libya 4 Pseudo Invariant Calibration Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, Nischal; Helder, Dennis; Angal, Amit; Choi, Jason; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the improvements in an empirical absolute calibration model developed at South Dakota State University using Libya 4 (+28.55 deg, +23.39 deg) pseudo invariant calibration site (PICS). The approach was based on use of the Terra MODIS as the radiometer to develop an absolute calibration model for the spectral channels covered by this instrument from visible to shortwave infrared. Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion, with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, was used to extend the model to cover visible and near-infrared regions. A simple Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution function (BRDF) model was generated using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations over Libya 4 and the resulting model was validated with nadir data acquired from satellite sensors such as Aqua MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). The improvements in the absolute calibration model to account for the BRDF due to off-nadir measurements and annual variations in the atmosphere are summarized. BRDF models due to off-nadir viewing angles have been derived using the measurements from EO-1 Hyperion. In addition to L7 ETM+, measurements from other sensors such as Aqua MODIS, UK-2 Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), ENVISAT Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat 8 (L8), which was launched in February 2013, were employed to validate the model. These satellite sensors differ in terms of the width of their spectral bandpasses, overpass time, off-nadir-viewing capabilities, spatial resolution and temporal revisit time, etc. The results demonstrate that the proposed empirical calibration model has accuracy of the order of 3% with an uncertainty of about 2% for the sensors used in the study.

  5. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  6. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the GÖKTÜRK-2 Satellite Sensor Using Tuz GÖLÜ (landnet Site) from Ndvi Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakarya, Ufuk; Hakkı Demirhan, İsmail; Seda Deveci, Hüsne; Teke, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Can; Küpçü, Ramazan; Feray Öztoprak, A.; Efendioğlu, Mehmet; Fehmi Şimşek, F.; Berke, Erdinç; Zübeyde Gürbüz, Sevgi

    2016-06-01

    TÜBİTAK UZAY has conducted a research study on the use of space-based satellite resources for several aspects of agriculture. Especially, there are two precision agriculture related projects: HASSAS (Widespread application of sustainable precision agriculture practices in Southeastern Anatolia Project Region (GAP) Project) and AKTAR (Smart Agriculture Feasibility Project). The HASSAS project aims to study development of precision agriculture practice in GAP region. Multi-spectral satellite imagery and aerial hyperspectral data along with ground measurements was collected to analyze data in an information system. AKTAR aims to develop models for irrigation, fertilization and spectral signatures of crops in Inner Anatolia. By the end of the project precision agriculture practices to control irrigation, fertilization, pesticide and estimation of crop yield will be developed. Analyzing the phenology of crops using NDVI is critical for the projects. For this reason, absolute radiometric calibration of the Red and NIR bands in space-based satellite sensors is an important issue. The Göktürk-2 satellite is an earth observation satellite which was designed and built in Turkey and was launched in 2012. The Göktürk-2 satellite sensor has a resolution 2.5 meters in panchromatic and 5 meters in R/G/B/NIR bands. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor was performed via the ground-based measurements - spectra-radiometer, sun photometer, and meteorological station- in Tuz Gölü cal/val site in 2015. In this paper, the first ground-based absolute radiometric calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor using Tuz Gölü is demonstrated. The absolute radiometric calibration results of this paper are compared with the published cross-calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor utilizing Landsat 8 imagery. According to the experimental comparison results, the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor coefficients for red and NIR bands

  7. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  8. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  9. Absolute detector calibration using twin beams.

    PubMed

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin

    2012-07-01

    A method for the determination of absolute quantum detection efficiency is suggested based on the measurement of photocount statistics of twin beams. The measured histograms of joint signal-idler photocount statistics allow us to eliminate an additional noise superimposed on an ideal calibration field composed of only photon pairs. This makes the method superior above other approaches presently used. Twin beams are described using a paired variant of quantum superposition of signal and noise.

  10. The importance and attainment of accurate absolute radiometric calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of accurate absolute radiometric calibration is discussed by reference to the needs of those wishing to validate or use models describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the atmosphere and earth surface features. The in-flight calibration methods used for the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre, Haute Resolution visible (SPOT/HRV) systems are described and their limitations discussed. The questionable stability of in-flight absolute calibration methods suggests the use of a radiative transfer program to predict the apparent radiance, at the entrance pupil of the sensor, of a ground site of measured reflectance imaged through a well characterized atmosphere. The uncertainties of such a method are discussed.

  11. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  12. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, Pat; ,

    2002-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  13. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  14. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  15. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  16. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured.

  17. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  18. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The need for independent, redundant absolute radiometric calibration methods is discussed with reference to the Thematic Mapper. Uncertainty requirements for absolute calibration of between 0.5 and 4 percent are defined based on the accuracy of reflectance retrievals at an agricultural site. It is shown that even very approximate atmospheric corrections can reduce the error in reflectance retrieval to 0.02 over the reflectance range 0 to 0.4.

  19. Absolute calibration technique for broadband ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Calibrating an ultrasonic transducer can be performed with a reduced number of calculations and testing. A wide-band pulser is connected to an ultrasonic transducer under test to generate ultrasonic waves in a liquid. A single frequency is transmitted to the electrostatic acoustic transducer (ESAT) and the voltage change produced is monitored. Then a broadband ultrasonic pulse is generated by the ultrasonic transducer and received by the ESAT. The output of the ESAT is amplified and input to a digitized oscilloscope for fast Fourier transform. The resulting plot is normalized with the monitored signal from the single frequency pulse. The plot is then corrected for characteristics of the membrane and diffraction effects. The transfer function of the final plot is determined. The transfer function gives the final sensitivity of the ultrasonic transducer as a function of frequency. The advantage of the system is the speed of calibrating the transducer by a reduced number of measurements and removal of the membrane and diffraction effects.

  20. NIST Stars: Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration of Vega and Sirius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana; Woodward, John T.; Rice, Joseph P.; Brown, Steven W.; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Alberding, Brian G.; Lykke, Keith R.

    2018-01-01

    Absolute flux calibration of standard stars, traceable to SI (International System of Units) standards, is essential for 21st century astrophysics. Dark energy investigations that rely on observations of Type Ia supernovae and precise photometric redshifts of weakly lensed galaxies require a minimum accuracy of 0.5 % in the absolute color calibration. Studies that aim to address fundamental stellar astrophysics also benefit. In the era of large telescopes and all sky surveys well-calibrated standard stars that do not saturate and that are available over the whole sky are needed. Significant effort has been expended to obtain absolute measurements of the fundamental standards Vega and Sirius (and other stars) in the visible and near infrared, achieving total uncertainties between1% and 3%, depending on wavelength, that do not meet the needed accuracy. The NIST Stars program aims to determine the top-of-the-atmosphere absolute spectral irradiance of bright stars to an uncertainty less than 1% from a ground-based observatory. NIST Stars has developed a novel, fully SI-traceable laboratory calibration strategy that will enable achieving the desired accuracy. This strategy has two key components. The first is the SI-traceable calibration of the entire instrument system, and the second is the repeated spectroscopic measurement of the target star throughout the night. We will describe our experimental strategy, present preliminary results for Vega and Sirius and an end-to-end uncertainty budget

  1. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  2. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  3. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  4. Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, A.; Zeil, K.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Karsch, S.; Pawelke, J.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Krausz, F.; Schramm, U.

    2010-03-01

    We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-dynamic range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The absolute charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm2. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm2 was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time absolute calibration to different experimental setups.

  5. Improved Absolute Radiometric Calibration of a UHF Airborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Hawkins, Brian P.; Harcke, Leif; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Michel, Thierry R.; Moreira, Laila; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Shimada, Joanne G.; Tham, Kean W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The AirMOSS airborne SAR operates at UHF and produces fully polarimetric imagery. The AirMOSS radar data are used to produce Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) depth profiles. The absolute radiometric accuracy of the imagery, ideally of better than 0.5 dB, is key to retrieving RZSM, especially in wet soils where the backscatter as a function of soil moisture function tends to flatten out. In this paper we assess the absolute radiometric uncertainty in previously delivered data, describe a method to utilize Built In Test (BIT) data to improve the radiometric calibration, and evaluate the improvement from applying the method.

  6. Absolute Calibration of the AXAF Telescope Effective Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, E.; Cohen, L.; Edgar, R.; Evans, I.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Jerius, D.; McDermott, W. C.; McKinnon, P.; Murray, S.; hide

    1997-01-01

    The prelaunch calibration of AXAF encompasses many aspects of the telescope. In principle, all that is needed is the complete point response function. This is, however, a function of energy, off-axis angle of the source, and operating mode of the facility. No single measurement would yield the entire result. Also, any calibration made prior to launch will be affected by changes in conditions after launch, such as the change from one g to zero g. The reflectivity of the mirror and perhaps even the detectors can change as well, for example by addition or removal of small amounts of material deposited on their surfaces. In this paper, we give a broad view of the issues in performing such a calibration, and discuss how they are being addressed in prelaunch preparation of AXAF. As our title indicates, we concentrate here on the total throughput of the observatory. This can be thought of as the integral of the point response function, i.e. the encircled energy, out ot the largest practical solid angle for an observation. Since there is no standard x-ray source in the sky whose flux is known to the -1% accuracy we are trying to achieve, we must do this calibration on the ground. we also must provide a means for monitoring any possible changes in this calibration from pre-launch until on-orbit operation can transfer the calibration to a celestial x-ray source whose emission is stable. In this paper, we analyze the elements of the absolute throughput calibration, which we call Effective Area. We review the requirements for calibrations of components or subsystems of the AXAF facility, including mirror, detectors, and gratings. We show how it is necessary to calibrate this ground-based detection system at standard man-made x-ray sources, such as electron storage rings. We present the status of all these calibrations, with indications of the measurements remaining to be done, even though the measurements on the AXAF flight optics and detectors will have been completed by the

  7. Absolute calibration of Doppler coherence imaging velocity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuell, C. M.; Allen, S. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Howard, J.

    2017-08-01

    A new technique has been developed for absolutely calibrating a Doppler Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy interferometer for measuring plasma ion and neutral velocities. An optical model of the interferometer is used to generate zero-velocity reference images for the plasma spectral line of interest from a calibration source some spectral distance away. Validation of this technique using a tunable diode laser demonstrated an accuracy better than 0.2 km/s over an extrapolation range of 3.5 nm; a two order of magnitude improvement over linear approaches. While a well-characterized and very stable interferometer is required, this technique opens up the possibility of calibrated velocity measurements in difficult viewing geometries and for complex spectral line-shapes.

  8. Vicarious absolute radiometric calibration of GF-2 PMS2 sensor using permanent artificial targets in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaokai; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Ning; Qian, Yonggang; Tang, Lingli

    2016-10-01

    GF-2, launched on August 19 2014, is one of the high-resolution land resource observing satellite of the China GF series satellites plan. The radiometric performance evaluation of the onboard optical pan and multispectral (PMS2) sensor of GF-2 satellite is very important for the further application of the data. And, the vicarious absolute radiometric calibration approach is one of the most useful way to monitor the radiometric performance of the onboard optical sensors. In this study, the traditional reflectance-based method is used to vicarious radiometrically calibrate the onboard PMS2 sensor of GF-2 satellite using three black, gray and white reflected permanent artificial targets located in the AOE Baotou site in China. Vicarious field calibration campaign were carried out in the AOE-Baotou calibration site on 22 April 2016. And, the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients were determined with in situ measured atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance of the permanent artificial calibration targets. The predicted TOA radiance of a selected desert area with our determined calibrated coefficients were compared with the official distributed calibration coefficients. Comparison results show a good consistent and the mean relative difference of the multispectral channels is less than 5%. Uncertainty analysis was also carried out and a total uncertainty with 3.87% is determined of the TOA radiance.

  9. Absolute calibration for complex-geometry biomedical diffuse optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; El-Ghussein, Fadi; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-03-01

    We have presented methodology to calibrate data in NIRS/MRI imaging versus an absolute reference phantom and results in both phantoms and healthy volunteers. This method directly calibrates data to a diffusion-based model, takes advantage of patient specific geometry from MRI prior information, and generates an initial guess without the need for a large data set. This method of calibration allows for more accurate quantification of total hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water content, scattering, and lipid concentration as compared with other, slope-based methods. We found the main source of error in the method to be derived from incorrect assignment of reference phantom optical properties rather than initial guess in reconstruction. We also present examples of phantom and breast images from a combined frequency domain and continuous wave MRI-coupled NIRS system. We were able to recover phantom data within 10% of expected contrast and within 10% of the actual value using this method and compare these results with slope-based calibration methods. Finally, we were able to use this technique to calibrate and reconstruct images from healthy volunteers. Representative images are shown and discussion is provided for comparison with existing literature. These methods work towards fully combining the synergistic attributes of MRI and NIRS for in-vivo imaging of breast cancer. Complete software and hardware integration in dual modality instruments is especially important due to the complexity of the technology and success will contribute to complex anatomical and molecular prognostic information that can be readily obtained in clinical use.

  10. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  11. Ensuring long-term stability of infrared camera absolute calibration.

    PubMed

    Kattnig, Alain; Thetas, Sophie; Primot, Jérôme

    2015-07-13

    Absolute calibration of cryogenic 3-5 µm and 8-10 µm infrared cameras is notoriously instable and thus has to be repeated before actual measurements. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio of the imagery is lowered, decreasing its quality. These performances degradations strongly lessen the suitability of Infrared Imaging. These defaults are often blamed on detectors reaching a different "response state" after each return to cryogenic conditions, while accounting for the detrimental effects of imperfect stray light management. We show here that detectors are not to be blamed and that the culprit can also dwell in proximity electronics. We identify an unexpected source of instability in the initial voltage of the integrating capacity of detectors. Then we show that this parameter can be easily measured and taken into account. This way we demonstrate that a one month old calibration of a 3-5 µm camera has retained its validity.

  12. Calibration Against the Moon. I: A Disk-Resolved Lunar Model for Absolute Reflectance Calibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Calibration against the Moon I: A disk- resolved lunar model for absolute reflectance...of the disk- resolved Moon at visible to near infrared wavelengths. It has been developed in order to use the Moon as a calibration reference

  13. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the use of permanent radioactive source implants in the treatment of prostate cancer. A small radioactive source encapsulated in a titanium shell is used in this type of treatment. The radioisotopes used are generally 125I or 103Pd. Both of these isotopes have relatively short half-lives, 59.4 days and 16.99 days, respectively, and have low-energy emissions and a low dose rate. These factors make these sources well suited for this application, but the calibration of these sources poses significant metrological challenges. The current standard calibration technique involves the measurement of ionization in air to determine the source air-kerma strength. While this has proved to be an improvement over previous techniques, the method has been shown to be metrologically impure and may not be the ideal means of calbrating these sources. Calorimetric methods have long been viewed to be the most fundamental means of determining source strength for a radiation source. This is because calorimetry provides a direct measurement of source energy. However, due to the low energy and low power of the sources described above, current calorimetric methods are inadequate. This thesis presents work oriented toward developing novel methods to provide direct and absolute measurements of source power for low-energy low dose rate brachytherapy sources. The method is the first use of an actively temperature-controlled radiation absorber using the electrical substitution method to determine total contained source power of these sources. The instrument described operates at cryogenic temperatures. The method employed provides a direct measurement of source power. The work presented here is focused upon building a metrological foundation upon which to establish power-based calibrations of clinical-strength sources. To that end instrument performance has been assessed for these source strengths. The intent is to establish the limits of

  14. An absolute calibration system for millimeter-accuracy APOLLO measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Birkmeier, K. J.; Colmenares, N. R.; Davis, R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Huang, L. R.; McMillan, R. J.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Schlerman, E.; Skrobol, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zach, A.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar laser ranging provides a number of leading experimental tests of gravitation—important in our quest to unify general relativity and the standard model of physics. The apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation (APOLLO) has for years achieved median range precision at the  ∼2 mm level. Yet residuals in model-measurement comparisons are an order-of-magnitude larger, raising the question of whether the ranging data are not nearly as accurate as they are precise, or if the models are incomplete or ill-conditioned. This paper describes a new absolute calibration system (ACS) intended both as a tool for exposing and eliminating sources of systematic error, and also as a means to directly calibrate ranging data in situ. The system consists of a high-repetition-rate (80 MHz) laser emitting short (< 10 ps) pulses that are locked to a cesium clock. In essence, the ACS delivers photons to the APOLLO detector at exquisitely well-defined time intervals as a ‘truth’ input against which APOLLO’s timing performance may be judged and corrected. Preliminary analysis indicates no inaccuracies in APOLLO data beyond the  ∼3 mm level, suggesting that historical APOLLO data are of high quality and motivating continued work on model capabilities. The ACS provides the means to deliver APOLLO data both accurate and precise below the 2 mm level.

  15. Metallicity and absolute magnitude calibrations for UBV photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karataş, Y.; Schuster, W. J.

    2006-10-01

    Calibrations are presented here for metallicity ([Fe/H]) in terms of the ultraviolet excess, [δ(U - B) at B - V = 0.6, hereafter δ0.6], and also for the absolute visual magnitude (MV) and its difference with respect to the Hyades (ΔMHV) in terms of δ0.6 and (B - V), making use of high-resolution spectroscopic abundances from the literature and Hipparcos parallaxes. The relation [Fe/H]-δ0.6 has been derived for dwarf plus turn-off stars, and also for dwarf, turn-off, plus subgiant stars classified using the MV-(B - V)0 plane of Fig. 11, which is calibrated with isochrones from Bergbusch & VandenBerg (and also VandenBerg & Clem). The [Fe/H]-δ0.6 relations in our equations (5) and (6) agree well with those of Carney, as can be seen from Fig. 5(a). Within the uncertainties, the zero-points, +0.13(+/-0.05) of equation (5) and +0.13(+/-0.04) of equation (6), are in good agreement with the photometric ones of Cameron and of Carney, and close to the spectroscopic ones of Cayrel et al. and of Boesgaard & Friel for the Hyades open cluster. Good quantitative agreement between our estimated [Fe/H] abundances with those from uvby-β photometry and spectroscopic [Fe/H]spec values demonstrates that our equation (6) can be used in deriving quality photometric metal abundances for field stars and clusters using UBV data from various photometric surveys. For dwarf and turn-off stars, a new hybrid MV calibration is presented, based on Hipparcos parallaxes with σπ/π <= 0.1 and with a dispersion of +/-0.24 in MV. This hybrid MV calibration contains δ0.6 and (B - V) terms, plus higher order cross-terms of these, and is valid for the ranges of +0.37 <= (B - V)0 <= +0.88,- 0.10 <= δ0.6 <= +0.29 and 3.44 <= MV <= 7.23. For dwarf and turn-off stars, the relation for ΔMHV is revised and updated in terms of (B - V) and δ0.6, for the ranges of -0.10 <= δ0.6 <= +0.29, and +0.49 <= (B - V)0 <= +0.89, again making use of Hipparcos parallaxes with σπ/π <= 0.1. These parallaxes for

  16. Alignment and absolute wavelength calibration of imaging Bragg spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, G; Marchuk, O; Barnsley, R

    2016-11-01

    In the present and the next generation of fusion devices, imaging Bragg spectrometers are key diagnostics to measure plasma parameters in the hot core, especially ion temperature and plasma rotation. The latter quantities are routinely obtained using the Doppler-width and -shift of the emitted spectral lines, respectively. Line shift measurements require absolute accuracies Δλ/λ of about 10 ppm, where λ-is the observed wavelength. For ITER and the present fusion devices, spectral lines of He-and H-like argon, iron, and krypton as well as Ne-like tungsten are foreseen for the measurements. For these lines, Kα lines can be found, some in higher order, which fit into the narrow energy window of the spectrometers. For arbitrary wavelength settings, Kα lines are also used to measure the miscut of the spherical crystals; afterwards the spectrometers can be set according to the geometrical imaging properties using coordinate measurement machines. For the spectrometers measuring Lyα lines of H-like ions, fluorescence targets can provide in situ localized calibration lines on the spectra. The fluorescence targets are used best in transmission and are excited by the thermal x-ray radiation of the plasma. An analytic theory of fluorescence is worked out.

  17. Computational Methodology for Absolute Calibration Curves for Microfluidic Optical Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Pin; Nagel, David J.; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2010-01-01

    Optical fluorescence and absorption are two of the primary techniques used for analytical microfluidics. We provide a thorough yet tractable method for computing the performance of diverse optical micro-analytical systems. Sample sizes range from nano- to many micro-liters and concentrations from nano- to milli-molar. Equations are provided to trace quantitatively the flow of the fundamental entities, namely photons and electrons, and the conversion of energy from the source, through optical components, samples and spectral-selective components, to the detectors and beyond. The equations permit facile computations of calibration curves that relate the concentrations or numbers of molecules measured to the absolute signals from the system. This methodology provides the basis for both detailed understanding and improved design of microfluidic optical analytical systems. It saves prototype turn-around time, and is much simpler and faster to use than ray tracing programs. Over two thousand spreadsheet computations were performed during this study. We found that some design variations produce higher signal levels and, for constant noise levels, lower minimum detection limits. Improvements of more than a factor of 1,000 were realized. PMID:22163573

  18. Improvement of Gaofen-3 Absolute Positioning Accuracy Based on Cross-Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Mingjun; Li, Jiansong

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese Gaofen-3 (GF-3) mission was launched in August 2016, equipped with a full polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor in the C-band, with a resolution of up to 1 m. The absolute positioning accuracy of GF-3 is of great importance, and in-orbit geometric calibration is a key technology for improving absolute positioning accuracy. Conventional geometric calibration is used to accurately calibrate the geometric calibration parameters of the image (internal delay and azimuth shifts) using high-precision ground control data, which are highly dependent on the control data of the calibration field, but it remains costly and labor-intensive to monitor changes in GF-3’s geometric calibration parameters. Based on the positioning consistency constraint of the conjugate points, this study presents a geometric cross-calibration method for the rapid and accurate calibration of GF-3. The proposed method can accurately calibrate geometric calibration parameters without using corner reflectors and high-precision digital elevation models, thus improving absolute positioning accuracy of the GF-3 image. GF-3 images from multiple regions were collected to verify the absolute positioning accuracy after cross-calibration. The results show that this method can achieve a calibration accuracy as high as that achieved by the conventional field calibration method. PMID:29240675

  19. Landsat-7 ETM+ on-orbit reflective-band radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Thome, K.J.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Helder, Dennis L.; Barker, J. L.; Scaramuzza, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument is in its sixth year of operation. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments. To date, the best onboard calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, a solar-diffuser-based system, which has indicated changes of between 1% to 2% per year in the ETM+ gain for bands 1-4 and 8 and less than 0.5%/year for bands 5 and 7. However, most of this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on vicarious calibrations and observations of "invariant sites", hyperarid sites of the Sahara and Arabia. Weighted average slopes determined from these datasets suggest changes of 0.0% to 0.4% per year for bands 1-4 and 8 and 0.4% to 0.5% per year for bands 5 and 7. Absolute calibration of the reflective bands of the ETM+ is consistent with vicarious observations and other sensors generally at the 5% level, though there appear to be some systematic differences.

  20. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Illing, Sebastian; Kern, Christoph; Alvarez Nieves, Jose Manuel; Vogel, Leif; Zielcke, Johannes; Delgados Granados, Hugo; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the uncertainty of results gained through the two commonly used, but quite different, calibration methods (DOAS and calibration cells). Measurements with three different instruments, an SO2 camera, a NFOVDOAS system and an Imaging DOAS (I-DOAS), are presented. We compare the calibration-cell approach with the calibration from the NFOV-DOAS system. The respective results are compared with measurements from an I-DOAS to verify the calibration curve over the spatial extent of the image. The results show that calibration cells, while working fine in some cases, can lead to an overestimation of the SO2 CD by up to 60% compared with CDs from the DOAS measurements. Besides these errors of calibration, radiative transfer effects (e.g. light dilution, multiple scattering) can significantly influence the results of both instrument types. The measurements presented in this work were taken at Popocatepetl, Mexico, between 1 March 2011 and 4 March 2011. Average SO2 emission rates between 4.00 and 14.34 kg s−1 were observed.

  1. Confidence-Accuracy Calibration in Absolute and Relative Face Recognition Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration was examined for absolute and relative face recognition judgments as well as for recognition judgments from groups of stimuli presented simultaneously or sequentially (i.e., simultaneous or sequential mini-lineups). When the effect of difficulty was controlled, absolute and relative judgments produced…

  2. Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Radiance for Instrument Calibration in the Ultraviolet to Short Wave Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAndrew, Brendan; McCorkel, Joel; Shuman, Timothy; Zukowski, Barbara; Traore, Aboubakar; Rodriguez, Michael; Brown, Steven; Woodward, John

    2018-01-01

    A description of the Goddard Laser for Absolute Calibration of Radiance, a tunable, narrow linewidth spectroradiometric calibration tool, and results from calibration of an earth science satellite instrument from ultraviolet to short wave infrared wavelengths.

  3. ScaRaB: first results of absolute and cross calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trémas, Thierry L.; Aznay, Ouahid; Chomette, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    ScaRaB (SCAnner for RAdiation Budget) is the name of three radiometers whose two first flight models have been launched in 1994 and 1997. The instruments were mounted on-board Russian satellites, METEOR and RESURS. On October 12th 2011, a last model has been launched from the Indian site of Sriharikota. ScaRaB is a passenger of MEGHA-TROPIQUES, an Indo-French joint Satellite Mission for studying the water cycle and energy exchanges in the tropics. ScaRaB is composed of four parallel and independent channels. Channel-2 and channel-3 are considered as the main ones. Channel-1 is dedicated to measure solar radiance (0.5 to 0.7 μm) while channel-4 (10 to 13 μm) is an infrared window. The absolute calibration of ScaRab is assured by internal calibration sources (black bodies and a lamp for channel-1). However, during the commissioning phase, the lamp used for the absolute calibration of channel-1 revealed to be inaccurate. We propose here an alternative calibration method based on terrestrial targets. Due to the spectral range of channel-1, only calibration over desert sites (temporal monitoring) and clouds (cross band) is suitable. Desert sites have been widely used for sensor calibration since they have a stable spectral response over time. Because of their high reflectances, the atmospheric effect on the upward radiance is relatively minimal. In addition, they are spatially uniform. Their temporal instability without atmospheric correction has been determined to be less than 1-2% over a year. Very-high-altitude (10 km) bright clouds are good validation targets in the visible and near-infrared spectra because of their high spectrally consistent reflectance. If the clouds are very high, there is no need to correct aerosol scattering and water vapor absorption as both aerosol and water vapor are distributed near the surface. Only Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption need to be considered. This method has been found to give a 4% uncertainty. Radiometric cross

  4. First Absolutely Calibrated Localized Measurements of Ion Velocity in the MST in Locked and Rotating Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Munaretto, S.

    2015-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used on MST for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometer records data within 0.3 nm of the C+5 line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . A novel optical system was designed to absolutely calibrate the IDS. The device uses an UV LED to produce a broad emission curve in the desired region. A Fabry-Perot etalon filters this light, cutting transmittance peaks into the pattern of the LED emission. An optical train of fused silica lenses focuses the light into the IDS with f/4. A holographic diffuser blurs the light cone to increase homogeneity. Using this light source, the absolute Doppler shift of ion emissions can be measured in MST plasmas. In combination with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, localized ion velocities can now be measured. Previously, a time-averaged measurement along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was used to calibrate the IDS; the quality of these central chord calibrations can be characterized with our absolute calibration. Calibration errors may also be quantified and minimized by optimizing the curve-fitting process. Preliminary measurements of toroidal velocity in locked and rotating plasmas will be shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE.

  5. Absolute photometric calibration of IRAC: lessons learned using nine years of flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S.; Ingalls, J.; Hora, J.; Surace, J.; Glaccum, W.; Lowrance, P.; Krick, J.; Cole, D.; Laine, S.; Engelke, C.; Price, S.; Bohlin, R.; Gordon, K.

    2012-09-01

    Significant improvements in our understanding of various photometric effects have occurred in the more than nine years of flight operations of the Infrared Array Camera aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. With the accumulation of calibration data, photometric variations that are intrinsic to the instrument can now be mapped with high fidelity. Using all existing data on calibration stars, the array location-dependent photometric correction (the variation of flux with position on the array) and the correction for intra-pixel sensitivity variation (pixel-phase) have been modeled simultaneously. Examination of the warm mission data enabled the characterization of the underlying form of the pixelphase variation in cryogenic data. In addition to the accumulation of calibration data, significant improvements in the calibration of the truth spectra of the calibrators has taken place. Using the work of Engelke et al. (2006), the KIII calibrators have no offset as compared to the AV calibrators, providing a second pillar of the calibration scheme. The current cryogenic calibration is better than 3% in an absolute sense, with most of the uncertainty still in the knowledge of the true flux densities of the primary calibrators. We present the final state of the cryogenic IRAC calibration and a comparison of the IRAC calibration to an independent calibration methodology using the HST primary calibrators.

  6. Improvements in absolute seismometer sensitivity calibration using local earth gravity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, Robert E.; Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David

    2018-01-01

    The ability to determine both absolute and relative seismic amplitudes is fundamentally limited by the accuracy and precision with which scientists are able to calibrate seismometer sensitivities and characterize their response. Currently, across the Global Seismic Network (GSN), errors in midband sensitivity exceed 3% at the 95% confidence interval and are the least‐constrained response parameter in seismic recording systems. We explore a new methodology utilizing precise absolute Earth gravity measurements to determine the midband sensitivity of seismic instruments. We first determine the absolute sensitivity of Kinemetrics EpiSensor accelerometers to 0.06% at the 99% confidence interval by inverting them in a known gravity field at the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL). After the accelerometer is calibrated, we install it in its normal configuration next to broadband seismometers and subject the sensors to identical ground motions to perform relative calibrations of the broadband sensors. Using this technique, we are able to determine the absolute midband sensitivity of the vertical components of Nanometrics Trillium Compact seismometers to within 0.11% and Streckeisen STS‐2 seismometers to within 0.14% at the 99% confidence interval. The technique enables absolute calibrations from first principles that are traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) measurements while providing nearly an order of magnitude more precision than step‐table calibrations.

  7. Temporal dynamics of sand dune bidirectional reflectance characteristics for absolute radiometric calibration of optical remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, Craig A.; Logie, Gordon S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Attempts to use pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICS) for establishing absolute radiometric calibration of Earth observation (EO) satellites requires high-quality information about the nature of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the surfaces used for these calibrations. Past studies have shown that the PICS method is useful for evaluating the trend of sensors over time or for the intercalibration of sensors. The PICS method was not considered until recently for deriving absolute radiometric calibration. This paper presents BRDF data collected by a high-performance portable goniometer system to develop a temporal BRDF model for the Algodones Dunes in California. By sampling the BRDF of the sand surface at similar solar zenith angles to those normally encountered by EO satellites, additional information on the changing nature of the surface can improve models used to provide absolute radiometric correction. The results demonstrated that the BRDF of a reasonably simple sand surface was complex with changes in anisotropy taking place in response to changing solar zenith angles. For the majority of observation and illumination angles, the spectral reflectance anisotropy observed varied between 1% and 5% in patterns that repeat around solar noon.

  8. Absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for tokamak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirlet, R.; Schwob, J. L.; Meyer, O.; Vartanian, S.

    2017-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet spectrometer installed on the Tore Supra tokamak has been calibrated in absolute units of brightness in the range 10-340 Å. This has been performed by means of a combination of techniques. The range 10-113 Å was absolutely calibrated by using an ultrasoft-X ray source emitting six spectral lines in this range. The calibration transfer to the range 113-182 Å was performed using the spectral line intensity branching ratio method. The range 182-340 Å was calibrated thanks to radiative-collisional modelling of spectral line intensity ratios. The maximum sensitivity of the spectrometer was found to lie around 100 Å. Around this wavelength, the sensitivity is fairly flat in a 80 Å wide interval. The spatial variations of sensitivity along the detector assembly were also measured. The observed trend is related to the quantum efficiency decrease as the angle of the incoming photon trajectories becomes more grazing.

  9. Confidence-accuracy calibration in absolute and relative face recognition judgments.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nathan; Brewer, Neil

    2004-09-01

    Confidence-accuracy (CA) calibration was examined for absolute and relative face recognition judgments as well as for recognition judgments from groups of stimuli presented simultaneously or sequentially (i.e., simultaneous or sequential mini-lineups). When the effect of difficulty was controlled, absolute and relative judgments produced negligibly different CA calibration, whereas no significant difference was observed for simultaneous and sequential mini-lineups. Further, the effect of difficulty on CA calibration was equivalent across judgment and mini-lineup types. It is interesting to note that positive (i.e., old) recognition judgments demonstrated strong CA calibration whereas negative (i.e., new) judgments evidenced little or no CA association. Implications for eyewitness identification are discussed. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Calibration of the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Barnes, Robert; Baize, Rosemary; O'Connell, Joseph; Hair, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar instrument retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a calibration approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The calibration is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based calibration standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory calibration including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements.

  11. Artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques employed in the Landsat 7 image assessment system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boncyk, Wayne C.; Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Helder, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    The Landsat-7 Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the Landsat-7 Ground System, will calibrate and evaluate the radiometric and geometric performance of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) instrument. The IAS incorporates new instrument radiometric artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques which overcome some limitations to calibration accuracy inherent in historical calibration methods. Knowledge of ETM + instrument characteristics gleaned from analysis of archival Thematic Mapper in-flight data and from ETM + prelaunch tests allow the determination and quantification of the sources of instrument artifacts. This a priori knowledge will be utilized in IAS algorithms designed to minimize the effects of the noise sources before calibration, in both ETM + image and calibration data.

  12. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Narrow-Swath Imaging Sensors with Reference to Non-Coincident Wide-Swath Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurtis; Lockwood, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    An inter-calibration method is developed to provide absolute radiometric calibration of narrow-swath imaging sensors with reference to non-coincident wide-swath sensors. The method predicts at-sensor radiance using non-coincident imagery from the reference sensor and knowledge of spectral reflectance of the test site. The imagery of the reference sensor is restricted to acquisitions that provide similar view and solar illumination geometry to reduce uncertainties due to directional reflectance effects. Spectral reflectance of the test site is found with a simple iterative radiative transfer method using radiance values of a well-understood wide-swath sensor and spectral shape information based on historical ground-based measurements. At-sensor radiance is calculated for the narrow-swath sensor using this spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters that are also based on historical in situ measurements. Results of the inter-calibration method show agreement on the 2 5 percent level in most spectral regions with the vicarious calibration technique relying on coincident ground-based measurements referred to as the reflectance-based approach. While the variability of the inter-calibration method based on non-coincident image pairs is significantly larger, results are consistent with techniques relying on in situ measurements. The method is also insensitive to spectral differences between the sensors by transferring to surface spectral reflectance prior to prediction of at-sensor radiance. The utility of this inter-calibration method is made clear by its flexibility to utilize image pairings with acquisition dates differing in excess of 30 days allowing frequent absolute calibration comparisons between wide- and narrow-swath sensors.

  13. A new method to calibrate the absolute sensitivity of a soft X-ray streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; Liu, Shenye; Li, Jin; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Ming; Guo, Luting; Yao, Li; Xiao, Shali

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new method to calibrate the absolute sensitivity of a soft X-ray streak camera (SXRSC). The calibrations are done in the static mode by using a small laser-produced X-ray source. A calibrated X-ray CCD is used as a secondary standard detector to monitor the X-ray source intensity. In addition, two sets of holographic flat-field grating spectrometers are chosen as the spectral discrimination systems of the SXRSC and the X-ray CCD. The absolute sensitivity of the SXRSC is obtained by comparing the signal counts of the SXRSC to the output counts of the X-ray CCD. Results show that the calibrated spectrum covers the range from 200 eV to 1040 eV. The change of the absolute sensitivity in the vicinity of the K-edge of the carbon can also be clearly seen. The experimental values agree with the calculated values to within 29% error. Compared with previous calibration methods, the proposed method has several advantages: a wide spectral range, high accuracy, and simple data processing. Our calibration results can be used to make quantitative X-ray flux measurements in laser fusion research.

  14. Absolute Wavelength Calibration of the IDSII Spectrometer for Impurity Ion Velocity Measurements in the MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; MST Team

    2014-10-01

    The MST operates two Ion Doppler Spectrometers (IDS) for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometers record data within 0.3 nm of the line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . Four calibration methods were investigated. First, emission along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was measured as it should have no time-averaged Doppler shift. Second, a calibrated CCD spectrometer and the IDSII were used to observe the same plasma from opposing sides so as to measure opposite Doppler shifts. The unshifted line is located halfway between the two opposing measurements. Third, the two fibers of the IDSI were positioned to take absolute flow measurements using opposing views. Substituting the IDSII for one of the IDSI fibers, absolute measurements of flow from the IDSI were used to calibrate the IDSII. Finally, an optical system was designed to filter an ultraviolet LED, providing a known wavelength source within the spectral range covered by the IDSII. The optical train is composed of an air-gapped etalon and fused silica lenses. The quality of calibration for each of these methods is analyzed and their results compared. Preliminary impurity ion velocity measurements are shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE and the NSF.

  15. Absolute flux density calibrations of radio sources: 2.3 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freiley, A. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Bathker, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed description of a NASA/JPL Deep Space Network program to improve S-band gain calibrations of large aperture antennas is reported. The program is considered unique in at least three ways; first, absolute gain calibrations of high quality suppressed-sidelobe dual mode horns first provide a high accuracy foundation to the foundation to the program. Second, a very careful transfer calibration technique using an artificial far-field coherent-wave source was used to accurately obtain the gain of one large (26 m) aperture. Third, using the calibrated large aperture directly, the absolute flux density of five selected galactic and extragalactic natural radio sources was determined with an absolute accuracy better than 2 percent, now quoted at the familiar 1 sigma confidence level. The follow-on considerations to apply these results to an operational network of ground antennas are discussed. It is concluded that absolute gain accuracies within + or - 0.30 to 0.40 db are possible, depending primarily on the repeatability (scatter) in the field data from Deep Space Network user stations.

  16. Absolute Magnitude Calibration for Dwarfs Based on the Colour-Magnitude Diagrams of Galactic Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaali, S.; Gökçe, E. Yaz; Bilir, S.; Güçtekin, S. Tunçel

    2014-07-01

    We present two absolute magnitude calibrations for dwarfs based on colour-magnitude diagrams of Galactic clusters. The combination of the Mg absolute magnitudes of the dwarf fiducial sequences of the clusters M92, M13, M5, NGC 2420, M67, and NGC 6791 with the corresponding metallicities provides absolute magnitude calibration for a given (g - r)0 colour. The calibration is defined in the colour interval 0.25 ≤ (g - r)0 ≤ 1.25 mag and it covers the metallicity interval - 2.15 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.37 dex. The absolute magnitude residuals obtained by the application of the procedure to another set of Galactic clusters lie in the interval - 0.15 ≤ ΔMg ≤ +0.12 mag. The mean and standard deviation of the residuals are < ΔMg > = - 0.002 and σ = 0.065 mag, respectively. The calibration of the MJ absolute magnitude in terms of metallicity is carried out by using the fiducial sequences of the clusters M92, M13, 47 Tuc, NGC 2158, and NGC 6791. It is defined in the colour interval 0.90 ≤ (V - J)0 ≤ 1.75 mag and it covers the same metallicity interval of the Mg calibration. The absolute magnitude residuals obtained by the application of the procedure to the cluster M5 ([Fe/H] = -1.40 dex) and 46 solar metallicity, - 0.45 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.35 dex, field stars lie in the interval - 0.29 and + 0.35 mag. However, the range of 87% of them is rather shorter, - 0.20 ≤ ΔMJ ≤ +0.20 mag. The mean and standard deviation of all residuals are < ΔMJ > =0.05 and σ = 0.13 mag, respectively. The derived relations are applicable to stars older than 4 Gyr for the Mg calibration, and older than 2 Gyr for the MJ calibration. The cited limits are the ages of the youngest calibration clusters in the two systems.

  17. Absolute x-ray energy calibration and monitoring using a diffraction-based method

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Xinguo, E-mail: xhong@bnl.gov; Weidner, Donald J.; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2016-07-27

    In this paper, we report some recent developments of the diffraction-based absolute X-ray energy calibration method. In this calibration method, high spatial resolution of the measured detector offset is essential. To this end, a remotely controlled long-translation motorized stage was employed instead of the less convenient gauge blocks. It is found that the precision of absolute X-ray energy calibration (ΔE/E) is readily achieved down to the level of 10{sup −4} for high-energy monochromatic X-rays (e.g. 80 keV). Examples of applications to pair distribution function (PDF) measurements and energy monitoring for high-energy X-rays are presented.

  18. Absolute calibration of optical streak cameras on picosecond time scales using supercontinuum generation

    DOE PAGES

    Patankar, S.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Robinson, T. S.; ...

    2017-08-17

    Here we report a new method using high stability, laser-driven supercontinuum generation in a liquid cell to calibrate the absolute photon response of fast optical streak cameras as a function of wavelength when operating at fastest sweep speeds. A stable, pulsed white light source based around the use of self-phase modulation in a salt solution was developed to provide the required brightness on picosecond timescales, enabling streak camera calibration in fully dynamic operation. The measured spectral brightness allowed for absolute photon response calibration over a broad spectral range (425-650nm). Calibrations performed with two Axis Photonique streak cameras using the Photonismore » P820PSU streak tube demonstrated responses which qualitatively follow the photocathode response. Peak sensitivities were 1 photon/count above background. The absolute dynamic sensitivity is less than the static by up to an order of magnitude. We attribute this to the dynamic response of the phosphor being lower.« less

  19. Four Years of Absolutely Calibrated Hyperspectral Data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the Eos Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Broberg, Steve; Elliott, Denis; Gregorich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews four years of absolute calibration of hyperspectral data from the AIRS instrument located on the EOS AQUA spacecraft. The following topics are discussed: 1) A quick overview of AIRS; 2) What absolute calibration accuracy and stability are required for climate applications?; 3) Validating of radiance accuracy and stability: Results from four years of AIRS data; and 4) Conclusions.

  20. Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry-Perot optical system.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, M M; Craig, D; Den Hartog, D J; Nishizawa, T; Nornberg, M D

    2016-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used for fast measurements of C VI line emission (343.4 nm) in the Madison Symmetric Torus. Absolutely calibrated flow measurements are difficult because the IDS records data within 0.25 nm of the line. Commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range. A light source using an ultraviolet LED and etalon was designed to provide a fiducial marker 0.08 nm wide. The light is coupled into the IDS at f/4, and a holographic diffuser increases homogeneity of the final image. Random and systematic errors in data analysis were assessed. The calibration is accurate to 0.003 nm, allowing for flow measurements accurate to 3 km/s. This calibration is superior to the previous method which used a time-averaged measurement along a chord believed to have zero net Doppler shift.

  1. Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry-Perot optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M. M.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used for fast measurements of C VI line emission (343.4 nm) in the Madison Symmetric Torus. Absolutely calibrated flow measurements are difficult because the IDS records data within 0.25 nm of the line. Commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range. A light source using an ultraviolet LED and etalon was designed to provide a fiducial marker 0.08 nm wide. The light is coupled into the IDS at f/4, and a holographic diffuser increases homogeneity of the final image. Random and systematic errors in data analysis were assessed. The calibration is accurate to 0.003 nm, allowing for flow measurements accurate to 3 km/s. This calibration is superior to the previous method which used a time-averaged measurement along a chord believed to have zero net Doppler shift.

  2. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, R. M., E-mail: rmagee@trialphaenergy.com; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.

    2016-11-15

    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 10{sup 7} n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each methodmore » are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.« less

  3. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC.

    PubMed

    Magee, R M; Clary, R; Korepanov, S; Jauregui, F; Allfrey, I; Garate, E; Valentine, T; Smirnov, A

    2016-11-01

    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 10 7 n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each method are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.

  4. Rapid, absolute calibration of x-ray filters employed by laser-produced plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Emig, J.

    2008-10-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to absolutely calibrate the transmission efficiency of x-ray filters employed by diodes and spectrometers used to diagnose laser-produced plasmas. EBIT emits strong, discrete monoenergetic lines at appropriately chosen x-ray energies. X rays are detected using the high resolution EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), developed for LLNL at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. X-ray filter transmission efficiency is determined by dividing the x-ray counts detected when the filter is in the line of sight by those detected when out of the line of sight. Verification ofmore » filter thickness can be completed in only a few hours, and absolute efficiencies can be calibrated in a single day over a broad range from about 0.1 to 15 keV. The EBIT calibration lab has been used to field diagnostics (e.g., the OZSPEC instrument) with fully calibrated x-ray filters at the OMEGA laser. Extensions to use the capability for calibrating filter transmission for the DANTE instrument on the National Ignition Facility are discussed.« less

  5. Absolute mass scale calibration in the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenichenko, V. V.

    A method of the absolute mass scale calibration is suggested for solving the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs. The method is based on the data on the masses of the fallen meteorites whose fireballs have been photographed in their flight. The method may be applied to those fireballs whose bodies have not experienced considerable fragmentation during their destruction in the atmosphere and have kept their form well enough. Statistical analysis of the inverse problem solution for a sufficiently representative sample makes it possible to separate a subsample of such fireballs. The data on the Lost City and Innisfree meteorites are used to obtain calibration coefficients.

  6. Absolute calibration of the mass scale in the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenichenko, V. V.

    1992-08-01

    A method of the absolute calibration of the mass scale is proposed for solving the inverse problem of the physical theory of fireballs. The method is based on data on the masses of fallen meteorites whose fireballs have been photographed in flight. The method can be applied to fireballs whose bodies have not experienced significant fragmentation during their flight in the atmosphere and have kept their shape relatively well. Data on the Lost City and Innisfree meteorites are used to calculate the calibration coefficients.

  7. Calibration-free absolute frequency response measurement of directly modulated lasers based on additional modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Liu, Yong

    2015-10-15

    A calibration-free electrical method is proposed for measuring the absolute frequency response of directly modulated semiconductor lasers based on additional modulation. The method achieves the electrical domain measurement of the modulation index of directly modulated lasers without the need for correcting the responsivity fluctuation in the photodetection. Moreover, it doubles measuring frequency range by setting a specific frequency relationship between the direct and additional modulation. Both the absolute and relative frequency response of semiconductor lasers are experimentally measured from the electrical spectrum of the twice-modulated optical signal, and the measured results are compared to those obtained with conventional methods to check the consistency. The proposed method provides calibration-free and accurate measurement for high-speed semiconductor lasers with high-resolution electrical spectrum analysis.

  8. Absolute calibration of a charge-coupled device camera with twin beams

    SciTech Connect

    Meda, A.; Ruo-Berchera, I., E-mail: i.ruoberchera@inrim.it; Degiovanni, I. P.

    2014-09-08

    We report on the absolute calibration of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera by exploiting quantum correlation. This method exploits a certain number of spatial pairwise quantum correlated modes produced by spontaneous parametric-down-conversion. We develop a measurement model accounting for all the uncertainty contributions, and we reach the relative uncertainty of 0.3% in low photon flux regime. This represents a significant step forward for the characterization of (scientific) CCDs used in mesoscopic light regime.

  9. Empirical photometric calibration of the Gaia red clump: Colours, effective temperature, and absolute magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Dern, L.; Babusiaux, C.; Arenou, F.; Turon, C.; Lallement, R.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 allows the recalibration of standard candles such as the red clump stars. To use those stars, they first need to be accurately characterised. In particular, colours are needed to derive interstellar extinction. As no filter is available for the first Gaia data release and to avoid the atmosphere model mismatch, an empirical calibration is unavoidable. Aims: The purpose of this work is to provide the first complete and robust photometric empirical calibration of the Gaia red clump stars of the solar neighbourhood through colour-colour, effective temperature-colour, and absolute magnitude-colour relations from the Gaia, Johnson, 2MASS, HIPPARCOS, Tycho-2, APASS-SLOAN, and WISE photometric systems, and the APOGEE DR13 spectroscopic temperatures. Methods: We used a 3D extinction map to select low reddening red giants. To calibrate the colour-colour and the effective temperature-colour relations, we developed a MCMC method that accounts for all variable uncertainties and selects the best model for each photometric relation. We estimated the red clump absolute magnitude through the mode of a kernel-based distribution function. Results: We provide 20 colour versus G-Ks relations and the first Teff versus G-Ks calibration. We obtained the red clump absolute magnitudes for 15 photometric bands with, in particular, MKs = (-1.606 ± 0.009) and MG = (0.495 ± 0.009) + (1.121 ± 0.128)(G-Ks-2.1). We present a dereddened Gaia-TGAS HR diagram and use the calibrations to compare its red clump and its red giant branch bump with Padova isochrones. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A116

  10. Full-Field Calibration of Color Camera Chromatic Aberration using Absolute Phase Maps.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-05-06

    The refractive index of a lens varies for different wavelengths of light, and thus the same incident light with different wavelengths has different outgoing light. This characteristic of lenses causes images captured by a color camera to display chromatic aberration (CA), which seriously reduces image quality. Based on an analysis of the distribution of CA, a full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps is proposed in this paper. Red, green, and blue closed sinusoidal fringe patterns are generated, consecutively displayed on an LCD (liquid crystal display), and captured by a color camera from the front viewpoint. The phase information of each color fringe is obtained using a four-step phase-shifting algorithm and optimum fringe number selection method. CA causes the unwrapped phase of the three channels to differ. These pixel deviations can be computed by comparing the unwrapped phase data of the red, blue, and green channels in polar coordinates. CA calibration is accomplished in Cartesian coordinates. The systematic errors introduced by the LCD are analyzed and corrected. Simulated results show the validity of the proposed method and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed full-field calibration method based on absolute phase maps will be useful for practical software-based CA calibration.

  11. Absolute calibration of a hydrogen discharge lamp in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low-pressure hydrogen discharge lamp was calibrated for radiant intensity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region on an absolute basis and was employed as a laboratory standard source in spectrograph calibrations. This calibration was accomplished through the use of a standard photodiode detector obtained from the National Bureau of Standards together with onsite measurements of spectral properties of optical components used. The stability of the light source for use in the calibration of vacuum ultraviolet spectrographs and optical systems was investigated and found to be amenable to laboratory applications. The lamp was studied for a range of operating parameters; the results indicate that with appropriate peripheral instrumentation, the light source can be used as a secondary laboratory standard source when operated under preset controlled conditions. Absolute intensity measurements were recorded for the wavelengths 127.7, 158.0, 177.5, and 195.0 nm for a time period of over 1 month, and the measurements were found to be repeatable to within 11 percent.

  12. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Measurements of Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, R. D., Jr.; Rabb, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon isotope variations (reported as δ30Si and δ29Si, relative to NBS28) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The resolution and comparability of such measurements depend on the quality of the isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs) defining the delta scale. We report new absolute Si isotopic measurements on the iRMs NBS28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, and Big Batch using the Avogadro measurement approach and comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs. The Avogadro Si measurement technique was developed by the German Physikalish-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) to provide a precise and highly accurate method to measure absolute isotopic ratios in highly enriched 28Si (99.996%) material. These measurements are part of an international effort to redefine the kg and mole based on the Planck constant h and the Avogadro constant NA, respectively (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach produces absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement calibration. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 where absolute Si isotopic measurements on SRM 990, separated by 40+ years of advances in instrumentation, are compared. The availability of this new technique does not say that absolute Si isotopic ratios are or ever will be better for normal Si isotopic measurements when seeking isotopic variations in nature, because they are not. However, by determining the absolute isotopic ratios of all the Si iRM scale artifacts, such iRMs become traceable to the metric system (SI); thereby automatically conferring on all the artifact-based δ30Si and δ29Si measurements traceability to the base SI unit, the mole. Such traceability should help reduce the potential of bias between different iRMs and facilitate the replacement of delta

  13. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2016-04-01

    The Avogadro Project is an ongoing international effort, coordinated by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the International Avogadro Coordination (IAC) to redefine the SI unit mole in terms of the Avogadro constant and the SI unit kg in terms of the Planck constant. One of the outgrowths of this effort has been the development of a novel, precise and highly accurate method to measure calibrated (absolute) isotopic ratios that are traceable to the SI (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach has also been able to produce absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement. Silicon isotope variations (reported as delta(Si30)and delta(Si29)) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The utility and comparability of such measurements however depends on calibration with artifact isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs). We will be reporting new measurements on the iRMs NBS-28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, Big Batch and SRM 990 using the Avogadro measurement approach, comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs.

  14. Landsat-7 ETM+ On-Orbit Reflective-Band Radiometric Stability and Absolute Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Ed; Helder, Dennis L.; Barker, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The Landsat-7 spacecraft carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument. This instrument images the Earth land surface in eight parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, termed spectral bands. These spectral images are used to monitor changes in the land surface, so a consistent relationship, i.e., calibration, between the image data and the Earth surface brightness, is required. The ETM+ has several on- board calibration devices that are used to monitor this calibration. The best on-board calibration source employs a flat white painted reference panel and has indicated changes of between 0.5% to 2% per year in the ETM+ response, depending on the spectral band. However, most of these changes are believed to be caused by changes in the reference panel, as opposed to changes in the instrument's sensitivity. This belief is based partially on on-orbit calibrations using instrumented ground sites and observations of "invariant sites", hyper-arid sites of the Sahara and Arabia. Changes determined from these data sets indicate are 0.1% - 0.6% per year. Tests and comparisons to other sensors also indicate that the uncertainty of the calibration is at the 5% level.

  15. SU-F-T-492: The Impact of Water Temperature On Absolute Dose Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, N; Podgorsak, M; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY

    Purpose: The Task Group 51 (TG 51) protocol prescribes that dose calibration of photon beams be done by irradiating an ionization chamber in a water tank at pre-defined depths. Methodologies are provided to account for variations in measurement conditions by applying correction factors. However, the protocol does not completely account for the impact of water temperature. It is well established that water temperature will influence the density of air in the ion chamber collecting volume. Water temperature, however, will also influence the size of the collecting volume via thermal expansion of the cavity wall and the density of the watermore » in the tank. In this work the overall effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Methods: Dose measurements were made using a Farmer-type ion chamber for 6 and 23 MV photon beams with water temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. A reference ion chamber was used to account for fluctuations in beam output between successive measurements. Results: For the same beam output, the dose determined using TG 51 was dependent on the temperature of the water in the tank. A linear regression of the data suggests that the dependence is statistically significant with p-values of the slope equal to 0.003 and 0.01 for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. For a 10 degree increase in water phantom temperature, the absolute dose determined with TG 51 increased by 0.27% and 0.31% for 6 and 23 MV beams, respectively. Conclusion: There is a measurable effect of water temperature on absolute dose calibration. To account for this effect, a reference temperature can be defined and a correction factor applied to account for deviations from this reference temperature during beam calibration. Such a factor is expected to be of similar magnitude to most of the existing TG 51 correction factors.« less

  16. Performance of Different Light Sources for the Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, M. J.; Mantilla, J. M.; del Campo, D.; Hernanz, M. L.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.

    2017-09-01

    The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin (MeP-K) [1, 2] will, in its forthcoming edition, encourage the realization and dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature either directly (primary thermometry) or indirectly (relative primary thermometry) via fixed points with assigned reference thermodynamic temperatures. In the last years, the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), in collaboration with the Instituto de Óptica of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IO-CSIC), has developed several setups for absolute calibration of standard radiation thermometers using the radiance method to allow CEM the direct dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature and the assignment of the thermodynamic temperatures to several fixed points. Different calibration facilities based on a monochromator and/or a laser and an integrating sphere have been developed to calibrate CEM's standard radiation thermometers (KE-LP2 and KE-LP4) and filter radiometer (FIRA2). This system is based on the one described in [3] placed in IO-CSIC. Different light sources have been tried and tested for measuring absolute spectral radiance responsivity: a Xe-Hg 500 W lamp, a supercontinuum laser NKT SuperK-EXR20 and a diode laser emitting at 6473 nm with a typical maximum power of 120 mW. Their advantages and disadvantages have been studied such as sensitivity to interferences generated by the laser inside the filter, flux stability generated by the radiant sources and so forth. This paper describes the setups used, the uncertainty budgets and the results obtained for the absolute temperatures of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed points, measured with the three thermometers with central wavelengths around 650 nm.

  17. Anomalous gain in an isotopically mixed CO2 laser and application to absolute wavelength calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewagama, Tilak; Oppenheim, Uri P.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements are reported on a grating-tuned CO2 laser, containing an isotropic mixture of O-16C-12O-16, O-16C-12O-18, and O-18C-12O-18. The P6 and R14 lines of O-16C-12O-16 were found to have anomalously high intensities. These anomalies are produced by the near coincidence of the transition frequencies in two distinct isotopes, permitting them to act as a single indistinguishable population. These two lines can be used to identify the rotational quantum numbers in the P and R branch spectra, thereby permitting absolute wavelength calibration to be achieved.

  18. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  19. First Results of Field Absolute Calibration of the GPS Receiver Antenna at Wuhan University

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhigang; Zhao, Qile; Chen, Guo; Wang, Guangxing; Dai, Zhiqiang; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    GNSS receiver antenna phase center variations (PCVs), which arise from the non-spherical phase response of GNSS signals have to be well corrected for high-precision GNSS applications. Without using a precise antenna phase center correction (PCC) model, the estimated position of a station monument will lead to a bias of up to several centimeters. The Chinese large-scale research project “Crustal Movement Observation Network of China” (CMONOC), which requires high-precision positions in a comprehensive GPS observational network motived establishment of a set of absolute field calibrations of the GPS receiver antenna located at Wuhan University. In this paper the calibration facilities are firstly introduced and then the multipath elimination and PCV estimation strategies currently used are elaborated. The validation of estimated PCV values of test antenna are finally conducted, compared with the International GNSS Service (IGS) type values. Examples of TRM57971.00 NONE antenna calibrations from our calibration facility demonstrate that the derived PCVs and IGS type mean values agree at the 1 mm level. PMID:26580616

  20. First Results of Field Absolute Calibration of the GPS Receiver Antenna at Wuhan University.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhigang; Zhao, Qile; Chen, Guo; Wang, Guangxing; Dai, Zhiqiang; Li, Tao

    2015-11-13

    GNSS receiver antenna phase center variations (PCVs), which arise from the non-spherical phase response of GNSS signals have to be well corrected for high-precision GNSS applications. Without using a precise antenna phase center correction (PCC) model, the estimated position of a station monument will lead to a bias of up to several centimeters. The Chinese large-scale research project "Crustal Movement Observation Network of China" (CMONOC), which requires high-precision positions in a comprehensive GPS observational network motived establishment of a set of absolute field calibrations of the GPS receiver antenna located at Wuhan University. In this paper the calibration facilities are firstly introduced and then the multipath elimination and PCV estimation strategies currently used are elaborated. The validation of estimated PCV values of test antenna are finally conducted, compared with the International GNSS Service (IGS) type values. Examples of TRM57971.00 NONE antenna calibrations from our calibration facility demonstrate that the derived PCVs and IGS type mean values agree at the 1 mm level.

  1. The Darwin TCCON Site - CO2 Calibration and First Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Wennberg, P. O.; Toon, G. C.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the first measurements from the solar observatory deployed to Darwin, Australia in August 2005. The observatory is the second dedicated instrument in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The first two years of column values are presented, as well as comparison to integrated in situ aircraft profiles obtained during the Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in January - February 2006. Sites in TCCON will provide ground-based validation and calibration for upcoming space-based instruments, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), which measure the same atmospheric quantities. The TCCON stations are calibrated against integrated columns measured from aircraft by instruments calibrated on the accepted WMO CO2 scale. Two CO2 microwindows are calibrated independently, and the correction factors are determined to be 1.0143 ± 0.0004 (fit ± 95% confidence interval) and 1.0152 ± 0.0003, respectively, for the 6228 cm-1 and 6348 cm-1 bands. These values are in good agreement with similar comparisons made at Park Falls, and show an improvement in the absolute calibration, due to improved CO2 line parameters. The first two years of CO2 data from the solar FTS are analysed for secular and seasonal trends in the column average mixing ratio. These are compared to some surface in situ data trends for the same period. The column data capture the secular trend as observed in surface in situ measurements, however, the seasonal cycle is dampened relative to the surface data illustrating the need for high precision measurements, but also the potential to remove rectifier effects.

  2. Description and performance of the OGSE for VNIR absolute spectroradiometric calibration of MTG-I satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glastre, W.; Marque, J.; Compain, E.; Deep, A.; Durand, Y.; Aminou, D. M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) Programme is being realised through the well-established and successful Cooperation between EUMETSAT and ESA. It will ensure the future continuity of MSG with the capabilities to enhance nowcasting, global and regional numerical weather prediction, climate and atmospheric chemistry monitoring data from Geostationary Orbit. This will be achieved through a series of 6 satellites named MTG-I and MTG-S to bring to the meteorological community continuous high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution observations and geophysical parameters of the Earth based on sensors from the geo-stationary orbit. In particular, the imagery mission MTG-I will bring an improved continuation of the MSG satellites series with the Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) a broad spectral range (from UV to LWIR) with better spatial and spectral resolutions. The FCI will be able to take high spatial resolution pictures of the Earth within 8 VNIR and 8 IR channels. As one of the mission of this instrument is to provide a quantitative analysis of atmosphere compounds, the absolute observed radiance needs to be known with a specified accuracy for VNIR as low as to 5% at k=3 over its full dynamic. While the FCI is regularly recalibrated every 6 month at equinoxes, it is however requiring initial ground calibration for the beginning of its mission. The Multi Optical Test Assembly (MOTA) is one of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) dedicated to various missions necessary for the integration of the FCI . This equipment, provided by Bertin Technologies, will be delivered to TAS-F by the end of 2016. One of its mission, is the on-ground absolute calibration of VNIR channels. In order to handle this, the MOTA will be placed in front of the FCI under representative vacuum conditions and will be able to project a perfectly known, calibrated radiance level within the full dynamic of FCI instrument. The main difficulty is the very demanding calibration level with

  3. Direct Reflectance Measurements from Drones: Sensor Absolute Radiometric Calibration and System Tests for Forest Reflectance Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Hakala, Teemu; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK). PMID:29751560

  4. Direct Reflectance Measurements from Drones: Sensor Absolute Radiometric Calibration and System Tests for Forest Reflectance Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Teemu; Markelin, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Nevalainen, Olli; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Viljanen, Niko; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel

    2018-05-03

    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK).

  5. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology–traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40 nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP’s ~250-nm operating range ismore » then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. As a result, error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.« less

  6. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    DOE PAGES

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.; ...

    2016-11-29

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology–traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40 nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP’s ~250-nm operating range ismore » then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. As a result, error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.« less

  7. Absolute Sea Level Monitoring and Altimeter Calibration At Gavdos, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E. C.; Gavdos Team

    We present the mean sea level (MSL) monitoring aspect of the altimeter calibration fa- cility under deployment on western Crete and the isle of Gavdos. The Eastern Mediter- ranean area is one of great interest for its intense tectonic activity as well as for its regional oceanography. Recent observations have convincingly demonstrated the im- portance of that area for the regional meteorological and climatological changes. Tide- gauge monitoring with GPS has gained importance lately since tectonics contaminate the inferred sea level variations, and a global network of tide-gauges with long his- torical records can be used as satellite altimeter calibration sites for current and fu- ture missions (e.g. TOPEX/POSEIDON, GFO, JASON-1, ENVISAT, etc.). This is at present a common IOC-GLOSS-IGS effort, already underway (TIGA). Crete hosts two of the oldest tide-gauges in the regional network and our project will further ex- pand it to the south of the island with a new site on the isle of Gavdos, the southernmost European parcel of land. One component of our "GAVDOS" project is the repeated occupation of two already in existence tide-gauge sites at Souda Bay and Heraklion, and their tie to the new facility. We show here initial results from positioning of these sites and some of the available tidal records. Gavdos is situated under a ground-track crossing point of the present T/P and JASON-1 orbits. It is an ideal calibration site if the tectonic motions are monitored precisely and continuously. Our plans include the deployment of additional instrumentation at this site: GPS and DORIS beacons for positioning, transponders for direct calibration, water vapor radiometers, GPS-loaded buoys, airborne surveys with gravimeters and laser profiling lidars, etc., to ensure the best possible and most reliable results.

  8. Lunar Cratering Chronology: Calibrating Degree of Freshness of Craters to Absolute Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, D.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Boyce, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The use of impact craters to age-date surfaces of and/or geomorphological features on planetary bodies is a decades old practice. Various dating techniques use different aspects of impact craters in order to determine ages. One approach is based on the degree of freshness of primary-impact craters. This method examines the degradation state of craters through visual inspection of seven criteria: polygonality, crater ray, continuous ejecta, rim crest sharpness, satellite craters, radial channels, and terraces. These criteria are used to rank craters in order of age from 0.0 (oldest) to 7.0 (youngest). However, the relative decimal scale used in this technique has not been tied to a classification of absolute ages. In this work, we calibrate the degree of freshness to absolute ages through crater counting. We link the degree of freshness to absolute ages through crater counting of fifteen craters with diameters ranging from 5-22 km and degree of freshness from 6.3 to 2.5. We use the Terrain Camera data set on Kaguya to count craters on the continuous ejecta of each crater in our sample suite. Specifically, we divide the crater's ejecta blanket into quarters and count craters between the rim of the main crater out to one crater radii from the rim for two of the four sections. From these crater counts, we are able to estimate the absolute model age of each main crater using the Craterstats2 tool in ArcGIS. Next, we compare the degree of freshness for the crater count-derived age of our main craters to obtain a linear inverse relation that links these two metrics. So far, for craters with degree of freshness from 6.3 to 5.0, the linear regression has an R2 value of 0.7, which corresponds to a relative uncertainty of ×230 million years. At this point, this tool that links degree of freshness to absolute ages cannot be used with craters <8km because this class of crater degrades quicker than larger craters. A graphical solution exists for correcting the degree of

  9. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement conditions are described for an intensive field campaign at White Sands Missile Range for the calibration of the AVHRRs on NOAA-9, NOAA-10 and NOAA-11, LANDSAT-4 TM and SPOT. Three different methods for calibration of AVHRRs by reference to a ground surface site are reported, and results from these methods are compared. Significant degradations in NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 AVHRR responsivities occurred since prelaunch calibrations were completed. As of February 1988, degradations in NOAA-9 AVHRR responsivities were on the order of 37 percent in channel and 41 percent in channel 2, and for the NOAA-10 AVHRR these degradations were 42 and 59 percent in channels 1 and 2, respectively.

  10. Absolute Sea-level Monitoring and Altimeter Calibration Facility at Gavdos, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E. C.

    2002-12-01

    We introduce the recently instrumented mean sea level (MSL) monitoring facility on western Crete and the isle of Gavdos. We will focus on the altimeter calibration aspect of the facility, in particular, its application to the JASON mission. The Eastern Mediterranean area is one of great interest for its intense tectonic activity as well as for its regional oceanography. Recent observations have convincingly demonstrated the importance of that area for the regional meteorological and climatologic changes. Tide-gauge monitoring with continuous GPS has gained importance lately since tectonics contaminate the inferred sea level variations, and a global network of tide-gauges with long historical records can be used as satellite altimeter calibration sites (e.g. TOPEX/POSEIDON, GFO, JASON-1, ENVISAT, etc.). This is at present a common IOC-GLOSS-IGS effort, already underway (TIGA), and our facility is part of it. Crete hosts two of the oldest tide-gauges in the regional network and our project will further expand it to the south with a new site on the isle of Gavdos, the southernmost European parcel of land. One component of our "GAVDOS" project is the repeated occupation of two already in existence tide-gauge sites at Souda Bay and Heraklion, and their tie to the new facility. We show here initial results from positioning of these sites and some of the available tidal records. Gavdos is situated under a ground-track crossing point of the original T/P and present JASON-1 orbits. It is an ideal calibration site if the tectonic motions are monitored precisely and continuously. The facility hosts in addition to the tide gauges: GPS and DORIS beacons for positioning, transponders for direct calibration, water vapor radiometers and solar spectrometers, GPS-loaded buoys, airborne surveys with gravimeters and laser profiling lidars, transportable laser ranging systems, etc., to ensure the best possible and most reliable results.

  11. Absolute Density Calibration Cell for Laser Induced Fluorescence Erosion Rate Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Stevens, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Flight qualification of ion thrusters typically requires testing on the order of 10,000 hours. Extensive knowledge of wear mechanisms and rates is necessary to establish design confidence prior to long duration tests. Consequently, real-time erosion rate measurements offer the potential both to reduce development costs and to enhance knowledge of the dependency of component wear on operating conditions. Several previous studies have used laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure real-time, in situ erosion rates of ion thruster accelerator grids. Those studies provided only relative measurements of the erosion rate. In the present investigation, a molybdenum tube was resistively heated such that the evaporation rate yielded densities within the tube on the order of those expected from accelerator grid erosion. This work examines the suitability of the density cell as an absolute calibration source for LIF measurements, and the intrinsic error was evaluated.

  12. The stars: an absolute radiometric reference for the on-orbit calibration of PLEIADES-HR satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meygret, Aimé; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Mounier, Flore; Buil, Christian

    2017-09-01

    The accurate on-orbit radiometric calibration of optical sensors has become a challenge for space agencies who gather their effort through international working groups such as CEOS/WGCV or GSICS with the objective to insure the consistency of space measurements and to reach an absolute accuracy compatible with more and more demanding scientific needs. Different targets are traditionally used for calibration depending on the sensor or spacecraft specificities: from on-board calibration systems to ground targets, they all take advantage of our capacity to characterize and model them. But achieving the in-flight stability of a diffuser panel is always a challenge while the calibration over ground targets is often limited by their BDRF characterization and the atmosphere variability. Thanks to their agility, some satellites have the capability to view extra-terrestrial targets such as the moon or stars. The moon is widely used for calibration and its albedo is known through ROLO (RObotic Lunar Observatory) USGS model but with a poor absolute accuracy limiting its use to sensor drift monitoring or cross-calibration. Although the spectral irradiance of some stars is known with a very high accuracy, it was not really shown that they could provide an absolute reference for remote sensors calibration. This paper shows that high resolution optical sensors can be calibrated with a high absolute accuracy using stars. The agile-body PLEIADES 1A satellite is used for this demonstration. The star based calibration principle is described and the results are provided for different stars, each one being acquired several times. These results are compared to the official calibration provided by ground targets and the main error contributors are discussed.

  13. The Dependence of Cloud Property Trend Detection on Absolute Calibration Accuracy of Passive Satellite Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, Y.; Wielicki, B. A.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Zelinka, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Detecting trends in climate variables on global, decadal scales requires highly accurate, stable measurements and retrieval algorithms. Trend uncertainty depends on its magnitude, natural variability, and instrument and retrieval algorithm accuracy and stability. We applied a climate accuracy framework to quantify the impact of absolute calibration on cloud property trend uncertainty. The cloud properties studied were cloud fraction, effective temperature, optical thickness, and effective radius retrieved using the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Cloud Property Retrieval System, which uses Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer measurements (MODIS). Modeling experiments from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) agree that net cloud feedback is likely positive but disagree regarding its magnitude, mainly due to uncertainty in shortwave cloud feedback. With the climate accuracy framework we determined the time to detect trends for instruments with various calibration accuracies. We estimated a relationship between cloud property trend uncertainty, cloud feedback, and Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity and also between effective radius trend uncertainty and aerosol indirect effect trends. The direct relationship between instrument accuracy requirements and climate model output provides the level of instrument absolute accuracy needed to reduce climate model projection uncertainty. Different cloud types have varied radiative impacts on the climate system depending on several attributes, such as their thermodynamic phase, altitude, and optical thickness. Therefore, we also conducted these studies by cloud types for a clearer understanding of instrument accuracy requirements needed to detect changes in their cloud properties. Combining this information with the radiative impact of different cloud types helps to prioritize among requirements for future satellite sensors and understanding the climate detection

  14. Consistency of L4 TM absolute calibration with respect to the L5 TM sensor based on near-simultaneous image acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Malla, R.; Micijevic, E.; Mettler, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat archive provides more than 35 years of uninterrupted multispectral remotely sensed data of Earth observations. Since 1972, Landsat missions have carried different types of sensors, from the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). However, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5), launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, are the backbone of an extensive archive. Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) was updated to use an improved lifetime gain model, based on the instrument's detector response to pseudo-invariant desert site data and cross-calibration with the L7 ETM+. However, no modifications were ever made to the radiometric calibration procedure of the Landsat 4 (L4) TM data. The L4 TM radiometric calibration procedure has continued to use the Internal Calibrator (IC) based calibration algorithms and the post calibration dynamic ranges, as previously defined. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The number of coincident image pairs in the USGS EROS archive is limited, so the scene selection for the cross-calibration studies proved to be a challenge. Additionally, because of the lack of near-simultaneous images available over well-characterized and traditionally used calibration sites, alternate sites that have high reflectance, large dynamic range, high spatial uniformity, high sun elevation, and minimal cloud cover were investigated. The alternate sites were identified in Yuma, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, and Algeria. The cross-calibration approach involved comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. This paper summarizes the average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained between the

  15. Consistency of L4 TM absolute calibration with respect to the L5 TM sensor based on near-simultaneous image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Micijevic, Esad; Mettler, Cory J.

    2007-09-01

    The Landsat archive provides more than 35 years of uninterrupted multispectral remotely sensed data of Earth observations. Since 1972, Landsat missions have carried different types of sensors, from the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). However, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5), launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, are the backbone of an extensive archive. Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) was updated to use an improved lifetime gain model, based on the instrument's detector response to pseudo-invariant desert site data and cross-calibration with the L7 ETM+. However, no modifications were ever made to the radiometric calibration procedure of the Landsat 4 (L4) TM data. The L4 TM radiometric calibration procedure has continued to use the Internal Calibrator (IC) based calibration algorithms and the post calibration dynamic ranges, as previously defined. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The number of coincident image pairs in the USGS EROS archive is limited, so the scene selection for the cross-calibration studies proved to be a challenge. Additionally, because of the lack of near-simultaneous images available over well-characterized and traditionally used calibration sites, alternate sites that have high reflectance, large dynamic range, high spatial uniformity, high sun elevation, and minimal cloud cover were investigated. The alternate sites were identified in Yuma, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, and Algeria. The cross-calibration approach involved comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. This paper summarizes the average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained between the

  16. Calibration-free quantification of absolute oxygen saturation based on the dynamics of photoacoustic signals

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jun; Danielli, Amos; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lidai; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging technique that has broad preclinical and clinical applications. Based on the photoacoustic effect, PAT directly measures specific optical absorption, which is the product of the tissue-intrinsic optical absorption coefficient and the local optical fluence. Therefore, quantitative PAT, such as absolute oxygen saturation (sO2) quantification, requires knowledge of the local optical fluence, which can be estimated only through invasive measurements or sophisticated modeling of light transportation. In this work, we circumvent this requirement by taking advantage of the dynamics in sO2. The new method works when the sO2 transition can be simultaneously monitored with multiple wavelengths. For each wavelength, the ratio of photoacoustic amplitudes measured at different sO2 states is utilized. Using the ratio cancels the contribution from optical fluence and allows calibration-free quantification of absolute sO2. The new method was validated through both phantom and in vivo experiments. PMID:23903146

  17. Absolute calibration accuracy of L4 TM and L5 TM sensor image pairs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Landsat suite of satellites has collected the longest continuous archive of multispectral data of any land-observing space program. From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has benefited from a historical record of remotely sensed data. However, little attention has been paid to ensuring that the data are calibrated and comparable from mission to mission, Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The approach involves comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained from the L4 TM agree with those from the L5 TM to within 15 percent. Additional work to characterize the absolute differences between the two sensors over the entire mission is in progress.

  18. Frequency comb calibrated frequency-sweeping interferometry for absolute group refractive index measurement of air.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2017-04-10

    The absolute group refractive index of air at 194061.02 GHz is measured in real time using frequency-sweeping interferometry calibrated by an optical frequency comb. The group refractive index of air is calculated from the calibration peaks of the laser frequency variation and the interference signal of the two beams passing through the inner and outer regions of a vacuum cell when the frequency of a tunable external cavity diode laser is scanned. We continuously measure the refractive index of air for 2 h, which shows that the difference between measured results and Ciddor's equation is less than 9.6×10-8, and the standard deviation of that difference is 5.9×10-8. The relative uncertainty of the measured refractive index of air is estimated to be 8.6×10-8. The data update rate is 0.2 Hz, making it applicable under conditions in which air refractive index fluctuates fast.

  19. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR CALCULATING REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR CALIBRATION CURVES USING ABSOLUTE PLASMID DNA STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In real-time quantitative PCR studies using absolute plasmid DNA standards, a calibration curve is developed to estimate an unknown DNA concentration. However, potential differences in the amplification performance of plasmid DNA compared to genomic DNA standards are often ignore...

  20. Absolute reactivity calibration of accelerator-driven systems after RACE-T experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jammes, C. C.; Imel, G. R.; Geslot, B.

    2006-07-01

    The RACE-T experiments that were held in november 2005 in the ENEA-Casaccia research center near Rome allowed us to improve our knowledge of the experimental techniques for absolute reactivity calibration at either startup or shutdown phases of accelerator-driven systems. Various experimental techniques for assessing a subcritical level were inter-compared through three different subcritical configurations SC0, SC2 and SC3, about -0.5, -3 and -6 dollars, respectively. The area-ratio method based of the use of a pulsed neutron source appears as the most performing. When the reactivity estimate is expressed in dollar unit, the uncertainties obtained with the area-ratio method were lessmore » than 1% for any subcritical configuration. The sensitivity to measurement location was about slightly more than 1% and always less than 4%. Finally, it is noteworthy that the source jerk technique using a transient caused by the pulsed neutron source shutdown provides results in good agreement with those obtained from the area-ratio technique. (authors)« less

  1. Test Plan for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches , alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climate-quality data collections. The CLARREO mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration. The current work describes the test plan for the SOLARIS which is the calibration demonstration

  2. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R Joseph; Guthrie, William F; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008-0.25 Å -1 , together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments that employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. The validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.

  3. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-09-01

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k = 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k = 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  4. Error Budget for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  5. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  6. Absolute efficiency calibration of 6LiF-based solid state thermal neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finocchiaro, Paolo; Cosentino, Luigi; Lo Meo, Sergio; Nolte, Ralf; Radeck, Desiree

    2018-03-01

    The demand for new thermal neutron detectors as an alternative to 3He tubes in research, industrial, safety and homeland security applications, is growing. These needs have triggered research and development activities about new generations of thermal neutron detectors, characterized by reasonable efficiency and gamma rejection comparable to 3He tubes. In this paper we show the state of the art of a promising low-cost technique, based on commercial solid state silicon detectors coupled with thin neutron converter layers of 6LiF deposited onto carbon fiber substrates. A few configurations were studied with the GEANT4 simulation code, and the intrinsic efficiency of the corresponding detectors was calibrated at the PTB Thermal Neutron Calibration Facility. The results show that the measured intrinsic detection efficiency is well reproduced by the simulations, therefore validating the simulation tool in view of new designs. These neutron detectors have also been tested at neutron beam facilities like ISIS (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK) and n_TOF (CERN) where a few samples are already in operation for beam flux and 2D profile measurements. Forthcoming applications are foreseen for the online monitoring of spent nuclear fuel casks in interim storage sites.

  7. Exploring a Black Body Source as an Absolute Radiometric Calibration Standard and Comparison with a NIST Traced Lamp Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas; Sarture, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is required for the scientific research and application objectives pursued with the spectroscopic measurements. Specifically calibration is required for: inter-comparison of AVIRIS data measured at different locations and at different times; analysis of AVIRIS data with data measured by other instruments; and analysis of AVIRIS data in conjunction with computer models. The primary effect of radiometric calibration is conversion of AVIRIS instrument response values (digitized numbers, or DN) to units of absolute radiance. For example, a figure shows the instrument response spectrum measured by AVIRIS over a portion of Rogers Dry Lake, California, and another figure shows the same spectrum calibrated to radiance. Only the calibrated spectrum may be quantitatively analyzed for science research and application objectives. Since the initial development of the AVIRIS instrument-radiometric calibration has been based upon a 1000-W irradiance lamp with a calibration traced to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are several advantages to this irradiance-lamp calibration approach. First, the considerable effort of NIST backs up the calibration. Second, by changing the distance to the lamp, the output can closely span the radiance levels measured by AVIRIS. Third, this type of standard is widely used. Fourth, these calibrated lamps are comparatively inexpensive. Conversely, there are several disadvantages to this approach as well. First, the lamp is not a primary standard. Second, the lamp output characteristics may change in an unknown manner through time. Third, it is difficult to assess, constrain, or improve the calibration uncertainty delivered with the lamp. In an attempt to explore the effect and potentially address some of these disadvantages a set of analyses and measurements comparing an irradiance lamp with a black-body source have been completed

  8. The Near-infrared Tip of the Red Giant Branch. II. An Absolute Calibration in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Taylor J.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Seibert, Mark; Beaton, Rachael L.; Hatt, Dylan; Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Monson, Andrew J.; Rich, Jeffrey A.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new empirical JHK absolute calibration of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We use published data from the extensive Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey containing 3.5 million stars, 65,000 of which are red giants that fall within one magnitude of the TRGB. Adopting the TRGB slopes from a companion study of the isolated dwarf galaxy IC 1613, as well as an LMC distance modulus of μ 0 = 18.49 mag from (geometric) detached eclipsing binaries, we derive absolute JHK zero points for the near-infrared TRGB. For a comparison with measurements in the bar alone, we apply the calibrated JHK TRGB to a 500 deg2 area of the 2MASS survey. The TRGB reveals the 3D structure of the LMC with a tilt in the direction perpendicular to the major axis of the bar, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  9. Absolute Calibration of Image Plate for electrons at energy between 100 keV and 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Back, N L; Eder, D C

    2007-12-10

    The authors measured the absolute response of image plate (Fuji BAS SR2040) for electrons at energies between 100 keV to 4 MeV using an electron spectrometer. The electron source was produced from a short pulse laser irradiated on the solid density targets. This paper presents the calibration results of image plate Photon Stimulated Luminescence PSL per electrons at this energy range. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX results are also presented for three representative incident angles onto the image plates and corresponding electron energies depositions at these angles. These provide a complete set of tools that allows extraction ofmore » the absolute calibration to other spectrometer setting at this electron energy range.« less

  10. Deciding Optimal Noise Monitoring Sites with Matrix Gray Absolute Relation Degree Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhihua; Li, Yadan; Zhao, Limin; Wang, Shuangwei

    2015-08-01

    Noise maps are applied to assess noise level in cities all around the world. There are mainly two ways of producing noise maps: one way is producing noise maps through theoretical simulations with the surrounding conditions, such as traffic flow, building distribution, etc.; the other one is calculating noise level with actual measurement data from noise monitors. Currently literature mainly focuses on considering more factors that affect sound traveling during theoretical simulations and interpolation methods in producing noise maps based on measurements of noise. Although many factors were considered during simulation, noise maps have to be calibrated by actual noise measurements. Therefore, the way of obtaining noise data is significant to both producing and calibrating a noise map. However, there is little literature mentioned about rules of deciding the right monitoring sites when placed the specified number of noise sensors and given the deviation of a noise map produced with data from them. In this work, by utilizing matrix Gray Absolute Relation Degree Theory, we calculated the relation degrees between the most precise noise surface and those interpolated with different combinations of noise data with specified number. We found that surfaces plotted with different combinations of noise data produced different relation degrees with the most precise one. Then we decided the least significant one among the total and calculated the corresponding deviation when it was excluded in making a noise surface. Processing the left noise data in the same way, we found out the least significant datum among the left data one by one. With this method, we optimized the noise sensor’s distribution in an area about 2km2. And we also calculated the bias of surfaces with the least significant data removed. Our practice provides an optimistic solution to the situation faced by most governments that there is limited financial budget available for noise monitoring, especially in

  11. One-calibrant kinetic calibration for on-site water sampling with solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Gangfeng; Cui, Shufen; Qin, Zhipei; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2009-07-15

    The existing solid-phase microextraction (SPME) kinetic calibration technique, using the desorption of the preloaded standards to calibrate the extraction of the analytes, requires that the physicochemical properties of the standard should be similar to those of the analyte, which limited the application of the technique. In this study, a new method, termed the one-calibrant kinetic calibration technique, which can use the desorption of a single standard to calibrate all extracted analytes, was proposed. The theoretical considerations were validated by passive water sampling in laboratory and rapid water sampling in the field. To mimic the variety of the environment, such as temperature, turbulence, and the concentration of the analytes, the flow-through system for the generation of standard aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) solution was modified. The experimental results of the passive samplings in the flow-through system illustrated that the effect of the environmental variables was successfully compensated with the kinetic calibration technique, and all extracted analytes can be calibrated through the desorption of a single calibrant. On-site water sampling with rotated SPME fibers also illustrated the feasibility of the new technique for rapid on-site sampling of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water. This technique will accelerate the application of the kinetic calibration method and also will be useful for other microextraction techniques.

  12. Determining the importance of model calibration for forecasting absolute/relative changes in streamflow from LULC and climate changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Norman, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are important drivers of change in streamflow. Assessing the impact of LULC and climate changes on streamflow is typically done with a calibrated and validated watershed model. However, there is a debate on the degree of calibration required. The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in estimated relative and absolute changes in streamflow associated with LULC and climate changes with different calibration approaches. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated (UC), single outlet calibrated (OC), and spatially-calibrated (SC) mode to compare the relative and absolute changes in streamflow at 14 gaging stations within the Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona, USA. For this purpose, the effect of 3 LULC, 3 precipitation (P), and 3 temperature (T) scenarios were tested individually. For the validation period, Percent Bias (PBIAS) values were >100% with the UC model for all gages, the values were between 0% and 100% with the OC model and within 20% with the SC model. Changes in streamflow predicted with the UC and OC models were compared with those of the SC model. This approach implicitly assumes that the SC model is “ideal”. Results indicated that the magnitude of both absolute and relative changes in streamflow due to LULC predicted with the UC and OC results were different than those of the SC model. The magnitude of absolute changes predicted with the UC and SC models due to climate change (both P and T) were also significantly different, but were not different for OC and SC models. Results clearly indicated that relative changes due to climate change predicted with the UC and OC were not significantly different than that predicted with the SC models. This result suggests that it is important to calibrate the model spatially to analyze the effect of LULC change but not as important for analyzing the relative change in streamflow due to climate change. This

  13. The absolute amplitude calibration of the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar - An intercomparison with other L-band radar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D.; Werner, C.; Wall, S.

    1983-01-01

    The absolute amplitude calibration of the spaceborne Seasat SAR data set is presented based on previous relative calibration studies. A scale factor making it possible to express the perceived radar brightness of a scene in units of sigma-zero is established. The system components are analyzed for error contribution, and the calibration techniques are introduced for each stage. These include: A/D converter saturation tests; prevention of clipping in the processing step; and converting the digital image into the units of received power. Experimental verification was performed by screening and processing the data of the lava flow surrounding the Pisgah Crater in Southern California, for which previous C-130 airborne scatterometer data were available. The average backscatter difference between the two data sets is estimated to be 2 dB in the brighter, and 4 dB in the dimmer regions. For the SAR a calculated uncertainty of 3 dB is expected.

  14. (abstract) Absolute Flux Calibrations of Venus and Jupiter at 32 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatti, Mark S.; Klein, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    The microwave flux densities of Venus and Jupiter at 32 GHz have been measured using a calibration standard radio telescope system at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) during April and May of 1993. These measurements are part of a joint JPL/Caltech program to accurately calibrate a catalog of other radio sources using the two bright planets as flux standards.

  15. Absolute Flux Calibration of the IRAC Instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope Using Hubble Space Telescope Flux Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Ardila, D.; Carey, S.; Deustua, S.; Engelbracht, C.; Ferguson, H. C.; Flanagan, K.; Kalirai, J.; Meixner, M.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Su, K. Y. L.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2011-05-01

    The absolute flux calibration of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-calibrate the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST calibration standards. The flux calibration constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC calibration of Reach et al., i.e., in agreement within their estimated errors of ~2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data reduction and secondarily in the spectral energy distributions of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 μm band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. are about 1.5% ± 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 μm result.

  16. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, Andrew J.; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R. Joseph; ...

    2017-03-07

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008–0.25 Å –1, together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments thatmore » employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. As a result, the validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.« less

  17. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Andrew J.; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R. Joseph

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008–0.25 Å –1, together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments thatmore » employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. As a result, the validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.« less

  18. Comparison of absolute gain photometric calibration between Planck/HFI and Herschel/SPIRE at 545 and 857 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertincourt, B.; Lagache, G.; Martin, P. G.; Schulz, B.; Conversi, L.; Dassas, K.; Maurin, L.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Crill, B. P.; Dole, H.; Eales, S.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Perdereau, O.

    2016-04-01

    We compare the absolute gain photometric calibration of the Planck/HFI and Herschel/SPIRE instruments on diffuse emission. The absolute calibration of HFI and SPIRE each relies on planet flux measurements and comparison with theoretical far-infrared emission models of planetary atmospheres. We measure the photometric cross calibration between the instruments at two overlapping bands, 545 GHz/500 μm and 857 GHz/350 μm. The SPIRE maps used have been processed in the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (Version 12) and the HFI data are from the 2015 Public Data Release 2. For our study we used 15 large fields observed with SPIRE, which cover a total of about 120 deg2. We have selected these fields carefully to provide high signal-to-noise ratio, avoid residual systematics in the SPIRE maps, and span a wide range of surface brightness. The HFI maps are bandpass-corrected to match the emission observed by the SPIRE bandpasses. The SPIRE maps are convolved to match the HFI beam and put on a common pixel grid. We measure the cross-calibration relative gain between the instruments using two methods in each field, pixel-to-pixel correlation and angular power spectrum measurements. The SPIRE/HFI relative gains are 1.047 (±0.0069) and 1.003 (±0.0080) at 545 and 857 GHz, respectively, indicating very good agreement between the instruments. These relative gains deviate from unity by much less than the uncertainty of the absolute extended emission calibration, which is about 6.4% and 9.5% for HFI and SPIRE, respectively, but the deviations are comparable to the values 1.4% and 5.5% for HFI and SPIRE if the uncertainty from models of the common calibrator can be discounted. Of the 5.5% uncertainty for SPIRE, 4% arises from the uncertainty of the effective beam solid angle, which impacts the adopted SPIRE point source to extended source unit conversion factor, highlighting that as a focus for refinement.

  19. Absolute calibration of Phase Contrast Imaging on HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Gong, Shaobo; Xu, Min; Wu, Yifan; Yuan, Boda; Ye, Minyou; Duan, Xuru; HL-2A Team Team

    2017-10-01

    Phase contrast imaging (PCI) has recently been developed on HL-2A tokamak. In this article we present the calibration of this diagnostic. This system is to diagnose chord integral density fluctuations by measuring the phase shift of a CO2 laser beam with a wavelength of 10.6 μm when the laser beam passes through plasma. Sound waves are used to calibrate PCI diagnostic. The signal series in different PCI channels show a pronounced modulation of incident laser beam by the sound wave. Frequency-wavenumber spectrum is achieved. Calibrations by sound waves with different frequencies exhibit a maximal wavenumber response of 12 cm-1. The conversion relationship between the chord integral plasma density fluctuation and the signal intensity is 2.3-1013 m-2/mV, indicating a high sensitivity. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Research Project (Grant No.2015GB120002, 2013GB107001).

  20. Comprehensive Calibration and Validation Site for Information Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. R.; Tang, L. L.; Ma, L. L.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, C. X.; Wang, N.; Li, X. H.; Wang, X. H.; Zhu, X. H.

    2015-04-01

    As a naturally part of information technology, Remote Sensing (RS) is strongly required to provide very precise and accurate information product to serve industry, academy and the public at this information economic era. To meet the needs of high quality RS product, building a fully functional and advanced calibration system, including measuring instruments, measuring approaches and target site become extremely important. Supported by MOST of China via national plan, great progress has been made to construct a comprehensive calibration and validation (Cal&Val) site, which integrates most functions of RS sensor aviation testing, EO satellite on-orbit caration and performance assessment and RS product validation at this site located in Baotou, 600km west of Beijing. The site is equipped with various artificial standard targets, including portable and permanent targets, which supports for long-term calibration and validation. A number of fine-designed ground measuring instruments and airborne standard sensors are developed for realizing high-accuracy stepwise validation, an approach in avoiding or reducing uncertainties caused from nonsynchronized measurement. As part of contribution to worldwide Cal&Val study coordinated by CEOS-WGCV, Baotou site is offering its support to Radiometric Calibration Network of Automated Instruments (RadCalNet), with an aim of providing demonstrated global standard automated radiometric calibration service in cooperation with ESA, NASA, CNES and NPL. Furthermore, several Cal&Val campaigns have been performed during the past years to calibrate and validate the spaceborne/airborne optical and SAR sensors, and the results of some typical demonstration are discussed in this study.

  1. Absolute near-infrared refractometry with a calibrated tilted fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjun; Mandia, David J; Barry, Seán T; Albert, Jacques

    2015-04-15

    The absolute refractive indices (RIs) of water and other liquids are determined with an uncertainty of ±0.001 at near-infrared wavelengths by using the tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) cladding mode resonances of a standard single-mode fiber to measure the critical angle for total internal reflection at the interface between the fiber and its surroundings. The necessary condition to obtain absolute RIs (instead of measuring RI changes) is a thorough characterization of the dispersion of the core mode effective index of the TFBG across the full range of its cladding mode resonance spectrum. This technique is shown to be competitive with the best available measurements of the RIs of water and NaCl solutions at wavelengths in the vicinity of 1550 nm.

  2. Absolute calibration of a multichannel plate detector for low energy O, O-, and O+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, T. M.; Peko, B. L.

    2000-03-01

    Absolute detection efficiencies of a commercial multichannel plate detector have been measured for O, O+, and O-, impacting at normal incidence for energies ranging from 30-1000 eV. In addition, the detection efficiencies for O relative to its ions are presented, as they may have a more universal application. The absolute detection efficiencies are strongly energy dependent and significant differences are observed for the various charge states at lower energies. The detection efficiencies for the different charge states appear to converge at higher energies. The strongest energy dependence is for O+; the detection efficiency varies by three orders of magnitude across the energy range studied. The weakest dependence is for O-, which varies less than one order of magnitude.

  3. Absolute Infrared Calibration of Standard Stars by the Midcourse Space Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    analytic expressions have been adopted for limb darkening (see the discussion and references in Neckel, 1996 , for examples) the fact is that the ratio...expression is of little consequence. Spickler, Benner and Russell ( 1996 ) noted that their measurements showed more infrared limb darkening than the...that calculated by Neckel and Labs (1981) from absolute radiances at the center of the Sun. However, Colina, Bohlin and Castelli ( 1996 ) questioned the

  4. Ground-based automated radiometric calibration system in Baotou site, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Liu, Yaokai; Meng, Fanrong; Zhao, Yongguang; Pang, Bo; Qian, Yonggang; Li, Wei; Tang, Lingli; Wang, Dongjin

    2017-10-01

    Post-launch vicarious calibration method, as an important post launch method, not only can be used to evaluate the onboard calibrators but also can be allowed for a traceable knowledge of the absolute accuracy, although it has the drawbacks of low frequency data collections due expensive on personal and cost. To overcome the problems, CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) Infrared Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup has proposed an Automated Radiative Calibration Network (RadCalNet) project. Baotou site is one of the four demonstration sites of RadCalNet. The superiority characteristics of Baotou site is the combination of various natural scenes and artificial targets. In each artificial target and desert, an automated spectrum measurement instrument is developed to obtain the surface reflected radiance spectra every 2 minutes with a spectrum resolution of 2nm. The aerosol optical thickness and column water vapour content are measured by an automatic sun photometer. To meet the requirement of RadCalNet, a surface reflectance spectrum retrieval method is used to generate the standard input files, with the support of surface and atmospheric measurements. Then the top of atmospheric reflectance spectra are derived from the input files. The results of the demonstration satellites, including Landsat 8, Sentinal-2A, show that there is a good agreement between observed and calculated results.

  5. The Importance of Post-Launch, On-Orbit Absolute Radiometric Calibration for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuester, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing is a powerful tool for monitoring changes on the surface of the Earth at a local or global scale. The use of data sets from different sensors across many platforms, or even a single sensor over time, can bring a wealth of information when exploring anthropogenic changes to the environment. For example, variations in crop yield and health for a specific region can be detected by observing changes in the spectral signature of the particular species under study. However, changes in the atmosphere, sun illumination and viewing geometries during image capture can result in inconsistent image data, hindering automated information extraction. Additionally, an incorrect spectral radiometric calibration will lead to false or misleading results. It is therefore critical that the data being used are normalized and calibrated on a regular basis to ensure that physically derived variables are as close to truth as is possible. Although most earth observing sensors are well-calibrated in a laboratory prior to launch, a change in the radiometric response of the system is inevitable due to thermal, mechanical or electrical effects caused during the rigors of launch or by the space environment itself. Outgassing and exposure to ultra-violet radiation will also have an effect on the sensor's filter responses. Pre-launch lamps and other laboratory calibration systems can also fall short in representing the actual output of the Sun. A presentation of the differences in the results of some example cases (e.g. geology, agriculture) derived for science variables using pre- and post-launch calibration will be presented using DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 super spectral sensor, with bands in the visible and near infrared, as well as in the shortwave infrared. Important defects caused by an incomplete (i.e. pre-launch only) calibration will be discussed using validation data where available. In addition, the benefits of using a well-validated surface reflectance product will be

  6. Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration to 1% from the FUV through the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, David

    2006-07-01

    We are requesting additional support to complete the work now being carried out under the Cycle 14 archive program, HST-AR-10654. The most critical component of that effort is an accurate determination of the STIS spectrometer LSF, so that we may correctly model the infill of the Balmer line cores by light redistributed from the wings and adjacent continuum. That is the essential input for obtaining accurate and unbiased effective temperatures and gravities, and hence calibrated fluxes, via line profile fitting of the WD calibration standards. To evaluate the published STIS LSF, we investigated the spectral images of the calibration targets, yielding several significant results: a} the STIS LSF varies significantly; b} existing observation-based spectroscopic LSFs or imaging PSFs are inadequate for deriving suitable spectroscopic LSFs; c} accounting for the PSF/LSF variability will improve spectrophotometric accuracy; d} the LSFs used for model fits must be consistent with the extraction process details; and, e} TinyTim-generated PSFs, with some modifications, provide the most suitable basis for producing the required LSFs that are tailored to each individual spectral observation. Based on our current {greatly improved} state of knowlege of the instrumental effects, we are now requesting additional support to complete the work needed to generate correct LSFs, and then carry out the analyses that were the subject of the original proposal.Our goal is the same: to produce a significant improvement to the existing HST calibration. The current calibration is based on three primary DA white dwarf standards, GD 71, GD 153,and G 191-B2B. The standard fluxes are calculated using NLTE models, with effective temperatures and gravities that were derived from Balmer line fits using LTE models. We propose to improve the accuracy and internal consistency of the calibration by deriving corrected effective temperatures and gravities based on fitting the observed line profiles with

  7. Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration to 1% from the FUV through the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, David

    2005-07-01

    We propose a significant improvement to the existing HST calibration. The current calibration is based on three primary DA white dwarf standards, GD 71, GD 153, and G 191-B2B. The standard fluxes are calculated using NLTE models, with effective temperatures and gravities that were derived from Balmer line fits using LTE models. We propose to improve the accuracy and internal consistency of the calibration by deriving corrected effective temperatures and gravities based on fitting the observed line profiles with updated NLTE models, and including the fit results from multiple STIS spectra, rather than the {usually} 1 or 2 ground-based spectra used previously. We will also determine the fluxes for 5 new, fainter primary or secondary standards, extending the standard V magnitude lower limit from 13.4 to 16.5, and extending the wavelength coverage from 0.1 to 2.5 micron. The goal is to achieve an overall flux accuracy of 1%, which will be needed, for example, for the upcoming supernova survey missions to measure the equation of state of the dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of the universe.

  8. Impacts of the spatial extent of pollen-climate calibration-set on the absolute values, range and trends of reconstructed Holocene precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Tian, F.; Telford, R.; Ni, J.; Xu, Q.; Chen, F.; Liu, X.; Stebich, M.; Zhao, Y.; Herzschuh, U.

    2017-12-01

    Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of past climate variables is a standard palaeoclimatic approach. Despite knowing that the spatial extent of the calibration-set affects the reconstruction result, guidance is lacking as to how to determine a suitable spatial extent of the pollen-climate calibration-set. In this study, past mean annual precipitation (Pann) during the Holocene (since 11.5 cal ka BP) is reconstructed repeatedly for pollen records from Qinghai Lake (36.7°N, 100.5°E; north-east Tibetan Plateau), Gonghai Lake (38.9°N, 112.2°E; north China) and Sihailongwan Lake (42.3°N, 126.6°E; north-east China) using calibration-sets of varying spatial extents extracted from the modern pollen dataset of China and Mongolia (2559 sampling sites and 168 pollen taxa in total). Results indicate that the spatial extent of the calibration-set has a strong impact on model performance, analogue quality and reconstruction diagnostics (absolute value, range, trend, optimum). Generally, these effects are stronger with the modern analogue technique (MAT) than with weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS). With respect to fossil spectra from northern China, the spatial extent of calibration-sets should be restricted to ca. 1000 km in radius because small-scale calibration-sets (<800 km radius) will likely fail to include enough spatial variation in the modern pollen assemblages to reflect the temporal range shifts during the Holocene, while too broad a scale calibration-set (>1500 km radius) will include taxa with very different pollen-climate relationships. Based on our results we conclude that the optimal calibration-set should 1) cover a reasonably large spatial extent with an even distribution of modern pollen samples; 2) possess good model performance as indicated by cross-validation, high analogue quality, and excellent fit with the target fossil pollen spectra; 3) possess high taxonomic resolution, and 4) obey the modern and past distribution ranges of

  9. Technical note: An empirical method for absolute calibration of coccolith thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Lemos, Saúl; Guitián, José; Fuertes, Miguel-Ángel; Flores, José-Abel; Stoll, Heather M.

    2018-02-01

    As major calcifiers in the open ocean, coccolithophores play a key role in the marine carbon cycle. Because they may be sensitive to changing CO2 and ocean acidification, there is significant interest in quantifying past and present variations in their cellular calcification by quantifying the thickness of the coccoliths or calcite plates that cover their cells. Polarized light microscopy has emerged as a key tool for quantifying the thickness of these calcite plates, but the reproducibility and accuracy of such determinations has been limited by the absence of suitable calibration materials in the thickness range of coccoliths (0-4 µm). Here, we describe the fabrication of a calcite wedge with a constant slope over this thickness range, and the independent determination of calcite thickness along the wedge profile. We show how the calcite wedge provides more robust calibrations in the 0 to 1.55 µm range than previous approaches using rhabdoliths. We show the particular advantages of the calcite wedge approach for developing equations to relate thickness to the interference colors that arise in calcite in the thickness range between 1.55 and 4 µm. The calcite wedge approach can be applied to develop equations relevant to the particular light spectra and intensity of any polarized light microscope system and could significantly improve inter-laboratory data comparability.

  10. Improvement in absolute calibration accuracy of Landsat-5 TM with Landsat-7 ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Micijevic, E.; Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on satellites sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from subsequent generations of sensors onto a common radiometric scale. To evaluate Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper's (TM) utility in this role, image pairs from the L5 TM and Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors were compared. This approach involves comparison of surface observations based on image statistics from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The results indicate a significant improvement in the consistency of L5 TM data with respect to L7 ETM+ data, achieved using a revised Look-Up-Table (LUT) procedure as opposed to the historical Internal Calibrator (IC) procedure previously used in the L5 TM product generation system. The average percent difference in reflectance estimates obtained from the L5 TM agree with those from the L7 ETM+ in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands to within four percent and in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands to within six percent.

  11. SU-E-J-85: Leave-One-Out Perturbation (LOOP) Fitting Algorithm for Absolute Dose Film Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, A; Ahmad, M; Chen, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce an outliers-recognition fitting routine for film dosimetry. It cannot only be flexible with any linear and non-linear regression but also can provide information for the minimal number of sampling points, critical sampling distributions and evaluating analytical functions for absolute film-dose calibration. Methods: The technique, leave-one-out (LOO) cross validation, is often used for statistical analyses on model performance. We used LOO analyses with perturbed bootstrap fitting called leave-one-out perturbation (LOOP) for film-dose calibration . Given a threshold, the LOO process detects unfit points (“outliers”) compared to other cohorts, and a bootstrap fitting process follows to seek any possibilitiesmore » of using perturbations for further improvement. After that outliers were reconfirmed by a traditional t-test statistics and eliminated, then another LOOP feedback resulted in the final. An over-sampled film-dose- calibration dataset was collected as a reference (dose range: 0-800cGy), and various simulated conditions for outliers and sampling distributions were derived from the reference. Comparisons over the various conditions were made, and the performance of fitting functions, polynomial and rational functions, were evaluated. Results: (1) LOOP can prove its sensitive outlier-recognition by its statistical correlation to an exceptional better goodness-of-fit as outliers being left-out. (2) With sufficient statistical information, the LOOP can correct outliers under some low-sampling conditions that other “robust fits”, e.g. Least Absolute Residuals, cannot. (3) Complete cross-validated analyses of LOOP indicate that the function of rational type demonstrates a much superior performance compared to the polynomial. Even with 5 data points including one outlier, using LOOP with rational function can restore more than a 95% value back to its reference values, while the polynomial fitting completely failed under the same

  12. Repopulation of calibrations with samples from the target site: effect of the size of the calibration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, C.; Zornoza, R.; Gómez, I.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Mataix-Beneyto, J.; García-Orenes, F.

    2009-04-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy offers important advantages because is a non-destructive technique, the pre-treatments needed in samples are minimal, and the spectrum of the sample is obtained in less than 1 minute without the needs of chemical reagents. For these reasons, NIR is a fast and cost-effective method. Moreover, NIR allows the analysis of several constituents or parameters simultaneously from the same spectrum once it is obtained. For this, a needed steep is the development of soil spectral libraries (set of samples analysed and scanned) and calibrations (using multivariate techniques). The calibrations should contain the variability of the target site soils in which the calibration is to be used. Many times this premise is not easy to fulfil, especially in libraries recently developed. A classical way to solve this problem is through the repopulation of libraries and the subsequent recalibration of the models. In this work we studied the changes in the accuracy of the predictions as a consequence of the successive addition of samples to repopulation. In general, calibrations with high number of samples and high diversity are desired. But we hypothesized that calibrations with lower quantities of samples (lower size) will absorb more easily the spectral characteristics of the target site. Thus, we suspect that the size of the calibration (model) that will be repopulated could be important. For this reason we also studied this effect in the accuracy of predictions of the repopulated models. In this study we used those spectra of our library which contained data of soil Kjeldahl Nitrogen (NKj) content (near to 1500 samples). First, those spectra from the target site were removed from the spectral library. Then, different quantities of samples of the library were selected (representing the 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the total library). These samples were used to develop calibrations with different sizes (%) of samples. We used partial least

  13. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya

    2013-02-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and {+-}0.2{sup 0}, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ('Dee' voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTemore » X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.« less

  14. EDGES and the Development of Absolute Calibration for Wideband Radio Receivers for 21cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Judd D.

    2018-06-01

    The ultra-violet light emitted by early stars, when the universe was less than 400 million years old, alters the excitation state of the 21cm hyperfine line of primordial neutral hydrogen gas that surrounds the stars. This causes the gas to absorb photons from the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Later, energy deposited into the gas by the ultra-violet and X-ray emission from these early stars and their remnants heats the gas and eventually ionizes it. These effects produce spectral features in the CMB observable today at frequencies redshifted to below 200 MHz. The 21cm signal is approximately 10,000 times fainter the foreground synchrotron emission from the Milky Way, leading to the requirement that any instrument designed to observe it must have a knowable response at the 0.01% level. Typical radio receivers used in astronomical measurements are accurate at the 1-10% level. Over the last decade, our team has investigated new radio receiver designs and accurate calibration strategies in the laboratory and in ground-based instruments to achieve the 0.01% performance goal. Building on these efforts, we recently reported evidence for detection of the redshifted 21cm signal as a decrease in the sky-averaged radio intensity observed by the Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES). We found a flattened absorption profile in the measured radio spectrum centered at a frequency of 78 MHz with full width at half maximum of 19 MHz and an amplitude of 0.5 K. The frequency of the profile is roughly consistent with astrophysical models of early star formation. However, the amplitude of the observed profile is more than a factor of two greater than the largest standard predictions and suggests that the gas was either significantly colder than expected or the background radiation temperature was hotter than expected.

  15. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; ...

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,more » comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.« less

  16. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors.

    PubMed

    Waugh, C J; Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C

    2015-05-01

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  17. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,more » comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.« less

  18. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J., E-mail: cjwaugh@mit.edu; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.

    2015-05-15

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,more » comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.« less

  19. Absolute calibration of the Jenoptik CHM15k-x ceilometer and its applicability for quantitative aerosol monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiß, Alexander; Wiegner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric aerosols and its optical characterization is essential for the understanding of the radiation budget, air quality, and climate. For this purpose, lidar is an excellent system as it is an active remote sensing technique. As multi-wavelength research lidars with depolarization channels are quite complex and cost-expensive, increasing attention is paid to so-called ceilometers. They are simple one-wavelength backscatter lidars with low pulse energy for eye-safe operation. As maintenance costs are low and continuous and unattended measurements can be performed, they are suitable for long-term aerosol monitoring in a network. However, the signal-to-noise ratio is low, and the signals are not calibrated. The only optical property that can be derived from a ceilometer is the particle backscatter coefficient, but even this quantity requires a calibration of the signals. With four years of measurements from a Jenoptik ceilometer CHM15k-x, we developed two methods for an absolute calibration on this system. This advantage of our approach is that only a few days with favorable meteorological conditions are required where Rayleigh-calibration and comparison with our research lidar is possible to estimate the lidar constant. This method enables us to derive the particle backscatter coefficient at 1064 nm, and we retrieved for the first time profiles in near real-time within an accuracy of 10 %. If an appropriate lidar ratio is assumed the aerosol optical depth of e.g. the mixing layer can be determined with an accuracy depending on the accuracy of the lidar ratio estimate. Even for 'simple' applications, e.g. assessment of the mixing layer height, cloud detection, detection of elevated aerosol layers, the particle backscatter coefficient has significant advantages over the measured (uncalibrated) attenuated backscatter. The possibility of continuous operation under nearly any meteorological condition with temporal

  20. Calibration strategies for the determination of stable carbon absolute isotope ratios in a glycine candidate reference material by elemental analyser-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Philip J H; Malinovsky, Dmitry; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    We report a methodology for the determination of the stable carbon absolute isotope ratio of a glycine candidate reference material with natural carbon isotopic composition using EA-IRMS. For the first time, stable carbon absolute isotope ratios have been reported using continuous flow rather than dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Also for the first time, a calibration strategy based on the use of synthetic mixtures gravimetrically prepared from well characterised, highly (13)C-enriched and (13)C-depleted glycines was developed for EA-IRMS calibration and generation of absolute carbon isotope ratio values traceable to the SI through calibration standards of known purity. A second calibration strategy based on converting the more typically determined delta values on the Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB) scale using literature values for the absolute carbon isotope ratio of VPDB itself was used for comparison. Both calibration approaches provided results consistent with those previously reported for the same natural glycine using MC-ICP-MS; absolute carbon ratios of 10,649 × 10(-6) with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 24 × 10(-6) and 10,646 × 10(-6) with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 88 × 10(-6) were obtained, respectively. The absolute carbon isotope ratio of the VPDB standard was found to be 11,115 × 10(-6) with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 27 × 10(-6), which is in excellent agreement with previously published values.

  1. A non-invasive diffuse reflectance calibration-free method for absolute determination of exogenous biochemicals concentration in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappa, Alexander V.; Kulikovskiy, Artem N.; Busarov, Oleg G.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a new method for distant non-destructive determination of concentration of light absorbing admixtures in turbid media. In particular, it is intended for non-invasive in vivo control of accumulation in patient tissues of various biochemicals introduced to the patients for chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy or diagnostics. It is require that the admixture absorption spectrum should have a clearly marked peak in the wavelength region where the pure medium one varies regularly. Fluorescence of admixtures is not required. The method uses the local diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber probe including one emitting and two reading There are several features in the method: the value to be determined is absolute concentration of admixtures; the method needs no calibration measurements on phantoms; it needs no reference measurements on sample with zero admixture concentration; it uses a two parametric kinetic light propagation model and original algorithms to resolve direct and inverse tasks of radiation transport theory. Experimental testing passed with tissue equivalent phantoms and different admixtures, including a chlorine photosensitizer, showed accuracy under 10% in all cases.

  2. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis v e [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through anmore » initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.« less

  3. Progress in obtaining an absolute calibration of a total deuterium-tritium neutron yield diagnostic based on copper activationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, C. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Fehl, D. L.; Hahn, K. D.; Leeper, R. J.; McWatters, B. R.; Nelson, A. J.; Smelser, R. M.; Snow, C. S.; Torres, J. A.

    2012-10-01

    The 350-keV Cockroft-Walton accelerator at Sandia National laboratory's Ion Beam facility is being used to calibrate absolutely a total DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu(β+) reaction. These investigations have led to first-order uncertainties approaching 5% or better. The experiments employ the associated-particle technique. Deuterons at 175 keV impinge a 2.6 μm thick erbium tritide target producing 14.1 MeV neutrons from the T(d,n)4He reaction. The alpha particles emitted are measured at two angles relative to the beam direction and used to infer the neutron flux on a copper sample. The induced 62Cu activity is then measured and related to the neutron flux. This method is known as the F-factor technique. Description of the associated-particle method, copper sample geometries employed, and the present estimates of the uncertainties to the F-factor obtained are given.

  4. Progress in obtaining an absolute calibration of a total deuterium-tritium neutron yield diagnostic based on copper activation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, C L; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G W; Fehl, D L; Hahn, K D; Leeper, R J; McWatters, B R; Nelson, A J; Smelser, R M; Snow, C S; Torres, J A

    2012-10-01

    The 350-keV Cockroft-Walton accelerator at Sandia National laboratory's Ion Beam facility is being used to calibrate absolutely a total DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the (63)Cu(n,2n)(62)Cu(β+) reaction. These investigations have led to first-order uncertainties approaching 5% or better. The experiments employ the associated-particle technique. Deuterons at 175 keV impinge a 2.6 μm thick erbium tritide target producing 14.1 MeV neutrons from the T(d,n)(4)He reaction. The alpha particles emitted are measured at two angles relative to the beam direction and used to infer the neutron flux on a copper sample. The induced (62)Cu activity is then measured and related to the neutron flux. This method is known as the F-factor technique. Description of the associated-particle method, copper sample geometries employed, and the present estimates of the uncertainties to the F-factor obtained are given.

  5. Terrestrial reference standard sites for postlaunch sensor calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; Chander, G.

    2010-01-01

    In an era when the number of Earth observation satellites is rapidly growing and measurements from satellite sensors are used to address increasingly urgent global issues, often through synergistic and operational combinations of data from multiple sources, it is imperative that scientists and decision-makers are able to rely on the accuracy of Earth observation data products. The characterization and calibration of these sensors, particularly their relative biases, are vital to the success of the developing integrated Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth. This can only reliably be achieved in the postlaunch environment through the careful use of observations by multiple sensor systems over common, well-characterized terrestrial targets (i.e., on or near the Earth's surface). Through greater access to and understanding of these vital reference standard sites and their use, the validity and utility of information gained from Earth remote sensing will continue to improve. This paper provides a brief overview of the use of reference standard sites for postlaunch sensor radiometric calibration from historical, current, and future perspectives. Emphasis is placed on optical sensors operating in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared spectral regions.

  6. Automated test-site radiometer for vicarious calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Yin, Ya-peng; Liu, En-chao; Zhang, Yan-na; Xun, Li-na; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Zhi-peng; Qiu, Gang-gang; Zhang, Quan; Zheng, Xiao-bing

    2014-11-01

    In order to realize unmanned vicarious calibration, Automated Test-site Radiometer (ATR) was developed for surface reflectance measurements. ATR samples the spectrum from 400nm-1600 nm with 8 interference filters coupled with silicon and InGaAs detectors. The field of view each channel is 10 ° with parallel optical axis. One SWIR channel lies in the center and the other seven VNIR channels are on the circle of 4.8cm diameters which guarantee each channel to view nearly the same section of ground. The optical head as a whole is temperature controlled utilizing a TE cooler for greater stability and lower noise. ATR is powered by a solar panel and transmit its data through a BDS (China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System) terminator for long-term measurements without personnel in site. ATR deployed in Dunhuang test site with ground field about 30-cm-diameter area for multi-spectral reflectance measurements. Other instruments at the site include a Cimel sunphotometer and a diffuser-to-globe irradiance meter for atmosphere observations. The methodology for band-averaged reflectance retrieval and hyperspectral reflectance fitting process are described. Then the hyperspectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters are put into 6s code to predict TOA radiance which compare with MODIS radiance.

  7. Sand dune ridge alignment effects on surface BRF over the Libya-4 CEOS calibration site.

    PubMed

    Govaerts, Yves M

    2015-02-03

    The Libya-4 desert area, located in the Great Sand Sea, is one of the most important bright desert CEOS pseudo-invariant calibration sites by its size and radiometric stability. This site is intensively used for radiometer drift monitoring, sensor intercalibration and as an absolute calibration reference based on simulated radiances traceable to the SI standard. The Libya-4 morphology is composed of oriented sand dunes shaped by dominant winds. The effects of sand dune spatial organization on the surface bidirectional reflectance factor is analyzed in this paper using Raytran, a 3D radiative transfer model. The topography is characterized with the 30 m resolution ASTER digital elevation model. Four different regions-of-interest sizes, ranging from 10 km up to 100 km, are analyzed. Results show that sand dunes generate more backscattering than forward scattering at the surface. The mean surface reflectance averaged over different viewing and illumination angles is pretty much independent of the size of the selected area, though the standard deviation differs. Sun azimuth position has an effect on the surface reflectance field, which is more pronounced for high Sun zenith angles. Such 3D azimuthal effects should be taken into account to decrease the simulated radiance uncertainty over Libya-4 below 3% for wavelengths larger than 600 nm.

  8. The absolute calibration of KOMPSAT-3 and 3A high spatial resolution satellites using radiometric tarps and MFRSR measurments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Recently developed Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A), which is a continuation of the KOMPSAT-1, 2 and 3 earth observation satellite (EOS) programs from the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) was launched on March, 25 2015 on a Dnepr-1 launch vehicle from the Jasny Dombarovsky site in Russia. After launched, KARI performed in-orbit-test (IOT) including radiometric calibration for 6 months from 14 Apr. to 4 Sep. 2015. KOMPSAT-3A is equipped with two distinctive sensors; one is a high resolution multispectral optical sensor, namely the Advances Earth Image Sensor System-A (AEISS-A) and the other is the Scanner Infrared Imaging System (SIIS). In this study, we focused on the radiometric calibration of AEISS-A. The multispectral wavelengths of AEISS-A are covering three visible regions: blue (450 - 520 nm), green (520 - 600 nm), red (630 - 690 nm), one near infrared (760 - 900 nm) with a 2.0 m spatial resolution at nadir, whereas the panchromatic imagery (450 - 900 nm) has a 0.5 m resolution. Those are the same spectral response functions were same with KOMPSAT-3 multispectral and panchromatic bands but the spatial resolutions are improved. The main mission of KOMPSAT-3A is to develop for Geographical Information System (GIS) applications in environmental, agriculture, and oceanographic sciences, as well as natural hazard monitoring.

  9. Experiences with GOCE models in SONMICAT-BCN calibration site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Termens, A.; Pros, F.

    2016-12-01

    SONMICAT - the integrated sea level observation system of Catalonia - aims at providing high-quality continous measurements of sea- and land levels at the Catalan coast from tide gauges and from modern geodetic techniques for studies on long-term sea level trends, but also the calibration of satellite altimeters, for instance. This synergy is indeed the only way to get a clear and unambigous picture of what is actually going on at the coast of Catalonia. Actually, there is a gap of sea level data in the coastal area of Catalonia, although several groups have started to do some work. SONMICAT will fill it and, as a goal, will be a regional implementation and densification of the GGOS . In the framework of SONMICAT project, the sea level infrastructure has been improved by providing the harbour of Barcelona with 3 tide gauges and a GPS station nearby. Furthermore, an airborne LiDAR campaign was carried out with two strips along two ICESat target tracks. The work focuses on the comparison between the GOCE gravity field solutions with existing local an regional gravity field models over the area of Barcelona harbour. The study will estimate how GOCE works on SONMICAT-BCN calibration site in order to prepare future geomatics issues .

  10. Improved absolute calibration of LOPES measurements and its impact on the comparison with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bähren, L.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Falcke, H.; Fuchs, B.; Gemmeke, H.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hiller, R.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Krömer, O.; Kuijpers, J.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Morello, C.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Palmieri, N.; Pierog, T.; Rautenberg, J.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    LOPES was a digital antenna array detecting the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. The calibration of the absolute amplitude scale of the measurements was done using an external, commercial reference source, which emits a frequency comb with defined amplitudes. Recently, we obtained improved reference values by the manufacturer of the reference source, which significantly changed the absolute calibration of LOPES. We reanalyzed previously published LOPES measurements, studying the impact of the changed calibration. The main effect is an overall decrease of the LOPES amplitude scale by a factor of 2.6 ± 0.2, affecting all previously published values for measurements of the electric-field strength. This results in a major change in the conclusion of the paper 'Comparing LOPES measurements of air-shower radio emission with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations' published by Apel et al. (2013) : With the revised calibration, LOPES measurements now are compatible with CoREAS simulations, but in tension with REAS 3.11 simulations. Since CoREAS is the latest version of the simulation code incorporating the current state of knowledge on the radio emission of air showers, this new result indicates that the absolute amplitude prediction of current simulations now is in agreement with experimental data.

  11. Campaign-Style Measurements of Vertical Seafloor Deformation in the Cascadia Subduction Zone Using an Absolute Self-Calibrating Pressure Recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M. J.; Sasagawa, G. S.; Roland, E. C.; Schmidt, D. A.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Seawater pressure can be used to measure vertical seafloor deformation since small seafloor height changes produce measurable pressure changes. However, resolving secular vertical deformation near subduction zones can be difficult due to pressure gauge drift. A typical gauge drift rate of about 10 cm/year exceeds the expected secular rate of 1 cm/year or less in Cascadia. The absolute self-calibrating pressure recorder (ASCPR) was developed to solve the issue of gauge drift by using a deadweight calibrator to make campaign-style measurements of the absolute seawater pressure. Pressure gauges alternate between observing the ambient seawater pressure and the deadweight calibrator pressure, which is an accurately known reference value, every 10-20 minutes for several hours. The difference between the known reference pressure and the observed seafloor pressure allows offsets and transients to be corrected to determine the true, absolute seafloor pressure. Absolute seafloor pressure measurements provide a great utility for geodetic deformation studies. The measurements provide instrument-independent, benchmark values that can be used far into the future as epoch points in long-term time series or as important calibration points for other continuous pressure records. The ASCPR was first deployed in Cascadia in 2014 and 2015, when seven concrete seafloor benchmarks were placed along a trench-perpendicular profile extending from 20 km to 105 km off the central Oregon coast. Two benchmarks have ASCPR measurements that span three years, one benchmark spans two years, and four benchmarks span one year. Measurement repeatability is currently 3 to 4 cm, but we anticipate accuracy on the order of 1 cm with improvements to the instrument metrology and processing tidal and non-tidal oceanographic signals.

  12. Absolute laser-intensity measurement and online monitor calibration using a calorimeter at a soft X-ray free-electron laser beamline in SACLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro; Kato, Masahiro; Saito, Norio; Owada, Shigeki; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports measurement of the absolute intensity of free-electron laser (FEL) and calibration of online intensity monitors for a brand-new FEL beamline BL1 at SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA) in Japan. To measure the absolute intensity of FEL, we used a room-temperature calorimeter originally developed for FELs in the hard X-ray range. By using the calorimeter, we calibrated online intensity monitors of BL1, gas monitors (GMs), based on the photoionization of argon gas, in the photon energy range from 25 eV to 150 eV. A good correlation between signals obtained from the calorimeter and GMs was observed in the pulse energy range from 1 μJ to 100 μJ, where the upper limit is nearly equal to the maximum pulse energy at BL1. Moreover, the calibration result of the GMs, measured in terms of the spectral responsivity, demonstrates a characteristic photon-energy dependence owing to the occurrence of the Cooper minimum in the total ionization cross-section of argon gas. These results validate the feasibility of employing the room-temperature calorimeter in the measurement of absolute intensity of FELs over the specified photon energy range.

  13. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fat’yanov, O. V., E-mail: fatyan1@gps.caltech.edu; Asimow, P. D., E-mail: asimow@gps.caltech.edu

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documentedmore » methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten

  14. [On-orbit response variation analysis of FY-3 MERSI reflective solar bands based on Dunhuang site calibration].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ling; Guo, Mao-Hua; Xu, Na; Zhang, Li-Jun; Liu, Jing-Jing; Hu, Xiu-Qing; Li, Yuan; Rong, Zhi-Guo; Zhao, Ze-Hui

    2012-07-01

    MERSI is the keystone payload of FengYun-3 and there have been two sensors operating on-orbit since 2008. The on-orbit response changes obviously at reflective solar bands (RSBs) and must be effectively monitored and corrected. However MERSI can not realize the RSBs onboard absolute radiometric calibration. This paper presents a new vicarious calibration (VC) method for RSBs based on in-situ BRDF model, and vector radiometric transfer model 6SV with gaseous absorption correction using MOTRAN. The results of synchronous VC experiments in 4 years show that the calibration uncertainties are within 5% except for band at the center of water vapor absorption, and 3% for most bands. Aqua MODIS was taken as the radiometric reference to evaluate the accuracy of this VC method. By comparison of the simulated radiation at top of atmosphere (TOA) with MODIS measurement, it was revealed that the average relative differences are within 3% for window bands with wavelengths less than 1 microm, and 5% for bands with wavelengths larger than 1 microm (except for band 7 at 2.1 microm). Besides, the synchronous nadir observation cross analysis shows the excellent agreement between re-calibrated MERSI TOA apparent reflectance and MODIS measurements. Based on the multi-year site calibration results, it was found that the calibration coefficients could be fitted with two-order polynomials, thus the daily calibration updates could be realized and the response variation between two calibration experiments could be corrected timely; there are large response changes at bands with wavelengths less than 0.6 microm, the degradation rate of the first year at band 8 (0.41 microm) is about 14%; the on-orbit response degradation is maximum at the beginning, the degradation rates slow down after one year in operation, and after two years the responses even increase at some band with wavelengths larger than 0.6 microm.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of mepolizumab following administration at subcutaneous and intramuscular sites.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Hector; Yancey, Steve; Cozens, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized the pharmacokinetics (PK) of mepolizumab, after a single intravenous (IV), subcutaneous (SC), or intramuscular (IM) dose in healthy adults and determined the absolute bioavailability of SC and IM mepolizumab delivered at different anatomical regions. Sixty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of either mepolizumab 250 mg by IV, SC injection (upper arm, abdomen, or thigh); or IM injection (thigh). Following IV administration, the mean maximum observed plasma mepolizumab concentration (Cmax ) and the mean area under the concentration versus time curves from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞) ) were 109 ± 17 µg/mL and 1,557 ± 250 µg d/mL, respectively. After SC administration, the mean (±SD) values of Cmax and AUC(0-∞) were 34.1-38.2 ± 7.3-12.1 µg/mL and 1,110-1,238 ± 228-372 µg d/mL, respectively. Following IM administration, the mean values of Cmax and AUC(0-∞) were 46.9 ± 10.6 µg/mL and 1,395 ± 348 µg d/mL. The median terminal half-life was similar for SC, IM and IV administration (17.9-20.4, 19.2, and 18.5 days, respectively). The overall mean bioavailability of SC mepolizumab was 64-75%, and absorption was relatively similar for the three SC injection sites. Mepolizumab 250 mg was generally well tolerated in this study. These results support flexibility in the SC injection site for mepolizumab. © 2013, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Piston manometer as an absolute standard for vacuum-gage calibration in the range 2 to 500 millitorr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, I.

    1972-01-01

    A thin disk is suspended, with very small annular clearance, in a cylindrical opening in the base plate of a calibration chamber. A continuous flow of calibration gas passes through the chamber and annular opening to a downstream high vacuum pump. The ratio of pressures on the two faces of the disk is very large, so that the upstream pressure is substantially equal to net force on the disk divided by disk area. This force is measured with a dynamometer that is calibrated in place with dead weights. A probable error of + or - (0.2 millitorr plus 0.2 percent) is attainable when downstream pressure is known to 10 percent.

  17. Absolute calibration of the Agfa Structurix series films at energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keV.

    PubMed

    Lanier, N E; Cowan, J S

    2014-11-01

    Although photo-emulsion technology is many decades old, x-ray film still remains a key asset for diagnosing hydrodynamic features in High-Energy Density (HED) experiments. For decades, the preferred option had been Kodak's direct exposure film. After its discontinuance in 2004, the push to find alternatives began. In many situations, the Agfa Structurix series offers the most favorable substitute, but being new to the HED community, its characterization was lacking. To remedy this, recent experiments, conducted at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, provide absolute, monochromatic calibration data for the Agfa Structurix series films at K-shell backlighter energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keV. Absolute response curves are presented for Agfa D8, D7, D4, D4sc, D3, and D2. Moreover, the transmission of each film type is also measured.

  18. Absolute calibration of the Agfa Structurix series films at energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keVa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, N. E.; Cowan, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    Although photo-emulsion technology is many decades old, x-ray film still remains a key asset for diagnosing hydrodynamic features in High-Energy Density (HED) experiments. For decades, the preferred option had been Kodak's direct exposure film. After its discontinuance in 2004, the push to find alternatives began. In many situations, the Agfa Structurix series offers the most favorable substitute, but being new to the HED community, its characterization was lacking. To remedy this, recent experiments, conducted at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, provide absolute, monochromatic calibration data for the Agfa Structurix series films at K-shell backlighter energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keV. Absolute response curves are presented for Agfa D8, D7, D4, D4sc, D3, and D2. Moreover, the transmission of each film type is also measured.

  19. Radiometric cross-calibration of the Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ using an invariant desert site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, T.; Angal, A.; Chander, G.; Xiong, X.

    2008-01-01

    A methodology for long-term radiometric cross-calibration between the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors was developed. The approach involves calibration of near-simultaneous surface observations between 2000 and 2007. Fifty-seven cloud-free image pairs were carefully selected over the Libyan desert for this study. The Libyan desert site (+28.55??, +23.39??), located in northern Africa, is a high reflectance site with high spatial, spectral, and temporal uniformity. Because the test site covers about 12 kmx13 km, accurate geometric preprocessing is required to match the footprint size between the two sensors to avoid uncertainties due to residual image misregistration. MODIS Level IB radiometrically corrected products were reprojected to the corresponding ETM+ image's Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid projection. The 30 m pixels from the ETM+ images were aggregated to match the MODIS spatial resolution (250 m in Bands 1 and 2, or 500 m in Bands 3 to 7). The image data from both sensors were converted to absolute units of at-sensor radiance and top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectance for the spectrally matching band pairs. For each band pair, a set of fitted coefficients (slope and offset) is provided to quantify the relationships between the testing sensors. This work focuses on long-term stability and correlation of the Terra MODIS and L7 ETM+ sensors using absolute calibration results over the entire mission of the two sensors. Possible uncertainties are also discussed such as spectral differences in matching band pairs, solar zenith angle change during a collection, and differences in solar irradiance models.

  20. Absolute dose calibration of an X-ray system and dead time investigations of photon-counting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentieri, C.; Schwarz, C.; Ludwig, J.; Ashfaq, A.; Fiederle, M.

    2002-07-01

    High precision concerning the dose calibration of X-ray sources is required when counting and integrating methods are compared. The dose calibration for a dental X-ray tube was executed with special dose calibration equipment (dosimeter) as function of exposure time and rate. Results were compared with a benchmark spectrum and agree within ±1.5%. Dead time investigations with the Medipix1 photon-counting chip (PCC) have been performed by rate variations. Two different types of dead time, paralysable and non-paralysable will be discussed. The dead time depends on settings of the front-end electronics and is a function of signal height, which might lead to systematic defects of systems. Dead time losses in excess of 30% have been found for the PCC at 200 kHz absorbed photons per pixel.

  1. Piston manometer as an absolute standard for vacuum gage calibration in the range 10 to 700 microtorr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, I.

    1972-01-01

    Total pressure in a calibration chamber is determined by measuring the force on a disk suspended in an orifice in the baseplate of the chamber. The disk forms a narrow annular gap with the orifice. A continuous flow of calibration gas passes through the chamber and annulus to a downstream pumping system. The ratio of pressures on the two faces of the disk exceeds 100:1, so that chamber pressure is substantially equal to the product of disk area and net force on the disk. This force is measured with an electrodynamometer that can be calibrated in situ with dead weights. Probable error in pressure measurement is plus or minus (0.5 microtorr + 0.6 percent).

  2. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  3. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  4. A new solar irradiance calibration from 3295 A to 8500 A derived from absolute spectrophotometry of Vega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, G. W.; Tueg, H.; White, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    By imaging sunlight diffracted by 20- and 30-micron diameter pinholes onto the entrance aperture of a photoelectric grating scanner, the solar spectral irradiance was determined relative to the spectrophotometric standard star Vega, observed at night with the same instrument. Solar irradiances are tabulated at 4 A increments from 3295 A to 8500 A. Over most of the visible spectrum, the internal error of measurement is less than 2 percent. This calibration is compared with earlier irradiance measurements by Neckel and Labs (1984) and by Arvesen et al. (1969) and with the high-resolution solar atlas by Kurucz et al. The three calibrations agree well in visible light but differ by as much as 10 percent in the ultraviolet.

  5. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas, E-mail: mandelis@mie.utoronto.ca; Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that couldmore » be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.« less

  6. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.

    2006-10-15

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this techniquemore » to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3 keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3 keV ({approx}50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.« less

  7. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. L.

    2006-10-01

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si (Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3keV (˜50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.

  8. Development of a low-level 39Ar calibration standard – Analysis by absolute gas counting measurements augmented with simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Brandenberger, J. M.; ...

    2017-02-17

    Here, this paper describes the generation of 39Ar, via reactor irradiation of potassium carbonate, followed by quantitative analysis (length-compensated proportional counting) to yield two calibration standards that are respectively 50 and 3 times atmospheric background levels. Measurements were performed in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's shallow underground counting laboratory studying the effect of gas density on beta-transport; these results are compared with simulation. The total expanded uncertainty of the specific activity for the ~50 × 39Ar in P10 standard is 3.6% (k=2).

  9. Absolute Doppler shift calibration of laser induced fluorescence signals using optogalvanic measurements in a hollow cathode lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the use of optogalvanic (OG) measurements on the neutral 3P1 and 3P2 levels of argon in a hollow cathode lamp for the purpose of calibrating Doppler shifts of laser-induced fluorescence signals from an arcjet plume. It is shown that, even with non-Doppler-free OG detection, accuracy to better than 10 MHz is possible but that, depending on the experiment geometry, corrections of 10-35 MHz may be necessary to offset small axial drift velocities of neutral atoms in the hollow cathode lamp.

  10. Development of a low-level 39Ar calibration standard – Analysis by absolute gas counting measurements augmented with simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Brandenberger, J. M.

    Here, this paper describes the generation of 39Ar, via reactor irradiation of potassium carbonate, followed by quantitative analysis (length-compensated proportional counting) to yield two calibration standards that are respectively 50 and 3 times atmospheric background levels. Measurements were performed in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's shallow underground counting laboratory studying the effect of gas density on beta-transport; these results are compared with simulation. The total expanded uncertainty of the specific activity for the ~50 × 39Ar in P10 standard is 3.6% (k=2).

  11. Experimental Results of Site Calibration and Sensitivity Measurements in OTR for UWB Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanadham, Chandana; Rao, P. Mallikrajuna

    2017-06-01

    System calibration and parameter accuracy measurement of electronic support measures (ESM) systems is a major activity, carried out by electronic warfare (EW) engineers. These activities are very critical and needs good understanding in the field of microwaves, antennas, wave propagation, digital and communication domains. EW systems are broad band, built with state-of-the art electronic hardware, installed on different varieties of military platforms to guard country's security from time to time. EW systems operate in wide frequency ranges, typically in the order of thousands of MHz, hence these are ultra wide band (UWB) systems. Few calibration activities are carried within the system and in the test sites, to meet the accuracies of final specifications. After calibration, parameters are measured for their accuracies either in feed mode by injecting the RF signals into the front end or in radiation mode by transmitting the RF signals on to system antenna. To carry out these activities in radiation mode, a calibrated open test range (OTR) is necessary in the frequency band of interest. Thus site calibration of OTR is necessary to be carried out before taking up system calibration and parameter measurements. This paper presents the experimental results of OTR site calibration and sensitivity measurements of UWB systems in radiation mode.

  12. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    PubMed

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  13. Relative and Absolute Calibration of a Multihead Camera System with Oblique and Nadir Looking Cameras for a Uas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, F.; Schima, R.; Grenzdörffer, G.

    2013-08-01

    Numerous unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are currently flooding the market. For the most diverse applications UAVs are special designed and used. Micro and mini UAS (maximum take-off weight up to 5 kg) are of particular interest, because legal restrictions are still manageable but also the payload capacities are sufficient for many imaging sensors. Currently a camera system with four oblique and one nadir looking cameras is under development at the Chair for Geodesy and Geoinformatics. The so-called "Four Vision" camera system was successfully built and tested in the air. A MD4-1000 UAS from microdrones is used as a carrier system. Light weight industrial cameras are used and controlled by a central computer. For further photogrammetric image processing, each individual camera, as well as all the cameras together have to be calibrated. This paper focuses on the determination of the relative orientation between the cameras with the „Australis" software and will give an overview of the results and experiences of test flights.

  14. WIM scale calibration: a vital activity for LTPP sites

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-07-01

    Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) data are the foundation for new pavement designs for years to come. As such, data collected at LTPP test sites need to be as accurate and complete as possible. For the collection of truck weight data, this requir...

  15. The fading of Cassiopeia A, and improved models for the absolute spectrum of primary radio calibration sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotter, A. S.; Reichart, D. E.; Egger, R. E.; Stýblová, J.; Paggen, M. L.; Martin, J. R.; Dutton, D. A.; Reichart, J. E.; Kumar, N. D.; Maples, M. P.; Barlow, B. N.; Berger, T. A.; Foster, A. C.; Frank, N. R.; Ghigo, F. D.; Haislip, J. B.; Heatherly, S. A.; Kouprianov, V. V.; LaCluyzé, A. P.; Moffett, D. A.; Moore, J. P.; Stanley, J. L.; White, S.

    2017-08-01

    Based on 5 yr of observations with the 40-foot telescope at Green Bank Observatory (GBO), Reichart & Stephens found that the radio source Cassiopeia A had either faded more slowly between the mid-1970s and late 1990s than Baars et al. had found it to be fading between the late 1940s and mid-1970s, or that it had rebrightened and then resumed fading sometime between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s, in the L band (1.4 GHz). Here, we present 15 additional years of observations of Cas A and Cyg A with the 40-foot in the L band, and three and a half additional years of observations of Cas A, Cyg A, Tau A and Vir A with GBO's recently refurbished 20-m telescope in the L and X (9 GHz) bands. We also present a more sophisticated analysis of the 40-foot data, and a reanalysis of the Baars et al. data, which reveals small, but non-negligible differences. We find that overall, between the late 1950s and late 2010s, Cas A faded at an average rate of 0.670 ± 0.019 per cent yr-1 in the L band, consistent with Reichart & Stephens. However, we also find, at the 6.3σ credible level, that it did not fade at a constant rate. Rather, Cas A faded at a faster rate through at least the late 1960s, rebrightened (or at least faded at a much slower rate), and then resumed fading at a similarly fast rate by, at most, the late 1990s. Given these differences from the original Baars et al. analysis, and given the importance of their fitted spectral and temporal models for flux-density calibration in radio astronomy, we update and improve on these models for all four of these radio sources. In doing so, we additionally find that Tau A is fading at a rate of 0.102^{+0.042}_{-0.043} per cent yr-1 in the L band.

  16. Absolute Quantitation of Glycosylation Site Occupancy Using Isotopically Labeled Standards and LC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhikai; Go, Eden P.; Desaire, Heather

    2014-06-01

    N-linked glycans are required to maintain appropriate biological functions on proteins. Underglycosylation leads to many diseases in plants and animals; therefore, characterizing the extent of glycosylation on proteins is an important step in understanding, diagnosing, and treating diseases. To determine the glycosylation site occupancy, protein N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) is typically used to detach the glycan from the protein, during which the formerly glycosylated asparagine undergoes deamidation to become an aspartic acid. By comparing the abundance of the resulting peptide containing aspartic acid against the one containing non-glycosylated asparagine, the glycosylation site occupancy can be evaluated. However, this approach can give inaccurate results when spontaneous chemical deamidation of the non-glycosylated asparagine occurs. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new method to measure the glycosylation site occupancy that does not rely on converting glycosylated peptides to their deglycosylated forms. Specifically, the overall protein concentration and the non-glycosylated portion of the protein are quantified simultaneously by using heavy isotope-labeled internal standards coupled with LC-MS analysis, and the extent of site occupancy is accurately determined. The efficacy of the method was demonstrated by quantifying the occupancy of a glycosylation site on bovine fetuin. The developed method is the first work that measures the glycosylation site occupancy without using PNGase F, and it can be done in parallel with glycopeptide analysis because the glycan remains intact throughout the workflow.

  17. On-site flow calibration of turbine meters for natural gas custody transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, V.C.; Schexnayder, L.L.; Conkling, D.B.

    1991-05-01

    This paper presents the design criteria, performance characteristics, and calibration procedures relating to a turbine-meter flow-calibration facility used in the high-volume custody transfer of natural gas. The facility, located in Venice, LA, is owned and operated by Chevron U.S.A. Inc. and is used to meter sales volumes of up to 500 MMscf/D (14.16 {times} 10 std m{sup 3}/d) at a nominal operating pressure of 1,000 psig (6.9 MPa). The system includes three 12-in. (30.48 cm) turbine meters used for sales-volume measurement, a bank of sonic nozzles, and a master turbine meter connected in series with the sales meters. The sonicmore » nozzles and master meter serve as flow-proving and -calibration devices. sonic nozzles are recommended by the turbine-meter standard for meter calibration. This paper examines the performance of on-site calibration of gas turbine meters. The Venice facility successfully demonstrated that on-site calibration of gas-metering devices can ensure accurate gas-flow measurement under field conditions.« less

  18. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  19. SkyProbe: Real-Time Precision Monitoring in the Optical of the Absolute Atmospheric Absorption on the Telescope Science and Calibration Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, J.-C.; Magnier, E.; Sabin, D.; Mahoney, B.

    2016-05-01

    Mauna Kea is known for its pristine seeing conditions but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations since at least 25% of the observable (i.e. open dome) nights are not photometric, an effect mostly due to high-altitude cirrus. Since 2001, the original single channel SkyProbe mounted in parallel on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) has gathered one V-band exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera offering a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (40 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tycho catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). The measurement of the true atmospheric absorption is achieved within 2%, a key advantage over all-sky direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds. The absolute measurement of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds and particulates affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO) representing today all of the telescope time. Also, science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for a new observation at a later date at 1/10th of the original exposure time in photometric conditions to ensure a proper final absolute photometric calibration. Photometric standards are observed only when conditions are reported as being perfectly stable by SkyProbe. The more recent dual color system (simultaneous B & V bands) will offer a better characterization of the sky properties above Mauna Kea and should enable a better detection of the thinnest cirrus (absorption down to 0.01 mag., or 1%).

  20. Absolute, pressure-dependent validation of a calibration-free, airborne laser hygrometer transfer standard (SEALDH-II) from 5 to 1200 ppmv using a metrological humidity generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Highly accurate water vapor measurements are indispensable for understanding a variety of scientific questions as well as industrial processes. While in metrology water vapor concentrations can be defined, generated, and measured with relative uncertainties in the single percentage range, field-deployable airborne instruments deviate even under quasistatic laboratory conditions up to 10-20 %. The novel SEALDH-II hygrometer, a calibration-free, tuneable diode laser spectrometer, bridges this gap by implementing a new holistic concept to achieve higher accuracy levels in the field. We present in this paper the absolute validation of SEALDH-II at a traceable humidity generator during 23 days of permanent operation at 15 different H2O mole fraction levels between 5 and 1200 ppmv. At each mole fraction level, we studied the pressure dependence at six different gas pressures between 65 and 950 hPa. Further, we describe the setup for this metrological validation, the challenges to overcome when assessing water vapor measurements on a high accuracy level, and the comparison results. With this validation, SEALDH-II is the first airborne, metrologically validated humidity transfer standard which links several scientific airborne and laboratory measurement campaigns to the international metrological water vapor scale.

  1. Determination of Delta m(d) and absolute calibration of flavor taggers for the Delta m(s) analysis, in fully reconstructed decays at the CDF experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Jonatan Piedra

    2005-04-21

    The new trigger processor, the Silicon Vertex Tracking (SVT), has dramatically improved the B physics capabilities of the upgraded CDF II Detector; for the first time in a hadron collider, the SVT has enabled the access to non-lepton-triggered B meson decays. Within the new available range of decay modes, the Bmore » $$0\\atop{s}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s}$$π + signature is of paramount importance in the measurement of the Δm s mixing frequency. The analysis reported here is a step towards the measurement of this frequency; two where our goals: carrying out the absolute calibration of the opposite side flavor taggers, used in the Δm s measurement; and measuring the B$$0\\atop{d}$$ mixing frequency in a B → Dπ sample, establishing the feasibility of the mixing measurement in this sample whose decay-length is strongly biased by the selective SVT trigger. We analyze a total integrated luminosity of 355 pb -1 collected with the CDF II Detector. By triggering on muons, using the conventional di-muon trigger; or displaced tracks, using the SVT trigger, we gather a sample rich in bottom and charm mesons.« less

  2. How calibration and reference spectra affect the accuracy of absolute soft X-ray solar irradiance measured by the SDO/EVE/ESP during high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP), one of the channels of SDO's Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), measures solar irradiance in several EUV and soft x-ray (SXR) bands isolated using thin-film filters and a transmission diffraction grating, and includes a quad-diode detector positioned at the grating zeroth-order to observe in a wavelength band from about 0.1 to 7.0 nm. The quad diode signal also includes some contribution from shorter wavelength in the grating's first-order and the ratio of zeroth-order to first-order signal depends on both source geometry, and spectral distribution. For example, radiometric calibration of the ESP zeroth-order at the NIST SURF BL-2 with a near-parallel beam provides a different zeroth-to-first-order ratio than modeled for solar observations. The relative influence of "uncalibrated" first-order irradiance during solar observations is a function of the solar spectral irradiance and the locations of large Active Regions or solar flares. We discuss how the "uncalibrated" first-order "solar" component and the use of variable solar reference spectra affect determination of absolute SXR irradiance which currently may be significantly overestimated during high solar activity.

  3. An accurate on-site calibration system for electronic voltage transformers using a standard capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chen; Chen, Mian-zhou; Li, Hong-bin; Zhang, Zhu; Jiao, Yang; Shao, Haiming

    2018-05-01

    Ordinarily electronic voltage transformers (EVTs) are calibrated off-line and the calibration procedure requires complex switching operations, which will influence the reliability of the power grid and induce large economic losses. To overcome this problem, this paper investigates a 110 kV on-site calibration system for EVTs, including a standard channel, a calibrated channel and a PC equipped with the LabView environment. The standard channel employs a standard capacitor and an analogue integrating circuit to reconstruct the primary voltage signal. Moreover, an adaptive full-phase discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm is proposed to extract electrical parameters. The algorithm involves the process of extracting the frequency of the grid, adjusting the operation points, and calculating the results using DFT. In addition, an insulated automatic lifting device is designed to realize the live connection of the standard capacitor, which is driven by a wireless remote controller. A performance test of the capacitor verifies the accurateness of the standard capacitor. A system calibration test shows that the system ratio error is less than 0.04% and the phase error is below 2‧, which meets the requirement of the 0.2 accuracy class. Finally, the developed calibration system was used in a substation, and the field test data validates the availability of the system.

  4. A new apparatus for on-site calibration of gamma dose rate monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Bo; Zhao, Chao; Zhuo, Weihai

    2018-01-01

    In order to carry out on-site calibrations of environmental gamma dose rate monitors, a new irradiation apparatus was developed in this study. The apparatus mainly consists of a piece of 137Cs source, a set of beam attenuators, and 3 built-in laser rangefinders, and it can be remotely controlled by using a laptop through WiFi network. With an activity of 4.6 × 108 Bq of 137Cs source, the reference air kerma rate could be adjusted from 0.26 μGy h-1 to 140 μGy h-1 by changing the calibration distance from 0.5 m to 5 m and using different beam attenuators (or none), and both the reproducibility and the homogeneity of reference radiation were better than 97%. The overall uncertainty of the calibration was estimated to be 6.5% (k = 2). Both the laboratory and field experiments confirmed that the calibration method met the requirements of ISO 4037-1. As the advantages of portability and simplicity, it is considered that the new irradiation apparatus is applicable to stationary gamma radiation monitors for on-site calibration.

  5. EO-1 Hyperion reflectance time series at calibration and validation sites: stability and sensitivity to seasonal dynamics

    Treesearch

    Petya K. Entcheva Campbell; Elizabeth M. Middleton; Kurt J. Thome; Raymond F. Kokaly; Karl Fred Huemmrich; David Lagomasino; Kimberly A. Novick; Nathaniel A. Brunsell

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion reflectance time series at established calibration sites to assess the instrument stability and suitability for monitoring vegetation functional parameters. Our analysis using three pseudo-invariant calibration sites in North America indicated that the reflectance time series are devoid of apparent spectral trends...

  6. Analysis on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Fu, Xiaohui; Zeng, Xingguo; Yao, Meijuan; Zhang, Hongbo; Su, Yan; Zhao, Shu; Xue, Xiping; Li, Chunlai; Zou, Yongliao

    2015-04-01

    Recent lunar orbital observations suggested that the surface reflectance calculated based on the Apollo 16 standard area and Apollo 16 sample laboratory measurement is significantly different from its true value [1-3], one reason is the composition and maturity differences between the 62231 sampling site and the Apollo 16 standard site existed, the other reason is the physical properties of the returned lunar sample, such as porosity, have been changed during the sampling operations. So more new standard targets on the Moon, besides the widely used Apollo 16 area, are needed for imaging spectrometers on lunar missions to improve their reflectance calibration accuracies. The Chang'E-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), which is just fixed at the front of the Yutu rover [4], equipped with a white spectralon panel as reflectance calibration standard, can perform in situ multispectral observations around the Chang'E-3 landing site without altering the physical and mineralogical natures of lunar soils. Therefore, it provides an opportunity to establish a new reliable standard target for in-flight reflectance calibration. The reflectance calibration target should be compositional homogeneous, the topography of which must be flat, and the reflectance should be identical with no nearby units of other different materials. As we have known, Chang'e-3 probe landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum, the landing site is relatively flat at a spatial coverage of ~660km2, and this region belongs to Eratosthenian low-Ti/high-Ti mare basalts [5-6]. According to much higher resolution topography data, elemental data and reflectance data of Chang'E-2 and Chang'E-3[7-8], we preliminary analyse the possibility on establishing Chang'E-3 landing site as a reflectance calibration target. Firstly, the overall terrain of the 4 km×4 km area around the landing site is flat, but there are still three bigger craters existed. Secondly, the composition on Chang'E-3

  7. Evaluation of the Main Ceos Pseudo Calibration Sites Using Modis Brdf/albedo Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharbouche, Said; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This work describes our findings about an evaluation of the stability and the consistency of twenty primary PICSs (Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites). We present an analysis of 13 years of 8-daily MODIS products of BRDF parameters and white-sky-albedos (WSA) over the shortwave band. This time series of WSA and BRDFs shows the variation of the "stability" varies significantly from site to site. Using a 10x10 km window size over all the sites, the change in of WSA stability is around 4% but the isotropicity, which is an important element in inter-satellite calibration, can vary from 75% to 98%. Moreover, some PICS, especially, Libya-4 which is one of the PICS which is most employed, has significant and relatively fast changes in wintertime. PICS observations of BRDF/albedo shows that the Libya-4 PICS has the best performance but it is not too far from some sites such as Libya-1 and Mali. This study also reveals that Niger-3 PICS has the longest continuous period of high stability per year, and Sudan has the most isotropic surface. These observations have important implications for the use of these sites.

  8. Cross-calibration of Medium Resolution Earth Observing Satellites by Using EO-1 Hyperion-derived Spectral Surface Reflectance from "Lunar Cal Sites"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, the Earth Observing-one (EO-1) Hyperion imaging spectrometer was used to slowly scan the lunar surface at a rate which results in up to 32X oversampling to effectively increase the SNR. Several strategies, including comparison against the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) mode,l are being employed to estimate the absolute and relative accuracy of the measurement set. There is an existing need to resolve discrepancies as high as 10% between ROLO and solar based calibration of current NASA EOS assets. Although the EO-1 mission was decommissioned at the end of March 2017, the development of a well-characterized exoatmospheric spectral radiometric database, for a range of lunar phase angles surrounding the fully illuminated moon, continues. Initial studies include a comprehensive analysis of the existing 17-year collection of more than 200 monthly lunar acquisitions. Specific lunar surface areas, such as a lunar mare, are being characterized as potential "lunar calibration sites" in terms of their radiometric stability in the presence of lunar nutation and libration. Site specific Hyperion-derived lunar spectral reflectance are being compared against spectrographic measurements made during the Apollo program. Techniques developed through this activity can be employed by future high-quality orbiting imaging spectrometers (such as HyspIRI and EnMap) to further refine calibration accuracies. These techniques will enable the consistent cross calibration of existing and future earth observing systems (spectral and multi-spectral) including those that do not have lunar viewing capability. When direct lunar viewing is not an option for an earth observing asset, orbiting imaging spectrometers can serve as transfer radiometers relating that asset's sensor response to lunar values through near contemporaneous observations of well characterized stable CEOS test sites. Analysis of this dataset will lead to the development of strategies to ensure more

  9. Implementation of Barcelona, L'estartit and Ibiza Sites for Altimeter Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Bosch, E.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2012-12-01

    A marine campaign to compute the sea surface data along the Spanish Mediterranean coastline and Balearic Islands is being prepared for 2013. Jason-2 (period ~10 days) and Saral/AltiKa (period of 35 days and expected launch in 2012) altimetric data and on-board GPS data will be used. Many GPS Buoy sessions along the ship route will be performed.Sea height estimates (instantaneous and mean sea levels) will be compared. Recently some geodetic improvements has been made in specific coastal spanish sites in the NW Mediterranean Sea for monitoring sea level. The goal is to maintain and improve the quality of the observation of the sea level change in the three sites. The information is coming from Puertos del Estado www.puertos.es L'Estartit tide gauge has been co-located with geodetic techniques (GPS measurements of XU, Utilitary Network, and XdA, Levelling Network,) and it is tied to the SPGIC (Integrated Geodetic Positioning System of Catalonia) project of the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC). In the past three calibration campaigns for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 in March 1999, August 2000 and July 2002 near Cape of Begur. At Barcelona harbour there is one MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Bathymetric campaigns inside the harbour have been made. At Ibiza site new measurements and levelling between the GPS reference station and a Radar MIROS, both from Puertos del Estado, has been made recently. A calibration campaign for Jason-1 was made in

  10. The measurement and evaluation of bidirectional reflectance characteristics of Dunhuang radiometric calibration test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chun-yan; Li, Xin; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-bing

    2016-10-01

    With the progress of quantitative remote sensing, the acquisition of surface BRDF becomes more and more important. In order to improve the accuracy of the surface BRDF measurements, a VNIR-SWIR Bidirectional Reflectance Automatic Measurement System, which was developed by Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (HIPS), is introduced that allows in situ measurements of hyperspectral bidirectional reflectance data. Hyperspectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function data sets taken with the BRDF automatic measurement system nominally cover the spectral range between 390 and 2390 nm in 971 bands. In July 2007, September 2008, June 2011, we acquired a series of the BRDF data covered Dunhuang radiometric calibration test site in terms of the BRDF measurement system. We have not obtained such comprehensive and accurate data as they are, since 1990s when the site was built up. These data are applied to calibration for FY-2 and other satellites sensors. Field BRDF data of a Dunhuang site surface reveal a strong spectral variability. An anisotropy factor (ANIF), defined as the ratio between the directional reflectance and nadir reflectance over the hemisphere, is introduced as a surrogate measurement for the extent of spectral BRDF effects. The ANIF data show a very high correlation with the solar zenith angle due to multiple scattering effects over a desert site. Since surface geometry, multiple scattering, and BRDF effects are related, these findings may help to derive BRDF model parameters from the in-situ BRDF measurement remotely sensed hyperspectral data sets.

  11. Investigating temporal field sampling strategies for site-specific calibration of three soil moisture-neutron intensity parameterisation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwema, J.; Rosolem, R.; Baatz, R.; Wagener, T.; Bogena, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) can provide soil moisture information at scales relevant to hydrometeorological modelling applications. Site-specific calibration is needed to translate CRNS neutron intensities into sensor footprint average soil moisture contents. We investigated temporal sampling strategies for calibration of three CRNS parameterisations (modified N0, HMF, and COSMIC) by assessing the effects of the number of sampling days and soil wetness conditions on the performance of the calibration results while investigating actual neutron intensity measurements, for three sites with distinct climate and land use: a semi-arid site, a temperate grassland, and a temperate forest. When calibrated with 1 year of data, both COSMIC and the modified N0 method performed better than HMF. The performance of COSMIC was remarkably good at the semi-arid site in the USA, while the N0mod performed best at the two temperate sites in Germany. The successful performance of COSMIC at all three sites can be attributed to the benefits of explicitly resolving individual soil layers (which is not accounted for in the other two parameterisations). To better calibrate these parameterisations, we recommend in situ soil sampled to be collected on more than a single day. However, little improvement is observed for sampling on more than 6 days. At the semi-arid site, the N0mod method was calibrated better under site-specific average wetness conditions, whereas HMF and COSMIC were calibrated better under drier conditions. Average soil wetness condition gave better calibration results at the two humid sites. The calibration results for the HMF method were better when calibrated with combinations of days with similar soil wetness conditions, opposed to N0mod and COSMIC, which profited from using days with distinct wetness conditions. Errors in actual neutron intensities were translated to average errors specifically to each site. At the semi-arid site, these errors were below the

  12. Integrated corridor management (ICM) analysis, modeling, and simulation (AMS) for Minneapolis site : model calibration and validation report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-02-01

    This technical report documents the calibration and validation of the baseline (2008) mesoscopic model for the I-394 Minneapolis, Minnesota, Pioneer Site. DynusT was selected as the mesoscopic model for analyzing operating conditions in the I-394 cor...

  13. Calibration of a distributed routing rainfall-runoff model at four urban sites near Miami, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W. Harry; Miller, Jeffrey E.

    1980-01-01

    Urban stormwater data from four Miami, Fla. catchments were collected and compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and were used for testing the applicability of deterministic modeling for characterizing stormwater flows from small land-use areas. A description of model calibration and verification is presented for: (1) A 40.8 acre single-family residential area, (2) a 58.3-acre highway area, (3) a 20.4-acre commercial area, and (4) a 14.7-acre multifamily residential area. Rainfall-runoff data for 80, 108, 114, and 52 storms at sites, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, were collected, analyzed, and stored on direct-access files. Rainfall and runoff data for these storms (at 1-minute time intervals) were used in flow-modeling simulation analyses. A distributed routing Geological Survey rainfall-runoff model was used to determine rainfall excess and route overland and channel flows at each site. Optimization of soil-moisture- accounting and infiltration parameters was performed during the calibration phases. The results of this study showed that, with qualifications, an acceptable verification of the Geological Survey model can be achieved. (Kosco-USGS)

  14. Proposed low-energy absolute calibration of nuclear recoils in a dual-phase noble element TPC using D-D neutron scattering kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbus, J. R.; Rhyne, C. A.; Malling, D. C.; Genecov, M.; Ghosh, S.; Moskowitz, A. G.; Chan, S.; Chapman, J. J.; de Viveiros, L.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Huang, D. Q.; Pangilinan, M.; Taylor, W. C.; Gaitskell, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new technique for the calibration of nuclear recoils in large noble element dual-phase time projection chambers used to search for WIMP dark matter in the local galactic halo. This technique provides an in situ measurement of the low-energy nuclear recoil response of the target media using the measured scattering angle between multiple neutron interactions within the detector volume. The low-energy reach and reduced systematics of this calibration have particular significance for the low-mass WIMP sensitivity of several leading dark matter experiments. Multiple strategies for improving this calibration technique are discussed, including the creation of a new type of quasi-monoenergetic neutron source with a minimum possible peak energy of 272 keV. We report results from a time-of-flight-based measurement of the neutron energy spectrum produced by an Adelphi Technology, Inc. DD108 neutron generator, confirming its suitability for the proposed nuclear recoil calibration.

  15. Cross-calibration of the Terra MODIS, Landsat 7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI sensors using near-simultaneous surface observation over the Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada, test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Angal, A.; Choi, T.; Meyer, D.J.; Xiong, X.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    A cross-calibration methodology has been developed using coincident image pairs from the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Earth Observing EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) to verify the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy of these sensors with respect to each other. To quantify the effects due to different spectral responses, the Relative Spectral Responses (RSR) of these sensors were studied and compared by developing a set of "figures-of-merit." Seven cloud-free scenes collected over the Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada (RVPN), test site were used to conduct the cross-calibration study. This cross-calibration approach was based on image statistics from near-simultaneous observations made by different satellite sensors. Homogeneous regions of interest (ROI) were selected in the image pairs, and the mean target statistics were converted to absolute units of at-sensor reflectance. Using these reflectances, a set of cross-calibration equations were developed giving a relative gain and bias between the sensor pair.

  16. Monitoring Sea Level by Tide Gauges and GPS at Estartit and Barcelona Sites for Altimeter Calibration Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjain, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Bosch, Ernest; Perez, Begona; Pros, Francesc

    2013-09-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona and l'Estartit sites for sea level monitoring by tide gauges and GPS and complementing Ibiza site for a new altimeter calibration campaign of Jason-2 and Saral/AltiKa satellites to be made in 2013.

  17. Earth-observing satellite intercomparison using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site at Railroad Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; McCorkel, Joel; Anderson, Nikolaus; Biggar, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the current ground-based calibration results of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Suomi National Polar orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), and Sentinel-2A Multispectral Instrument (MSI), using an automated suite of instruments located at Railroad Valley, Nevada, USA. The period of this study is 2012 to 2016 for MODIS, VIIRS, and ETM+, 2013 to 2016 for OLI, and 2015 to 2016 for MSI. The current results show that all sensors agree with the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) to within ±5% in the solar-reflective regime, except for one band on VIIRS that is within ±6%. In the case of ETM+ and OLI, the agreement is within ±3%, and, in the case of MODIS, the agreement is within ±3.5%. MSI agrees with RadCaTS to within ±4.5% in all applicable bands.

  18. Transient Inverse Calibration of Hanford Site-Wide Groundwater Model to Hanford Operational Impacts - 1943 to 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Wurstner, Signe K.

    2001-05-31

    This report describes a new initiative to strengthen the technical defensibility of predictions made with the Hanford site-wide groundwater flow and transport model. The focus is on characterizing major uncertainties in the current model. PNNL will develop and implement a calibration approach and methodology that can be used to evaluate alternative conceptual models of the Hanford aquifer system. The calibration process will involve a three-dimensional transient inverse calibration of each numerical model to historical observations of hydraulic and water quality impacts to the unconfined aquifer system from Hanford operations since the mid-1940s.

  19. Calibration of a large water-Cherenkov detector at the Sierra Negra site of LAGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, A.; Moreno, E.; Carrasco, E.; Torres, I.; Carramiñana, A.; Bonilla, M.; Salazar, H.; Conde, R.; Alvarez, W.; Alvarez, C.; Araujo, C.; Areso, O.; Arnaldi, H.; Asorey, H.; Audelo, M.; Barros, H.; Bonnett, M.; Calderon, R.; Calderon, M.; Campos-Fauth, A.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, E.; Carrera, E.; Cazar, D.; Cifuentes, E.; Collogo, D.; Conde, R.; Cotzomi, J.; Dasso, S.; De Castro, A.; De La Torre, J.; De León, R.; Estupiñan, A.; Galindo, A.; García, L.; Gomez Berisso, M.; González, M.; Guevara, W.; Gulisano, A. M.; Hernández, H.; Jaimes, A.; López, J.; Mantilla, C.; Martín, R.; Martinez-Mendez, A.; Martínez, O.; Martins, E.; Macías-Meza, J. J.; Mayo-García, R.; Melo, T.; Mendoza, J.; Miranda, P.; Montes, E.; Morales, E.; Morales, I.; Moreno, E.; Murrugarra, C.; Nina, C.; Núñez, L. A.; Núñez-Castiñeyra, A.; Otiniano, L.; Peña-Rodríguez, J.; Perenguez, J.; Pérez, H.; Pérez, Y.; Pérez, G.; Pinilla-Velandia, S.; Ponce, E.; Quishpe, R.; Quispe, F.; Ramelli, M.; Reyes, K.; Rivera, H.; Rodriguez, J.; Rodríguez-Ferreira, J.; Rodríguez-Pascual, M.; Romero, M.; Rubio-Montero, A. J.; Salazar, H.; Salinas, J.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sofo Haro, M.; Suárez-Durán, M.; Subieta, M.; Tello, J.; Ticona, R.; Torres, I.; Torres-Niõ, L.; Truyenque, J.; Valencia-Otero, M.; Vargas, S.; Vásquez, N.; Villaseñor, L.; Zamalloa, M.; Zavala, L.; LAGO Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) is an international network of water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) set in different sites across Latin America. On top of the Sierra Negra volcano in Mexico at an altitude of 4530 m, LAGO has completed its first out of three instrumented detector. It consists of a cylindrical water tank with a diameter of 7.3 m and a height of 1 m and a total detection area of 40 m2 that is sectioned in four equal slices. In this work we present the full calibration procedure of this detector and the initial measurements of stability in rate. We also derive the effective area to gamma-ray bursts for the complete array using the LAGO simulation chain, based on CORSIKA and GEANT4.

  20. Snow Depth Calibrations for Electromagnetic Induction Investigations at a Former Munitions Waste Disposal Site in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, D. R., II; Wagner, A. M.; Gelvin, A.; Saari, S.; Staples, A.; Larsen, G.

    2017-12-01

    A US Army legacy munitions waste site was identified adjacent to a river near a small arms range in Alaska. As part of remediation efforts, geophysical studies were conducted to characterize the extent of buried metal debris at the site. Time-domain electromagnetic surveys were completed over the site to meet the regulatory guidance for site cleanup. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic induction, magnetic gradiometry, and ground penetrating radar subsurface geophysical studies were deployed over soil, water, and snow surface conditions throughout the impacted area. The time-domain electromagnetic induction results acquired during summer months, presented clear indications of trenches located directly perpendicular to and adjacent to the river. However, in the follow up investigation where the snow-pack was greater than one meter, the response amplitude of the metallic debris was dampened and possible targets were missed. This was confirmed by the subsequent magnetic gradiometry survey which identified a suspected extension of one of the trenches through the river on to the seasonal sand bar island. The region is subject to extremely cold temperatures as well as significant snow pack and permafrost soil conditions. The snow presented a negative impact to the accurate assessment of the site by changing the effective investigation depth. To address this we developed an approach using ground penetrating radar data calibrated with physical snow depth measurements to generate continuous estimates of snow depth and spatially correct the electromagnetic induction data to the corresponding regulatory amplitude limit as if the snow were not present. Limitations of the approach as related to the signal floor of the electromagnetic induction response were also assessed.

  1. Preliminary assessment of several parameters to measure and compare usefulness of the CEOS reference pseudo-invariant calibration sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, Gyanesh; Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Helder, Dennis L.; Mishra, Nischal; Choi, Taeyoung; Wu, Aisheng

    2010-01-01

    Test sites are central to any future quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) strategy. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group for Calibration and Validation (WGCV) Infrared Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) worked with collaborators around the world to establish a core set of CEOS-endorsed, globally distributed, reference standard test sites (both instrumented and pseudo-invariant) for the post-launch calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. The pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) have high reflectance and are usually made up of sand dunes with low aerosol loading and practically no vegetation. The goal of this paper is to provide preliminary assessment of "several parameters" than can be used on an operational basis to compare and measure usefulness of reference sites all over the world. The data from Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Hyperion sensors over the CEOS PICS were used to perform a preliminary assessment of several parameters, such as usable area, data availability, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, at-sensor brightness temperature, spatial uniformity, temporal stability, spectral stability, and typical spectrum observed over the sites.

  2. Online catalog of world-wide test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of optical sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Christopherson, J.B.; Stensaas, G.L.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In an era when the number of Earth-observing satellites is rapidly growing and measurements from these sensors are used to answer increasingly urgent global issues, it is imperative that scientists and decision-makers can rely on the accuracy of Earth-observing data products. The characterization and calibration of these sensors are vital to achieve an integrated Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for coordinated and sustained observations of Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as a supporting member of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and GEOSS, is working with partners around the world to establish an online catalog of prime candidate test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. The online catalog provides easy public Web site access to this vital information for the global community. This paper describes the catalog, the test sites, and the methodologies to use the test sites. It also provides information regarding access to the online catalog and plans for further development of the catalog in cooperation with calibration specialists from agencies and organizations around the world. Through greater access to and understanding of these vital test sites and their use, the validity and utility of information gained from Earth remote sensing will continue to improve. Copyright IAF/IAA. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping the pharmacological modulation of brain oxygen metabolism: The effects of caffeine on absolute CMRO2 measured using dual calibrated fMRI.

    PubMed

    Merola, Alberto; Germuska, Michael A; Warnert, Esther Ah; Richmond, Lewys; Helme, Daniel; Khot, Sharmila; Murphy, Kevin; Rogers, Peter J; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2017-07-15

    This study aims to map the acute effects of caffeine ingestion on grey matter oxygen metabolism and haemodynamics with a novel MRI method. Sixteen healthy caffeine consumers (8 males, age=24.7±5.1) were recruited to this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was scanned on two days before and after the delivery of an oral caffeine (250mg) or placebo capsule. Our measurements were obtained with a newly proposed estimation approach applied to data from a dual calibration fMRI experiment that uses hypercapnia and hyperoxia to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation. Estimates were based on a forward model that describes analytically the contributions of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and of the measured end-tidal partial pressures of CO 2 and O 2 to the acquired dual-echo GRE signal. The method allows the estimation of grey matter maps of: oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), CBF, CBF-related cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ). Other estimates from a multi inversion time ASL acquisition (mTI-ASL), salivary samples of the caffeine concentration and behavioural measurements are also reported. We observed significant differences between caffeine and placebo on average across grey matter, with OEF showing an increase of 15.6% (SEM±4.9%, p<0.05) with caffeine, while CBF and CMRO 2 showed differences of -30.4% (SEM±1.6%, p<0.01) and -18.6% (SEM±2.9%, p<0.01) respectively with caffeine administration. The reduction in oxygen metabolism found is somehow unexpected, but consistent with a hypothesis of decreased energetic demand, supported by previous electrophysiological studies reporting reductions in spectral power with EEG. Moreover the maps of the physiological parameters estimated illustrate the spatial distribution of changes across grey matter enabling us to localise the effects of caffeine with voxel-wise resolution. CBF changes were widespread as reported by previous findings, while

  4. A comparison of single- and multi-site calibration and validation: a case study of SWAT in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu

    2017-09-01

    An essential task in evaluating global water resource and pollution problems is to obtain the optimum set of parameters in hydrological models through calibration and validation. For a large-scale watershed, single-site calibration and validation may ignore spatial heterogeneity and may not meet the needs of the entire watershed. The goal of this study is to apply a multi-site calibration and validation of the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT), using the observed flow data at three monitoring sites within the Baihe watershed of the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. Our results indicate that the multi-site calibration parameter values are more reasonable than those obtained from single-site calibrations. These results are mainly due to significant differences in the topographic factors over the large-scale area, human activities and climate variability. The multi-site method involves the division of the large watershed into smaller watersheds, and applying the calibrated parameters of the multi-site calibration to the entire watershed. It was anticipated that this case study could provide experience of multi-site calibration in a large-scale basin, and provide a good foundation for the simulation of other pollutants in followup work in the Miyun Reservoir watershed and other similar large areas.

  5. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  6. Integrating ecosystems measurements from multiple eddy-covariance sites to a simple model of ecosystem process - Are there possibilities for a uniform model calibration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minunno, Francesco; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Launiainen, Samuli; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2014-05-01

    Biogeochemical models quantify the material and energy flux exchanges between biosphere, atmosphere and soil, however there is still considerable uncertainty underpinning model structure and parametrization. The increasing availability of data from of multiple sources provides useful information for model calibration and validation at different space and time scales. We calibrated a simplified ecosystem process model PRELES to data from multiple sites. In this work we had the following objective: to compare a multi-site calibration and site-specific calibrations, in order to test if PRELES is a model of general applicability, and to test how well one parameterization can predict ecosystem fluxes. Model calibration and evaluation were carried out by the means of the Bayesian method; Bayesian calibration (BC) and Bayesian model comparison (BMC) were used to quantify the uncertainty in model parameters and model structure. Evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) measurements collected in 9 sites of Finland and Sweden were used in the study; half dataset was used for model calibrations and half for the comparative analyses. 10 BCs were performed; the model was independently calibrated for each of the nine sites (site-specific calibrations) and a multi-site calibration was achieved using the data from all the sites in one BC. Then 9 BMCs were carried out, one for each site, using output from the multi-site and the site-specific versions of PRELES. Similar estimates were obtained for the parameters at which model outputs are most sensitive. Not surprisingly, the joint posterior distribution achieved through the multi-site calibration was characterized by lower uncertainty, because more data were involved in the calibration process. No significant differences were encountered in the prediction of the multi-site and site-specific versions of PRELES, and after BMC, we concluded that the model can be reliably used at regional scale to simulate carbon and

  7. Validation of EO-1 Hyperion and Advanced Land Imager Using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site at Railroad Valley, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Ong, Lawrence; Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The Earth-Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in 2000. Radiometric calibration of Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) has been performed throughout the mission lifetime using various techniques that include ground-based vicarious calibration, pseudo-invariant calibration sites, and also the moon. The EO-1 mission is nearing its useful lifetime, and this work seeks to validate the radiometric calibration of Hyperion and ALI from 2013 until the satellite is decommissioned. Hyperion and ALI have been routinely collecting data at the automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site [RadCaTS/Railroad Valley (RRV)] since launch. In support of this study, the frequency of the acquisitions at RadCaTS has been significantly increased since 2013, which provides an opportunity to analyze the radiometric stability and accuracy during the final stages of the EO-1 mission. The analysis of Hyperion and ALI is performed using a suite of ground instrumentation that measures the atmosphere and surface throughout the day. The final product is an estimate of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance, which is compared to Hyperion and ALI radiances. The results show that Hyperion agrees with the RadCaTS predictions to within 5% in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and to within 10% in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). The 2013-2014 ALI results show agreement to within 6% in the VNIR and 7.5% in the SWIR bands. A cross comparison between ALI and the Operational Land Imager (OLI) using RadCaTS as a transfer source shows agreement of 3%-6% during the period of 2013-2014.

  8. Scaling and calibration of a core validation site for the soil moisture active passive mission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The calibration and validation of soil moisture remote sensing products is complicated due to the logistics of installing a long term soil moisture monitoring network in an active landscape. It is more efficient to locate these stations along agricultural field boundaries, but unfortunately this oft...

  9. EO-1 Hyperion Reflectance Time Series at Calibration and Validation Sites: Stability and Sensitivity to Seasonal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Thome, Kurt J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Lagomasino, David; Novick, Kimberly A.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion reflectance time series at established calibration sites to assess the instrument stability and suitability for monitoring vegetation functional parameters. Our analysis using three pseudo-invariant calibration sites in North America indicated that the reflectance time series are devoid of apparent spectral trends and their stability consistently is within 2.5-5 percent throughout most of the spectral range spanning the 12-plus year data record. Using three vegetated sites instrumented with eddy covariance towers, the Hyperion reflectance time series were evaluated for their ability to determine important variables of ecosystem function. A number of narrowband and derivative vegetation indices (VI) closely described the seasonal profiles in vegetation function and ecosystem carbon exchange (e.g., net and gross ecosystem productivity) in three very different ecosystems, including a hardwood forest and tallgrass prairie in North America, and a Miombo woodland in Africa. Our results demonstrate the potential for scaling the carbon flux tower measurements to local and regional landscape levels. The VIs with stronger relationships to the CO2 parameters were derived using continuous reflectance spectra and included wavelengths associated with chlorophyll content and/or chlorophyll fluorescence. Since these indices cannot be calculated from broadband multispectral instrument data, the opportunity to exploit these spectrometer-based VIs in the future will depend on the launch of satellites such as EnMAP and HyspIRI. This study highlights the practical utility of space-borne spectrometers for characterization of the spectral stability and uniformity of the calibration sites in support of sensor cross-comparisons, and demonstrates the potential of narrowband VIs to track and spatially extend ecosystem functional status as well as carbon processes measured at flux towers.

  10. EO-1 Hyperion reflectance time series at calibration and validation sites: stability and sensitivity to seasonal dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, P.K.E.; Middleton, E.M.; Thome, K.J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Huemmrich, K.F.; Novick, K.A.; Brunsell, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion reflectance time series at established calibration sites to assess the instrument stability and suitability for monitoring vegetation functional parameters. Our analysis using three pseudo-invariant calibration sites in North America indicated that the reflectance time series are devoid of apparent spectral trends and their stability consistently is within 2.5-5 percent throughout most of the spectral range spanning the 12+ year data record. Using three vegetated sites instrumented with eddy covariance towers, the Hyperion reflectance time series were evaluated for their ability to determine important variables of ecosystem function. A number of narrowband and derivative vegetation indices (VI) closely described the seasonal profiles in vegetation function and ecosystem carbon exchange (e.g., net and gross ecosystem productivity) in three very different ecosystems, including a hardwood forest and tallgrass prairie in North America, and a Miombo woodland in Africa. Our results demonstrate the potential for scaling the carbon flux tower measurements to local and regional landscape levels. The VIs with stronger relationships to the CO2 parameters were derived using continuous reflectance spectra and included wavelengths associated with chlorophyll content and/or chlorophyll fluorescence. Since these indices cannot be calculated from broadband multispectral instrument data, the opportunity to exploit these spectrometer-based VIs in the future will depend on the launch of satellites such as EnMAP and HyspIRI. This study highlights the practical utility of space-borne spectrometers for characterization of the spectral stability and uniformity of the calibration sites in support of sensor cross-comparisons, and demonstrates the potential of narrowband VIs to track and spatially extend ecosystem functional status as well as carbon processes measured at flux towers.

  11. Mitigation of Atmospheric Delay in SAR Absolute Ranging Using Global Numerical Weather Prediction Data: Corner Reflector Experiments at 3 Different Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Xiaoying; Balss, Ulrich; Eineder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric delay due to vertical stratification, the so-called stratified atmospheric delay, has a great impact on both interferometric and absolute range measurements. In our current researches [1][2][3], centimeter-range accuracy has been proven based on Corner Reflector (CR) based measurements by applying atmospheric delay correction using the Zenith Path Delay (ZPD) corrections derived from nearby Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. For a global usage, an effective method has been introduced to estimate the stratified delay based on global 4-dimensional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) products: the direct integration method [4][5]. Two products, ERA-Interim and operational data, provided by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) are used to integrate the stratified delay. In order to access the integration accuracy, a validation approach is investigated based on ZPD derived from six permanent GPS stations located in different meteorological conditions. Range accuracy at centimeter level is demonstrated using both ECMWF products. Further experiments have been carried out in order to determine the best interpolation method by analyzing the temporal and spatial correlation of atmospheric delay using both ECMWF and GPS ZPD. Finally, the integrated atmospheric delays in slant direction (Slant Path Delay, SPD) have been applied instead of the GPS ZPD for CR experiments at three different test sites with more than 200 TerraSAR-X High Resolution SpotLight (HRSL) images. The delay accuracy is around 1-3 cm depending on the location of test site due to the local water vapor variation and the acquisition time/date. [1] Eineder M., Minet C., Steigenberger P., et al. Imaging geodesy - Toward centimeter-level ranging accuracy with TerraSAR-X. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 2011, 49(2): 661-671. [2] Balss U., Gisinger C., Cong X. Y., et al. Precise Measurements on the Absolute Localization Accuracy of TerraSAR-X on the

  12. Intercomparison of 30+ years of AVHRR and Landsat-5 TM Surface Reflectance using Multiple Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaría-Artigas, A. E.; Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    The 30+ years daily surface reflectance long term data record (LTDR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a valuable source of information for long-term studies of the Earth surface. This LTDR was generated by combining observations from multiple AVHRR sensors aboard different NOAA satellites starting from the early 1980s, and due to the lack of on-board calibration its quality should be evaluated. Previous studies have used observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) as a calibrated reference to assess the performance of AVHRR products. However, this limits the evaluation to the period after MODIS launch. In this work, the AVHRR surface reflectance LTDR was evaluated against Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data using observations from 4 well known pseudo-invariant calibration sites (i.e. Sonoran, Saharan, Sudan1, and Libya4) over an extended time period (1984-2011). For the intercomparison, AVHRR and TM observations of each site were extracted and averaged over a 20 km x 20 km area and aggregated to monthly mean values. In order to account for the spectral differences between sensors, Hyperion hyperspectral data from the Sonoran and Libya4 sites were convolved with sensor-specific relative spectral responses, and used to compute spectral band adjustment factors (SBAFs). Results of the intercomparison are reported in terms of the root mean square difference (RMSD) and determination coefficient (r2). In general, there is good agreement between the surface reflectance products from both sensors. The overall RMSD and r2 for all the sites and AVHRR/TM combinations were 0.03 and 0.85 for the red band, and 0.04 and 0.81 for the near-infrared band. These results show the strong performance of the AVHRR surface reflectance LTDR through all of the considered period. Thus, remarking its usefulness and value for long term Earth studies. Figure 1 shows the red (filled markers

  13. Development and Evaluation of New Calibration Site, Tyndall AFB, for Continuous Friction Measurement Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    color images. The Air Force Civil Engineering Center (AFCEC) has been measuring military runway pavement friction and texture conditions around the...world for many years. In recent years, the friction measurements have been collected using seven GripTester (GT) trailers, and pavement texture...with several conclusions and recommendations are given as well as a list of appropriate references. pavement friction, calibration, pavement surface U U

  14. The 238U/235U isotope ratio of the Earth and the solar system: Constrains from a gravimetrically calibrated U double spike and implications for absolute Pb-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, Stefan; Noordmann, Janine; Brennecka, Greg; Richter, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    The ratio of 238U and 235U, the two primordial U isotopes, has been assumed to be constant on Earth and in the solar system. The commonly accepted value for the 238U/235U ratio, which has been used in Pb-Pb dating for the last ~ 30 years, was 137.88. Within the last few years, it has been shown that 1) there are considerable U isotope variations (~1.3‰) within terrestrial material produced by isotope fractionation during chemical reactions [1-3] and 2) there are even larger isotope variations (at least 3.5‰) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meoteorites that define the currently accepted age of the solar system [4]. These findings are dramatic for geochronology, as a known 238U/235U is a requirement for Pb-Pb dating, the most precise dating technique for absolute ages. As 238U/235U variations can greatly affect the reported absolute Pb-Pb age, understanding and accurately measuring variation of the 238U/235U ratio in various materials is critical, With these new findings, the questions also arises of "How well do we know the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system?" and "How accurate can absolute Pb-Pb ages be?" Our results using a gravimetrically calibrated 233U/236U double spike IRMM 3636 [5] indicate that the U standard NBL 950a, which was commonly used to define the excepted "natural" 238U/235U isotope ratio, has a slightly lower 238U/235U of 137.836 ± 0.024. This value is indistinguishable from the U isotope compositions for NBL 960 and NBL112A, which have been determined by several laboratories, also using the newly calibrated U double spike IRMM 3636 [6]. These findings provide new implications about the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system. Basalts display a very tight range of U isotope variations (~0.25-0.32‰ relative to SRM 950a). Their U isotope composition is also very similar to that of chondrites [4], which however appear to show a slightly larger spread. Accepting terrestrial

  15. Fluorometric titration approach for calibration of quantity of binding site of purified monoclonal antibody recognizing epitope/hapten nonfluorescent at 340 nm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolan; Hu, Xiaolei; Xu, Bangtian; Wang, Xin; Qin, Jialin; He, Chenxiong; Xie, Yanling; Li, Yuanli; Liu, Lin; Liao, Fei

    2014-06-17

    A fluorometric titration approach was proposed for the calibration of the quantity of monoclonal antibody (mcAb) via the quench of fluorescence of tryptophan residues. It applied to purified mcAbs recognizing tryptophan-deficient epitopes, haptens nonfluorescent at 340 nm under the excitation at 280 nm, or fluorescent haptens bearing excitation valleys nearby 280 nm and excitation peaks nearby 340 nm to serve as Förster-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET) acceptors of tryptophan. Titration probes were epitopes/haptens themselves or conjugates of nonfluorescent haptens or tryptophan-deficient epitopes with FRET acceptors of tryptophan. Under the excitation at 280 nm, titration curves were recorded as fluorescence specific for the FRET acceptors or for mcAbs at 340 nm. To quantify the binding site of a mcAb, a universal model considering both static and dynamic quench by either type of probes was proposed for fitting to the titration curve. This was easy for fitting to fluorescence specific for the FRET acceptors but encountered nonconvergence for fitting to fluorescence of mcAbs at 340 nm. As a solution, (a) the maximum of the absolute values of first-order derivatives of a titration curve as fluorescence at 340 nm was estimated from the best-fit model for a probe level of zero, and (b) molar quantity of the binding site of the mcAb was estimated via consecutive fitting to the same titration curve by utilizing such a maximum as an approximate of the slope for linear response of fluorescence at 340 nm to quantities of the mcAb. This fluorometric titration approach was proved effective with one mcAb for six-histidine and another for penicillin G.

  16. Calibrating Wide Field Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Fernández, Carlos; Irwin, M.; Lewis, J.; González Solares, E.

    2017-09-01

    "In this talk I will review the strategies in CASU to calibrate wide field surveys, in particular applied to data taken with the VISTA telescope. These include traditional night-by-night calibrations along with the search for a global, coherent calibration of all the data once observations are finished. The difficulties of obtaining photometric accuracy of a few percent and a good absolute calibration will also be discussed."

  17. Temporal, Spatial, and Spectral Variability at Ivanpah Playa Vicarious Calibration Site

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2003-01-07

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) conducted four reflectance vicarious calibrations at Ivanpah Playa, California since July 2000 in support of the MTI satellite. The multi-year study shows temporal, spatial and spectral variability at the playa. The temporal variability in the wavelength dependent reflectance and emissivity across the playa suggests a dependency with precipitation during the winter and early spring seasons. Satellite imagery acquired on September and November 2000, May 2001 and March 2002 in conjunction with ground truth during the September, May and March campaigns and water precipitation records were used to demonstrate the correlation observed at the playa

  18. Is site-specific APEX calibration necessary for field scale BMP assessment?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The possibility of extending parameter sets obtained at one site to sites with similar characteristics is appealing. This study was undertaken to test model performance and compare the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) using three parameters sets obtained from three watersheds when a...

  19. Testing the capability of ORCHIDEE land surface model to simulate Arctic ecosystems: Sensitivity analysis and site-level model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantec-Nédélec, S.; Ottlé, C.; Wang, T.; Guglielmo, F.; Maignan, F.; Delbart, N.; Valdayskikh, V.; Radchenko, T.; Nekrasova, O.; Zakharov, V.; Jouzel, J.

    2017-06-01

    The ORCHIDEE land surface model has recently been updated to improve the representation of high-latitude environments. The model now includes improved soil thermodynamics and the representation of permafrost physical processes (soil thawing and freezing), as well as a new snow model to improve the representation of the seasonal evolution of the snow pack and the resulting insulation effects. The model was evaluated against data from the experimental sites of the WSibIso-Megagrant project (www.wsibiso.ru). ORCHIDEE was applied in stand-alone mode, on two experimental sites located in the Yamal Peninsula in the northwestern part of Siberia. These sites are representative of circumpolar-Arctic tundra environments and differ by their respective fractions of shrub/tree cover and soil type. After performing a global sensitivity analysis to identify those parameters that have most influence on the simulation of energy and water transfers, the model was calibrated at local scale and evaluated against in situ measurements (vertical profiles of soil temperature and moisture, as well as active layer thickness) acquired during summer 2012. The results show how sensitivity analysis can identify the dominant processes and thereby reduce the parameter space for the calibration process. We also discuss the model performance at simulating the soil temperature and water content (i.e., energy and water transfers in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum) and the contribution of the vertical discretization of the hydrothermal properties. This work clearly shows, at least at the two sites used for validation, that the new ORCHIDEE vertical discretization can represent the water and heat transfers through complex cryogenic Arctic soils—soils which present multiple horizons sometimes with peat inclusions. The improved model allows us to prescribe the vertical heterogeneity of the soil hydrothermal properties.

  20. A general Bayesian framework for calibrating and evaluating stochastic models of annual multi-site hydrological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Andrew J.; Thyer, Mark A.; Srikanthan, R.; Kuczera, George

    2007-07-01

    SummaryMulti-site simulation of hydrological data are required for drought risk assessment of large multi-reservoir water supply systems. In this paper, a general Bayesian framework is presented for the calibration and evaluation of multi-site hydrological data at annual timescales. Models included within this framework are the hidden Markov model (HMM) and the widely used lag-1 autoregressive (AR(1)) model. These models are extended by the inclusion of a Box-Cox transformation and a spatial correlation function in a multi-site setting. Parameter uncertainty is evaluated using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Models are evaluated by their ability to reproduce a range of important extreme statistics and compared using Bayesian model selection techniques which evaluate model probabilities. The case study, using multi-site annual rainfall data situated within catchments which contribute to Sydney's main water supply, provided the following results: Firstly, in terms of model probabilities and diagnostics, the inclusion of the Box-Cox transformation was preferred. Secondly the AR(1) and HMM performed similarly, while some other proposed AR(1)/HMM models with regionally pooled parameters had greater posterior probability than these two models. The practical significance of parameter and model uncertainty was illustrated using a case study involving drought security analysis for urban water supply. It was shown that ignoring parameter uncertainty resulted in a significant overestimate of reservoir yield and an underestimation of system vulnerability to severe drought.

  1. POLCAL - POLARIMETRIC RADAR CALIBRATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, J.

    1994-01-01

    processing altitude or in the aircraft roll angle are possible causes of error in computing the antenna patterns inside the processor. POLCAL uses an altitude error correction algorithm to correctly remove the antenna pattern from the SAR images. POLCAL also uses a topographic calibration algorithm to reduce calibration errors resulting from ground topography. By utilizing the backscatter measurements from either the corner reflectors or a well-known distributed target, POLCAL can correct the residual amplitude offsets in the various polarization channels and correct for the absolute gain of the radar system. POLCAL also gives the user the option of calibrating a scene using the calibration data from a nearby site. This allows precise calibration of all the scenes acquired on a flight line where corner reflectors were present. Construction and positioning of corner reflectors is covered extensively in the program documentation. In an effort to keep the POLCAL code as transportable as possible, the authors eliminated all interactions with a graphics display system. For this reason, it is assumed that users will have their own software for doing the following: (1) synthesize an image using HH or VV polarization, (2) display the synthesized image on any display device, and (3) read the pixel locations of the corner reflectors from the image. The only inputs used by the software (in addition to the input Stokes matrix data file) is a small data file with the corner reflector information. POLCAL is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on Sun series computers running SunOS and DEC VAX computers running VMS. It requires 4Mb of RAM under SunOS and 3.7Mb of RAM under VMS for execution. The standard distribution medium for POLCAL is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in DEC VAX FILES-11 format or on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX FILES-11 format. Other distribution media may be available upon request

  2. Use Trends Indicated by Statistically Calibrated Recreational Sites in the National Forest System

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Tyre

    1971-01-01

    Trends in statistically sampled use of developed sites in the National Forest system indicate an average annual increase of 6.0 percent in the period 1966-69. The high variability of the measure precludes its use for projecting expected future use, but it can be important in gauging the credibility of annual use changes at both sampled and unsampled locations.

  3. Dust deposition and removal at the MER landing sites from observations of the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) calibration targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinch, K. M.; Bell, J. F.; Madsen, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Panoramic Cameras (Pancams) [1] on NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers have each returned in excess of 17000 images of their external calibration targets (caltargets), a set of optically well-characterized patches of materials with differing reflectance properties. During the mission dust deposition on the caltargets changed their optical reflectance properties [2]. The thickness of dust on the caltargets can be derived with high confidence from the contrast between brighter and darker colored patches. The dustier the caltarget the less contrast. We present a new history of dust deposition and removal at the two MER landing sites. Our data reveals two quite distinct dust environments. At the Spirit landing site half the Martian year is dominated by dust deposition, the other half by dust removal that usually happens during brief sharp wind events. At the Opportunity landing site the Martian year has a four-season cycle of deposition-removal-deposition-removal with dust removal happening gradually throughout the two removal seasons. Comparison to atmospheric optical depth measurements [3] shows that dust removals happen during dusty high-wind periods and that dust deposition rates are roughly proportional to the atmospheric dust load. We compare with dust deposition studies from other Mars landers and also present some early results from observation of dust on a similar camera calibration target on the Mars Science Laboratory mission. References: 1. Bell, J.F., III, et al., Mars Exploration Rover Athena Panoramic Camera (Pancam) investigation. J. Geophys. Res., 2003. 108(E12): p. 8063. 2. Kinch, K.M., et al., Dust Deposition on the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) Calibration Targets. J. Geophys. Res., 2007. 112(E06S03): p. doi:10.1029/2006JE002807. 3. Lemmon, M., et al., Atmospheric Imaging Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers: Spirit and Opportunity. Science, 2004. 306: p. 1753-1756. Deposited dust optical depth on the Pancam caltargets as a

  4. Field Calibration of Wind Direction Sensor to the True North and Its Application to the Daegwanryung Wind Turbine Test Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Wan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a field calibration technique for aligning a wind direction sensor to the true north. The proposed technique uses the synchronized measurements of captured images by a camera, and the output voltage of a wind direction sensor. The true wind direction was evaluated through image processing techniques using the captured picture of the sensor with the least square sense. Then, the evaluated true value was compared with the measured output voltage of the sensor. This technique solves the discordance problem of the wind direction sensor in the process of installing meteorological mast. For this proposed technique, some uncertainty analyses are presented and the calibration accuracy is discussed. Finally, the proposed technique was applied to the real meteorological mast at the Daegwanryung test site, and the statistical analysis of the experimental testing estimated the values of stable misalignment and uncertainty level. In a strict sense, it is confirmed that the error range of the misalignment from the exact north could be expected to decrease within the credibility level. PMID:27873957

  5. Calibrated FMRI.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Richard D

    2012-08-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging with blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast has had a tremendous influence on human neuroscience in the last twenty years, providing a non-invasive means of mapping human brain function with often exquisite sensitivity and detail. However the BOLD method remains a largely qualitative approach. While the same can be said of anatomic MRI techniques, whose clinical and research impact has not been diminished in the slightest by the lack of a quantitative interpretation of their image intensity, the quantitative expression of BOLD responses as a percent of the baseline T2*- weighted signal has been viewed as necessary since the earliest days of fMRI. Calibrated MRI attempts to dissociate changes in oxygen metabolism from changes in blood flow and volume, the latter three quantities contributing jointly to determine the physiologically ambiguous percent BOLD change. This dissociation is typically performed using a "calibration" procedure in which subjects inhale a gas mixture containing small amounts of carbon dioxide or enriched oxygen to produce changes in blood flow and BOLD signal which can be measured under well-defined hemodynamic conditions. The outcome is a calibration parameter M which can then be substituted into an expression providing the fractional change in oxygen metabolism given changes in blood flow and BOLD signal during a task. The latest generation of calibrated MRI methods goes beyond fractional changes to provide absolute quantification of resting-state oxygen consumption in micromolar units, in addition to absolute measures of evoked metabolic response. This review discusses the history, challenges, and advances in calibrated MRI, from the personal perspective of the author. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical Modeling of the Pumping Tests at the Ketzin Pilot Site for CO2 Injection: Model Calibration and Heterogeneity Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Wiese, B.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Kowalsky, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Stuttgart formation used for ongoing CO2 injection at the Ketzin pilot test site in Germany is highly heterogeneous in nature. The site characterization data, including 3D seismic amplitude images, the regional geology data, and the core measurements and geophysical logs of the wells show the formation is composed of permeable sandstone channels of varying thickness and length embedded in less permeable mudstones. Most of the sandstone channels are located in the upper 10-15 m of the formation, with only a few sparsely distributed sandstone channels in the bottom 70-m layer. Three-dimensional seismic data help to identify the large-scale facies distribution patterns in the Stuttgart formation, but are unable to resolve internal structures at a smaller scale (e.g. ~100 m). Heterogeneity has a large effect on the pressure propagation measured during a suite of pumping tests conducted in 2007-2008 and also impacts strongly the CO2 arrival times observed during the ongoing CO2 injection experiment. The arrival time of the CO2 plume at the observation well Ktzi 202was 12.5 times greater than at the other observation well Ktzi 200, even though the distance to the injection well is only 2.2 times farther than that of Ktzi 200. To characterize subsurface properties and help predict the behavior of injected CO2 in subsequent experiments, we develop a TOUGH2/EOS9 model for modeling the hydraulic pumping tests and use the inverse modeling tool iTOUGH2 for automatic model calibration. The model domain is parameterized using multiple zones, with each zone assumed to have uniform rock properties. The calibrated model produces system responses that are in good agreement with the measured pressure drawdown data, indicating that it captures the essential flow processes occurring during the pumping tests. The estimated permeability distribution shows that the heterogeneity is significant and that the study site is situated a semi-closed system with one or two sides open to

  7. Guidelines and standard procedures for continuous water-quality monitors: Site selection, field operation, calibration, record computation, and reporting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Mattraw, Harold C.; Ritz, George F.; Smith, Brett A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey uses continuous water-quality monitors to assess variations in the quality of the Nation's surface water. A common system configuration for data collection is the four-parameter water-quality monitoring system, which collects temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH data, although systems can be configured to measure other properties such as turbidity or chlorophyll. The sensors that are used to measure these water properties require careful field observation, cleaning, and calibration procedures, as well as thorough procedures for the computation and publication of final records. Data from sensors can be used in conjunction with collected samples and chemical analyses to estimate chemical loads. This report provides guidelines for site-selection considerations, sensor test methods, field procedures, error correction, data computation, and review and publication processes. These procedures have evolved over the past three decades, and the process continues to evolve with newer technologies.

  8. Three-dimensional DFN Model Development and Calibration: A Case Study for Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, H. V.; Parashar, R.; Sund, N. L.; Pohlmann, K.

    2017-12-01

    Pahute Mesa, located in the north-western region of the Nevada National Security Site, is an area where numerous underground nuclear tests were conducted. The mesa contains several fractured aquifers that can potentially provide high permeability pathways for migration of radionuclides away from testing locations. The BULLION Forced-Gradient Experiment (FGE) conducted on Pahute Mesa injected and pumped solute and colloid tracers from a system of three wells for obtaining site-specific information about the transport of radionuclides in fractured rock aquifers. This study aims to develop reliable three-dimensional discrete fracture network (DFN) models to simulate the BULLION FGE as a means for computing realistic ranges of important parameters describing fractured rock. Multiple conceptual DFN models were developed using dfnWorks, a parallelized computational suite developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, to simulate flow and conservative particle movement in subsurface fractured rocks downgradient from the BULLION test. The model domain is 100x200x100 m and includes the three tracer-test wells of the BULLION FGE and the Pahute Mesa Lava-flow aquifer. The model scenarios considered differ from each other in terms of boundary conditions and fracture density. For each conceptual model, a number of statistically equivalent fracture network realizations were generated using data from fracture characterization studies. We adopt the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy (CMA-ES) as a global local stochastic derivative-free optimization method to calibrate the DFN models using groundwater levels and tracer breakthrough data obtained from the three wells. Models of fracture apertures based on fracture type and size are proposed and the values of apertures in each model are estimated during model calibration. The ranges of fracture aperture values resulting from this study are expected to enhance understanding of radionuclide transport in fractured rocks and

  9. Analysis of a commercial small unmanned airborne system (sUAS) in support of the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Nikolaus J.

    2017-09-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) is an automated facility developed by the Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona to provide radiometric calibration data for airborne and satellite sensors. RadCaTS uses stationary ground-viewing radiometers (GVRs) to spatially sample the surface reflectance of the site. The number and location of the GVRs is based on previous spatial, spectral, and temporal analyses of Railroad Valley. With the increase in high-resolution satellite sensors, there is renewed interest in examining the spatial uniformity the 1-km2 RadCaTS area at scales smaller than a typical 30-m sensor. RadCaTS is one of the four instrumented sites currently in the CEOS WGCV Radiometric Calibration Network (RadCalNet), which aims to harmonize the post-launch radiometric calibration of satellite sensors through the use of a global network of automated calibration sites. A better understanding of the RadCaTS spatial uniformity as a function of pixel size will also benefit the RadCalNet work. RSG has recently acquired a commercially-available small unmanned airborne system (sUAS) system, with which preliminary spatial homogeneity measurements of the 1-km2 RadCaTS area were made. This work describes an initial assessment of the airborne platform and integrated camera for spatial studies of RadCaTS using data that were collected in 2016 and 2017.

  10. Contamination and UV ageing of diffuser targets used in satellite inflight and ground reference test site calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaskuri, Anna; Greenwell, Claire; Hessey, Isabel; Tompkins, Jordan; Woolliams, Emma

    2018-02-01

    Diffuser reflectance targets are key components in in-orbit calibrations and for verifying ground reference test sites. In this work, Spectralon, Diffusil, and Heraeus diffusers were exposed to exhaust gases and ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the ambient air conditions and their degradations were monitored by measuring changes in spectral reflectances. Spectralon is a state-of-the-art diffuser made of polytetrafluoroethylene, and Diffusil and Heraeus diffusers are made of fused silica with gas bubbles inside. Based on the contamination tests, Spectralon degrades faster than fused silica diffusers. For the samples exposed to contamination for 20 minutes, the 250 nm - 400 nm total diffuse spectral reflectance of Spectralon degraded 3-5 times more when exposed to petrol-like emission and 16-23 times more when exposed to diesel-like emission, compared with Diffusil. When the reflectance changes of Spectralon were compared with those of Heraeus, Spectralon degraded 3-4 times more when exposed to petrol-like emission for 20 minutes and 5-7 times more when exposed to diesel-like emission for 7.5 minutes. When the samples contaminated were exposed to UV radiation in the ambient air, their reflectance gradually restored back to the original level. In conclusion, fused silica diffusers are more resistant to hydrocarbon contaminants present in ground reference test sites, and thus more stable under UV radiation in the air.

  11. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  12. Field-based ET calibration and validation sites in interior Alaska: Preparatory Science for NASA's planned HyspIRI Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Cristobal, J.; Fochesatto, G. J.; Starkenburg, D. P.; Kane, D. L.; Gens, R.; Alfieri, J. G.; Irving, K.; Anderson, M. C.; Kustas, W.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a critical component of the hydrologic cycle in interior Alaska, being about 74% of summer precipitation or 50% of annual precipitation, and is a process that will become more important as we witness increasing trends of climate warming, permafrost degradation, forest fire occurrences, and significant land cover changes. In preparation for NASA's planned Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) satellite mission; we have established two experimental sites in interior Alaska to measure representative ET values for typical boreal forest in this region as a basis to estimate and upscale ET from remote sensing solar and thermal data. The first site (University of Alaska Fairbanks, UAF, north campus) is located in a needleleaf forest mainly composed of black spruce (Picea mariana) and the second site (Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed) is in a deciduous forest mainly composed of paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Both field sites are equipped with sonic anemometers and gas analyzers at 24 m height operating at a 20Hz sampling rate, and, additionally, the UAF north campus site includes a 3 and 12m sonic anemometers. At 24m, the tower is also equipped with a four component net radiometer sensor and air temperature and pressure sensors are installed at different heights. To monitor ground heat, temperature and soil moisture sensors as well as heat flux plates have also been installed in the organic and the subsurface soil layers. Additionally, a Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) transmitter and receiver units with a separation of 1.2 km have been installed across the tower ensuring a beam height of 24m. Data is recorded on data loggers and downloaded for quality check and processing on a weekly basis. Further details of tower set-up are available at www.et.alaska.edu. Data from the field instruments are presented and their use for Alaska specific ET model calibration are discussed. The field set-up provides all input data for ET modeling and

  13. Assessment of BRDF effect of Kunlun Mountain glacier on Tibetan Plateau as a potential pseudo-invariant calibration site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling; Hu, Xiuqing; Chen, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Calibration is a critical step to ensure data quality and to meet the requirement of quantitative remote sensing in a broad range of scientific applications. One of the least expensive and increasingly popular methods of on-orbit calibration is the use of pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS). A spatial homogenous and temporally stable area of 34 km2 in size around the center of Kunlun Mountain (KLM) over Tibetan Plateau (TP) was identified by our previous study. The spatial and temporal coefficient of variation (CV) this region was better than 4% for the reflective solar bands. In this study, the BRDF impacts of KLM glacier on MODIS observed TOA reflectance in band 1 (659 nm) are examined. The BRDF impact of KLM glacier with respect to the view zenith angle is studied through using the observations at a fixed solar zenith angle, and the effect with respect to the sun zenith angle is studied based on the observations collected at the same view angle. Then, the two widely used BRDF models are applied to our test data to simulate the variations of TOA reflectance due to the changes in viewing geometry. The first one is Ross-Li model, which has been used to produce the MODIS global BRDF albedo data product. The second one is snow surface BRDF model, which has been used to characterize the bidirectional reflectance of Antarctic snow. Finally, the accuracy and effectiveness of these two different BRDF models are tested through comparing the model of simulated TOA reflectance with the observed one. The results show that variations of the reflectances at a fixed solar zenith angle are close to the lambertian pattern, while those at a fixed sensor zenith angle are strongly anisotropic. A decrease in solar zenith angle from 50º to 20º causes an increase in reflectance by the level of approximated 50%. The snow surface BRDF model performs much better than the Ross-Li BRDF model to re-produce the Bi-Directional Reflectance of KLM glacier. The RMSE of snow surface BRDF

  14. Improved dewpoint-probe calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. G.; Theodore, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    Relatively-simple pressure-control apparatus calibrates dewpoint probes considerably faster than conventional methods, with no loss of accuracy. Technique requires only pressure measurement at each calibration point and single absolute-humidity measurement at beginning of run. Several probes can be calibrated simultaneously and points can be checked above room temperature.

  15. Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-09

    This final report summarizes the progress during the Phase I SBIR project entitled Embedded Electro - Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration...network based on an electro - optic field-detection technique (the Electro - optic Sensor Network, or ESN) for the performance evaluation of phased

  16. Estimation of future flow regime for a spatially varied Himalayan watershed using improved multi-site calibration method of SWAT model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhanang, S. M.; Hasan, M. A.; Booth, P.; Fallatah, O.

    2016-12-01

    The monsoon and snow driven regime in the Himalayan region has received increasing attention in the recent decade regarding the effects of climate change on hydrologic regimes. Modeling streamflow in such spatially varied catchment requires proper calibration and validation in hydrologic modeling. While calibration and validation are time consuming and computationally intensive, an effective regionalized approach with multi-site information is crucial for flow estimation, especially in daily scale. In this study, we adopted a multi-site approach to calibration and validation of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for the Karnali river catchment, which is characterized as being the most vulnerable catchment to climate change in the Himalayan region. APHRODITE's (Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation) daily gridded precipitation data, one of the accurate and reliable weather date over this region were utilized in this study. The model evaluation of the entire catchment divided into four sub-catchments, utilizing discharge records from 1963 to 2010. In previous studies, multi-site calibration used only a single set of calibration parameters for all sub-catchment of a large watershed. In this study, we introduced a technique that can incorporate different sets of calibration parameters for each sub-basin, which eventually ameliorate the flow of the whole watershed. Results show that the calibrated model with new method can capture almost identical pattern of flow over the region. The predicted daily streamflow matched the observed values, with a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 0.73 during calibration and 0.71 during validation period. The method perfumed better than existing multi-site calibration methods. To assess the influence of continued climate change on hydrologic processes, we modified the weather inputs for the model using precipitation and temperature changes for two Representative Concentration Pathways

  17. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  18. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  19. Multi-site calibration, validation, and sensitivity analysis of the MIKE SHE Model for a large watershed in northern China

    Treesearch

    S. Wang; Z. Zhang; G. Sun; P. Strauss; J. Guo; Y. Tang; A. Yao

    2012-01-01

    Model calibration is essential for hydrologic modeling of large watersheds in a heterogeneous mountain environment. Little guidance is available for model calibration protocols for distributed models that aim at capturing the spatial variability of hydrologic processes. This study used the physically-based distributed hydrologic model, MIKE SHE, to contrast a lumped...

  20. The use of the Sonoran Desert as a pseudo-invariant site for optical sensor cross-calibration and long-term stability monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angal, A.; Chander, Gyanesh; Choi, Taeyoung; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2010-01-01

    The Sonoran Desert is a large, flat, pseudo-invariant site near the United States-Mexico border. It is one of the largest and hottest deserts in North America, with an area of 311,000 square km. This site is particularly suitable for calibration purposes because of its high spatial and spectral uniformity and reasonable temporal stability. This study uses measurements from four different sensors, Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Aqua MODIS, and Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM), to assess the suitability of this site for long-term stability monitoring and to evaluate the “radiometric calibration differences” between spectrally matching bands of all four sensors. In general, the drift in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance of each sensor over a span of nine years is within the specified calibration uncertainties. Monthly precipitation measurements of the Sonoran Desert region were obtained from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN), and their effects on the retrieved TOA reflectances were evaluated. To account for the combined uncertainties in the TOA reflectance due to the surface and atmospheric Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), a semi-empirical BRDF model has been adopted to monitor and reduce the impact of illumination geometry differences on the retrieved TOA reflectances. To evaluate calibration differences between the MODIS and Landsat sensors, correction for spectral response differences using a hyperspectral sensor is also demonstrated.

  1. Importance of Calibration/Validation Traceability for Multi-Sensor Imaging Spectrometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, K.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of calibration traceability is essential for ensuring the quality of data products relying on multiple sensors and especially true for imaging spectrometers. The current work discusses the expected impact that imaging spectrometers have in ensuring radiometric traceability for both multispectral and hyperspectral products. The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Pathfinder mission is used to show the role that high-accuracy imaging spectrometers can play in understanding test sites used for vicarious calibration of sensors. The associated Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer calibration demonstration system is used to illustrate recent advances in laboratory radiometric calibration approaches that will allow both the use of imaging spectrometers as calibration standards as well as to ensure the consistency of the multiple imaging spectrometers expected to be on orbit in the next decade.

  2. Calibration aspects of the JEM-EUSO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    The JEM-EUSO telescope will be, after calibration, a very accurate instrument which yields the number of received photons from the number of measured photo-electrons. The project is in phase A (demonstration of the concept) including already operating prototype instruments, i.e. many parts of the instrument have been constructed and tested. Calibration is a crucial part of the instrument and its use. The focal surface (FS) of the JEM-EUSO telescope will consist of about 5000 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), which have to be well calibrated to reach the required accuracy in reconstructing the air-shower parameters. The optics system consists of 3 plastic Fresnel (double-sided) lenses of 2.5 m diameter. The aim of the calibration system is to measure the efficiencies (transmittances) of the optics and absolute efficiencies of the entire focal surface detector. The system consists of 3 main components: (i) Pre-flight calibration devices on ground, where the efficiency and gain of the PMTs will be measured absolutely and also the transmittance of the optics will be. (ii) On-board relative calibration system applying two methods: a) operating during the day when the JEM-EUSO lid will be closed with small light sources on board. b) operating during the night, together with data taking: the monitoring of the background rate over identical sites. (iii) Absolute in-flight calibration, again, applying two methods: a) measurement of the moon light, reflected on high altitude, high albedo clouds. b) measurements of calibrated flashes and tracks produced by the Global Light System (GLS). Some details of each calibration method will be described in this paper.

  3. Monitoring on-orbit calibration stability of the Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors using pseudo-invariant test sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Xiong, X.(J.); Choi, T.(J.); Angal, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of the Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from different sensors onto a common radiometric scale. This work focuses on monitoring the long-term on-orbit calibration stability of the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors using the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) reference standard pseudo-invariant test sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 1/2, Algeria 3, Libya 1, and Algeria 5). These sites have been frequently used as radiometric targets because of their relatively stable surface conditions temporally. This study was performed using all cloud-free calibrated images from the Terra MODIS and the L7 ETM+ sensors, acquired from launch to December 2008. Homogeneous regions of interest (ROI) were selected in the calibrated images and the mean target statistics were derived from sensor measurements in terms of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. For each band pair, a set of fitted coefficients (slope and offset) is provided to monitor the long-term stability over very stable pseudo-invariant test sites. The average percent differences in intercept from the long-term trends obtained from the ETM + TOA reflectance estimates relative to the MODIS for all the CEOS reference standard test sites range from 2.5% to 15%. This gives an estimate of the collective differences due to the Relative Spectral Response (RSR) characteristics of each sensor, bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), spectral signature of the ground target, and atmospheric composition. The lifetime TOA reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.4% per year in its TOA reflectance over the CEOS reference standard test sites.

  4. New 40Ar/39Ar age of the Bishop Tuff from multiple sites and sediment rate calibration for the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Pringle, M.S.; Wijbrans, J.

    2000-01-01

    Precise dating of sanidine from proximal ash flow Bishop Tuff and air fall Bishop pumice and ash, California, can be used to derive an absolute age of the Matuyama Reversed-Brunhes Normal (M-B) paleomagnetic transition, identified stratigraphically close beneath the Bishop Tuff and ash at many sites in the western United States. An average age of 758.9 ?? 1.8 ka, standard error of the mean (SEM), was obtained for individual sanidine crystals or groups of several crystals, determined from ???70 individual analyses of sanidine separates from 11 sample groups obtained at five localities. The basal air fall pumice (757.7 ?? 1.8 ka) and overlying ash flow tuff (762.2 ?? 4.7 ka) from near the source yield essentially the same dates within errors of analysis, suggesting that the two units were emplaced close in time. A date on distal Bishop air fall ash bed at Friant, California, ???100 km to the west of the source area, is younger, 750.1 ?? 4.3 ka, but not significantly different within analytical error (??1 standard deviation). Previous dates of the Bishop Tuff, obtained by others using conventional K-Ar and the fission track method on zircons, ranged from ???650 ka to ???1.0 Ma. The most recent, generally accepted date by the K-Ar method on sanidine was 738 ?? 3 ka. We infer, as others before, that many K-Ar dates on sanidine feldspar are too young owing to incomplete degassing of radiogenic Ar during fusion in the K-Ar technique and that many older K-Ar dates are too old owing to detrital or xenocrystic contamination in the larger samples that are necessary for the technique. The new dates are similar to recent 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Bishop Tuff determined on individual samples by others but are derived from a larger proximal sample population and from multiple analysis of each sample. The results provide a definitive and precise age calibration of this widespread chronostratigraphic marker in the western United States and northeastern Pacific Ocean. We calculated the

  5. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Optical calibration of the Auger fluorescence telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John A. J.

    2003-02-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is optimized to study the cosmic ray spectrum in the region of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) cutoff, i.e.cosmic rays with energies of ~1020eV. Cosmic rays are detected as extensive air showers. To measure these showers each Auger site combines a 3000sq-km ground array with air fluorescence telescopes into a hybrid detector. Our design choice is motivated by the heightened importance of the energy scale, and related systematic uncertainties in shower energies, for experiments investigating the GZK cutoff. This paper focuses on the optical calibration of the Auger fluorescence telescopes. The optical calibration is done three independent ways: an absolute end-to-end calibration using a uniform, calibrated intensity, light-source at the telescope entrance aperture, a component by component calibration using both laboratory and in-situ measurements, and Rayleigh scattered light from external laser beams. The calibration concepts and related instrumentation are summarized. Results from the 5-month engineering array test are presented.

  8. The site-scale saturated zone flow model for Yucca Mountain: Calibration of different conceptual models and their impact on flow paths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zyvoloski, G.; Kwicklis, E.; Eddebbarh, A.-A.; Arnold, B.; Faunt, C.; Robinson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents several different conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient (LHG) region north of Yucca Mountain and describes the impact of those models on groundwater flow near the potential high-level repository site. The results are based on a numerical model of site-scale saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain. This model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The numerical model is calibrated by matching available water level measurements using parameter estimation techniques, along with more informal comparisons of the model to hydrologic and geochemical information. The model software (hydrologic simulation code FEHM and parameter estimation software PEST) and model setup allows for efficient calibration of multiple conceptual models. Until now, the Large Hydraulic Gradient has been simulated using a low-permeability, east-west oriented feature, even though direct evidence for this feature is lacking. In addition to this model, we investigate and calibrate three additional conceptual models of the Large Hydraulic Gradient, all of which are based on a presumed zone of hydrothermal chemical alteration north of Yucca Mountain. After examining the heads and permeabilities obtained from the calibrated models, we present particle pathways from the potential repository that record differences in the predicted groundwater flow regime. The results show that Large Hydraulic Gradient can be represented with the alternate conceptual models that include the hydrothermally altered zone. The predicted pathways are mildly sensitive to the choice of the conceptual model and more sensitive to the quality of calibration in the vicinity on the repository. These differences are most likely due to different degrees of fit of model to data, and do not represent important differences in hydrologic conditions for the different conceptual models. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B

  9. Total column CO2 measurements at Darwin, Australia - site description and calibration against in situ aircraft profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Bryant, G. W.; Wennberg, P. O.; Toon, G. C.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wunch, D.; Yavin, Y.; Allen, N. T.; Blavier, J.-F.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Bright, A. V.; Matross, D. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Park, S.

    2010-03-01

    An automated Fourier Transform Spectroscopic (FTS) solar observatory was established in Darwin, Australia in August 2005. The laboratory is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network, and measures atmospheric column abundances of CO2 and O2 and other gases. Measured CO2 columns were calibrated against integrated aircraft profiles obtained during the TWP-ICE campaign in January-February 2006, and show good agreement with calibrations for a similar instrument in Park Falls, Wisconsin. A clear-sky low airmass relative precision of 0.1% is demonstrated in the CO2 and O2 retrieved column-averaged volume mixing ratios. The 1% negative bias in the FTS XCO2 relative to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) calibrated in situ scale is within the uncertainties of the NIR spectroscopy and analysis.

  10. Total column CO2 measurements at Darwin, Australia - site description and calibration against in situ aircraft profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Bryant, G. W.; Wennberg, P. O.; Toon, G. C.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wunch, D.; Yavin, Y.; Allen, N. T.; Blavier, J.-F.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Bright, A. V.; Matross, D. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Park, S.

    2010-07-01

    An automated Fourier Transform Spectroscopic (FTS) solar observatory was established in Darwin, Australia in August 2005. The laboratory is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network, and measures atmospheric column abundances of CO2 and O2 and other gases. Measured CO2 columns were calibrated against integrated aircraft profiles obtained during the TWP-ICE campaign in January-February 2006, and show good agreement with calibrations for a similar instrument in Park Falls, Wisconsin. A clear-sky low airmass relative precision of 0.1% is demonstrated in the CO2 and O2 retrieved column-averaged volume mixing ratios. The 1% negative bias in the FTS XCO2 relative to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) calibrated in situ scale is within the uncertainties of the NIR spectroscopy and analysis.

  11. Dose Calculation on KV Cone Beam CT Images: An Investigation of the Hu-Density Conversion Stability and Dose Accuracy Using the Site-Specific Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi, E-mail: rong@humonc.wisc.ed; Smilowitz, Jennifer; Tewatia, Dinesh

    2010-10-01

    Precise calibration of Hounsfield units (HU) to electron density (HU-density) is essential to dose calculation. On-board kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is used predominantly for patients' positioning, but will potentially be used for dose calculation. The impacts of varying 3 imaging parameters (mAs, source-imager distance [SID], and cone angle) and phantom size on the HU number accuracy and HU-density calibrations for CBCT imaging were studied. We proposed a site-specific calibration method to achieve higher accuracy in CBCT image-based dose calculation. Three configurations of the Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS) water equivalent electron density phantom were used to simulatemore » sites including head, lungs, and lower body (abdomen/pelvis). The planning computed tomography (CT) scan was used as the baseline for comparisons. CBCT scans of these phantom configurations were performed using Varian Trilogy{sup TM} system in a precalibrated mode with fixed tube voltage (125 kVp), but varied mAs, SID, and cone angle. An HU-density curve was generated and evaluated for each set of scan parameters. Three HU-density tables generated using different phantom configurations with the same imaging parameter settings were selected for dose calculation on CBCT images for an accuracy comparison. Changing mAs or SID had small impact on HU numbers. For adipose tissue, the HU discrepancy from the baseline was 20 HU in a small phantom, but 5 times lager in a large phantom. Yet, reducing the cone angle significantly decreases the HU discrepancy. The HU-density table was also affected accordingly. By performing dose comparison between CT and CBCT image-based plans, results showed that using the site-specific HU-density tables to calibrate CBCT images of different sites improves the dose accuracy to {approx}2%. Our phantom study showed that CBCT imaging can be a feasible option for dose computation in adaptive radiotherapy approach if the site

  12. Radiometric calibration of the Landsat MSS sensor series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Karki, Sadhana; Bhatt, Rajendra; Micijevik, Esad; Aaron, David; Jasinski, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing of the Earth using Landsat sensors was ushered on July 23, 1972, with the launch of Landsat-1. Following that success, four more Landsat satellites were launched, and each of these carried the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). These five sensors provided the only consistent multispectral space-based imagery of the Earth's surface from 1972 to 1982. This work focuses on developing both a consistent and absolute radiometric calibration of this sensor system. Cross-calibration of the MSS was performed through the use of pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICSs). Since these sites have been shown to be stable for long periods of time, changes in MSS observations of these sites were attributed to changes in the sensors themselves. In addition, simultaneous data collections were available for some MSS sensor pairs, and these were also used for cross-calibration. Results indicated substantial differences existed between instruments, up to 16%, and these were reduced to 5% or less across all MSS sensors and bands. Lastly, this paper takes the calibration through the final step and places the MSS sensors on an absolute radiometric scale. The methodology used to achieve this was based on simultaneous data collections by the Landsat-5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments. Through analysis of image data from a PICS location and through compensating for the spectral differences between the two instruments, the Landsat-5 MSS sensor was placed on an absolute radiometric scale based on the Landsat-5 TM sensor. Uncertainties associated with this calibration are considered to be less than 5%.

  13. Software For Calibration Of Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zyl, Jakob; Zebker, Howard; Freeman, Anthony; Holt, John; Dubois, Pascale; Chapman, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) software tool intended to assist in calibration of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) systems. In particular, calibrates Stokes-matrix-format data produced as standard product by NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). Version 4.0 of POLCAL is upgrade of version 2.0. New options include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed-target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with corner reflectors, altitude or roll-angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Reduces crosstalk and corrects phase calibration without use of ground calibration equipment. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Sentinel-2: State of the Image Quality Calibration at the End of the Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremas, Thierry; Lonjou, Vincent; Lacherade, Sophie; Gaudel-Vacaresse, Angelique; Languille, Florie

    2016-08-01

    This article summarizes the activity of CNES during the In Orbit Calibration Phase of Sentinel 2A as well as the transfer of production of GIPP (Ground Image Processing Parameters) from CNES to ESRIN. The state of the main calibration parameters and performances, few months before PDGS is declared fully operational, are listed and explained.In radiometry a special attention is paid to the absolute calibration using the on-board diffuser, and the vicarious calibration methods using instrumented or statistically well characterized sites and inter- comparisons with other sensors. Regarding geometry, the presentation focuses on the performances of absolute location with and without reference points. The requirements of multi-band and multi-temporal registration are exposed. Finally, the construction and the rule of the GRI (Ground Reference Images) in the future are explained.

  15. The transfer of NIR calibrations for undried grass silage from the laboratory to on-site instruments: comparison of two approaches.

    PubMed

    Soldado, A; Fearn, T; Martínez-Fernández, A; de la Roza-Delgado, B

    2013-02-15

    As a first step in a project whose aim is to implement near infrared (NIR) analysis of animal feed on the farm, the present work has examined the possibility of transferring undried grass silage calibrations for dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber from a dispersive laboratory NIR instrument (Foss NIRSystem 6500) to a diode array on-site NIR instrument (Zeiss Corona 45 visNIR 1.7). Because the samples are complex and heterogeneous and have high humidity levels it is not easy to establish good calibrations, and it is even more of a challenge to transfer them. By cutting the spectral range to 1100-1650 nm and treating with first or second derivative followed by standard normal variate (SNV) scatter correction, it was possible to obtain very similar spectra from the two instruments. To make the transfer, two approaches were tried. Simply correcting the Corona spectra by subtracting the mean difference spectrum from a transfer set met with only limited success. Making a calibration on the Foss using a calibration set of 503 samples with spectra orthogonalized to the all the difference spectra in the transfer set of 10 samples resulted in a successful transfer for all three calibrations, as judged by performance on two prediction sets of size 22 and 29. Measuring 5 replicate subsamples with the Corona allows it to see a similar surface area to that of 3 replicates in the Foss transport cell, and it is suggested that this is an appropriate level of replication for the Corona. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the Sonoran desert as a radiometric calibration target for Earth observing sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angal, Amit; Chander, Gyanesh; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Wu, Aisheng

    2011-01-01

    To provide highly accurate quantitative measurements of the Earth's surface, a comprehensive calibration and validation of the satellite sensors is required. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Characterization Support Team, in collaboration with United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, has previously demonstrated the use of African desert sites to monitor the long-term calibration stability of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). The current study focuses on evaluating the suitability of the Sonoran Desert test site for post-launch long-term radiometric calibration as well as cross-calibration purposes. Due to the lack of historical and on-going in situ ground measurements, the Sonoran Desert is not usually used for absolute calibration. An in-depth evaluation (spatial, temporal, and spectral stability) of this site using well calibrated L7 ETM+ measurements and local climatology data has been performed. The Sonoran Desert site produced spatial variability of about 3 to 5% in the reflective solar regions, and the temporal variations of the site after correction for view-geometry impacts were generally around 3%. The results demonstrate that, barring the impacts due to occasional precipitation, the Sonoran Desert site can be effectively used for cross-calibration and long-term stability monitoring of satellite sensors, thus, providing a good test site in the western hemisphere.

  17. Calibration and deployment of a new NIST transfer radiometer for broadband and spectral calibration of space chambers (MDXR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Timothy M.; Carter, Adriaan C.; Woods, Solomon I.; Kaplan, Simon G.

    2011-06-01

    The Low-Background Infrared (LBIR) facility at NIST has performed on-site calibration and initial off-site deployments of a new infrared transfer radiometer with an integrated cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer (Cryo- FTS). This mobile radiometer can be deployed to customer sites for broadband and spectral calibrations of space chambers and low-background hardware-in-the-loop testbeds. The Missile Defense Transfer Radiometer (MDXR) has many of the capabilities of a complete IR calibration facility and replaces our existing filter-based transfer radiometer (BXR) as the NIST standard detector deployed to customer facilities. The MDXR features numerous improvements over the BXR, including: a cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer, an on-board absolute cryogenic radiometer (ACR) and an internal blackbody reference source with an integrated collimator. The Cryo-FTS can be used to measure high resolution spectra from 3 to 28 micrometers, using a Si:As blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detector. The on-board ACR can be used for self-calibration of the MDXR BIB as well as for absolute measurements of external infrared sources. A set of filter wheels and a rotating polarizer within the MDXR allow for filter-based and polarization-sensitive measurements. The optical design of the MDXR makes both radiance and irradiance measurements possible and enables calibration of both divergent and collimated sources. Results of on-site calibration of the MDXR using its internal blackbody source and an external reference source will be discussed, as well as the performance of the new radiometer in its initial deployments to customer sites.

  18. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evolution of Altimetry Calibration and Future Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Haines, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, altimetry calibration has evolved from an engineering-oriented exercise to a multidisciplinary endeavor driving the state of the art. This evolution has been spurred by the developing promise of altimetry to capture the large-scale, but small-amplitude, changes of the ocean surface containing the expression of climate change. The scope of altimeter calibration/validation programs has expanded commensurately. Early efforts focused on determining a constant range bias and verifying basic compliance of the data products with mission requirements. Contemporary investigations capture, with increasing accuracies, the spatial and temporal characteristics of errors in all elements of the measurement system. Dedicated calibration sites still provide the fundamental service of estimating absolute bias, but also enable long-term monitoring of the sea-surface height and constituent measurements. The use of a network of island and coastal tide gauges has provided the best perspective on the measurement stability, and revealed temporal variations of altimeter measurement system drift. The cross-calibration between successive missions provided fundamentally new information on the performance of altimetry systems. Spatially and temporally correlated errors pose challenges for future missions, underscoring the importance of cross-calibration of new measurements against the established record.

  20. Comparison of KCl denuders with the pyrolysis method and calibration using HgBr2 at an in-service AMNET site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, C.; Jaffe, D. A.; Edgerton, E.; Jansen, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    During the summer of 2013, we initiated a project to examine the performance of Tekran measurements of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury (GOM) with a pyrolysis method at the North Birmingham SEARCH site. Measurements started in June 2013 and will run until September 2013. This project responds to recent studies that indicate problems with the KCl denuder method for collection of GOM (e.g. Lyman et al., 2010; Gustin et al., 2013; Ambrose et al., 2013). For this project, we compared two GOM measurement systems, one using the KCl denuder method and a second method using high temperature pyrolysis of Hg compounds and detection of the resulting Hg0 vapors. Both instruments were also calibrated using an HgBr2 source to understand the recovery of one possible atmospheric GOM constituent. Both instruments sampled from a common, heated manifold. Past work has shown that in order to fully transmit HgBr2 sample lines must be made from PFA lines and heated to 100 °C. The transmission rate of HgBr2 during this project is approximately 90% over 25 feet of sample tubing at this temperature. Very preliminary results from this study have found that the transmitted HgBr2 is captured with 95% efficiency in carbon-scrubbed ambient air for both the KCl denuder and the pyrolysis method. However, the denuder method appears to be significantly less efficient in the capture of GOM when sampling unaltered ambient air versus the pyrolysis validation of total Hg0. Therefore, calibration of GOM measurements is essential in order to accurately correct for fluctuations in the GOM capture efficiency. We have also found that calibrations for GOM can be done routinely in the field and that these are essential to fully understand the GOM measurements. At present our calibration system is performed manually, but in principle this method could be readily automated.

  1. Transient Inverse Calibration of Site-Wide Groundwater Model to Hanford Operational Impacts from 1943 to 1996--Alternative Conceptual Model Considering Interaction with Uppermost Basalt Confined Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Cole, Charles R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.

    2001-08-29

    The baseline three-dimensional transient inverse model for the estimation of site-wide scale flow parameters, including their uncertainties, using data on the transient behavior of the unconfined aquifer system over the entire historical period of Hanford operations, has been modified to account for the effects of basalt intercommunication between the Hanford unconfined aquifer and the underlying upper basalt confined aquifer. Both the baseline and alternative conceptual models (ACM-1) considered only the groundwater flow component and corresponding observational data in the 3-Dl transient inverse calibration efforts. Subsequent efforts will examine both groundwater flow and transport. Comparisons of goodness of fit measures andmore » parameter estimation results for the ACM-1 transient inverse calibrated model with those from previous site-wide groundwater modeling efforts illustrate that the new 3-D transient inverse model approach will strengthen the technical defensibility of the final model(s) and provide the ability to incorporate uncertainty in predictions related to both conceptual model and parameter uncertainty. These results, however, indicate that additional improvements are required to the conceptual model framework. An investigation was initiated at the end of this basalt inverse modeling effort to determine whether facies-based zonation would improve specific yield parameter estimation results (ACM-2). A description of the justification and methodology to develop this zonation is discussed.« less

  2. Minerva Detector Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza

    2013-04-01

    Current and future neutrino oscillation experiments depend on precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections. Minerva is a neutrino scattering experiment at Fermilab. Minerva was designed to make precision measurements of low energy neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on a variety of different materials (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O). In Order to make these measurements, it is crucial that the detector is carefully calibrated.This talk will describe how MINERvA uses muons from upstream neutrino interactions as a calibration source to convert electronics output to absolute energy deposition.

  3. Recent Infrasound Calibration Activity at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, R. W.; Marcillo, O. E.

    2014-12-01

    Absolute infrasound sensor calibration is necessary for estimating source sizes from measured waveforms. This can be an important function in treaty monitoring. The Los Alamos infrasound calibration chamber is capable of absolute calibration. Early in 2014 the Los Alamos infrasound calibration chamber resumed operations in its new location after an unplanned move two years earlier. The chamber has two sources of calibration signals. The first is the original mechanical piston, and the second is a CLD Dynamics Model 316 electro-mechanical unit that can be digitally controlled and provide a richer set of calibration options. During 2008-2010 a number of upgrades were incorporated for improved operation and recording. In this poster we give an overview of recent chamber work on sensor calibrations, calibration with the CLD unit, some measurements with different porous hoses and work with impulse sources.

  4. Numerical dating of the Eckfeld maar fossil site, Eifel, Germany: a calibration mark for the Eocene time scale.

    PubMed

    Mertz, D F; Swisher, C C; Franzen, J L; Neuffer, F O; Lutz, H

    2000-06-01

    Sediments of the Eckfeld maar (Eifel, Germany) bear a well-preserved Eocene fauna and flora. Biostratigraphically, Eckfeld corresponds to the Middle Eocene mammal reference level MP (Mammals Paleogene) 13 of the ELMA (European Land Mammal Age) Geiseltalian. In the maar crater, basalt fragments were drilled, representing explosion crater eruption products. By 40Ar/39Ar dating of the basalt, for the first time a direct numerical calibration mark for an Eocene European mammal locality has been established. The Eckfeld basalt inverse isochron date of 44.3 +/- 0.4 Ma suggests an age for the Geiseltalian/Robiacian boundary at 44 Ma and, together with the 1995 time scale of Berggren et al., a time span ranging from 49 to 44 Ma for the Geiseltalian and from 44 to 37 Ma for the Robiacian, respectively. Additional 40Ar/39Ar dating on a genetically related basalt occurrence close to the maar confirms a period of volcanism of ca. 0.6 m.y. in the Eckfeld area, matching the oldest Eocene volcanic activity of the Hocheifel volcanic field.

  5. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.

    PubMed

    Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S

    2010-10-01

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  6. Fundamental principles of absolute radiometry and the philosophy of this NBS program (1968 to 1971)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, J.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given work performed on a program to develop an electrically calibrated detector (also called absolute radiometer, absolute detector, and electrically calibrated radiometer) that could be used to realize, maintain, and transfer a scale of total irradiance. The program includes a comprehensive investigation of the theoretical basis of absolute detector radiometry, as well as the design and construction of a number of detectors. A theoretical analysis of the sources of error is also included.

  7. Summary of KOMPSAT-5 Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Jeong, H.; Lee, S.; Kim, B.

    2013-12-01

    including pointing, relative and absolute calibration as well as geolocation accuracy determination. The absolute calibration will be accomplished by determining absolute radiometric accuracy using already deployed trihedral corner reflectors on calibration and validation sites located southeast from Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. To establish a measure for the assess the final image products, geolocation accuracies of image products with different imaging modes will be determined by using deployed point targets and available Digital Terrain Model (DTM), and on different image processing levels. In summary, this paper will present calibration and validation activities performed during the LEOP and IOT of KOMPSAT-5. The methodology and procedure of calibration and validation will be explained as well as its results. Based on the results, the applications of SAR image products on geophysical processes will be also discussed.

  8. On the Use of Calibration Explosions at the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site for Compiling a Travel-time Model of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyashova, N. N.; Shacilov, V. I.; Mikhailova, N. N.; Komarov, I. I.; Sinyova, Z. I.; Belyashov, A. V.; Malakhova, M. N.

    - Two chemical calibration explosions, conducted at the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in 1998 with charges of 25 tons and 100 tons TNT, have been used for developing travel-time curves and generalized one-dimensional velocity models of the crust and upper mantle of the platform region of Kazakhstan. The explosions were recorded by a number of digital seismic stations, located in Kazakhstan at distances ranging from 0 to 720km. The travel-time tables developed in this paper cover the phases P, Pn, Pg, S, Sn, Lg in a range of 0-740km and the velocity models apply to the crust down to 44km depth and to the mantle down to 120km. A comparison of the compiled travel-time tables with existing travel-time tables of CSE and IASPEI91 is presented.

  9. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

  10. Radiation calibration for LWIR Hyperspectral Imager Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhixiong; Yu, Chunchao; Zheng, Wei-jian; Lei, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Yuan, Xiaochun; Zhang, Peizhong

    2014-11-01

    The radiometric calibration of LWIR Hyperspectral imager Spectrometer is presented. The lab has been developed to LWIR Interferometric Hyperspectral imager Spectrometer Prototype(CHIPED-I) to study Lab Radiation Calibration, Two-point linear calibration is carried out for the spectrometer by using blackbody respectively. Firstly, calibration measured relative intensity is converted to the absolute radiation lightness of the object. Then, radiation lightness of the object is is converted the brightness temperature spectrum by the method of brightness temperature. The result indicated †that this method of Radiation Calibration calibration was very good.

  11. Absolute gravimetry for monitoring geodynamics in Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Strykowski, G.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    Here are presented the preliminary results of the absolute gravity measurements done in Greenland by DTU Space with their A10 absolute gravimeter (the A10-019). The purpose, besides establishing and maintaining a national gravity network, is to study geodynamics.The absolute gravity measurements are juxtaposed with the permanent GNET GNSS stations. The first measurements were conducted in 2009 and a few sites have been re-visited. As of present is there a gravity value at 18 GNET sites.There are challenges in interpreting the measurements from Greenland and several signals has to be taken into account, besides the geodynamical signals originating from the changing load of the ice, there is also a clear signal of direct attraction from different masses. Here are presented the preliminary results of our measurements in Greenland and attempts explain them through modelling of the geodynamical signals and the direct attraction from the ocean and ice.

  12. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  13. Requirements for Calibration in Noninvasive Glucose Monitoring by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Jan; Bernhardt, Jeff; Block, Ueyn; Freeman, William R.; Hofmeister, Rudy; Hristakeva, Maya; Lenosky, Thomas; McNamara, Robert; Petrasek, Danny; Veltkamp, David; Waydo, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Background In the development of noninvasive glucose monitoring technology, it is highly desirable to derive a calibration that relies on neither person-dependent calibration information nor supplementary calibration points furnished by an existing invasive measurement technique (universal calibration). Method By appropriate experimental design and associated analytical methods, we establish the sufficiency of multiple factors required to permit such a calibration. Factors considered are the discrimination of the measurement technique, stabilization of the experimental apparatus, physics–physiology-based measurement techniques for normalization, the sufficiency of the size of the data set, and appropriate exit criteria to establish the predictive value of the algorithm. Results For noninvasive glucose measurements, using Raman spectroscopy, the sufficiency of the scale of data was demonstrated by adding new data into an existing calibration algorithm and requiring that (a) the prediction error should be preserved or improved without significant re-optimization, (b) the complexity of the model for optimum estimation not rise with the addition of subjects, and (c) the estimation for persons whose data were removed entirely from the training set should be no worse than the estimates on the remainder of the population. Using these criteria, we established guidelines empirically for the number of subjects (30) and skin sites (387) for a preliminary universal calibration. We obtained a median absolute relative difference for our entire data set of 30 mg/dl, with 92% of the data in the Clarke A and B ranges. Conclusions Because Raman spectroscopy has high discrimination for glucose, a data set of practical dimensions appears to be sufficient for universal calibration. Improvements based on reducing the variance of blood perfusion are expected to reduce the prediction errors substantially, and the inclusion of supplementary calibration points for the wearable device

  14. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  15. In-Situ Transfer Standard and Coincident-View Intercomparisons for Sensor Cross-Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurt; McCorkel, Joel; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    There exist numerous methods for accomplishing on-orbit calibration. Methods include the reflectance-based approach relying on measurements of surface and atmospheric properties at the time of a sensor overpass as well as invariant scene approaches relying on knowledge of the temporal characteristics of the site. The current work examines typical cross-calibration methods and discusses the expected uncertainties of the methods. Data from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Thematic Mapper (TM) are used to demonstrate the limits of relative sensor-to-sensor calibration as applied to current sensors while Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ are used to evaluate the limits of in situ site characterizations for SI-traceable cross calibration. The current work examines the difficulties in trending of results from cross-calibration approaches taking into account sampling issues, site-to-site variability, and accuracy of the method. Special attention is given to the differences caused in the cross-comparison of sensors in radiance space as opposed to reflectance space. The results show that cross calibrations with absolute uncertainties lesser than 1.5 percent (1 sigma) are currently achievable even for sensors without coincident views.

  16. Polarimetric SAR calibration experiment using active radar calibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Shen, Yuhsyen; Werner, Charles L.

    1990-03-01

    Active radar calibrators are used to derive both the amplitude and phase characteristics of a multichannel polarimetric SAR from the complex image data. Results are presented from an experiment carried out using the NASA/JPL DC-8 aircraft SAR over a calibration site at Goldstone, California. As part of the experiment, polarimetric active radar calibrators (PARCs) with adjustable polarization signatures were deployed. Experimental results demonstrate that the PARCs can be used to calibrate polarimetric SAR images successfully. Restrictions on the application of the PARC calibration procedure are discussed.

  17. Polarimetric SAR calibration experiment using active radar calibrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Shen, Yuhsyen; Werner, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    Active radar calibrators are used to derive both the amplitude and phase characteristics of a multichannel polarimetric SAR from the complex image data. Results are presented from an experiment carried out using the NASA/JPL DC-8 aircraft SAR over a calibration site at Goldstone, California. As part of the experiment, polarimetric active radar calibrators (PARCs) with adjustable polarization signatures were deployed. Experimental results demonstrate that the PARCs can be used to calibrate polarimetric SAR images successfully. Restrictions on the application of the PARC calibration procedure are discussed.

  18. Absolute cavity pyrgeometer

    DOEpatents

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2013-10-29

    Implementations of the present disclosure involve an apparatus and method to measure the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere or long-wave source. The apparatus may involve a thermopile, a concentrator and temperature controller. The incoming long-wave irradiance may be reflected from the concentrator to a thermopile receiver located at the bottom of the concentrator to receive the reflected long-wave irradiance. In addition, the thermopile may be thermally connected to a temperature controller to control the device temperature. Through use of the apparatus, the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere may be calculated from several measurements provided by the apparatus. In addition, the apparatus may provide an international standard of pyrgeometers' calibration that is traceable back to the International System of Units (SI) rather than to a blackbody atmospheric simulator.

  19. MODIS calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The MODIS/MCST (MODIS Characterization Support Team) Status Report contains an outline of the calibration strategy, handbook, and plan. It also contains an outline of the MODIS/MCST action item from the 4th EOS Cal/Val Meeting, for which the objective was to locate potential MODIS calibration targets on the Earth's surface that are radiometrically homogeneous on a scale of 3 by 3 Km. As appendices, draft copies of the handbook table of contents, calibration plan table of contents, and detailed agenda for MODIS calibration working group are included.

  20. GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: spectral response functions and radiometric biases with the NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite evaluated for desert calibration sites.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, David; Cao, Changyong

    2013-11-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be launched in late 2015 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series satellite, will be evaluated in terms of its data quality postlaunch through comparisons with other satellite sensors such as the recently launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The ABI has completed much of its prelaunch characterization and its developers have generated and released its channel spectral response functions (response versus wavelength). Using these responses and constraining a radiative transfer model with ground reflectance, aerosol, and water vapor measurements, we simulate observed top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for analogous visible and near infrared channels of the VIIRS and ABI sensors at the Sonoran Desert and White Sands National Monument sites and calculate the radiometric biases and their uncertainties. We also calculate sensor TOA reflectances using aircraft hyperspectral data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to validate the uncertainties in several of the ABI and VIIRS channels and discuss the potential for validating the others. Once on-orbit, calibration scientists can use these biases to ensure ABI data quality and consistency to support the numerical weather prediction community and other data users. They can also use the results for ABI or VIIRS anomaly detection and resolution.

  1. Calibrations of the LHD Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, I., E-mail: yamadai@nifs.ac.jp; Funaba, H.; Yasuhara, R.

    2016-11-15

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic systems are widely used for the measurements of absolute local electron temperatures and densities of fusion plasmas. In order to obtain accurate and reliable temperature and density data, careful calibrations of the system are required. We have tried several calibration methods since the second LHD experiment campaign in 1998. We summarize the current status of the calibration methods for the electron temperature and density measurements by the LHD Thomson scattering diagnostic system. Future plans are briefly discussed.

  2. Calibrations of the LHD Thomson scattering system.

    PubMed

    Yamada, I; Funaba, H; Yasuhara, R; Hayashi, H; Kenmochi, N; Minami, T; Yoshikawa, M; Ohta, K; Lee, J H; Lee, S H

    2016-11-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic systems are widely used for the measurements of absolute local electron temperatures and densities of fusion plasmas. In order to obtain accurate and reliable temperature and density data, careful calibrations of the system are required. We have tried several calibration methods since the second LHD experiment campaign in 1998. We summarize the current status of the calibration methods for the electron temperature and density measurements by the LHD Thomson scattering diagnostic system. Future plans are briefly discussed.

  3. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments inmore » Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.« less

  4. GPI Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.

    2017-09-01

    "The Gemini Planet Imager requires a large set of Calibrations. These can be split into two major sets, one set associated with each observation and one set related to biweekly calibrations. The observation set is to optimize the correction of miscroshifts in the IFU spectra and the latter set is for correction of detector and instrument cosmetics."

  5. Development and Calibration of a Variable-Density Numerical Model of a Deep-well Injection Site near the Southeastern Florida Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dausman, A.; Langevin, C.; Sukop, M.; Walsh, V.

    2006-12-01

    been designed to determine likely mechanisms for vertical fluid migration as well as predict future movement of the effluent. Two alternative mechanisms for upward fluid migration are being tested with the model: (1) site-wide, diffuse upward movement through the Delray Dolomite and middle confining unit with all 17 injection wells; and (2) localized upward movement from the shallow casing depths at 10 of the 17 wells. The parameter estimation program, PEST, has estimated two different hydraulic conductivity configurations for the Delray Dolomite, middle confining unit, and other layers under these two possible conditions. The different parameter sets have yielded two satisfactory model calibrations. Results of these calibrations indicate that vertical effluent migration potentially is occurring either from (1) the 10 wells open above the Delray Dolomite, with virtually no effluent migration through the Delray Dolomite; or (2) all 17 wells open above and below the Delray Dolomite, with effluent migration through the Delray Dolomite.

  6. ASTER preflight and inflight calibration and the validation of level 2 products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thome, K.; Aral, K.; Hook, S.; Kieffer, H.; Lang, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Ono, A.; Palluconi, F. D.; Sakuma, H.; Slater, P.; Takashima, T.; Tonooka, H.; Tsuchida, S.; Welch, R.M.; Zalewski, E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the preflight and inflight calibration approaches used for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). The system is a multispectral, high-spatial resolution sensor on the Earth Observing System's (EOS)-AMl platform. Preflight calibration of ASTER uses well-characterized sources to provide calibration and preflight round-robin exercises to understand biases between the calibration sources of ASTER and other EOS sensors. These round-robins rely on well-characterized, ultra-stable radiometers. An experiment held in Yokohama, Japan, showed that the output from the source used for the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) subsystem of ASTER may be underestimated by 1.5%, but this is still within the 4% specification for the absolute, radiometric calibration of these bands. Inflight calibration will rely on vicarious techniques and onboard blackbodies and lamps. Vicarious techniques include ground-reference methods using desert and water sites. A recent joint field campaign gives confidence that these methods currently provide absolute calibration to better than 5%, and indications are that uncertainties less than the required 4% should be achievable at launch. The EOS-AMI platform will also provide a spacecraft maneuver that will allow ASTER to see the moon, allowing further characterization of the sensor. A method for combining the results of these independent calibration results is presented. The paper also describes the plans for validating the Level 2 data products from ASTER. These plans rely heavily upon field campaigns using methods similar to those used for the ground-reference, vicarious calibration methods. ?? 1998 IEEE.

  7. Radiometric calibration updates to the Landsat collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, Esad; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Mishra, Nischal

    2016-01-01

    The Landsat Project is planning to implement a new collection management strategy for Landsat products generated at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The goal of the initiative is to identify a collection of consistently geolocated and radiometrically calibrated images across the entire Landsat archive that is readily suitable for time-series analyses. In order to perform an accurate land change analysis, the data from all Landsat sensors must be on the same radiometric scale. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) is calibrated to a radiance standard and all previous sensors are cross-calibrated to its radiometric scale. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is calibrated to both radiance and reflectance standards independently. The Landsat 8 OLI reflectance calibration is considered to be most accurate. To improve radiometric calibration accuracy of historical data, Landsat 1-7 sensors also need to be cross-calibrated to the OLI reflectance scale. Results of that effort, as well as other calibration updates including the absolute and relative radiometric calibration and saturated pixel replacement for Landsat 8 OLI and absolute calibration for Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mappers (TM), will be implemented into Landsat products during the archive reprocessing campaign planned within the new collection management strategy. This paper reports on the planned radiometric calibration updates to the solar reflective bands of the new Landsat collection.

  8. Calibration of X-Ray Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; L'Dell, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate calibration of x-ray observatories has proved an elusive goal. Inaccuracies and inconsistencies amongst on-ground measurements, differences between on-ground and in-space performance, in-space performance changes, and the absence of cosmic calibration standards whose physics we truly understand have precluded absolute calibration better than several percent and relative spectral calibration better than a few percent. The philosophy "the model is the calibration" relies upon a complete high-fidelity model of performance and an accurate verification and calibration of this model. As high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy begins to play a more important role in astrophysics, additional issues in accurately calibrating at high spectral resolution become more evident. Here we review the challenges of accurately calibrating the absolute and relative response of x-ray observatories. On-ground x-ray testing by itself is unlikely to achieve a high-accuracy calibration of in-space performance, especially when the performance changes with time. Nonetheless, it remains an essential tool in verifying functionality and in characterizing and verifying the performance model. In the absence of verified cosmic calibration sources, we also discuss the notion of an artificial, in-space x-ray calibration standard. 6th

  9. Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow index with venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhe; Baker, Wesley B.; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Ko, Tiffany S.; Wang, Detian; Schenkel, Steven; Durduran, Turgut; Li, Gang; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We investigate and assess the utility of a simple scheme for continuous absolute blood flow monitoring based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). The scheme calibrates DCS using venous-occlusion diffuse optical spectroscopy (VO-DOS) measurements of arm muscle tissue at a single time-point. A calibration coefficient (γ) for the arm is determined, permitting conversion of DCS blood flow indices to absolute blood flow units, and a study of healthy adults (N=10) is carried out to ascertain the variability of γ. The average DCS calibration coefficient for the right (i.e., dominant) arm was γ=(1.24±0.15)×108 (mL·100  mL−1·min−1)/(cm2/s). However, variability can be significant and is apparent in our site-to-site and day-to-day repeated measurements. The peak hyperemic blood flow overshoot relative to baseline resting flow was also studied following arm-cuff ischemia; excellent agreement between VO-DOS and DCS was found (R2=0.95, slope=0.94±0.07, mean difference=−0.10±0.45). Finally, we show that incorporation of subject-specific absolute optical properties significantly improves blood flow calibration accuracy. PMID:26720870

  10. Anemometer calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

    1971-01-01

    Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

  11. Vicarious calibration of the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Hyun; Park, Young-Je; Kim, Wonkook; Lee, Boram; Oh, Im Sang

    2015-09-07

    Measurements of ocean color from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) with a moderate spatial resolution and a high temporal frequency demonstrate high value for a number of oceanographic applications. This study aims to propose and evaluate the calibration of GOCI as needed to achieve the level of radiometric accuracy desired for ocean color studies. Previous studies reported that the GOCI retrievals of normalized water-leaving radiances (nLw) are biased high for all visible bands due to the lack of vicarious calibration. The vicarious calibration approach described here relies on the assumed constant aerosol characteristics over the open-ocean sites to accurately estimate atmospheric radiances for the two near-infrared (NIR) bands. The vicarious calibration of visible bands is performed using in situ nLw measurements and the satellite-estimated atmospheric radiance using two NIR bands over the case-1 waters. Prior to this analysis, the in situ nLw spectra in the NIR are corrected by the spectrum optimization technique based on the NIR similarity spectrum assumption. The vicarious calibration gain factors derived for all GOCI bands (except 865nm) significantly improve agreement in retrieved remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) relative to in situ measurements. These gain factors are independent of angular geometry and possible temporal variability. To further increase the confidence in the calibration gain factors, a large data set from shipboard measurements and AERONET-OC is used in the validation process. It is shown that the absolute percentage difference of the atmospheric correction results from the vicariously calibrated GOCI system is reduced by ~6.8%.

  12. The Absolute Magnitude of the Sun in Several Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a table with estimates of the absolute magnitude of the Sun and the conversions from vegamag to the AB and ST systems for several wide-band filters used in ground-based and space-based observatories. These estimates use the dustless spectral energy distribution (SED) of Vega, calibrated absolutely using the SED of Sirius, to set the vegamag zero-points and a composite spectrum of the Sun that coadds space-based observations from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared with models of the Solar atmosphere. The uncertainty of the absolute magnitudes is estimated by comparing the synthetic colors with photometric measurements of solar analogs and is found to be ∼0.02 mag. Combined with the uncertainty of ∼2% in the calibration of the Vega SED, the errors of these absolute magnitudes are ∼3%–4%. Using these SEDs, for three of the most utilized filters in extragalactic work the estimated absolute magnitudes of the Sun are M B = 5.44, M V = 4.81, and M K = 3.27 mag in the vegamag system and M B = 5.31, M V = 4.80, and M K = 5.08 mag in AB.

  13. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  14. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.

    PubMed

    Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M

    2010-08-01

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.

  15. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  16. Evaluation of factors affecting CGMS calibration.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Bruce A; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy; Kalajian, Andrea; Fiallo-Scharer, Rosanna; Tansey, Michael J; Fox, Larry A; Wilson, Darrell M; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Ruedy, Katrina J; Tamborlane, William V

    2006-06-01

    The optimal number/timing of calibrations entered into the CGMS (Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA) continuous glucose monitoring system have not been previously described. Fifty subjects with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (10-18 years old) were hospitalized in a clinical research center for approximately 24 h on two separate days. CGMS and OneTouch Ultra meter (LifeScan, Milpitas, CA) data were obtained. The CGMS was retrospectively recalibrated using the Ultra data varying the number and timing of calibrations. Resulting CGMS values were compared against laboratory reference values. There was a modest improvement in accuracy with increasing number of calibrations. The median relative absolute deviation (RAD) was 14%, 15%, 13%, and 13% when using three, four, five, and seven calibration values, respectively (P < 0.001). Corresponding percentages of CGMS-reference pairs meeting the International Organisation for Standardisation criteria were 66%, 67%, 71%, and 72% (P < 0.001). Nighttime accuracy improved when daytime calibrations (pre-lunch and pre-dinner) were removed leaving only two calibrations at 9 p.m. and 6 a.m. (median difference, -2 vs. -9 mg/dL, P < 0.001; median RAD, 12% vs. 15%, P = 0.001). Accuracy was better on visits where the average absolute rate of glucose change at the times of calibration was lower. On visits with average absolute rates <0.5, 0.5 to <1.0, 1.0 to <1.5, and >or=1.5 mg/dL/min, median RAD values were 13% versus 14% versus 17% versus 19%, respectively (P = 0.05). Although accuracy is slightly improved with more calibrations, the timing of the calibrations appears more important. Modifying the algorithm to put less weight on daytime calibrations for nighttime values and calibrating during times of relative glucose stability may have greater impact on accuracy.

  17. Evaluation of Factors Affecting CGMS Calibration

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background The optimal number/timing of calibrations entered into the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (“CGMS”; Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA) have not been previously described. Methods Fifty subjects with T1DM (10–18y) were hospitalized in a clinical research center for ~24h on two separate days. CGMS and OneTouch® Ultra® Meter (“Ultra”; LifeScan, Milpitas, CA) data were obtained. The CGMS was retrospectively recalibrated using the Ultra data varying the number and timing of calibrations. Resulting CGMS values were compared against laboratory reference values. Results There was a modest improvement in accuracy with increasing number of calibrations. The median relative absolute deviation (RAD) was 14%, 15%, 13% and 13% when using 3, 4, 5 and 7 calibration values, respectively (p<0.001). Corresponding percentages of CGMS-reference pairs meeting the ISO criteria were 66%, 67%, 71% and 72% (p<0.001). Nighttime accuracy improved when daytime calibrations (pre-lunch and pre-dinner) were removed leaving only two calibrations at 9p.m. and 6a.m. (median difference: −2 vs. −9mg/dL, p<0.001; median RAD: 12% vs. 15%, p=0.001). Accuracy was better on visits where the average absolute rate of glucose change at the times of calibration was lower. On visits with average absolute rates <0.5, 0.5-<1.0, 1.0-<1.5 and ≥1.5mg/dL/min, median RAD values were 13% vs. 14% vs. 17% vs. 19%, respectively (p=0.05). Conclusions Although accuracy is slightly improved with more calibrations, the timing of the calibrations appears more important. Modifying the algorithm to put less weight on daytime calibrations for nighttime values and calibrating during times of relative glucose stability may have greater impact on accuracy. PMID:16800753

  18. An atlas of selected calibrated stellar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Russell G.; Cohen, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Five hundred and fifty six stars in the IRAS PSC-2 that are suitable for stellar radiometric standards and are brighter than 1 Jy at 25 microns were identified. In addition, 123 stars that meet all of our criteria for calibration standards, but which lack a luminosity class were identified. An approach to absolute stellar calibration of broadband infrared filters based upon new models of Vega and Sirius due to Kurucz (1992) is presented. A general technique used to assemble continuous wide-band calibrated infrared spectra is described and an absolutely calibrated 1-35 micron spectrum of alpha(Tau) is constructed and the method using new and carefully designed observations is independently validated. The absolute calibration of the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS) database is investigated by comparing the observed spectrum of alpha(Tau) with that assumed in the original LRS calibration scheme. Neglect of the SiO fundamental band in alpha(Tau) has led to the presence of a specious 'emission' feature in all LRS spectra near 8.5 microns, and to an incorrect spectral slope between 8 and 12 microns. Finally, some of the properties of asteroids that effect their utility as calibration objects for the middle and far infrared region are examined. A technique to determine, from IRAS multiwaveband observations, the basic physical parameters needed by various asteroid thermal models that minimize the number of assumptions required is developed.

  19. Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Uncertainty: Pyrgeometers Compared to an Absolute Sky-Scanning Radiometer, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, and Radiative Transfer Model Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Philipona, J. R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Stoffel, T.

    2001-06-04

    Because atmospheric longwave radiation is one of the most fundamental elements of an expected climate change, there has been a strong interest in improving measurements and model calculations in recent years. Important questions are how reliable and consistent are atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations and what are the uncertainties? The First International Pyrgeometer and Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer Comparison, which was held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Souther Great Plains site in Oklahoma, answers these questions at least for midlatitude summer conditions and reflects the state of the art for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations. The 15 participatingmore » pyrgeometers were all calibration-traced standard instruments chosen from a broad international community. Two new chopped pyrgeometers also took part in the comparison. And absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR), which includes a pyroelectric detector and a reference blackbody source, was used for the first time as a reference standard instrument to field calibrate pyrgeometers during clear-sky nighttime measurements. Owner-provided and uniformly determined blackbody calibration factors were compared. Remarkable improvements and higher pyrgeometer precision were achieved with field calibration factors. Results of nighttime and daytime pyrgeometer precision and absolute uncertainty are presented for eight consecutive days of measurements, during which period downward longwave irradiance varied between 260 and 420 W m-2. Comparisons between pyrgeometers and the absolute ASR, the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer models LBLRTM and MODTRAN show a surprisingly good agreement of <2 W m-2 for nighttime atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements and calculations.« less

  20. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  1. Performance Assessment and Geometric Calibration of RESOURCESAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhadevi, P. V.; Solanki, S. S.; Akilan, A.; Jyothi, M. V.; Nagasubramanian, V.

    2016-06-01

    Resourcesat-2 (RS-2) has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs). These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.

  2. Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XXI - Absolute energy distribution of stars in the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Code, A. D.; Fairchild, E. T.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute energy distribution in the ultraviolet is given for the stars alpha Vir, eta UMa, and alpha Leo. The calibration is based on absolute heterochromatic photometry between 2920 and 1370 A carried out with an Aerobee sounding rocket. The fundamental radiation standard is the synchrotron radiation from 240-MeV electrons in a certain synchrotron storage ring. On the basis of the sounding-rocket calibration, the preliminary OAO-2 spectrometer calibration has been revised; the fluxes for the three program stars are tabulated in energy per second per square centimeter per unit wavelength interval.

  3. Absolute tracer dye concentration using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The use of simultaneous airborne-laser-induced dye fluorescence and water Raman backscatter to measure the absolute concentration of an ocean-dispersed tracer dye is discussed. Theoretical considerations of the calculation of dye concentration by the numerical comparison of airborne laser-induced fluorescence spectra with laboratory spectra for known dye concentrations using the 3400/cm OH-stretch water Raman scatter as a calibration signal are presented which show that minimum errors are obtained and no data concerning water mass transmission properties are required when the laser wavelength is chosen to yield a Raman signal near the dye emission band. Results of field experiments conducted with an airborne conical scan lidar over a site in New York Bight into which rhodamine dye had been injected in a study of oil spill dispersion are then indicated which resulted in a contour map of dye concentrations, with a minimum detectable dye concentration of approximately 2 ppb by weight.

  4. Intersatellite Calibration of Microwave Radiometers for GPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the GPM mission is to measure precipitation globally with high temporal resolution by using a constellation of satellites logically united by the GPM Core Satellite which will be in a non-sunsynchronous, medium inclination orbit. The usefulness of the combined product depends on the consistency of precipitation retrievals from the various microwave radiometers. The calibration requirements for this consistency are quite daunting requiring a multi-layered approach. The radiometers can vary considerably in their frequencies, view angles, polarizations and spatial resolutions depending on their primary application and other constraints. The planned parametric algorithms will correct for the varying viewing parameters, but they are still vulnerable to calibration errors, both relative and absolute. The GPM Intersatellite Calibration Working Group (aka X-CAL) will adjust the calibration of all the radiometers to a common consensus standard for the GPM Level 1C product to be used in precipitation retrievals. Finally, each Precipitation Algorithm Working Group must have its own strategy for removing the residual errors. If the final adjustments are small, the credibility of the precipitation retrievals will be enhanced. Before intercomparing, the radiometers must be self consistent on a scan-wise and orbit-wise basis. Pre-screening for this consistency constitutes the first step in the intercomparison. The radiometers are then compared pair-wise with the microwave radiometer (GMI) on the GPM Core Satellite. Two distinct approaches are used for sake of cross-checking the results. On the one hand, nearly simultaneous observations are collected at the cross-over points of the orbits and the observations of one are converted to virtual observations of the other using a radiative transfer model to permit comparisons. The complementary approach collects histograms of brightness temperature from each instrument. In each case a model is needed to translate the

  5. Backscatter nephelometer to calibrate scanning lidar

    Treesearch

    Cyle E. Wold; Vladmir A. Kovalev; Wei Min Hao

    2008-01-01

    The general concept of an open-path backscatter nephelometer, its design, principles of calibration and the operational use are discussed. The research-grade instrument, which operates at the wavelength 355 nm, will be co-located with a scanning-lidar at measurement sites near wildfires, and used for the lidar calibration. Such a near-end calibration has significant...

  6. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    PubMed

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  7. Verification of a Schumann Resonance Inversion Method for Global Lightning Activity in Absolute Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. R.; Guha, A.; Liu, Y.; Boldi, R. A.; Pracser, E.; Said, R.; Satori, G.; Bozoki, T.; Bor, J.; Atkinson, M.; Beggan, C.; Cummer, S.; Lyu, F.; Fain, B.; Hobara, Y.; Alexander, K.; Kulak, A.; McCraty, R.; Mlynarczyk, J.; Montanya, J.; Moore, R. C.; Neska, M.; Ortega, P.; Price, C. G.; Rawat, R.; Sato, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Yampolski, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The global reach of single, calibrated ELF receivers operating in the Schumann resonance (SR) band (3-50 Hz) has been verified by global maps of energetic Q-burst locations and vertical charge moment change, and by locations of independently verified transient luminous events in a wide variety of locations worldwide. It has also been previously shown that with as few as six ELF receivers in widely separated locations, multi-station, multi-modal SR parameters extracted from the SR "background" signal can be inverted to provide the centroid locations of continental lightning "chimneys" (Asia, Africa, Americas) and their respective lightning activities in absolute units (coul2 km2/sec). This inversion method involves a propagation model for the Earth-ionosphere cavity with day-night asymmetry. The Earth is now populated with more than 30 calibrated ELF receivers making continuous time series observations. This circumstance is exploited in the present study to verify the findings of the ELF inversion method. During the period May 17-20 and 23-24, 2015, two independent sets of nine ELF receivers each, in widely-separated geographical locations (first set: Antarctica (3 sites), Hungary, Japan (2 sites), Poland, Spitzbergen, and USA; second set: Antarctica, Canada, Cape Verde Island, Lithuania, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Scotland, Tahiti, and USA), are used to compare the locations and source strengths of lightning chimneys. Detailed comparisons will be shown over Universal Time for selected days.

  8. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Daniel, Michael; Doro, Michele; Förster, Andreas; Hofmann, Werner; Maccarone, Maria C.; Parsons, Dan; de los Reyes Lopez, Raquel; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration efforts of the different telescopes. The latter include LED-based light pulsers, and various methods and instruments to achieve a calibration of the overall optical throughput. On the array level, methods for the inter-telescope calibration and the absolute calibration of the entire observatory are being developed. Additionally, the atmosphere above the telescopes, used as a calorimeter, will be monitored constantly with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and aerosol profile up to the stratosphere. The aim is to provide a maximal uncertainty of 10% on the reconstructed energy-scale, obtained through various independent methods. Different types of LIDAR in combination with all-sky-cameras will provide the observatory with an online, intelligent scheduling system, which, if the sky is partially covered by clouds, gives preference to sources observable under good atmospheric conditions. Wide-field optical telescopes and Raman Lidars will provide online information about the height-resolved atmospheric extinction, throughout the field-of-view of the cameras, allowing for the correction of the reconstructed energy of each gamma-ray event. The aim is to maximize the duty cycle of the observatory, in terms of usable data, while reducing the dead time introduced by calibration activities to an absolute minimum.

  9. Assessment of uncertainty in ROLO lunar irradiance for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; Barnes, W.L.; Butler, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    A system to provide radiometric calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments on-orbit using the Moon has been developed by the US Geological Survey RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project. ROLO has developed a model for lunar irradiance which treats the primary geometric variables of phase and libration explicitly. The model fits hundreds of data points in each of 23 VNIR and 9 SWIR bands; input data are derived from lunar radiance images acquired by the project's on-site telescopes, calibrated to exoatmospheric radiance and converted to disk-equivalent reflectance. Experimental uncertainties are tracked through all stages of the data processing and modeling. Model fit residuals are ???1% in each band over the full range of observed phase and libration angles. Application of ROLO lunar calibration to SeaWiFS has demonstrated the capability for long-term instrument response trending with precision approaching 0.1% per year. Current work involves assessing the error in absolute responsivity and relative spectral response of the ROLO imaging systems, and propagation of error through the data reduction and modeling software systems with the goal of reducing the uncertainty in the absolute scale, now estimated at 5-10%. This level is similar to the scatter seen in ROLO lunar irradiance comparisons of multiple spacecraft instruments that have viewed the Moon. A field calibration campaign involving NASA and NIST has been initiated that ties the ROLO lunar measurements to the NIST (SI) radiometric scale.

  10. Integrated calibration between digital camera and laser scanner from mobile mapping system for land vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guihua; Chen, Hong; Li, Xingquan; Zou, Xiaoliang

    The paper presents the concept of lever arm and boresight angle, the design requirements of calibration sites and the integrated calibration method of boresight angles of digital camera or laser scanner. Taking test data collected by Applanix's LandMark system as an example, the camera calibration method is introduced to be piling three consecutive stereo images and OTF-Calibration method using ground control points. The laser calibration of boresight angle is proposed to use a manual and automatic method with ground control points. Integrated calibration between digital camera and laser scanner is introduced to improve the systemic precision of two sensors. By analyzing the measurement value between ground control points and its corresponding image points in sequence images, a conclusion is that position objects between camera and images are within about 15cm in relative errors and 20cm in absolute errors. By comparing the difference value between ground control points and its corresponding laser point clouds, the errors is less than 20cm. From achieved results of these experiments in analysis, mobile mapping system is efficient and reliable system for generating high-accuracy and high-density road spatial data more rapidly.

  11. Assessment of SNPP VIIRS VIS NIR Radiometric Calibration Stability Using Aqua MODIS and Invariant Surface Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Cao, Changyong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. As a primary sensor, it collects imagery and radiometric measurements of the land, atmosphere, cryosphere, and oceans in the spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared. NASA's National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) VIIRS Characterization Support Team has been actively involved in the VIIRS radiometric and geometric calibration to support its Science Team Principal Investigators for their independent quality assessment of VIIRS Environmental Data Records. This paper presents the performance assessment of the radiometric calibration stability of the VIIRS VIS and NIR spectral bands using measurements from SNPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS simultaneous nadir overpasses and over the invariant surface targets at the Libya-4 desert and Antarctic Dome Concordia snow sites. The VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) used in this paper are reprocessed by the NASA SNPP Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element. This paper shows that the reprocessed VIIRS SDRs have been consistently calibrated from the beginning of the mission, and the calibration stability is similar to or better than MODIS. Results from different approaches indicate that the calibrations of the VIIRS VIS and NIR spectral bands are maintained to be stable to within 1% over the first three-year mission. The absolute calibration differences between VIIRS and MODIS are within 2%, with an exception for the 0.865-m band, after correction of their spectral response differences.

  12. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  13. Calibration of the Geosar Dual Frequency Interferometric SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapine, Elaine

    1999-01-01

    GeoSAR is an airborne, interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (INSAR) system for terrain mapping, currently under development by a consortium including NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Calgis, Inc., and the California Department of Conservation (CalDOC) with funding provided by the Topographic Engineering Center (TEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The radar simultaneously maps swaths on both sides of the aircraft at two frequencies, X-Band and P-Band. For the P-Band system, data is collected for two across track interferometric baselines and at the crossed polarization. The aircraft position and attitude are measured using two Honeywell Embedded GPS Inertial Navigation Units (EGI) and an Ashtech Z12 GPS receiver. The mechanical orientation and position of the antennas are actively measured using a Laser Baseline Metrology System (LBMS). In the GeoSAR motion measurement software, these data are optimally combined with data from a nearby ground station using Ashtech PNAV software to produce the position, orientation, and baseline information are used to process the dual frequency radar data. Proper calibration of the GeoSAR system is essential to obtaining digital elevation models (DEMS) with the required sub-meter level planimetric and vertical accuracies. Calibration begins with the determination of the yaw and pitch biases for the two EGI units. Common range delays are determined for each mode, along with differential time and phase delays between channels. Because the antennas are measured by the LBMS, baseline calibration consists primarily of measuring a constant offset between mechanical center and the electrical phase center of the antennas. A phase screen, an offset to the interferometric phase difference which is a function of absolute phase, is applied to the interferometric data to compensate for multipath and leakage. Calibration parameters are calculated for each of the ten

  14. Trend analysis of Terra/ASTER/VNIR radiometric calibration coefficient through onboard and vicarious calibrations as well as cross calibration with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei

    2012-07-01

    More than 11 years Radiometric Calibration Coefficients (RCC) derived from onboard and vicarious calibrations are compared together with cross comparison to the well calibrated MODIS RCC. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is also conducted for clarification of possible causes of the RCC degradation together with sensitivity analysis for vicarious calibration. One of the suspects of causes of RCC degradation is clarified through FTA. Test site dependency on vicarious calibration is quite obvious. It is because of the vicarious calibration RCC is sensitive to surface reflectance measurement accuracy, not atmospheric optical depth. The results from cross calibration with MODIS support that significant sensitivity of surface reflectance measurements on vicarious calibration.

  15. Results from Source-Based and Detector-Based Calibrations of a CLARREO Calibration Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angal, Amit; Mccorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is formulated to determine long-term climate trends using SI-traceable measurements. The CLARREO mission will include instruments operating in the reflected solar (RS) wavelength region from 320 nm to 2300 nm. The Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO and facilitates testing and evaluation of calibration approaches. The basis of CLARREO and SOLARIS calibration is the Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Response (GLAMR) that provides a radiance-based calibration at reflective solar wavelengths using continuously tunable lasers. SI-traceability is achieved via detector-based standards that, in GLAMRs case, are a set of NIST-calibrated transfer radiometers. A portable version of the SOLARIS, Suitcase SOLARIS is used to evaluate GLAMRs calibration accuracies. The calibration of Suitcase SOLARIS using GLAMR agrees with that obtained from source-based results of the Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona to better than 5 (k2) in the 720-860 nm spectral range. The differences are within the uncertainties of the NIST-calibrated FEL lamp-based approach of RSG and give confidence that GLAMR is operating at 5 (k2) absolute uncertainties. Limitations of the Suitcase SOLARIS instrument also discussed and the next edition of the SOLARIS instrument (Suitcase SOLARIS- 2) is expected to provide an improved mechanism to further assess GLAMR and CLARREO calibration approaches. (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  16. The CHEOPS calibration bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildi, F.; Chazelas, B.; Deline, A.; Sarajlic, M.; Sordet, M.

    2017-09-01

    CHEOPS is an ESA Class S Mission aiming at the characterization of exoplanets through the precise measurement of their radius, using the transit method [1]. To achieve this goal, the payload is designed to be a high precision "absolute" photometer, looking at one star at a time. It will be able to cover la large fraction of the sky by repointing. Its launch is expected at the end of 2017 [2, this conference]. CHEOPS' main science is the measure of the transit of exoplanets of radius ranging from 1 to 6 Earth radii orbiting bright stars. The required photometric stability to reach this goal is of 20 ppm in 6 hours for a 9th magnitude star. The CHEOPS' only instrument is a Ritchey-Chretien style telescope with 300 mm effective aperture diameter, which provides a defocussed image of the target star on a single frame-transfer backside illuminated CCD detector cooled to -40°C and stabilized within 10 mK [2]. CHEOPS being in a LEO, it is equipped with a high performance baffle. The spacecraft platform provides a pointing stability of < 2 arcsec rms. This relatively modest pointing performance makes high quality flat-fielding necessary In the rest of this article we will refer to the only CHEOPS instrument simply as "CHEOP" Its behavior will be calibrated thoroughly on the ground and only a small subset of the calibrations can be redone in flight. The main focuses of the calibrations are the photonic gain stability and sensibility to the environment variations and the Flat field that has to be known at a precision better than 0.1%.

  17. Uncertainty Evaluations of the CRCS In-orbit Field Radiometric Calibration Methods for Thermal Infrared Channels of FENGYUN Meteorological Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Rong, Z.; Min, M.; Hao, X.; Yang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. It is impossible to ignore the space-derived data in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture, as well as disaster monitoring in China, a large agricultural country. For this reason, China is making a sustained effort to build and enhance its meteorological observing system and application system. The first Chinese polar-orbiting weather satellite was launched in 1988. Since then China has launched 14 meteorological satellites, 7 of which are sun synchronous and 7 of which are geostationary satellites; China will continue its two types of meteorological satellite programs. In order to achieve the in-orbit absolute radiometric calibration of the operational meteorological satellites' thermal infrared channels, China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) established a set of in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods (FCM) for thermal infrared channels (TIR) and the uncertainty of this method was evaluated and analyzed based on TERRA/AQUA MODIS observations. Comparisons between the MODIS at pupil brightness temperatures (BTs) and the simulated BTs at the top of atmosphere using radiative transfer model (RTM) based on field measurements showed that the accuracy of the current in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods was better than 1.00K (@300K, K=1) in thermal infrared channels. Therefore, the current CRCS field calibration method for TIR channels applied to Chinese metrological satellites was with favorable calibration accuracy: for 10.5-11.5µm channel was better than 0.75K (@300K, K=1) and for 11.5-12.5µm channel was better than 0.85K (@300K, K=1).

  18. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag < G < 17 mag to 5-10 mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  19. Using Flux Site Observations to Calibrate Root System Architecture Stencils for Water Uptake of Plant Functional Types in Land Surface Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouda, M.

    2017-12-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) can significantly affect plant access to water, total transpiration, as well as its partitioning by soil depth, with implications for surface heat, water, and carbon budgets. Despite recent advances in land surface model (LSM) descriptions of plant hydraulics, RSA has not been included because of its three-dimensional complexity, which makes RSA modelling generally too computationally costly. This work builds upon the recently introduced "RSA stencil," a process-based 1D layered model that captures the dynamic shifts in water potential gradients of 3D RSA in response to heterogeneous soil moisture profiles. In validations using root systems calibrated to the rooting profiles of four plant functional types (PFT) of the Community Land Model, the RSA stencil predicts plant water potentials within 2% of the outputs of full 3D models, despite its trivial computational cost. In transient simulations, the RSA stencil yields improved predictions of water uptake and soil moisture profiles compared to a 1D model based on root fraction alone. Here I show how the RSA stencil can be calibrated to time-series observations of soil moisture and transpiration to yield a water uptake PFT definition for use in terrestrial models. This model-data integration exercise aims to improve LSM predictions of soil moisture dynamics and, under water-limiting conditions, surface fluxes. These improvements can be expected to significantly impact predictions of downstream variables, including surface fluxes, climate-vegetation feedbacks and soil nutrient cycling.

  20. Physics of negative absolute temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  1. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  2. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  3. Comparison Between One-Point Calibration and Two-Point Calibration Approaches in a Continuous Glucose Monitoring Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Johansen, Mette Dencker; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using a 1-point calibration approach instead of a 2-point calibration approach on the accuracy of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) algorithm. Method: A previously published real-time CGM algorithm was compared with its updated version, which used a 1-point calibration instead of a 2-point calibration. In addition, the contribution of the corrective intercept (CI) to the calibration performance was assessed. Finally, the sensor background current was estimated real-time and retrospectively. The study was performed on 132 type 1 diabetes patients. Results: Replacing the 2-point calibration with the 1-point calibration improved the CGM accuracy, with the greatest improvement achieved in hypoglycemia (18.4% median absolute relative differences [MARD] in hypoglycemia for the 2-point calibration, and 12.1% MARD in hypoglycemia for the 1-point calibration). Using 1-point calibration increased the percentage of sensor readings in zone A+B of the Clarke error grid analysis (EGA) in the full glycemic range, and also enhanced hypoglycemia sensitivity. Exclusion of CI from calibration reduced hypoglycemia accuracy, while slightly increased euglycemia accuracy. Both real-time and retrospective estimation of the sensor background current suggest that the background current can be considered zero in the calibration of the SCGM1 sensor. Conclusions: The sensor readings calibrated with the 1-point calibration approach indicated to have higher accuracy than those calibrated with the 2-point calibration approach. PMID:24876420

  4. Spitzer/JWST Cross Calibration: IRAC Observations of Potential Calibrators for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Sean J.; Gordon, Karl D.; Lowrance, Patrick; Ingalls, James G.; Glaccum, William J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; E Krick, Jessica; Laine, Seppo J.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hora, Joseph L.; Bohlin, Ralph

    2017-06-01

    We present observations at 3.6 and 4.5 microns using IRAC on the Spitzer Space Telescope of a set of main sequence A stars and white dwarfs that are potential calibrators across the JWST instrument suite. The stars range from brightnesses of 4.4 to 15 mag in K band. The calibration observations use a similar redundancy to the observing strategy for the IRAC primary calibrators (Reach et al. 2005) and the photometry is obtained using identical methods and instrumental photometric corrections as those applied to the IRAC primary calibrators (Carey et al. 2009). The resulting photometry is then compared to the predictions based on spectra from the CALSPEC Calibration Database (http://www.stsci.edu/hst/observatory/crds/calspec.html) and the IRAC bandpasses. These observations are part of an ongoing collaboration between IPAC and STScI investigating absolute calibration in the infrared.

  5. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of the Radiometric Calibration of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data by the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J.; Park, W.; Fitzgerald, A.

    1985-01-01

    The radiometric characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 TM sensor are being studied with a view to developing absolute and relative radiometric calibration procedures. Preliminary results from several different approaches to the relative correction of all detectors within each band are reported. Topics covered include: the radiometric correction method; absolute calibration; the relative radiometric calibration algorithm; relative gain and offset calibration; relative gain and offset observations; and residual radiometric stripping.

  7. Metrological activity determination of 133Ba by sum-peak absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, R. L.; de Almeida, M. C. M.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; Santos, A.; de Veras, E. V.; Rangel, J.; Trindade, O. L.

    2016-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation provides gamma sources of radionuclide and standardized in activity with reduced uncertainties. Relative methods require standards to determine the sample activity while the absolute methods, as sum-peak, not. The activity is obtained directly with good accuracy and low uncertainties. 133Ba is used in research laboratories and on calibration of detectors for analysis in different work areas. Classical absolute methods don't calibrate 133Ba due to its complex decay scheme. The sum-peak method using gamma spectrometry with germanium detector standardizes 133Ba samples. Uncertainties lower than 1% to activity results were obtained.

  8. Demonstrating the Error Budget for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory Through Solar Irradiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as a method to determine the accuracy of climate change. A CLARREO objective is to improve the accuracy of SI-traceable, absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths to reach on-orbit accuracies required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps and observe climate change at the limit of natural variability. Such an effort will also demonstrate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) approaches for use in future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the results of laboratory and field measurements with the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. SOLARIS allows testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. Results of laboratory calibration measurements are provided to demonstrate key assumptions about instrument behavior that are needed to achieve CLARREO's climate measurement requirements. Absolute radiometric response is determined using laser-based calibration sources and applied to direct solar views for comparison with accepted solar irradiance models to demonstrate accuracy values giving confidence in the error budget for the CLARREO reflectance retrieval.

  9. Approaches on calibration of bolometer and establishment of bolometer calibration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ming; Gao, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun'an; Xia, Junwen; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng; Zhang, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Bolometer is mainly used for measuring thermal radiation in the field of public places, labor hygiene, heating and ventilation and building energy conservation. The working principle of bolometer is under the exposure of thermal radiation, temperature of black absorbing layer of detector rise after absorption of thermal radiation, which makes the electromotive force produced by thermoelectric. The white light reflective layer of detector does not absorb thermal radiation, so the electromotive force produced by thermoelectric is almost zero. A comparison of electromotive force produced by thermoelectric of black absorbing layer and white reflective layer can eliminate the influence of electric potential produced by the basal background temperature change. After the electromotive force which produced by thermal radiation is processed by the signal processing unit, the indication displays through the indication display unit. The measurement unit of thermal radiation intensity is usually W/m2 or kW/m2. Its accurate and reliable value has important significance for high temperature operation, labor safety and hygiene grading management. Bolometer calibration device is mainly composed of absolute radiometer, the reference light source, electric measuring instrument. Absolute radiometer is a self-calibration type radiometer. Its working principle is using the electric power which can be accurately measured replaces radiation power to absolutely measure the radiation power. Absolute radiometer is the standard apparatus of laser low power standard device, the measurement traceability is guaranteed. Using the calibration method of comparison, the absolute radiometer and bolometer measure the reference light source in the same position alternately which can get correction factor of irradiance indication. This paper is mainly about the design and calibration method of the bolometer calibration device. The uncertainty of the calibration result is also evaluated.

  10. Mexican national pyronometer network calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VAldes, M.; Villarreal, L.; Estevez, H.; Riveros, D.

    2013-12-01

    In order to take advantage of the solar radiation as an alternate energy source it is necessary to evaluate the spatial and temporal availability. The Mexican National Meterological Service (SMN) has a network with 136 meteorological stations, each coupled with a pyronometer for measuring the global solar radiation. Some of these stations had not been calibrated in several years. The Mexican Department of Energy (SENER) in order to count on a reliable evaluation of the solar resource funded this project to calibrate the SMN pyrometer network and validate the data. The calibration of the 136 pyronometers by the intercomparison method recommended by the World Meterological Organization (WMO) requires lengthy observations and specific environmental conditions such as clear skies and a stable atmosphere, circumstances that determine the site and season of the calibration. The Solar Radiation Section of the Instituto de Geofísica of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México is a Regional Center of the WMO and is certified to carry out the calibration procedures and emit certificates. We are responsible for the recalibration of the pyronometer network of the SMN. A continuous emission solar simulator with exposed areas with 30cm diameters was acquired to reduce the calibration time and not depend on atmospheric conditions. We present the results of the calibration of 10 thermopile pyronometers and one photovoltaic cell by the intercomparison method with more than 10000 observations each and those obtained with the solar simulator.

  11. Larger Optics and Improved Calibration Techniques for Small Satellite Observations with the ERAU OSCOM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilardi, S.; Barjatya, A.; Gasdia, F.

    OSCOM, Optical tracking and Spectral characterization of CubeSats for Operational Missions, is a system capable of providing time-resolved satellite photometry using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and custom tracking and analysis software. This system has acquired photometry of objects as small as CubeSats using a Celestron 11” RASA and an inexpensive CMOS machine vision camera. For satellites with known shapes, these light curves can be used to verify a satellite’s attitude and the state of its deployed solar panels or antennae. While the OSCOM system can successfully track satellites and produce light curves, there is ongoing improvement towards increasing its automation while supporting additional mounts and telescopes. A newly acquired Celestron 14” Edge HD can be used with a Starizona Hyperstar to increase the SNR for small objects as well as extend beyond the limiting magnitude of the 11” RASA. OSCOM currently corrects instrumental brightness measurements for satellite range and observatory site average atmospheric extinction, but calibrated absolute brightness is required to determine information about satellites other than their spin rate, such as surface albedo. A calibration method that automatically detects and identifies background stars can use their catalog magnitudes to calibrate the brightness of the satellite in the image. We present a photometric light curve from both the 14” Edge HD and 11” RASA optical systems as well as plans for a calibration method that will perform background star photometry to efficiently determine calibrated satellite brightness in each frame.

  12. Photographic handbook for comparing burned and unburned sites within a dry forested and grassland mosiac: a tool for communication, calibration, and monitoring post-fire effects

    Treesearch

    Theresa Jain; Molly Juillerat; Jonathan Sandquist; Mike Ford; Brad Sauer; Robert Mitchell; Scott McAvoy; Justin Hanley; Jon David

    2007-01-01

    This photograph handbook describes characteristics and burn severity of a dry forested and grassland mosaic that burned within the last decade. We show photographs of different burned and unburned sites to help compare fire occurrence in similar stands. The handbook provides local land managers with a quick, inexpensive, and efficient way to evaluate effects of...

  13. Chasing the TIRS ghosts: calibrating the Landsat 8 thermal bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, John R.; Gerace, Aaron; Raqueno, Nina; Ientilucci, Emmett; Raqueno, Rolando; Lunsford, Allen W.

    2014-10-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on board Landsat 8 has exhibited a number of anomalous characteristics that have made it difficult to calibrate. These anomalies include differences in the radiometric appearance across the blackbody pre- and post-launch, variations in the cross calibration ratios between detectors that overlap on adjacent arrays (resulting in banding) and bias errors in the absolute calibration that can change spatially/temporally. Several updates to the TIRS calibration procedures were made in the months after launch to attempt to mitigate the impact of these anomalies on flat fielding (cosmetic removal of banding and striping) and mean level bias correction. As a result, banding and striping variations have been reduced but not eliminated and residual bias errors in band 10 should be less than 2 degrees for most targets but can be significantly more in some cases and are often larger in band 11. These corrections have all been essentially ad hoc without understanding or properly accounting for the source of the anomalies, which were, at the time unknown. This paper addresses the procedures that have been undertaken to; better characterize the nature of these anomalies, attempt to identify the source(s) of the anomalies, quantify the phenomenon responsible for them, and develop correction procedures to more effectively remove the impacts on the radiometric products. Our current understanding points to all of the anomalies being the result of internal reflections of energy from outside the target detector's field-of-view, and often outside the telescope field-of-view, onto the target detector. This paper discusses how various members of the Landsat calibration team discovered the clues that led to how; these "ghosts" were identified, they are now being characterized, and their impact can hopefully eventually be corrected. This includes use of lunar scans to generate initial maps of influence regions, use of long path overlap ratios to explore

  14. Technique for calibrating angular measurement devices when calibration standards are unavailable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.

    1991-01-01

    A calibration technique is proposed that will allow the calibration of certain angular measurement devices without requiring the use of absolute standard. The technique assumes that the device to be calibrated has deterministic bias errors. A comparison device must be available that meets the same requirements. The two devices are compared; one device is then rotated with respect to the other, and a second comparison is performed. If the data are reduced using the described technique, the individual errors of the two devices can be determined.

  15. Lunar eclipse photometry: absolute luminance measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hernitschek, Nina; Schmidt, Elmar; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The Moon's time-dependent luminance was determined during the 9 February 1990 and 3 March 2007 total lunar eclipses by using calibrated, industry standard photometers. After the results were corrected to unit air mass and to standard distances for both Moon and Sun, an absolute calibration was accomplished by using the Sun's known luminance and a pre-eclipse lunar albedo of approximately 13.5%. The measured minimum level of brightness in the total phase of both eclipses was relatively high, namely -3.32 m(vis) and -1.7 m(vis), which hints at the absence of pronounced stratospheric aerosol. The light curves were modeled in such a way as to let the Moon move through an artificial Earth shadow composed of a multitude of disk and ring zones, containing a relative luminance data set from an atmospheric radiative transfer calculation.

  16. Absolute stellar photometry on moderate-resolution FPA images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive database of star (and Moon) images has been collected by the ground-based RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) as part of the US Geological Survey program for lunar calibration. The stellar data are used to derive nightly atmospheric corrections for the observations from extinction measurements, and absolute calibration of the ROLO sensors is based on observations of Vega and published reference flux and spectrum data. The ROLO telescopes were designed for imaging the Moon at moderate resolution, thus imposing some limitations for the stellar photometry. Attaining accurate stellar photometry with the ROLO image data has required development of specialized processing techniques. A key consideration is consistency in discriminating the star core signal from the off-axis point spread function. The analysis and processing methods applied to the ROLO stellar image database are described. ?? 2009 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Cross-calibration between airborne SAR sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Manfred; Olivier, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    As Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system performance and experience in SAR signature evaluation increase, quantitative analysis becomes more and more important. Such analyses require an absolute radiometric calibration of the complete SAR system. To keep the expenditure on calibration of future multichannel and multisensor remote sensing systems (e.g., X-SAR/SIR-C) within a tolerable level, data from different tracks and different sensors (channels) must be cross calibrated. The 1989 joint E-SAR/DC-8 SAR calibration campaign gave a first opportunity for such an experiment, including cross sensor and cross track calibration. A basic requirement for successful cross calibration is the stability of the SAR systems. The calibration parameters derived from different tracks and the polarimetric properties of the uncalibrated data are used to describe this stability. Quality criteria for a successful cross calibration are the agreement of alpha degree values and the consistency of radar cross sections of equally sized corner reflectors. Channel imbalance and cross talk provide additional quality in case of the polarimetric DC-8 SAR.

  18. Absolute measurements of large mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Peng

    The ability to produce mirrors for large astronomical telescopes is limited by the accuracy of the systems used to test the surfaces of such mirrors. Typically the mirror surfaces are measured by comparing their actual shapes to a precision master, which may be created using combinations of mirrors, lenses, and holograms. The work presented here develops several optical testing techniques that do not rely on a large or expensive precision, master reference surface. In a sense these techniques provide absolute optical testing. The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) has been designed with a 350 m 2 collecting area provided by a 25 m diameter primary mirror made out from seven circular independent mirror segments. These segments create an equivalent f/0.7 paraboloidal primary mirror consisting of a central segment and six outer segments. Each of the outer segments is 8.4 m in diameter and has an off-axis aspheric shape departing 14.5 mm from the best-fitting sphere. Much of the work in this dissertation is motivated by the need to measure the surfaces or such large mirrors accurately, without relying on a large or expensive precision reference surface. One method for absolute testing describing in this dissertation uses multiple measurements relative to a reference surface that is located in different positions with respect to the test surface of interest. The test measurements are performed with an algorithm that is based on the maximum likelihood (ML) method. Some methodologies for measuring large flat surfaces in the 2 m diameter range and for measuring the GMT primary mirror segments were specifically developed. For example, the optical figure of a 1.6-m flat mirror was determined to 2 nm rms accuracy using multiple 1-meter sub-aperture measurements. The optical figure of the reference surface used in the 1-meter sub-aperture measurements was also determined to the 2 nm level. The optical test methodology for a 1.7-m off axis parabola was evaluated by moving several

  19. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.P.P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony, E-mail: J.Pinto-Vieira@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ( w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contractingmore » counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.« less

  20. Transmittance Measurement of a Heliostat Facility used in the Preflight Radiometric Calibration of Earth-Observing Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Thome, K.; Anderson, N.; McCorkel, J.; Leisso, N.; Good, W.; Collins, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has developed a heliostat facility that will be used to determine the preflight radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors that operate in the solar-reflective regime. While automatically tracking the Sun, the heliostat directs the solar beam inside a thermal vacuum chamber, where the sensor under test resides. The main advantage to using the Sun as the illumination source for preflight radiometric calibration is because it will also be the source of illumination when the sensor is in flight. This minimizes errors in the pre- and post-launch calibration due to spectral mismatches. It also allows the instrument under test to operate at irradiance values similar to those on orbit. The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona measured the transmittance of the heliostat facility using three methods, the first of which is a relative measurement made using a hyperspectral portable spectroradiometer and well-calibrated reference panel. The second method is also a relative measurement, and uses a 12-channel automated solar radiometer. The final method is an absolute measurement using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer and reference panel combination, where the spectroradiometer is calibrated on site using a solar-radiation-based calibration.

  1. Spectral irradiance calibration in the infrared. I - Ground-based and IRAS broadband calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.; Barlow, Michael J.; Deacon, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Absolutely calibrated versions of realistic model atmosphere calculations for Sirius and Vega by Kurucz (1991) are presented and used as a basis to offer a new absolute calibration of infrared broad and narrow filters. In-band fluxes for Vega are obtained and defined to be zero magnitude at all wavelengths shortward of 20 microns. Existing infrared photometry is used differentially to establish an absolute scale of the new Sirius model, yielding an angular diameter within 1 sigma of the mean determined interferometrically by Hanbury Brown et al. (1974). The use of Sirius as a primary infrared stellar standard beyond the 20 micron region is suggested. Isophotal wavelengths and monochromatic flux densities for both Vega and Sirius are tabulated.

  2. Calibration of High Heat Flux Sensors at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, A. V.; Tsai, B. K.; Gibson, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    An ongoing program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is aimed at improving and standardizing heat-flux sensor calibration methods. The current calibration needs of U.S. science and industry exceed the current NIST capability of 40 kW/m2 irradiance. In achieving this goal, as well as meeting lower-level non-radiative heat flux calibration needs of science and industry, three different types of calibration facilities currently are under development at NIST: convection, conduction, and radiation. This paper describes the research activities associated with the NIST Radiation Calibration Facility. Two different techniques, transfer and absolute, are presented. The transfer calibration technique employs a transfer standard calibrated with reference to a radiometric standard for calibrating the sensors using a graphite tube blackbody. Plans for an absolute calibration facility include the use of a spherical blackbody and a cooled aperture and sensor-housing assembly to calibrate the sensors in a low convective environment. PMID:27805156

  3. Virtual Reality Calibration for Telerobotic Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1994-01-01

    A virtual reality calibration technique of matching a virtual environment of simulated graphics models in 3-D geometry and perspective with actual camera views of the remote site task environment has been developed to enable high-fidelity preview/predictive displays with calibrated graphics overlay on live video.

  4. CATE 2016 Indonesia: Image Calibration, Intensity Calibration, and Drift Scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, H. S.; Kovac, S. A.; Jensen, L.; McKay, M. A.; Bosh, R.; Watson, Z.; Mitchell, A. M.; Penn, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The citizen Continental America Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) experiment aims to provide equipment for 60 sites across the path of totality for the United States August 21st, 2017 total solar eclipse. The opportunity to gather ninety minutes of continuous images of the solar corona is unmatched by any other previous eclipse event. In March of 2016, 5 teams were sent to Indonesia to test CATE equipment and procedures on the March 9th, 2016 total solar eclipse. Also, a goal of the trip was practice and gathering data to use in testing data reduction methods. Of the five teams, four collected data. While in Indonesia, each group participated in community outreach in the location of their site. The 2016 eclipse allowed CATE to test the calibration techniques for the 2017 eclipse. Calibration dark current and flat field images were collected to remove variation across the cameras. Drift scan observations provided information to rotationally align the images from each site. These image's intensity values allowed for intensity calibration for each of the sites. A GPS at each site corrected for major computer errors in time measurement of images. Further refinement of these processes is required before the 2017 eclipse. This work was made possible through the NSO Training for the 2017 Citizen CATE Experiment funded by NASA (NASA NNX16AB92A).

  5. Aquarius L-Band Radiometers Calibration Using Cold Sky Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.; Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the calibration plan for the Aquarius radiometers is to look at the cold sky. This involves rotating the satellite 180 degrees from its nominal Earth viewing configuration to point the main beams at the celestial sky. At L-band, the cold sky provides a stable, well-characterized scene to be used as a calibration reference. This paper describes the cold sky calibration for Aquarius and how it is used as part of the absolute calibration. Cold sky observations helped establish the radiometer bias, by correcting for an error in the spillover lobe of the antenna pattern, and monitor the long-term radiometer drift.

  6. Towards an Accurate Orbital Calibration of Late Miocene Climate Events: Insights From a High-Resolution Chemo- and Magnetostratigraphy (8-6 Ma) from Equatorial Pacific IODP Sites U1337 and U1338

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, A. J.; Westerhold, T.; Frederichs, T.; Wilkens, R.; Channell, J. E. T.; Evans, H. F.; Hodell, D. A.; John, C. M.; Lyle, M. W.; Roehl, U.; Tian, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the 8-6 Ma interval, the late Miocene is characterised by a long-term -0.3 ‰ reduction in benthic foraminiferal δ18O and distinctive short-term δ18O cycles, possibly related to dynamic Antarctic ice sheet variability. In addition, the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS) marks a permanent long-term -1 ‰ shift in oceanic δ13CDIC, which is the largest, long-term perturbation in the global marine carbon cycle since the mid Miocene Monterey excursion. Accurate age control is crucial to investigate the origin of the δ18O cyclicity and determine the precise onset of the LMCIS. The current Geological Time Scale in the 8-6 Ma interval is constructed using astronomical tuning of sedimentary cycles in Mediterranean outcrops. However, outside of the Mediterranean, a comparable high-resolution chemo-, magneto-, and cyclostratigraphy at a single DSDP/ODP/IODP site does not exist. Generating an accurate astronomically-calibrated chemo- and magneto-stratigraphy in the 8-6 Ma interval became possible with retrieval of equatorial Pacific IODP Sites U1337 and U1338, as both sites have sedimentation rates ~2 cm/kyr, high biogenic carbonate content, and magnetic polarity stratigraphies. Here we present high-resolution correlation of Sites U1337 and U1338 using Milankovitch-related cycles in core images and X-ray fluorescence core scanning data. By combining inclination and declination data from ~400 new discrete samples with shipboard measurements, we are able to identify 14 polarity reversals at Site U1337 from the young end of Chron C3An.1n (~6.03 Ma) to the onset of Chron C4n.2n (~8.11 Ma). New high-resolution (<1.5 kyr) stable isotope records from Site U1337 correlate highly with Site U1338 records, enabling construction of a high-resolution stack. Initial orbital tuning of the U1337-U1338 records show that the δ18O cyclicity is obliquity driven, indicating high-latitude climate forcing. The LMCIS starts ~7.55 Ma and is anchored in Chron C4n.1n, which is

  7. Calibration of the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Mather, J. C.; Massa, D. L.; Meyer, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite was designed to accurately measure the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) in the frequency range 1-95/cm with an angular resolution of 7 deg. We describe the calibration of this instrument, including the method of obtaining calibration data, reduction of data, the instrument model, fitting the model to the calibration data, and application of the resulting model solution to sky observations. The instrument model fits well for calibration data that resemble sky condition. The method of propagating detector noise through the calibration process to yield a covariance matrix of the calibrated sky data is described. The final uncertainties are variable both in frequency and position, but for a typical calibrated sky 2.6 deg square pixel and 0.7/cm spectral element the random detector noise limit is of order of a few times 10(exp -7) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm for 2-20/cm, and the difference between the sky and the best-fit cosmic blackbody can be measured with a gain uncertainty of less than 3%.

  8. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Storey, James C.; Morfitt, Ron; Knight, Ed; Kvaran, Geir; Lee, Kenton

    2008-01-01

    The primary payload for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is the Operational Land Imager (OLI), being built by Ball Aerospace and Technologies, under contract to NASA. The OLI has spectral bands similar to the Landsat-7 ETM+, minus the thermal band and with two new bands, a 443 nm band and 1375 nm cirrus detection band. On-board calibration systems include two solar diffusers (routine and pristine), a shutter and three sets of internal lamps (routine, backup and pristine). Being a pushbroom opposed to a whiskbroom design of ETM+, the system poses new challenges for characterization and calibration, chief among them being the large focal plane with 75000+ detectors. A comprehensive characterization and calibration plan is in place for the instrument and the data throughout the mission including Ball, NASA and the United States Geological Survey, which will take over operations of LDCM after on-orbit commissioning. Driving radiometric calibration requirements for OLI data include radiance calibration to 5% uncertainty (1 q); reflectance calibration to 3% uncertainty (1 q) and relative (detector-to-detector) calibration to 0.5% (J (r). Driving geometric calibration requirements for OLI include bandto- band registration of 4.5 meters (90% confidence), absolute geodetic accuracy of 65 meters (90% CE) and relative geodetic accuracy of 25 meters (90% CE). Key spectral, spatial and radiometric characterization of the OLI will occur in thermal vacuum at Ball Aerospace. During commissioning the OLI will be characterized and calibrated using celestial (sun, moon, stars) sources and terrestrial sources. The USGS EROS ground processing system will incorporate an image assessment system similar to Landsat-7 for characterization and calibration. This system will have the added benefit that characterization data will be extracted as part of the normal image data processing, so that the characterization data available will be significantly larger than for Landsat-7 ETM+.

  9. Absolute detector-based spectrally tunable radiant source using digital micromirror device and supercontinuum fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Yuquan; Li, Futian

    2017-06-10

    High-accuracy absolute detector-based spectroradiometric calibration techniques traceable to cryogenic absolute radiometers have made progress rapidly in recent decades under the impetus of atmospheric quantitative spectral remote sensing. A high brightness spectrally tunable radiant source using a supercontinuum fiber laser and a digital micromirror device (DMD) has been developed to meet demands of spectroradiometric calibrations for ground-based, aeronautics-based, and aerospace-based remote sensing instruments and spectral simulations of natural scenes such as the sun and atmosphere. Using a supercontinuum fiber laser as a radiant source, the spectral radiance of the spectrally tunable radiant source is 20 times higher than the spectrally tunable radiant source using conventional radiant sources such as tungsten halogen lamps, xenon lamps, or LED lamps, and the stability is better than ±0.3%/h. Using a DMD, the spectrally tunable radiant source possesses two working modes. In narrow-band modes, it is calibrated by an absolute detector, and in broad-band modes, it can calibrate for remote sensing instrument. The uncertainty of the spectral radiance of the spectrally tunable radiant source is estimated at less than 1.87% at 350 nm to 0.85% at 750 nm, and compared to only standard lamp-based calibration, a greater improvement is gained.

  10. Absolute-gravity stations in Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Jaakko; Rasindra, Ravik; Chand, Uttam; Tiwari, Virendra; Lukin, Valery; Anisimov, Michail; Melvaer, Yngve; Melland, Gudmund; Koivula, Hannu; Näränen, Jyri; Poutanen, Markku

    2013-04-01

    Absolute-gravity stations are an important part of the geodetic infrastructure of the Antarctic. They provide accurate starting values for gravity surveys performed e.g. for the determination of the geoid, for geological studies and for geophysical investigations. The time variation in gravity determined from repeated absolute-gravity measurements provides insights into the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and into solid Earth deformation due to variation in contemporary ice load. Given sufficient joint coverage with International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) sites, gravity rates in high latitudes could in principle provide an independent check of the geocentricity of the z-dot (velocities in the direction of the rotation axis of the Earth) of the ITRF. We review the absolute gravity stations in Western and Central Dronning Maud Land. The oldest station is at the Finnish base Aboa, with 5 measurements by the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) starting with the FINNARP 1993 expedition. Measurements at Maitri (India) and Novolazarevskaya (Russia) were first performed in 2004 by the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) of India, and by the FGI, respectively. In the season 2010/11 a new station was constructed at Troll (Norway). In the season 2011/12 the aforementioned four sites were occupied by the FG5-221 absolute gravimeter of the FGI. At Sanae IV (South Africa) there are previous occupations by the FG5-221, in 2003/4 and 2005/6. All these bases have continuous GNSS stations. Numerous supporting measurements have been made at the sites: microgravity networks, levelling and GNSS ties to excentres etc., for controlling the stability of the stations. At some sites, nearby glacier elevations were surveyed to monitor the attraction of the variable close-field snow and ice masses. We give a description of the sites and the measurements performed at them. The work has benefited from the co-operation in the COST Action ES0701 "Improved Constraints on Models

  11. PACS photometer calibration block analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moór, A.; Müller, T. G.; Kiss, C.; Balog, Z.; Billot, N.; Marton, G.

    2014-07-01

    The absolute stability of the PACS bolometer response over the entire mission lifetime without applying any corrections is about 0.5 % (standard deviation) or about 8 % peak-to-peak. This fantastic stability allows us to calibrate all scientific measurements by a fixed and time-independent response file, without using any information from the PACS internal calibration sources. However, the analysis of calibration block observations revealed clear correlations of the internal source signals with the evaporator temperature and a signal drift during the first half hour after the cooler recycling. These effects are small, but can be seen in repeated measurements of standard stars. From our analysis we established corrections for both effects which push the stability of the PACS bolometer response to about 0.2 % (stdev) or 2 % in the blue, 3 % in the green and 5 % in the red channel (peak-to-peak). After both corrections we still see a correlation of the signals with PACS FPU temperatures, possibly caused by parasitic heat influences via the Kevlar wires which connect the bolometers with the PACS Focal Plane Unit. No aging effect or degradation of the photometric system during the mission lifetime has been found.

  12. Absolute gravimetry as an operational tool for geodynamics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torge, W.

    Relative gravimetric techniques have been used for nearly 30 years for measuring non-tidal gravity variations with time, and thus have contributed to geodynamics research by monitoring vertical crustal movements and internal mass shifts. With today's accuracy of about ± 0.05µms-2 (or 5µGal), significant results have been obtained in numerous control nets of local extension, especially in connection with seismic and volcanic events. Nevertheless, the main drawbacks of relative gravimetry, which are deficiencies in absolute datum and calibration, set a limit for its application, especially with respect to large-scale networks and long-term investigations. These problems can now be successfully attacked by absolute gravimetry, with transportable gravimeters available since about 20 years. While the absolute technique during the first two centuries of gravimetry's history was based on the pendulum method, the free-fall method can now be employed taking advantage of laser-interferometry, electronic timing, vacuum and shock absorbing techniques, and on-line computer-control. The accuracy inherent in advanced instruments is about ± 0.05 µms-2. In field work, generally an accuracy of ±0.1 µms-2 may be expected, strongly depending on local environmental conditions.

  13. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  14. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength. [of sun, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.; Rhodes, P. J.; Davis, J. H.; Hollis, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Careful observations have been made at 86.1 GHz to derive the absolute brightness temperatures of the sun (7914 + or - 192 K), Venus (357.5 + or - 13.1 K), Jupiter (179.4 + or - 4.7 K), and Saturn (153.4 + or - 4.8 K) with a standard error of about three percent. This is a significant improvement in accuracy over previous results at millimeter wavelengths. A stable transmitter and novel superheterodyne receiver were constructed and used to determine the effective collecting area of the Millimeter Wave Observatory (MWO) 4.9-m antenna relative to a previously calibrated standard gain horn. The thermal scale was set by calibrating the radiometer with carefully constructed and tested hot and cold loads. The brightness temperatures may be used to establish an absolute calibration scale and to determine the antenna aperture and beam efficiencies of other radio telescopes at 3.5-mm wavelength.

  15. Interlaboratory calibration of atmospheric nitrous oxide measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, R. A.; Pierotti, D.

    1978-01-01

    Samples representative of Northern Hemispheric conditions in mid-1976 were analyzed by 11 laboratories to resolve the question of the absolute tropospheric concentration of nitrous oxide. The laboratories all employed electron capture-gas chromatography for the analysis. After exclusion of one anomalously low determination, the calibration results showed a mean concentration of 323.5 + or - 8.7 ppb v/v nitrous oxide.

  16. Dutch X-band SLAR calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groot, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    In August 1989 the NASA/JPL airborne P/L/C-band DC-8 SAR participated in several remote sensing campaigns in Europe. Amongst other test sites, data were obtained of the Flevopolder test site in the Netherlands on August the 16th. The Dutch X-band SLAR was flown on the same date and imaged parts of the same area as the SAR. To calibrate the two imaging radars a set of 33 calibration devices was deployed. 16 trihedrals were used to calibrate a part of the SLAR data. This short paper outlines the X-band SLAR characteristics, the experimental set-up and the calibration method used to calibrate the SLAR data. Finally some preliminary results are given.

  17. Results of Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer and Infrared Integrating Sphere Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, Ibrahim M; Sengupta, Manajit; Dooraghi, Michael R

    Accurate and traceable atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements are required for understanding radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget. The standard to which pyrgeometers are traceable is the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using Rolf Philipona's Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer [1]. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility has recently adopted the WISG to maintain the traceability of the calibrations of all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers. Subsequently, Julian Grobner [2] developed the infrared interferometer spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda [3] developedmore » the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The ACP and IRIS were developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and they are traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The two instruments were compared directly to the WISG three times at PMOD and twice at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility to WISG-traceable pyrgeometers. The ACP and IRIS agreed within +/- 1 W/m2 to +/- 3 W/m2 in all comparisons, whereas the WISG references exhibit a 2-5 Wm2 low bias compared to the ACP/IRIS average, depending on the water vapor column, as noted in Grobner et al. [4]. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Grobner and Reda. However, during the five comparisons the column water vapor exceeded 8 mm. Therefore, it is recommended that more ACP and IRIS comparisons should be held under different environmental conditions and water vapor column content to better establish the traceability of these instruments to SI with established uncertainty.« less

  18. Correction to Method of Establishing the Absolute Radiometric Accuracy of Remote Sensing Systems While On-orbit Using Characterized Stellar Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Howard S.; Cunningham, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Brief history of related events; 2) Overview of original method used to establish absolute radiometric accuracy of remote sensing instruments using stellar sources; and 3) Considerations to improve the stellar calibration approach.

  19. Results from a U.S. Absolute Gravity Survey,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    National Bureau of Standards. La . ... ,., 831A08 NOV -2- 1. Introduction We have recently completed an absolute gravity survey at twelve sites in the...Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) and the Istituto di Metrologia -7- "G. Colonnetti" (IMGC) [Marson and Alasia, 1978, 19801. All three...for ab- solute measurements of the earth’s gravity, Metrologia , in press, 1982. L 4 !" Table 1. Gravity values transferred to the floor in gal (cm

  20. An integrated approach to monitoring the calibration stability of operational dual-polarization radars

    DOE PAGES

    Vaccarono, Mattia; Bechini, Renzo; Chandrasekar, Chandra V.; ...

    2016-11-08

    The stability of weather radar calibration is a mandatory aspect for quantitative applications, such as rainfall estimation, short-term weather prediction and initialization of numerical atmospheric and hydrological models. Over the years, calibration monitoring techniques based on external sources have been developed, specifically calibration using the Sun and calibration based on ground clutter returns. In this paper, these two techniques are integrated and complemented with a self-consistency procedure and an intercalibration technique. The aim of the integrated approach is to implement a robust method for online monitoring, able to detect significant changes in the radar calibration. The physical consistency of polarimetricmore » radar observables is exploited using the self-consistency approach, based on the expected correspondence between dual-polarization power and phase measurements in rain. This technique allows a reference absolute value to be provided for the radar calibration, from which eventual deviations may be detected using the other procedures. In particular, the ground clutter calibration is implemented on both polarization channels (horizontal and vertical) for each radar scan, allowing the polarimetric variables to be monitored and hardware failures to promptly be recognized. The Sun calibration allows monitoring the calibration and sensitivity of the radar receiver, in addition to the antenna pointing accuracy. It is applied using observations collected during the standard operational scans but requires long integration times (several days) in order to accumulate a sufficient amount of useful data. Finally, an intercalibration technique is developed and performed to compare colocated measurements collected in rain by two radars in overlapping regions. The integrated approach is performed on the C-band weather radar network in northwestern Italy, during July–October 2014. The set of methods considered appears suitable to establish an online

  1. Radiance calibration of the High Altitude Observatory white-light coronagraph on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, A. I.; Macqueen, R. M.; Munro, R. H.; Gosling, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The processing of over 35,000 photographs of the solar corona obtained by the white-light coronograph on Skylab is described. Calibration of the vast amount of data was complicated by temporal effects of radiation fog and latent image loss. These effects were compensated by imaging a calibration step wedge on each data frame. Absolute calibration of the wedge was accomplished through comparison with a set of previously calibrated glass opal filters. Analysis employed average characteristic curves derived from measurements of step wedges from many frames within a given camera half-load. The net absolute accuracy of a given radiance measurement is estimated to be 20%.

  2. Calibration and energy measurement of optically levitated nanoparticle sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebestreit, Erik; Frimmer, Martin; Reimann, René; Dellago, Christoph; Ricci, Francesco; Novotny, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    Optically levitated nanoparticles offer enormous potential for precision sensing. However, as for any other metrology device, the absolute measurement performance of a levitated-particle sensor is limited by the accuracy of the calibration relating the measured signal to an absolute displacement of the particle. Here, we suggest and demonstrate calibration protocols for levitated-nanoparticle sensors. Our calibration procedures include the treatment of anharmonicities in the trapping potential, as well as a protocol using a harmonic driving force, which is applicable if the sensor is coupled to a heat bath of unknown temperature. Finally, using the calibration, we determine the center-of-mass temperature of an optically levitated particle in thermal equilibrium from its motion and discuss the optimal measurement time required to determine the said temperature.

  3. TWSTFT Link Calibration Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    1 Annex II. TWSTFT link calibration with a GPS calibrator Calibration reference: CI-888-2015 Version history: ZJ/V0/25Feb2015, V0a,b/HE/ZJ...7Mar; V0s/VZ9Mar; V0d,e,f+/DM10,17Mar; V1.0/1Apr; Final version 1Sept2015 TWSTFT link calibration report -- Calibration of the Lab(k)-PTB UTC...bipm.org * Coordinator Abstract This report includes the calibration results of the Lab(k)-PTB TWSTFT link and closure measurements of the BIPM

  4. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  5. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  6. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  7. Estimating the absolute wealth of households.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. The median absolute wealth estimates of 1,403,186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723-6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R(2)  = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality.

  8. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  9. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  10. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  11. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  12. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  13. Calibration of the Auger Fluorescence Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klages, H.; Pierre Auger Observatory Collaboration

    Thirty fluorescence telescopes in four stations will overlook the detector array of the southern hemisphere experiment of the Pierre Auger project. The main aim of these telescopes is tracking of EHE air showers, measurement of the longitudinal shower development (Xmax) and determination of the absolute energy of EHE events. A telescope camera contains 440 PMTs each covering a 1.5 x 1.5 degree pixel of the sky. The response of every pixel is converted into the number of charged particles at the observed part of the shower. This reconstruction includes the shower/observer geometry and the details of the atmospheric photon production and transport. The remaining experimental task is to convert the ADC counts of the camera pixel electronics into the light flux entering the Schmidt aperture. Three types of calibration and control are necessary : a) Monitoring of time dependent variations has to be performed for all parts of the optics and for all pixels frequently. Common illumination for all pixels of a camera allows the detection of individual deviations. Properties of windows, filters and mirrors have to be measured separately. b) Differences in pixel-to-pixel efficiency are mainly due to PMT gain and to differences in effective area (camera shadow, mirror size limits). Homogeneous and isotropic illumination will enable cross calibration. c) An absolute calibration has to be performed once in a while using trusted light monitors. The calibration methods used for the Pierre Auger FD telescopes in Argentina are discussed.

  14. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  15. Calibrating an Ionosonde for Ionospheric Attenuation Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gilli, Lorenzo; Sciacca, Umberto; Zuccheretti, Enrico

    2018-05-15

    Vertical ionospheric soundings have been performed at almost all ionospheric observatories with little attention to measuring the attenuation of the signal between transmission and reception. When the absorption has been determined, this has been achieved by comparing the received power after the first and second reflections, but this method has some limitations due to the unknown reflection coefficient of the ground and the non-continuous presence of the second reflection. This paper deals with a different method based on precise calibration of the sounding system, allowing determination of absolute signal attenuation after a single reflection. This approach is affected by a systematic error due to imperfect calibration of the antennas, but when the focus of interest is to measure a trend over a specified period, it is very accurate. The article describes how calibration was implemented, the measurement output formats, and finally it presents some results from a meaningful set of measurements in order to demonstrate what this method can accomplish.

  16. Calibration of quadpolarization SAR data using backscatter statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Jeffrey D.

    1989-01-01

    A new technique is described for calibration of complex multipolarization SAR imagery. Scatterer reciprocity and lack of correlation between like- and cross-polarized radar echoes for natural targets are used to remove cross-polarized contamination in the radar data channels without the use of known ground targets. If known targets are available, all data channels can be calibrated relative to one another and absolutely as well. The method is verified with airborne SAR data.

  17. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N. (Principal Investigator); Palmer, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results obtained for the absolute calibration of TM bands 2, 3, and 4 are presented. The results are based on TM image data collected simultaneously with ground and atmospheric data at White Sands, New Mexico. Also discussed are the results of a moments analysis to determine the equivalent bandpasses, effective central wavelengths and normalized responses of the TM and MSS spectral bands; the calibration of the BaSO, plate used at White Sands; and future plans.

  18. Results from an absolute gravity survey in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Faller, J. E.; Gschwind, J.

    1983-01-01

    Using the recently completed JTLA absolute gravity meter, we made a survey of twelve sites in the United States. Over a period of eight weeks, the instrument was driven a total distance of nearly 20,000 km to sites in California, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Maryland and Massachusetts. The time spent in carrying out a measurement at a single location was typically one day. We report the results of the measurements in this survey along with earlier measurements made with the instrument, discuss the measurement accuracy and compare our results with other measurements. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20480

  19. Results from an absolute gravity survey in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Faller, J. E.; Gschwind, J.

    1983-09-01

    Using the recently completed JTLA absolute gravity meter, we made a survey of twelve sites in the United States. Over a period of eight weeks, the instrument was driven a total distance of nearly 20,000 km to sites in California, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Maryland and Massachusetts. The time spent in carrying out a measurement at a single location was typically one day. We report the results of the measurements in this survey along with earlier measurements made with the instrument, discuss the measurement accuracy and compare our results with other measurements. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20480

  20. Results from a U.S. absolute gravity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Faller, J. E.; Gschwind, J.

    Using the recently completed JILA absolute gravity meter, we made a survey of twelve sites in the United States. Over a period of eight weeks, the instrument was driven a total distance of nearly 20,000 km to sites in California, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Maryland and Massachusetts. The time spent in carrying out a measurement at a single location was typically one day. We report the results of the measurements in this survey along with earlier measurements made with the instrument, discuss the measurement accuracy and compare our results with other measurements.

  1. Absolute configuration of a chiral CHD group via neutron diffraction: confirmation of the absolute stereochemistry of the enzymatic formation of malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, R.; Brewer, I.; Chiang, M.Y.

    Neutron diffraction has been used to monitor the absolute stereochemistry of an enzymatic reaction. (-)(2S)malic-3-d acid was prepared by the action of fumarase on fumaric acid in D/sub 2/O. After a large number of cations were screened, it was found that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylamine forms the large crystals necessary for a neutron diffraction analysis. The subsequent structure determination showed that (+)(R)..cap alpha..-phenylethylammonium (-)(2S)malate-3-d has an absolute configuration of R at the CHD site. This result confirms the absolute stereochemistry of fumarate-to-malate transformation as catalyzed by the enzyme fumarase.

  2. Inertial Sensor Error Reduction through Calibration and Sensor Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Stefan; Nogueira, Samuel L; Bortole, Magdo; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Terra, Marco H; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF) for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two calibration conditions. A simplified calibration, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex calibration, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex calibration always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified calibration. The interaction between filter and calibration suggests that when the quality of the calibration is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex calibration, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking.

  3. Synthesis Polarimetry Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moellenbrock, George

    2017-10-01

    Synthesis instrumental polarization calibration fundamentals for both linear (ALMA) and circular (EVLA) feed bases are reviewed, with special attention to the calibration heuristics supported in CASA. Practical problems affecting modern instruments are also discussed.

  4. PV Calibration Insights | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    PV Calibration Insights PV Calibration Insights The Photovoltaic (PV) Calibration Insights blog will provide updates on the testing done by the NREL PV Device Performance group. This NREL research group measures the performance of any and all technologies and sizes of PV devices from around the world

  5. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  6. The CCD Photometric Calibration Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, J.; Davenhall, A. C.

    This cookbook presents simple recipes for the photometric calibration of CCD frames. Using these recipes you can calibrate the brightness of objects measured in CCD frames into magnitudes in standard photometric systems, such as the Johnson-Morgan UBV, system. The recipes use standard software available at all Starlink sites. The topics covered include: selecting standard stars, measuring instrumental magnitudes and calibrating instrumental magnitudes into a standard system. The recipes are appropriate for use with data acquired with optical CCDs and filters, operated in standard ways, and describe the usual calibration technique of observing standard stars. The software is robust and reliable, but the techniques are usually not suitable where very high accuracy is required. In addition to the recipes and scripts, sufficient background material is presented to explain the procedures and techniques used. The treatment is deliberately practical rather than theoretical, in keeping with the aim of providing advice on the actual calibration of observations. This cookbook is aimed firmly at people who are new to astronomical photometry. Typical readers might have a set of photometric observations to reduce (perhaps observed by a colleague) or be planning a programme of photometric observations, perhaps for the first time. No prior knowledge of astronomical photometry is assumed. The cookbook is not aimed at experts in astronomical photometry. Many finer points are omitted for clarity and brevity. Also, in order to make the most accurate possible calibration of high-precision photometry, it is usually necessary to use bespoke software tailored to the observing programme and photometric system you are using.

  7. Sentinel-2 diffuser on-ground calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazy, E.; Camus, F.; Chorvalli, V.; Domken, I.; Laborie, A.; Marcotte, S.; Stockman, Y.

    2013-10-01

    The Sentinel-2 multi-spectral instrument (MSI) will provide Earth imagery in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative which is a joint undertaking of the European Commission and the Agency. MSI instrument, under Astrium SAS responsibility, is a push-broom spectro imager in 13 spectral channels in VNIR and SWIR. The instrument radiometric calibration is based on in-flight calibration with sunlight through a quasi Lambertian diffuser. The diffuser covers the full pupil and the full field of view of the instrument. The on-ground calibration of the diffuser BRDF is mandatory to fulfil the in-flight performances. The diffuser is a 779 x 278 mm2 rectangular flat area in Zenith-A material. It is mounted on a motorised door in front of the instrument optical system entrance. The diffuser manufacturing and calibration is under the Centre Spatial of Liege (CSL) responsibility. The CSL has designed and built a completely remote controlled BRDF test bench able to handle large diffusers in their mount. As the diffuser is calibrated directly in its mount with respect to a reference cube, the error budget is significantly improved. The BRDF calibration is performed directly in MSI instrument spectral bands by using dedicated band-pass filters (VNIR and SWIR up to 2200 nm). Absolute accuracy is better than 0.5% in VNIR spectral bands and 1% in SWIR spectral bands. Performances were cross checked with other laboratories. The first MSI diffuser for flight model was calibrated mid 2013 on CSL BRDF measurement bench. The calibration of the diffuser consists mainly in thermal vacuum cycles, BRDF uniformity characterisation and BRDF angular characterisation. The total amount of measurement for the first flight model diffuser corresponds to more than 17500 BRDF acquisitions. Performance results are discussed in comparison with requirements.

  8. SUMS calibration test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, G.

    1982-01-01

    Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.

  9. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance. Use good engineering judgment to repeat the calibration. Follow the torque transducer... the U.S. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's surface gravity prediction Web site at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/grav_pdx.prl. If this Web site is unavailable, you may use the...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintenance. Use good engineering judgment to repeat the calibration. Follow the torque transducer... the U.S. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's surface gravity prediction Web site at http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/grav_pdx.prl. If this Web site is unavailable, you may use the...

  11. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  12. Absolute quantification of microbial taxon abundances.

    PubMed

    Props, Ruben; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rubbens, Peter; De Vrieze, Jo; Hernandez Sanabria, Emma; Waegeman, Willem; Monsieurs, Pieter; Hammes, Frederik; Boon, Nico

    2017-02-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing has become a well-established approach for microbial community profiling. Correlating shifts in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa with environmental gradients is the goal of many microbiome surveys. As the abundances generated by this technology are semi-quantitative by definition, the observed dynamics may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon densities. We combined the sequencing approach (16S rRNA gene) with robust single-cell enumeration technologies (flow cytometry) to quantify the absolute taxon abundances. A detailed longitudinal analysis of the absolute abundances resulted in distinct abundance profiles that were less ambiguous and expressed in units that can be directly compared across studies. We further provide evidence that the enrichment of taxa (increase in relative abundance) does not necessarily relate to the outgrowth of taxa (increase in absolute abundance). Our results highlight that both relative and absolute abundances should be considered for a comprehensive biological interpretation of microbiome surveys.

  13. Low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Athena P; Bramson, Brian; van der Horst, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Yusuf; Chasela, Charles; Hosseinipour, Mina; Knight, Rodney; Lugalia, Lebah; Tegha, Gerald; Joaki, George; Jafali, Robert; Jamieson, Denise J

    2005-07-01

    Infants of African origin have a lower normal range of absolute neutrophil counts than white infants; this fact, however, remains under appreciated by clinical researchers in the United States. During the initial stages of a clinical trial in Malawi, the authors noted an unexpectedly high number of infants with absolute neutrophil counts that would be classifiable as neutropenic using the National Institutes of Health's Division of AIDS toxicity tables. The authors argue that the relevant Division of AIDS table does not take into account the available evidence of low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants and that a systematic collection of data from many African settings might help establish the absolute neutrophil count cutpoints to be used for defining neutropenia in African populations.

  14. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  15. Absolute colorimetric characterization of a DSLR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Bianco, Simone; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-03-01

    A simple but effective technique for absolute colorimetric camera characterization is proposed. It offers a large dynamic range requiring just a single, off-the-shelf target and a commonly available controllable light source for the characterization. The characterization task is broken down in two modules, respectively devoted to absolute luminance estimation and to colorimetric characterization matrix estimation. The characterized camera can be effectively used as a tele-colorimeter, giving an absolute estimation of the XYZ data in cd=m2. The user is only required to vary the f - number of the camera lens or the exposure time t, to better exploit the sensor dynamic range. The estimated absolute tristimulus values closely match the values measured by a professional spectro-radiometer.

  16. Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Shott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.; Markham, Brian L.; Radocinski, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Launched in February 2013, the Landsat-8 carries on-board the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a two-band thermal pushbroom imager, to maintain the thermal imaging capability of the Landsat program. The TIRS bands are centered at roughly 10.9 and 12 micrometers (Bands 10 and 11 respectively). They have 100 m spatial resolution and image coincidently with the Operational Land Imager (OLI), also on-board Landsat-8. The TIRS instrument has an internal calibration system consisting of a variable temperature blackbody and a special viewport with which it can see deep space; a two point calibration can be performed twice an orbit. Immediately after launch, a rigorous vicarious calibration program was started to validate the absolute calibration of the system. The two vicarious calibration teams, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), both make use of buoys deployed on large water bodies as the primary monitoring technique. RIT took advantage of cross-calibration opportunity soon after launch when Landsat-8 and Landsat-7 were imaging the same targets within a few minutes of each other to perform a validation of the absolute calibration. Terra MODIS is also being used for regular monitoring of the TIRS absolute calibration. The buoy initial results showed a large error in both bands, 0.29 and 0.51 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or -2.1 K and -4.4 K at 300 K in Band 10 and 11 respectively, where TIRS data was too hot. A calibration update was recommended for both bands to correct for a bias error and was implemented on 3 February 2014 in the USGS/EROS processing system, but the residual variability is still larger than desired for both bands (0.12 and 0.2 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or 0.87 and 1.67 K at 300 K). Additional work has uncovered the source of the calibration error: out-of-field stray light. While analysis continues to characterize the stray light contribution, the vicarious calibration work proceeds. The additional data have

  17. Calibration and characterisation of the Gaia Red Clump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Dern, L.; Babusiaux, C.; Arenou, F.; Danielski, C.; Turon, C.; Sartoretti, P.

    2018-04-01

    We present new empirical Colour-Colour and Effective Temperature-Colour Gaia Red Clump calibrations. The selected sample takes into account high photometric quality, good spectrometric metallicity, homogeneous effective temperatures and low interstellar extinctions. From those calibrations we developed a method to derive the absolute magnitude, temperature and extinction of the Gaia RC. We tested our colour and extinction estimates on stars with measured spectroscopic effective temperatures and Diffuse Interstellar Band (DIB) constraints. Within the Gaia Validation team these calibrations are also being used, together with asteroseismic constraints, to check the parallax zero-point with Red Clump stars.

  18. A distance-independent calibration of the luminosity of type Ia supernovae and the Hubble constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibundgut, Bruno; Pinto, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    The absolute magnitude of SNe Ia at maximum is calibrated here using radioactive decay models for the light curve and a minimum of assumptions. The absolute magnitude parameter space is studied using explosion models and a range of rise times, and absolute B magnitudes at maximum are used to derive a range of the H0 and the distance to the Virgo Cluster from SNe Ia. Rigorous limits for H0 of 45 and 105 km/s/Mpc are derived.

  19. 40 CFR 92.120 - NDIR analyzer calibration and checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....120 NDIR analyzer calibration and checks. (a) NDIR water rejection ratio check. (1) Zero and span the analyzer on the lowest range that will be used. (2) Introduce a saturated mixture of water and zero gas at...) in absolute units in Pascal. Gauges G3 and G4 may be used if the values are converted to the correct...

  20. 40 CFR 92.120 - NDIR analyzer calibration and checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....120 NDIR analyzer calibration and checks. (a) NDIR water rejection ratio check. (1) Zero and span the analyzer on the lowest range that will be used. (2) Introduce a saturated mixture of water and zero gas at...) in absolute units in Pascal. Gauges G3 and G4 may be used if the values are converted to the correct...

  1. 40 CFR 92.120 - NDIR analyzer calibration and checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....120 NDIR analyzer calibration and checks. (a) NDIR water rejection ratio check. (1) Zero and span the analyzer on the lowest range that will be used. (2) Introduce a saturated mixture of water and zero gas at...) in absolute units in Pascal. Gauges G3 and G4 may be used if the values are converted to the correct...

  2. 40 CFR 92.120 - NDIR analyzer calibration and checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....120 NDIR analyzer calibration and checks. (a) NDIR water rejection ratio check. (1) Zero and span the analyzer on the lowest range that will be used. (2) Introduce a saturated mixture of water and zero gas at...) in absolute units in Pascal. Gauges G3 and G4 may be used if the values are converted to the correct...

  3. 40 CFR 92.120 - NDIR analyzer calibration and checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....120 NDIR analyzer calibration and checks. (a) NDIR water rejection ratio check. (1) Zero and span the analyzer on the lowest range that will be used. (2) Introduce a saturated mixture of water and zero gas at...) in absolute units in Pascal. Gauges G3 and G4 may be used if the values are converted to the correct...

  4. A Spectralon BRF Data Base for MISR Calibration Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, C.; Chrien, N.; Haner, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is an Earth observing sensor which will provide global retrievals of aerosols, clouds, and land surface parameters. Instrument specifications require high accuracy absolute calibration, as well as accurate camera-to-camera, band-to-band and pixel-to-pixel relative response determinations.

  5. 40 CFR 86.1319-90 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with such a device.) The CVS calibration procedures are designed for use of a “metering venturi” type... series with the pump. (ii) The calculated flow rate, ft 3/min, (at pump inlet absolute pressure and... during test period N Revs ±1 Rev. Elapsed time for test period t sec. ±0.5 sec. (5) After the system has...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1319-90 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with such a device.) The CVS calibration procedures are designed for use of a “metering venturi” type... series with the pump. (ii) The calculated flow rate, ft 3/min, (at pump inlet absolute pressure and... test period N Revs ±1 Rev. Elapsed time for test period t sec. ±0.5 sec. (5) After the system has been...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1319-90 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with such a device.) The CVS calibration procedures are designed for use of a “metering venturi” type... series with the pump. (ii) The calculated flow rate, ft 3/min, (at pump inlet absolute pressure and... during test period N Revs ±1 Rev. Elapsed time for test period t sec. ±0.5 sec. (5) After the system has...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1319-90 - CVS calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with such a device.) The CVS calibration procedures are designed for use of a “metering venturi” type... series with the pump. (ii) The calculated flow rate, ft 3/min, (at pump inlet absolute pressure and... test period N Revs ±1 Rev. Elapsed time for test period t sec. ±0.5 sec. (5) After the system has been...

  9. Debiased estimates for NEO orbits, absolute magnitudes, and source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce T.; Bottke, William; Beshore, Edward C.; Vokrouhlicky, David; Nesvorny, David; Michel, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    The debiased absolute-magnitude and orbit distributions as well as source regions for near-Earth objects (NEOs) provide a fundamental frame of reference for studies on individual NEOs as well as on more complex population-level questions. We present a new four-dimensional model of the NEO population that describes debiased steady-state distributions of semimajor axis (a), eccentricity (e), inclination (i), and absolute magnitude (H). We calibrate the model using NEO detections by the 703 and G96 stations of the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) during 2005-2012 corresponding to objects with 17absolute sense using the biases computed for CSS (Jedicke et al. 2016, Icarus 266, 173). The model makes use of six source regions or escape routes from the main asteroid belt as identified by Granvik et al. (2017, A&A 598, A52) in addition to Jupiter-family comets: Hungaria and Phocaea asteroids, and main-belt asteroids escaping through the ν6, 3:1J, 5:2J and 2:1J resonance complexes. We account for the destruction of asteroids with small perihelion distances (Granvik et al. 2016, Nature 530, 303) by fitting a penalty function in perihelion distance. Our model accurately reproduces the observed distribution of NEOs and the predicted numbers, particularly for the larger NEOs, are in agreement with other contemporary estimates. Our model also provides updated estimates for the likelihood of the various source regions and escape routes as a function of NEO (a,e,i,H) parameters. We present the model and its predictions, and discuss them in the context of other contemporary estimates.

  10. Absolute dose calculations for Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I. A.; Shaw, C. P.; Zavgorodni, S. F.; Beckham, W. A.

    2005-07-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have traditionally been used for single field relative comparisons with experimental data or commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). However, clinical treatment plans commonly involve more than one field. Since the contribution of each field must be accurately quantified, multiple field MC simulations are only possible by employing absolute dosimetry. Therefore, we have developed a rigorous calibration method that allows the incorporation of monitor units (MU) in MC simulations. This absolute dosimetry formalism can be easily implemented by any BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc user, and applies to any configuration of open and blocked fields, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Our approach involves the relationship between the dose scored in the monitor ionization chamber of a radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac), the number of initial particles incident on the target, and the field size. We found that for a 10 × 10 cm2 field of a 6 MV photon beam, 1 MU corresponds, in our model, to 8.129 × 1013 ± 1.0% electrons incident on the target and a total dose of 20.87 cGy ± 1.0% in the monitor chambers of the virtual linac. We present an extensive experimental verification of our MC results for open and intensity-modulated fields, including a dynamic 7-field IMRT plan simulated on the CT data sets of a cylindrical phantom and of a Rando anthropomorphic phantom, which were validated by measurements using ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with experiment, with percentage differences of less than 2%, in general, demonstrating the accuracy of our Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations.

  11. Absolute dose calculations for Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams.

    PubMed

    Popescu, I A; Shaw, C P; Zavgorodni, S F; Beckham, W A

    2005-07-21

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have traditionally been used for single field relative comparisons with experimental data or commercial treatment planning systems (TPS). However, clinical treatment plans commonly involve more than one field. Since the contribution of each field must be accurately quantified, multiple field MC simulations are only possible by employing absolute dosimetry. Therefore, we have developed a rigorous calibration method that allows the incorporation of monitor units (MU) in MC simulations. This absolute dosimetry formalism can be easily implemented by any BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc user, and applies to any configuration of open and blocked fields, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Our approach involves the relationship between the dose scored in the monitor ionization chamber of a radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac), the number of initial particles incident on the target, and the field size. We found that for a 10 x 10 cm2 field of a 6 MV photon beam, 1 MU corresponds, in our model, to 8.129 x 10(13) +/- 1.0% electrons incident on the target and a total dose of 20.87 cGy +/- 1.0% in the monitor chambers of the virtual linac. We present an extensive experimental verification of our MC results for open and intensity-modulated fields, including a dynamic 7-field IMRT plan simulated on the CT data sets of a cylindrical phantom and of a Rando anthropomorphic phantom, which were validated by measurements using ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Our simulation results are in excellent agreement with experiment, with percentage differences of less than 2%, in general, demonstrating the accuracy of our Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations.

  12. Vicarious Calibration of EO-1 Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurt; Lawrence, Ong

    2012-01-01

    The Hyperion imaging spectrometer on the Earth Observing-1 satellite is the first high-spatial resolution imaging spectrometer to routinely acquire science-grade data from orbit. Data gathered with this instrument needs to be quantitative and accurate in order to derive meaningful information about ecosystem properties and processes. Also, comprehensive and long-term ecological studies require these data to be comparable over time, between coexisting sensors and between generations of follow-on sensors. One method to assess the radiometric calibration is the reflectance-based approach, a common technique used for several other earth science sensors covering similar spectral regions. This work presents results of radiometric calibration of Hyperion based on the reflectance-based approach of vicarious calibration implemented by University of Arizona during 2001 2005. These results show repeatability to the 2% level and accuracy on the 3 5% level for spectral regions not affected by strong atmospheric absorption. Knowledge of the stability of the Hyperion calibration from moon observations allows for an average absolute calibration based on the reflectance-based results to be determined and applicable for the lifetime of Hyperion.

  13. Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect

    Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der

    2013-01-15

    optimal balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.« less

  14. OARE flight maneuvers and calibration measurements on STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.; Larman, Kevin T.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), which has flown on STS-40, STS-50, and STS-58, contains a three axis accelerometer with a single, nonpendulous, electrostatically suspended proofmass which can resolve accelerations to the nano-g level. The experiment also contains a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale factor calibration. This on-orbit calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty of ground-based calibrations encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the orbiter, thus providing absolute acceleration measurement accuracy heretofore unachievable. This is the first time accelerometer scale factor measurements have been performed on orbit. A detailed analysis of the calibration process is given along with results of the calibration factors from the on-orbit OARE flight measurements on STS-58. In addition, the analysis of OARE flight maneuver data used to validate the scale factor measurements in the sensor's most sensitive range is also presented. Estimates on calibration uncertainties are discussed. This provides bounds on the STS-58 absolute acceleration measurements for future applications.

  15. Forty-Year Calibrated Record of Earth-Surface Reflected Radiance from Landsat: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Helder, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    system to which the radiometric scale was extended. The limited and broken use of the Landsat-4 TM made this analysis more difficult. Eight-day separated image pairs from Landsat-5 combined with analysis of pseudo invariant sites established this history. The fourth and most challenging effort was making the Landsat-1 to -5 MSS sensors' data internally radiometrically consistent. This effort was particularly complicated by the age of the MSS data, varying formats and processing levels in the archive, limited datasets, and limited documentation available. Ultimately, pseudo-invariant sites were identified in North America and used for this effort. Note that most of the Landsat-MSS archived data had already been calibrated using the MSS internal calibrators, so this processing was imbedded in the result. The final effort was developing an absolute scale for Landsat MSS similar to what was already established for the "TM" sensors. This was accomplished by using simultaneous data from Landsat-5 MSS and Landsat-5 TM, accounting for spectral differences between the sensors using EO-1 Hyperion data. The recalibrated history of the Landsat data and implications to users are discussed. The key result from this work is a consistently calibrated Landsat data archive that spans nearly 40 years with total uncertainties on the order of 10% or less for most sensors and bands.

  16. Laser-induced incandescence calibration via gravimetric sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Vander Wal, R. L.; Zhou, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute calibration of laser-induced incandescence (LII) is demonstrated via comparison of LII signal intensities with gravimetrically determined soot volume fractions. This calibration technique does not rely upon calculated or measured optical characteristics of soot. The variation of the LII signal with gravimetrically measured soot volume fractions ranging from 0.078 to 1.1 ppm established the linearly of the calibration. With the high spatial and temporal resolution capabilities of laser-induced incandescence (LII), the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the soot field within a gravimetric chimney were characterized. Radial uniformity of the soot volume fraction, f(sub v) was demonstrated with sufficient averaging of the single laser-shot LII images of the soot field thus confirming the validity of the calibration method for imaging applications. As illustration, instantaneous soot volume fractions within a Re = 5000 ethylene/air diffusion flame measured via planar LII were established quantitatively with this calibration.

  17. Radiometric Calibration of the NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of absolute calibration of the quantum efficiency of soft x-ray detectors performed at the PTB/BESSY beam lines. The accuracy goal is 1%. We discuss the implementation of that goal. These detectors were used as transfer standards to provide the radiometric calibration of the AXAF X-ray observatory, to be launched in April 1999.

  18. On the prospects of cross-calibrating the Cherenkov Telescope Array with an airborne calibration platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Anthony M.

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology have made UAVs an attractive possibility as an airborne calibration platform for astronomical facilities. This is especially true for arrays of telescopes spread over a large area such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In this paper, the feasibility of using UAVs to calibrate CTA is investigated. Assuming a UAV at 1km altitude above CTA, operating on astronomically clear nights with stratified, low atmospheric dust content, appropriate thermal protection for the calibration light source and an onboard photodiode to monitor its absolute light intensity, inter-calibration of CTA's telescopes of the same size class is found to be achievable with a 6 - 8 % uncertainty. For cross-calibration of different telescope size classes, a systematic uncertainty of 8 - 10 % is found to be achievable. Importantly, equipping the UAV with a multi-wavelength calibration light source affords us the ability to monitor the wavelength-dependent degradation of CTA telescopes' optical system, allowing us to not only maintain this 6 - 10 % uncertainty after the first few years of telescope deployment, but also to accurately account for the effect of multi-wavelength degradation on the cross-calibration of CTA by other techniques, namely with images of air showers and local muons. A UAV-based system thus provides CTA with several independent and complementary methods of cross-calibrating the optical throughput of individual telescopes. Furthermore, housing environmental sensors on the UAV system allows us to not only minimise the systematic uncertainty associated with the atmospheric transmission of the calibration signal, it also allows us to map the dust content above CTA as well as monitor the temperature, humidity and pressure profiles of the first kilometre of atmosphere above CTA with each UAV flight.

  19. Simple transfer calibration method for a Cimel Sun-Moon photometer: calculating lunar calibration coefficients from Sun calibration constants.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Kaitao; Li, Donghui; Yang, Jiuchun; Xu, Hua; Goloub, Philippe; Victori, Stephane

    2016-09-20

    The Cimel new technologies allow both daytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Although the daytime AOD calibration protocols are well established, accurate and simple nighttime calibration is still a challenging task. Standard lunar-Langley and intercomparison calibration methods both require specific conditions in terms of atmospheric stability and site condition. Additionally, the lunar irradiance model also has some known limits on its uncertainty. This paper presents a simple calibration method that transfers the direct-Sun calibration constant, V0,Sun, to the lunar irradiance calibration coefficient, CMoon. Our approach is a pure calculation method, independent of site limits, e.g., Moon phase. The method is also not affected by the lunar irradiance model limitations, which is the largest error source of traditional calibration methods. Besides, this new transfer calibration approach is easy to use in the field since CMoon can be obtained directly once V0,Sun is known. Error analysis suggests that the average uncertainty of CMoon over the 440-1640 nm bands obtained with the transfer method is 2.4%-2.8%, depending on the V0,Sun approach (Langley or intercomparison), which is comparable with that of lunar-Langley approach, theoretically. In this paper, the Sun-Moon transfer and the Langley methods are compared based on site measurements in Beijing, and the day-night measurement continuity and performance are analyzed.

  20. SAR calibration technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. L.; Larson, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) calibration technology including a general description of the primary calibration techniques and some of the factors which affect the performance of calibrated SAR systems are reviewed. The use of reference reflectors for measurement of the total system transfer function along with an on-board calibration signal generator for monitoring the temporal variations of the receiver to processor output is a practical approach for SAR calibration. However, preliminary error analysis and previous experimental measurements indicate that reflectivity measurement accuracies of better than 3 dB will be difficult to achieve. This is not adequate for many applications and, therefore, improved end-to-end SAR calibration techniques are required.

  1. Georgia Long-Term Pavement Performance (GALTPP) Program – Maintaining Georgia’s Calibration Sites and Identifying the Potential for Using MEPDG for Characterization of Non-Standard Materials and Methods (Phase 1)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) has initiated a Georgia Long-Term Pavement Performance (GALTPP) monitoring program 1) to provide data for calibrating the prediction models in the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEP...

  2. Anatomical calibration for wearable motion capture systems: Video calibrated anatomical system technique.

    PubMed

    Bisi, Maria Cristina; Stagni, Rita; Caroselli, Alessio; Cappello, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    Inertial sensors are becoming widely used for the assessment of human movement in both clinical and research applications, thanks to their usability out of the laboratory. This work aims to propose a method for calibrating anatomical landmark position in the wearable sensor reference frame with an ease to use, portable and low cost device. An off-the-shelf camera, a stick and a pattern, attached to the inertial sensor, compose the device. The proposed technique is referred to as video Calibrated Anatomical System Technique (vCAST). The absolute orientation of a synthetic femur was tracked both using the vCAST together with an inertial sensor and using stereo-photogrammetry as reference. Anatomical landmark calibration showed mean absolute error of 0.6±0.5 mm: these errors are smaller than those affecting the in-vivo identification of anatomical landmarks. The roll, pitch and yaw anatomical frame orientations showed root mean square errors close to the accuracy limit of the wearable sensor used (1°), highlighting the reliability of the proposed technique. In conclusion, the present paper proposes and preliminarily verifies the performance of a method (vCAST) for calibrating anatomical landmark position in the wearable sensor reference frame: the technique is low time consuming, highly portable, easy to implement and usable outside laboratory. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Absolute Two-Photon Absorption Coefficients in UltraViolet Window Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    fvtt* tld » II ntctHB,-y md Idtnlll’ by block number; The absolute two-photon absorption coefficiehts of u. v. transmitting materials have been...measured using well-calibrated single picosecond pulses, at the third and fourth harmonic of a mode locked Nd:YAG laser systems. Twc photon...30, 1977. Work in the area of laser induced breakdown and multiphoton absorption in ultraviolet and infrared laser window materials was carried

  4. Coda Calibration Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Addair, Travis; Barno, Justin; Dodge, Doug

    CCT is a Java based application for calibrating 10 shear wave coda measurement models to observed data using a much smaller set of reference moment magnitudes (MWs) calculated from other means (waveform modeling, etc.). These calibrated measurement models can then be used in other tools to generate coda moment magnitude measurements, source spectra, estimated stress drop, and other useful measurements for any additional events and any new data collected in the calibrated region.

  5. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  6. Planck 2013 results. VIII. HFI photometric calibration and mapmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Maurin, L.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Techene, S.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the methods used to produce photometrically calibrated maps from the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) cleaned, time-ordered information. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To obtain the best calibration accuracy over such a large range, two different photometric calibration schemes have to be used. The 545 and 857 GHz data are calibrated by comparing flux-density measurements of Uranus and Neptune with models of their atmospheric emission. The lower frequencies (below 353 GHz) are calibrated using the solar dipole. A component of this anisotropy is time-variable, owing to the orbital motion of the satellite in the solar system. Photometric calibration is thus tightly linked to mapmaking, which also addresses low-frequency noise removal. By comparing observations taken more than one year apart in the same configuration, we have identified apparent gain variations with time. These variations are induced by non-linearities in the read-out electronics chain. We have developed an effective correction to limit their effect on calibration. We present several methods to estimate the precision of the photometric calibration. We distinguish relative uncertainties (between detectors, or between frequencies) and absolute uncertainties. Absolute uncertainties lie in the range from 0.54% to 10% from 100 to 857 GHz. We describe the pipeline used to produce the maps from the HFI timelines, based on the photometric calibration parameters, and the scheme used to set the zero level of the maps a posteriori. We also discuss the cross-calibration between HFI and the SPIRE instrument on board Herschel. Finally we summarize the basic characteristics of the set of HFI maps included in the 2013 Planck data release.

  7. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  8. P and S wave Coda Calibration in Central Asia and South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Mayeda, K.; Gok, R.; Barno, J.; Roman-Nieves, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    Empirically derived coda source spectra provide unbiased, absolute moment magnitude (Mw) estimates for events that are normally too small for accurate long-period waveform modeling. In this study, we obtain coda-derived source spectra using data from Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan networks - KN and KR, and Tajikistan - TJ) and South Korea (Korea Meteorological Administration, KMA). We used a recently developed coda calibration module of Seismic WaveForm Tool (SWFT). Seismic activities during this recording period include the recent Gyeongju earthquake of Mw=5.3 and its aftershocks, two nuclear explosions from 2009 and 2013 in North Korea, and a small number of construction and mining-related explosions. For calibration, we calculated synthetic coda envelopes for both P and S waves based on a simple analytic expression that fits the observed narrowband filtered envelopes using the method outlined in Mayeda et al. (2003). To provide an absolute scale of the resulting source spectra, path and site corrections are applied using independent spectral constraints (e.g., Mw and stress drop) from three Kyrgyzstan events and the largest events of the Gyeongju sequence in Central Asia and South Korea, respectively. In spite of major tectonic differences, stable source spectra were obtained in both regions. We validated the resulting spectra by comparing the ratio of raw envelopes and source spectra from calibrated envelopes. Spectral shapes of earthquakes and explosions show different patterns in both regions. We also find (1) the source spectra derived from S-coda is more robust than that from the P-coda at low frequencies; (2) unlike earthquake events, the source spectra of explosions have a large disagreement between P and S waves; and (3) similarity is observed between 2016 Gyeongju and 2011 Virginia earthquake sequence in the eastern U.S.

  9. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  10. The Absolute Vector Magnetometers on Board Swarm, Lessons Learned From Two Years in Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulot, G.; Leger, J. M.; Vigneron, P.; Brocco, L.; Olsen, N.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Fratter, I.; Sirol, O.; Lalanne, X.

    2015-12-01

    ESA's Swarm satellites carry 4He absolute magnetometers (ASM), designed by CEA-Léti and developed in partnership with CNES. These instruments are the first-ever space-born magnetometers to use a common sensor to simultaneously deliver 1Hz independent absolute scalar and vector readings of the magnetic field. They have provided the very high accuracy scalar field data nominally required by the mission (for both science and calibration purposes, since each satellite also carries a low noise high frequency fluxgate magnetometer designed by DTU), but also very useful experimental absolute vector data. In this presentation, we will report on the status of the instruments, as well as on the various tests and investigations carried out using these experimental data since launch in November 2013. In particular, we will illustrate the advantages of flying ASM instruments on space-born magnetic missions for nominal data quality checks, geomagnetic field modeling and science objectives.

  11. Aircraft electric field measurements: Calibration and ambient field retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Bailey, Jeff; Christian, Hugh J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    An aircraft locally distorts the ambient thundercloud electric field. In order to determine the field in the absence of the aircraft, an aircraft calibration is required. In this work a matrix inversion method is introduced for calibrating an aircraft equipped with four or more electric field sensors and a high-voltage corona point that is capable of charging the aircraft. An analytic, closed form solution for the estimate of a (3 x 3) aircraft calibration matrix is derived, and an absolute calibration experiment is used to improve the relative magnitudes of the elements of this matrix. To demonstrate the calibration procedure, we analyze actual calibration date derived from a Lear jet 28/29 that was equipped with five shutter-type field mill sensors (each with sensitivities of better than 1 V/m) located on the top, bottom, port, starboard, and aft positions. As a test of the calibration method, we analyze computer-simulated calibration data (derived from known aircraft and ambient fields) and explicitly determine the errors involved in deriving the variety of calibration matrices. We extend our formalism to arrive at an analytic solution for the ambient field, and again carry all errors explicitly.

  12. New tests of the common calibration context for ISO, IRTS, and MSX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin

    1997-01-01

    The work carried out in order to test, verify and validate the accuracy of the calibration spectra provided to the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), to the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) and to the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) for external calibration support of instruments, is reviewed. The techniques, used to vindicate the accuracy of the absolute spectra, are discussed. The work planned for comparing far infrared spectra of Mars and some of the bright stellar calibrators with long wavelength spectrometer data are summarized.

  13. Spatial resolution study and power calibration of the high-k scattering system on NSTX.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Park, H K; Cho, M H; Namkung, W; Smith, D R; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C

    2008-10-01

    NSTX high-k scattering system has been extensively utilized in studying the microturbulence and coherent waves. An absolute calibration of the scattering system was performed employing a new millimeter-wave source and calibrated attenuators. One of the key parameters essential for the calibration of the multichannel scattering system is the interaction length. This interaction length is significantly different from the conventional one due to the curvature and magnetic shear effect.

  14. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com; Chapman, S., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude ofmore » the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.« less

  15. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Development and validation of a cerebral oximeter capable of absolute accuracy.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, David B; Ikeda, Keita; Vacchiano, Charles; Lobbestael, Aaron; Wahr, Joyce A; Shaw, Andrew D

    2012-12-01

    Cerebral oximetry may be a valuable monitor, but few validation data are available, and most report the change from baseline rather than absolute accuracy, which may be affected by individuals whose oximetric values are outside the expected range. The authors sought to develop and validate a cerebral oximeter capable of absolute accuracy. An in vivo research study. A university human physiology laboratory. Healthy human volunteers were enrolled in calibration and validation studies of 2 cerebral oximetric sensors, the Nonin 8000CA and 8004CA. The 8000CA validation study identified 5 individuals with atypical cerebral oxygenation values; their data were used to design the 8004CA sensor, which subsequently underwent calibration and validation. Volunteers were taken through a stepwise hypoxia protocol to a minimum saturation of peripheral oxygen. Arteriovenous saturation (70% jugular bulb venous saturation and 30% arterial saturation) at 6 hypoxic plateaus was used as the reference value for the cerebral oximeter. Absolute accuracy was defined using a combination of the bias and precision of the paired saturations (A(RMS)). In the validation study for the 8000CA sensor (n = 9, 106 plateaus), relative accuracy was an A(RMS) of 2.7, with an absolute accuracy of 8.1, meeting the criteria for a relative (trend) monitor, but not an absolute monitor. In the validation study for the 8004CA sensor (n = 11, 119 plateaus), the A(RMS) of the 8004CA was 4.1, meeting the prespecified success criterion of <5.0. The Nonin cerebral oximeter using the 8004CA sensor can provide absolute data on regional cerebral saturation compared with arteriovenous saturation, even in subjects previously shown to have values outside the normal population distribution curves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  18. Comparison of Two Methodologies for Calibrating Satellite Instruments in the Visible and Near Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Brown, Steven W.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Butler, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite instruments that measure Earth-reflected solar radiation in the visible and near infrared wavelength regions have been calibrated for radiance response in a two-step method. In the first step, the spectral response of the instrument is determined using a nearly monochromatic light source, such a lamp-illuminated monochromator. Such sources only provide a relative spectral response (RSR) for the instrument, since they do not act as calibrated sources of light nor do they typically fill the field-of-view of the instrument. In the second step, the instrument views a calibrated source of broadband light, such as lamp-illuminated integrating sphere. In the traditional method, the RSR and the sphere spectral radiance are combined and, with the instrument's response, determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the instrument. More recently, an absolute calibration system using widely tunable monochromatic laser systems has been developed, Using these sources, the absolute spectral responsivity (ASR) of an instrument can be determined on a wavelength-hy-wavelength basis. From these monochromatic ASRs. the responses of the instrument bands to broadband radiance sources can be calculated directly, eliminating the need for calibrated broadband light sources such as integrating spheres. Here we describe the laser-based calibration and the traditional broad-band source-based calibration of the NPP VIIRS sensor, and compare the derived calibration coefficients for the instrument. Finally, we evaluate the impact of the new calibration approach on the on-orbit performance of the sensor.

  19. Photogrammetric camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.; Ziemann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Section 2 (Calibration) of the document "Recommended Procedures for Calibrating Photogrammetric Cameras and Related Optical Tests" from the International Archives of Photogrammetry, Vol. XIII, Part 4, is reviewed in the light of recent practical work, and suggestions for changes are made. These suggestions are intended as a basis for a further discussion. ?? 1984.

  20. OLI Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Morfitt, Ron; Kvaran, Geir; Biggar, Stuart; Leisso, Nathan; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Goals: (1) Present an overview of the pre-launch radiance, reflectance & uniformity calibration of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) (1a) Transfer to orbit/heliostat (1b) Linearity (2) Discuss on-orbit plans for radiance, reflectance and uniformity calibration of the OLI

  1. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 4; 1.2-35um Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars, Beta Peg, Delta Boo, Beta And, Beta Gem, and Delta Hya, augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for a Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  2. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. Part 4; 1.2 - 35 microns Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars- beta Peg, alpha Boo, beta And, beta Gem, and alpha Hya-augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for alpha Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  3. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. Part 4; 1.2-35 micrometer Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell, G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    Five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns are presented. The spectra were constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars (beta Peg, alpha Boo, beta And, beta Gem, and alpha Hya) augment the author's already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for alpha Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  4. Energy calibration of the fly's eye detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    The methods used to calibrate the Fly's eye detector to evaluate the energy of EAS are discussed. The energy of extensive air showers (EAS) as seen by the Fly's Eye detector are obtained from track length integrals of observed shower development curves. The energy of the parent cosmic ray primary is estimated by applying corrections to account for undetected energy in the muon, neutrino and hadronic channels. Absolute values for E depend upon the measurement of shower sizes N sub e(x). The following items are necessary to convert apparent optical brightness into intrinsical optical brightness: (1) an assessment of those factors responsible for light production by the relativistic electrons in an EAS and the transmission of light thru the atmosphere, (2) calibration of the optical detection system, and (3) a knowledge of the trajectory of the shower.

  5. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  6. HST/WFC3 flux calibration ladder: Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deustua, Susana E.; Bohlin, Ralph; Pirzkal, Nor; MacKenty, John

    2014-08-01

    Vega is one of only a few stars calibrated against an SI-traceable blackbody, and is the historical flux standard. Photometric zeropoints of the Hubble Space Telescope's instruments rely on Vega, through the transfer of its calibration via stellar atmosphere models to the suite of standard stars. HST's recently implemented scan mode has enabled us to develop a path to an absolute SI traceable calibration for HST IR observations. To fill in the crucial gap between 0.9 and 1.7 micron in the absolute calibration, we acquired -1st order spectra of Vega with the two WFC3 infrared grisms. At the same time, we have improved the calibration of the -1st orders of both WFC3 IR grisms, as well as extended the dynamic range of WFC3 science observations by a factor of 10000. We describe our progress to date on the WFC3 `flux calibration ladder' project to provide currently needed accurate zeropoint measurements in the IR

  7. Calibrating Historical IR Sensors Using GEO, and AVHRR Infrared Tropical Mean Calibration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarino, Benjamin; Doelling, David R.; Minnis, Patrick; Gopalan, Arun; Haney, Conor; Bhatt, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Long-term, remote-sensing-based climate data records (CDRs) are highly dependent on having consistent, wellcalibrated satellite instrument measurements of the Earth's radiant energy. Therefore, by making historical satellite calibrations consistent with those of today's imagers, the Earth-observing community can benefit from a CDR that spans a minimum of 30 years. Most operational meteorological satellites rely on an onboard blackbody and space looks to provide on-orbit IR calibration, but neither target is traceable to absolute standards. The IR channels can also be affected by ice on the detector window, angle dependency of the scan mirror emissivity, stray-light, and detector-to-detector striping. Being able to quantify and correct such degradations would mean IR data from any satellite imager could contribute to a CDR. Recent efforts have focused on utilizing well-calibrated modern hyper-spectral sensors to intercalibrate concurrent operational IR imagers to a single reference. In order to consistently calibrate both historical and current IR imagers to the same reference, however, another strategy is needed. Large, well-characterized tropical-domain Earth targets have the potential of providing an Earth-view reference accuracy of within 0.5 K. To that effort, NASA Langley is developing an IR tropical mean calibration model in order to calibrate historical Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments. Using Meteosat-9 (Met-9) as a reference, empirical models are built based on spatially/temporally binned Met-9 and AVHRR tropical IR brightness temperatures. By demonstrating the stability of the Met-9 tropical models, NOAA-18 AVHRR can be calibrated to Met-9 by matching the AVHRR monthly histogram averages with the Met-9 model. This method is validated with ray-matched AVHRR and Met-9 biasdifference time series. Establishing the validity of this empirical model will allow for the calibration of historical AVHRR sensors to within 0.5 K, and thereby

  8. Landsat-7 ETM+ Radiometric Calibration Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Helder, Dennis L.; Hook, Simon J.; Schott, John R; Haque, Md. Obaidul

    2016-01-01

    Now in its 17th year of operation, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+), on board the Landsat-7 satellite, continues to systematically acquire imagery of the Earth to add to the 40+ year archive of Landsat data. Characterization of the ETM+ on-orbit radiometric performance has been on-going since its launch in 1999. The radiometric calibration of the reflective bands is still monitored using on-board calibration devices, though the Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) method has proven to be an effect tool as well. The calibration gains were updated in April 2013 based primarily on PICS results, which corrected for a change of as much as -0.2%/year degradation in the worst case bands. A new comparison with the SADE database of PICS results indicates no additional degradation in the updated calibration. PICS data are still being tracked though the recent trends are not well understood. The thermal band calibration was updated last in October 2013 based on a continued calibration effort by NASA/Jet Propulsion Lab and Rochester Institute of Technology. The update accounted for a 0.31 W/sq m/ sr/micron bias error. The updated lifetime trend is now stable to within + 0.4K.

  9. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibration status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Czapla-Myers, J. S.; Helder, Dennis L.; Hook, Simon; Schott, John R.; Haque, Md. Obaidul

    2016-01-01

    Now in its 17th year of operation, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM+), on board the Landsat-7 satellite, continues to systematically acquire imagery of the Earth to add to the 40+ year archive of Landsat data. Characterization of the ETM+ on-orbit radiometric performance has been on-going since its launch in 1999. The radiometric calibration of the reflective bands is still monitored using on-board calibration devices, though the Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) method has proven to be an effective tool as well. The calibration gains were updated in April 2013 based primarily on PICS results, which corrected for a change of as much as -0.2%/year degradation in the worst case bands. A new comparison with the SADE database of PICS results indicates no additional degradation in the updated calibration. PICS data are still being tracked though the recent trends are not well understood. The thermal band calibration was updated last in October 2013 based on a continued calibration effort by NASA/Jet Propulsion Lab and Rochester Institute of Technology. The update accounted for a 0.036 W/m2 sr μm or 0.26K at 300K bias error. The updated lifetime trend is now stable to within +/- 0.4K.

  10. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  11. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  12. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  13. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  14. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  15. Calibration of Thomson scattering system on VEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.-G.; Lee, J.-H.; Kim, D.; Yoo, M.-G.; Lee, H.; Hwang, Y. S.; Na, Y.-S.

    2017-12-01

    The Thomson scattering system has been recently installed on Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) to measure the electron temperature and the density of the core plasmas. Since the calibration of the system is required for the accurate measurement of these parameters, a polychromator and the system efficiency are calibrated. The bias voltage of the detector is optimized and the relative responsivity of the polychromator is measured to analyse the spectral broadening. The tendency of decreasing responsivity because of the ambient temperature change is addressed together. The efficiencies of the alignments using HeNe laser and Nd:YAG laser are compared. After the alignment using Rayleigh scattering, it is improved ~ 7 times while the peak signal of the stray light is decreased. To evaluate the efficiencies of the alignment using HeNe laser, it is compared with the efficiency of the fine alignment by Rayleigh scattering. After absolute calibration is done, the Thomson scattering signal is estimated theoretically. The Bayesian analysis is tried using the synthetic data, and the results show that the input temperature and the density are inside the contour of the 90% confident level. The calibrated Thomson scattering system will provide the meaningful information of the core plasma of the VEST.

  16. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.

  17. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.

    1998-11-17

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.

  18. An evaluation of the accuracy of geomagnetic data obtained from an unattended, automated, quasi-absolute station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison is made of geomagnetic calibration data obtained from a high-sensitivity proton magnetometer enclosed within an orthogonal bias coil system, with data obtained from standard procedures at a mid-latitude U.S. Geological Survey magnetic observatory using a quartz horizontal magnetometer, a Ruska magnetometer, and a total field magnetometer. The orthogonal coil arrangement is used with the proton magnetometer to provide Deflected-Inclination-Deflected-Declination (DIDD) data from which quasi-absolute values of declination, horizontal intensity, and vertical intensity can be derived. Vector magnetometers provide the ordinate values to yield baseline calibrations for both the DIDD and standard observatory processes. Results obtained from a prototype system over a period of several months indicate that the DIDD unit can furnish adequate absolute field values for maintaining observatory calibration data, thus providing baseline control for unattended, remote stations. ?? 1990.

  19. The development of a dynamic software for the user interaction from the geographic information system environment with the database of the calibration site of the satellite remote electro-optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyelyk, Ya. I.; Semeniv, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    The state of the problem of the post-launch calibration of the satellite electro-optic remote sensors and its solutions in Ukraine is analyzed. The database is improved and dynamic services for user interaction with database from the environment of open geographical information system Quantum GIS for information support of calibration activities are created. A dynamic application under QGIS is developed, implementing these services in the direction of the possibility of data entering, editing and extraction from the database, using the technology of object-oriented programming and of modern complex program design patterns. The functional and algorithmic support of this dynamic software and its interface are developed.

  20. 40 CFR 60.5220 - What are the performance testing, monitoring, and calibration requirements for compliance with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... per million dry volume absolute value of the mean difference between the method and the continuous... activities (including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments). Any such...

  1. Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

  2. Evaluating least absolute deviation regression as an inverse model in groundwater flow calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, John Matthew

    Though information regarding children's mental health is increasing, and we know that approximately 20% of children meet criteria for a mental disorder, little is known about the characteristics of the child client population at community mental health clinics. This study is an exploratory analysis of the demographic and treatment characteristics of the child client population at a psychology training clinic/community mental health center. Demographic and treatment information is presented and compared across various service categories as well as diagnostic categories. Comparisons between those served during the first six years and those served during the second six years of the study period are also made. Results are discussed in terms of generalizability of results as well as available information from the literature.

  3. Excimer laser calibration system.

    PubMed

    Gottsch, J D; Rencs, E V; Cambier, J L; Hall, D; Azar, D T; Stark, W J

    1996-01-01

    Excimer laser photoablation for refractive and therapeutic keratectomies has been demonstrated to be feasible and practicable. However, corneal laser ablations are not without problems, including the delivery and maintenance of a homogeneous beam. We have developed an excimer laser calibration system capable of characterizing a laser ablation profile. Beam homogeneity is determined by the analysis of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based thin-film using video capture and image processing. The ablation profile is presented as a color-coded map. Interpolation of excimer calibration system analysis provides a three-dimensional representation of elevation profiles that correlates with two-dimensional scanning profilometry. Excimer calibration analysis was performed before treating a monkey undergoing phototherapeutic keratectomy and two human subjects undergoing myopic spherocylindrical photorefractive keratectomy. Excimer calibration analysis was performed before and after laser refurbishing. Laser ablation profiles in PMMA are resolved by the excimer calibration system to .006 microns/pulse. Correlations with ablative patterns in a monkey cornea were demonstrated with preoperative and postoperative keratometry using corneal topography, and two human subjects using video-keratography. Excimer calibration analysis predicted a central-steep-island ablative pattern with the VISX Twenty/Twenty laser, which was confirmed by corneal topography immediately postoperatively and at 1 week after reepithelialization in the monkey. Predicted central steep islands in the two human subjects were confirmed by video-keratography at 1 week and at 1 month. Subsequent technical refurbishing of the laser resulted in a beam with an overall increased ablation rate measured as microns/pulse with a donut ablation profile. A patient treated after repair of the laser electrodes demonstrated no central island. This excimer laser calibration system can precisely detect laser-beam ablation

  4. Tensorial Calibration. 2. Second Order Tensorial Calibration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-12

    index is repeated more than once only in one side of an equation, it implies a summation over the index valid range. 12 To avoid confusion of terms...and higher order tensor, the rank can be higher than the maximum dimensionality. 13 ,ON 6 LINEAR SECOND ORDER TENSORIAL CALIBRATION MODEL From...these equations are valid only if all the elements of the diagonal matrix B3 are non-zero because its inverse (-1) must be computed. This implies that M

  5. Airdata Measurement and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This memorandum provides a brief introduction to airdata measurement and calibration. Readers will learn about typical test objectives, quantities to measure, and flight maneuvers and operations for calibration. The memorandum informs readers about tower-flyby, trailing cone, pacer, radar-tracking, and dynamic airdata calibration maneuvers. Readers will also begin to understand how some data analysis considerations and special airdata cases, including high-angle-of-attack flight, high-speed flight, and nonobtrusive sensors are handled. This memorandum is not intended to be all inclusive; this paper contains extensive reference and bibliography sections.

  6. Dynamic Pressure Calibration Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, P. C.; Cate, K. H.; Young, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    Vibrating columns of fluid used to calibrate transducers. Dynamic pressure calibration standard developed for calibrating flush diaphragm-mounted pressure transducers. Pressures up to 20 kPa (3 psi) accurately generated over frequency range of 50 to 1,800 Hz. System includes two conically shaped aluminum columns one 5 cm (2 in.) high for low pressures and another 11 cm (4.3 in.) high for higher pressures, each filled with viscous fluid. Each column mounted on armature of vibration exciter, which imparts sinusoidally varying acceleration to fluid column. Signal noise low, and waveform highly dependent on quality of drive signal in vibration exciter.

  7. DIRBE External Calibrator (DEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Clair L.; Thurgood, V. Alan; Allred, Glenn D.

    1987-01-01

    Under NASA Contract No. NAS5-28185, the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University has produced a calibration instrument for the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). DIRBE is one of the instruments aboard the Cosmic Background Experiment Observatory (COBE). The calibration instrument is referred to as the DEC (Dirbe External Calibrator). DEC produces a steerable, infrared beam of controlled spectral content and intensity and with selectable point source or diffuse source characteristics, that can be directed into the DIRBE to map fields and determine response characteristics. This report discusses the design of the DEC instrument, its operation and characteristics, and provides an analysis of the systems capabilities and performance.

  8. A suggestion for computing objective function in model calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    A parameter-optimization process (model calibration) is usually required for numerical model applications, which involves the use of an objective function to determine the model cost (model-data errors). The sum of square errors (SSR) has been widely adopted as the objective function in various optimization procedures. However, ‘square error’ calculation was found to be more sensitive to extreme or high values. Thus, we proposed that the sum of absolute errors (SAR) may be a better option than SSR for model calibration. To test this hypothesis, we used two case studies—a hydrological model calibration and a biogeochemical model calibration—to investigate the behavior of a group of potential objective functions: SSR, SAR, sum of squared relative deviation (SSRD), and sum of absolute relative deviation (SARD). Mathematical evaluation of model performance demonstrates that ‘absolute error’ (SAR and SARD) are superior to ‘square error’ (SSR and SSRD) in calculating objective function for model calibration, and SAR behaved the best (with the least error and highest efficiency). This study suggests that SSR might be overly used in real applications, and SAR may be a reasonable choice in common optimization implementations without emphasizing either high or low values (e.g., modeling for supporting resources management).

  9. Calibration of cosmogenic 3He and 10Be production rates in the High Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blard, Pierre-Henri; Martin, Léo; Lavé, Jérôme; Charreau, Julien; Condom, Thomas; Lupker, Maarten; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier

    2014-05-01

    It is critical to refine both the accuracy and the precision of the in situ cosmogenic dating tool, especially for establishing reliable glacial chronologies that can be compared to other paleoclimatic records. Recent cross-calibrations of cosmogenic 3He in pyroxene and 10Be in quartz [1, 2] showed that, both at low (1300 m) and high elevation (4850 m), the 3He/10Be production ratio was probably ~40% higher than the value of ~23 initially defined in the 90's. This recent update is consistent with the last independent determinations of the sea level high latitude production rates of 10Be and 3He, that are about 4 and 125 at.g-1.yr-1, respectively [e.g. 3, 4]. However, major questions remain about these production rates at high elevation, notably because existing calibration sites for both 3He and 10Be are scarce above 2000 m. It is thus crucial to produce new high precision calibration data at high elevation. Here we report cosmogenic 10Be data from boulders sampled on a glacial fan located at 3800 m in the Central Altiplano (Bolivia), whose age is independently constrained by stratigraphic correlations and radiocarbon dating at ca. 16 ka. These data can be used to calibrate the production rate of 10Be at high elevation, in the Tropics. After scaling to sea level and high latitude, these data yield a sea level high latitude P10 ranging from 3.8 to 4.2 at.g-1.yr-1, depending on the used scaling scheme. These new calibration data are in good agreement with recent absolute and cross-calibration of 3He in pyroxenes and 10Be in quartz, from dacitic moraines located at 4850 m in the Southern Altiplano (22° S, Tropical Andes) [2,5]. The so-obtained 3He/10Be production ratio of 33.3±0.9 (1σ) combined with an absolute 3He production rate locally calibrated in the Central Altiplano, at 3800 m, indeed yielded a sea level high latitude P10 ranging from 3.7±0.2 to 4.1±0.2 at.g-1.yr-1, depending on the scaling scheme [2,5]. These values are also consistent with the 10Be

  10. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent... are not under a retirement system. An absolute coverage group may include positions which were...

  11. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N.; Palmer, James M.

    1986-01-01

    A list of personnel who have contributed to the program is provided. Sixteen publications and presentations are also listed. A preprint summarizing five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations of the solar reflective bands of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper is presented. The 23 band calibrations made on the five dates show a 2.5% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean. A preprint is also presented that discusses the reflectance-based results of the above preprint. It proceeds to analyze and present results of a second, independent calibration method based on radiance measurements from a helicopter. Radiative transfer through the atmosphere, model atmospheres, the calibration methodology used at White Sands and the results of a sensitivity analysis of the reflectance-based approach is also discussed.

  12. Continuous glucose monitoring system: dawn period calibration does not change accuracy of the method.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Gustavo A; Sousa, André G P; Perazo, Marcela N A; Correa-Giannella, Maria L C; Nery, Marcia; Melo, Karla F S de

    2009-06-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring system is a valuable instrument to measure glycemic control, which uses a retrospective calibration based upon 3 to 4 capillary glucose meter values inserted by the patient each day. We evaluated the interference of calibration during the dawn period in the system accuracy. The monitoring data were retrospectively divided into two groups: with (Group A) or without (Group B) the dawn period calibration (between 1:00 and 5:00 AM). Accuracy of the method was expressed by relative absolute difference. Thirty-four continuous glucose monitoring data were evaluated comprising a total of 112 nights. A total of 289 paired readings were analyzed - 195 in Group A and 94 in Group B. We did not find a difference in relative absolute difference (RAD%) in any analyzed period of day by adding dawn calibration. These data suggest that dawn calibration does not alter accuracy of method.

  13. Roundness calibration standard

    DOEpatents

    Burrus, Brice M.

    1984-01-01

    A roundness calibration standard is provided with a first arc constituting the major portion of a circle and a second arc lying between the remainder of the circle and the chord extending between the ends of said first arc.

  14. Metrology and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Kenneth W.; Wachter, James R.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to ensure the accuracy of measurements affecting safety and mission success through the proper selection, calibration, and use of Measuring and Test Equipment (MTE).

  15. Gauge calibration by diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, F. J.; Feakes, F. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    Vacuum gage calibration by diffusing a known quantity of gas through a heated barrier into a gauge is examined. The gas flow raises the pressure in the gauge to known level and is then compared with the gauge's pressure reading.

  16. SRAM Detector Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soli, G. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Beuhler, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    Custom proton sensitive SRAM chips are being flown on the BMDO Clementine missions and Space Technology Research Vehicle experiments. This paper describes the calibration procedure for the SRAM proton detectors and their response to the space environment.

  17. Mass spectrometer calibration standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Inert perfluorinated alkane and alkyl ethers mixture is used to calibrate mass spectrometer. Noncontaminating, commercially-available liquid provides series of reproducible reference peaks over broad mass spectrum that ranges over mass numbers from 1 to 200.

  18. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  19. A highly accurate absolute gravimetric network for Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters

  20. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOEpatents

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  1. 237Np absolute delayed neutron yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, D.; Ledoux, X.; Nolte, R.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Thulliez, L.; Litaize, O.; Roettger, S.; Serot, O.

    2017-09-01

    237Np absolute delayed neutron yields have been measured at different incident neutron energies from 1.5 to 16 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facility where the Van de Graaff accelerator and the cyclotron CV28 delivered 9 different neutron energy beams using p+T, d+D and d+T reactions. The detection system is made up of twelve 3He tubes inserted into a polyethylene cylinder. In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method are described. The evolution of the absolute DN yields as a function of the neutron incident beam energies are presented and compared to experimental data found in the literature and data from the libraries.

  2. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  3. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  4. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  5. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  6. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  7. The absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Wolfgang; Savcenko, Roman

    The sea surface slopes relative to the geoid (an equipotential surface) basically carry the in-formation on the absolute velocity field of the surface circulation. Pure oceanographic models may remain unspecific with respect to the absolute level of the ocean topography. In contrast, the geodetic approach to estimate the ocean topography as difference between sea level and the geoid gives by definition an absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT). This approach requires, however, a consistent treatment of geoid and sea surface heights, the first being usually derived from a band limited spherical harmonic series of the Earth gravity field and the second observed with much higher spectral resolution by satellite altimetry. The present contribution shows a procedure for estimating the ADOT along the altimeter profiles, preserving as much sea surface height details as the consistency w.r.t. the geoid heights will allow. The consistent treatment at data gaps and the coast is particular demanding and solved by a filter correction. The ADOT profiles are inspected for their innocent properties towards the coast and compared to external estimates of the ocean topography or the velocity field of the surface circulation as derived, for example, by ARGO floats.

  8. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them.

  9. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them. PMID:29085275

  10. Absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-08-01

    A new encoding method for absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction was proposed in the present study. In this method, an encoder disc is specially designed that a series of elements are uniformly spaced in one circle and each element is consisted of four diffraction gratings, which are tilted in the directions of 30°, 60°, -60° and -30°, respectively. The disc is illuminated by a coherent light and the diffractive signals are received. The positions of diffractive spots are used for absolute encoding and their intensities are for subdivision, which is different from the traditional optical encoder based on transparent/opaque binary principle. Since the track's width in the disc is not limited in the diffraction pattern, it provides a new way to solve the contradiction between the size and resolution, which is good for minimization of encoder. According to the proposed principle, the diffraction pattern disc with a diameter of 40 mm was made by lithography in the glass substrate. A prototype of absolute angular encoder with a resolution of 20" was built up. Its maximum error was tested as 78" by comparing with a small angle measuring system based on laser beam deflection.

  11. Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    within uncertainties and comparison of power spectra indicates good consistency in the absolute calibration with HFI (0.3%) and a 1.4σ discrepancy with WMAP (0.9%).

  12. AVIRIS data calibration information: Oquirrh and East Tintic mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Clark, Roger N.; Livo, K. Eric; McDougal, Robert R.; Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2002-01-01

    The information contained herein pertains to the original reflectance calibration derived solely from the Saltair beach site on the shores of Great Salt Lake.  The reflectance data derived from this calibration becomes markedly affected by residual absorptions due to atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide within short horizontal and vertical distances from the calibration site due to the presence of what is believed to be a distinct microclimate by the lake.  Subsequent to the development of this web site, a new reflectance calibration was derived which mitigated these effects.  Reflectance spectra of bright areas of known composition in the East Tintic Mountains, far from Great Salt Lake, were sampled from the calibrated high altitude AVIRIS data cubes and edited, or "polished," to identify artifacts related to residual absorptions of atmospheric gases, particulates, and sensor noise.  The subtle artifacts identified in this way were incorporated into the multiplier spectra derived from the original calibration site, generating new multiplier spectra that were used to re-calibrate the ATREM- and path radiance-corrected cubes to reflectance.  This process generated a reflectance calibration customized for the Oquirrh/East Tintic Mountain region.

  13. NICMOS Cycles 13 and 14 Calibration Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, Santiago; Bergeron, Eddie; de Jong, Roeof; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Mobasher, Bahram; Noll, Keith; Schultz, Al; Wiklind, Tommy; Xu, Chun

    2005-11-01

    This document summarizes the NICMOS Calibration Plans for Cycles 13 and 14. These plans complement the SMOV3b, the Cycle 10 (interim), and the Cycles 11 and 12 (regular) calibration programs executed after the installation of the NICMOS Cooling System (NCS).. These previous programs have shown that the instrument is very stable, which has motivated a further reduction in the frequency of the monitoring programs for Cycle 13. In addition, for Cycle 14 some of these programs were slightly modified to account for 2 Gyro HST operations. The special calibrations on Cycle 13 were focussed on a follow up of the spectroscopic recalibration initiated in Cycle 12. This program led to the discovery of a possible count rate non-linearity, which has triggered a special program for Cycle 13 and a number of subsequent tests and calibrations during Cycle 14. At the time of writing this is a very active area of research. We also briefly comment on other calibrations defined to address other specific issues like: the autoreset test, the SPAR sequences tests, and the low-frequency flat residual for NIC1. The calibration programs for the 2-Gyro campaigns are not included here, since they have been described somewhere else. Further details and updates on specific programs can be found via the NICMOS web site.

  14. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed.

  15. Validating and comparing GNSS antenna calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallio, Ulla; Koivula, Hannu; Lahtinen, Sonja; Nikkonen, Ville; Poutanen, Markku

    2018-03-01

    GNSS antennas have no fixed electrical reference point. The variation of the phase centre is modelled and tabulated in antenna calibration tables, which include the offset vector (PCO) and phase centre variation (PCV) for each frequency according to the elevations and azimuths of the incoming signal. Used together, PCV and PCO reduce the phase observations to the antenna reference point. The remaining biases, called the residual offsets, can be revealed by circulating and rotating the antennas on pillars. The residual offsets are estimated as additional parameters when combining the daily GNSS network solutions with full covariance matrix. We present a procedure for validating the antenna calibration tables. The dedicated test field, called Revolver, was constructed at Metsähovi. We used the procedure to validate the calibration tables of 17 antennas. Tables from the IGS and three different calibration institutions were used. The tests show that we were able to separate the residual offsets at the millimetre level. We also investigated the influence of the calibration tables from the different institutions on site coordinates by performing kinematic double-difference baseline processing of the data from one site with different antenna tables. We found small but significant differences between the tables.

  16. Comparison of spectral radiance responsivity calibration techniques used for backscatter ultraviolet satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, M. G.; Janz, S. J.

    2015-02-01

    Methods of absolute radiometric calibration of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) satellite instruments are compared as part of an effort to minimize pre-launch calibration uncertainties. An internally illuminated integrating sphere source has been used for the Shuttle Solar BUV, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, Ozone Mapping Instrument, and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 using standardized procedures traceable to national standards. These sphere-based spectral responsivities agree to within the derived combined standard uncertainty of 1.87% relative to calibrations performed using an external diffuser illuminated by standard irradiance sources, the customary spectral radiance responsivity calibration method for BUV instruments. The combined standard uncertainty for these calibration techniques as implemented at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s Radiometric Calibration and Development Laboratory is shown to less than 2% at 250 nm when using a single traceable calibration standard.

  17. Design and realization of an active SAR calibrator for TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dummer, Georg; Lenz, Rainer; Lutz, Benjamin; Kühl, Markus; Müller-Glaser, Klaus D.; Wiesbeck, Werner

    2005-10-01

    TerraSAR-X is a new earth observing satellite which will be launched in spring 2006. It carries a high resolution X-band SAR sensor. For high image data quality, accurate ground calibration targets are necessary. This paper describes a novel system concept for an active and highly integrated, digitally controlled SAR system calibrator. A total of 16 active transponder and receiver systems and 17 receiver only systems will be fabricated for a calibration campaign. The calibration units serve for absolute radiometric calibration of the SAR image data. Additionally, they are equipped with an extra receiver path for two dimensional satellite antenna pattern recognition. The calibrator is controlled by a dedicated digital Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The different voltages needed by the calibrator and the ECU are provided by the third main unit called Power Management Unit (PMU).

  18. Integrated calibration sphere and calibration step fixture for improved coordinate measurement machine calibration

    DOEpatents

    Clifford, Harry J [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    A method and apparatus for mounting a calibration sphere to a calibration fixture for Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) calibration and qualification is described, decreasing the time required for such qualification, thus allowing the CMM to be used more productively. A number of embodiments are disclosed that allow for new and retrofit manufacture to perform as integrated calibration sphere and calibration fixture devices. This invention renders unnecessary the removal of a calibration sphere prior to CMM measurement of calibration features on calibration fixtures, thereby greatly reducing the time spent qualifying a CMM.

  19. An absolute cavity pyrgeometer to measure the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to international system of units, SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Zeng, Jinan; Scheuch, Jonathan; Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, Boris; Myers, Daryl; Stoffel, Tom

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180° view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U95) of ±3.96 W m-2 with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two

  20. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI