#### Sample records for absolute categorical agreement

1. Modeling agreement on categorical scales in the presence of random scorers.

PubMed

Vanbelle, Sophie; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

2016-01-01

Kappa coefficients are often used to assess agreement between two fixed scorers on categorical scales. Cohen's version is popular for nominal scales and the weighted version for ordinal scales. In the present paper, similar agreement coefficients are defined for random scorers. A partial-Bayesian methodology is then developed to directly relate these agreement coefficients to predictors through a multilevel model. Statistical properties of the proposed approach are studied using simulations. Finally, the approach is applied to gynecological and medical imaging data.

2. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

2015-01-01

The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

3. Assessing Level of Agreement for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Categorization Between Coronary Artery Calcium Score and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines and the Potential Impact on Treatment Recommendations.

PubMed

Isma'eel, Hussain; Min, David; Al-Shaar, Laila; Hachamovitch, Rory; Halliburton, Sandra; Gentry, James; Griffin, Brian; Schoenhagen, Paul; Phelan, Dermot

2016-11-15

The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cardiovascular prevention guidelines use a new pooled cohort equation (PCE) to predict 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events which form the basis of treatment recommendations. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) has been proposed as a means to assess atherosclerotic risk. We sought to study the level of agreement in predicted ASCVD risk by CACS and PCE-calculated models and the potential impact on therapy of additional CACS testing. We studied 687 treatment naive, consecutive patients (mean age 53.5 years, 72% men) who had a CACS study at our institution. Clinical and imaging data were recorded. ASCVD risk was calculated using the published PCE-based algorithm. CACS-based risk was categorized by previously published recommendations. Risk stratification comparisons were made and level of agreement calculated. In the cohort, mean ASCVD PCE-calculated risk was 5.3 ± 5.2% and mean CACS was 80 ± 302 Agatston units (AU). Of the intermediate PCE-calculated risk (5% to <7.5%) cohort, 85% had CACS <100 AU. Of the cohort categorized as reasonable to treat per the ASCVD prevention guidelines, 40% had a CACS of 0 AU and an additional 44% had CACS >0 but <100 AU. The level of agreement between the new PCE model of ASCVD risk and demonstrable coronary artery calcium is low. CACS testing may be most beneficial in those with an intermediate risk of ASCVD (PCE-calculated risk of 5% to <7.5%) where, in approximately half of patients, CACS testing significantly refined risk assessment primarily into a very low-risk category.

4. Categorically Not!

Cole, K. C.

2011-04-01

The artist Bob Miller liked to say that the worst disease afflicting humankind is ``hardening of the categories'' - the tendency to cram subjects into boxes labeled ``science,'' ``art,'' ``politics,'' ``economics,'' ``play'' - labels that are as outdated and meaningless as divisions between the colors on a continuous spectrum. Over the past 10 years, KC Cole has been organizing free form events that tear down these artificial barriers, and with intriguing results: actors gain insights into character from a topologist; a choreographer solves engineering problems through her knowledge of motion; neuroscientists learn about intuition from filmmakers and string theorists. Categorically Not! - as the series is called - is not (merely) an attempt to ``popularize'' science by looking at it through unlikely lenses, but a real exploration into the deep connections that both illuminate and energize all fields of study. It is a ``people's'' salon, free and open to the general public. Cole will talk about how she overcomes ``hardening of the categories'' not just through events, but also in her popular magazine and newspaper articles, books, radio commentaries, and teaching at USC's Annenberg School of Communication and Journalism.

5. Olfactory Categorization: A Developmental Study

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Valentin, Dominique; Chanquoy, Lucile

2012-01-01

This study examined the ability of children to classify fruit and flower odors. We asked four groups of children (4-11 years of age) and a group of adults to identify, categorize, and evaluate the edibility, liking, and typicality of 12 fruit and flower odors. Results showed an increase in interindividual agreement with age for the taxonomic…

6. Measuring Category Intuitiveness in Unconstrained Categorization Tasks

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Perlman, Amotz; Bailey, Todd M.; Kurtz, Ken; Edwards, Darren J.; Hines, Peter; McDonnell, John V.

2011-01-01

What makes a category seem natural or intuitive? In this paper, an unsupervised categorization task was employed to examine observer agreement concerning the categorization of nine different stimulus sets. The stimulus sets were designed to capture different intuitions about classification structure. The main empirical index of category…

7. Absolute Zero

Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

2006-12-01

Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

8. The Nature of Infant Color Categorization: Evidence from Eye Movements on a Target Detection Task

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Franklin, A.; Pilling, M.; Davies, I.

2005-01-01

Infants respond categorically to color. However, the nature of infants' categorical responding to color is unclear. The current study investigated two issues. First, is infants' categorical responding more absolute than adults' categorical responding? That is, can infants discriminate two stimuli from the same color category? Second, is color…

9. Dissimilarity in Creative Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranjan, Apara; Srinivasan, Narayanan

2010-01-01

Theories of categorization need to account for ways in which people use their creativity to categorize things, especially in the context of similarity. The current three-phase study is a preliminary attempt to understand how people group concepts together as well as to explore the role of similarity between concepts in creative categorization.…

10. Absolute Summ

Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

11. Absolute Photometry

Hartig, George

1990-12-01

The absolute sensitivity of the FOS will be determined in SV by observing 2 stars at 3 epochs, first in 3 apertures (1.0", 0.5", and 0.3" circular) and then in 1 aperture (1.0" circular). In cycle 1, one star, BD+28D4211 will be observed in the 1.0" aperture to establish the stability of the sensitivity and flat field characteristics and improve the accuracy obtained in SV. This star will also be observed through the paired apertures since these are not calibrated in SV. The stars will be observed in most detector/grating combinations. The data will be averaged to form the inverse sensitivity functions required by RSDP.

12. Speech perception as categorization

PubMed Central

Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

2010-01-01

Speech perception (SP) most commonly refers to the perceptual mapping from the highly variable acoustic speech signal to a linguistic representation, whether it be phonemes, diphones, syllables, or words. This is an example of categorization, in that potentially discriminable speech sounds are assigned to functionally equivalent classes. In this tutorial, we present some of the main challenges to our understanding of the categorization of speech sounds and the conceptualization of SP that has resulted from these challenges. We focus here on issues and experiments that define open research questions relevant to phoneme categorization, arguing that SP is best understood as perceptual categorization, a position that places SP in direct contact with research from other areas of perception and cognition. PMID:20601702

13. Noisy text categorization.

PubMed

Vinciarelli, Alessandro

2005-12-01

This work presents categorization experiments performed over noisy texts. By noisy, we mean any text obtained through an extraction process (affected by errors) from media other than digital texts (e.g., transcriptions of speech recordings extracted with a recognition system). The performance of a categorization system over the clean and noisy (Word Error Rate between approximately 10 and approximately 50 percent) versions of the same documents is compared. The noisy texts are obtained through handwriting recognition and simulation of optical character recognition. The results show that the performance loss is acceptable for Recall values up to 60-70 percent depending on the noise sources. New measures of the extraction process performance, allowing a better explanation of the categorization results, are proposed.

14. A MEDLINE categorization algorithm

PubMed Central

Darmoni, Stefan J; Névéol, Aurelie; Renard, Jean-Marie; Gehanno, Jean-Francois; Soualmia, Lina F; Dahamna, Badisse; Thirion, Benoit

2006-01-01

Background Categorization is designed to enhance resource description by organizing content description so as to enable the reader to grasp quickly and easily what are the main topics discussed in it. The objective of this work is to propose a categorization algorithm to classify a set of scientific articles indexed with the MeSH thesaurus, and in particular those of the MEDLINE bibliographic database. In a large bibliographic database such as MEDLINE, finding materials of particular interest to a specialty group, or relevant to a particular audience, can be difficult. The categorization refines the retrieval of indexed material. In the CISMeF terminology, metaterms can be considered as super-concepts. They were primarily conceived to improve recall in the CISMeF quality-controlled health gateway. Methods The MEDLINE categorization algorithm (MCA) is based on semantic links existing between MeSH terms and metaterms on the one hand and between MeSH subheadings and metaterms on the other hand. These links are used to automatically infer a list of metaterms from any MeSH term/subheading indexing. Medical librarians manually select the semantic links. Results The MEDLINE categorization algorithm lists the medical specialties relevant to a MEDLINE file by decreasing order of their importance. The MEDLINE categorization algorithm is available on a Web site. It can run on any MEDLINE file in a batch mode. As an example, the top 3 medical specialties for the set of 60 articles published in BioMed Central Medical Informatics & Decision Making, which are currently indexed in MEDLINE are: information science, organization and administration and medical informatics. Conclusion We have presented a MEDLINE categorization algorithm in order to classify the medical specialties addressed in any MEDLINE file in the form of a ranked list of relevant specialties. The categorization method introduced in this paper is based on the manual indexing of resources with MeSH (terms

15. Categorization of Sounds

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smits, Roel; Sereno, Joan; Jongman, Allard

2006-01-01

The authors conducted 4 experiments to test the decision-bound, prototype, and distribution theories for the categorization of sounds. They used as stimuli sounds varying in either resonance frequency or duration. They created different experimental conditions by varying the variance and overlap of 2 stimulus distributions used in a training phase…

16. Comparing Categorization Models

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Ratcliff, Roger

2004-01-01

Four experiments are presented that competitively test rule- and exemplar-based models of human categorization behavior. Participants classified stimuli that varied on a unidimensional axis into 2 categories. The stimuli did not consistently belong to a category; instead, they were probabilistically assigned. By manipulating these assignment…

17. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2012-01-01

What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

18. Decoupling Object Detection and Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mack, Michael L.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

We investigated whether there exists a behavioral dependency between object detection and categorization. Previous work (Grill-Spector & Kanwisher, 2005) suggests that object detection and basic-level categorization may be the very same perceptual mechanism: As objects are parsed from the background they are categorized at the basic level. In…

19. Absolutely classical spin states

Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.

2017-01-01

We introduce the concept of "absolutely classical" spin states, in analogy to absolutely separable states of bipartite quantum systems. Absolutely classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of absolutely classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of absolutely separable states.

SciTech Connect

Keller, Paul E.

2012-04-26

This report summarizes a study into some false positive issues in the use of radioxenon as a method to verify a clandestine nuclear weapons explosion. False positives arise due to similarities between the radioxenon signature generated in medical isotope production and that generated in a nuclear weapon explosion. This report also discusses how to categorize the radioxenon by levels of urgency for manual analysis and interpretation and recommends applying machine learning and time series analysis techniques in the automation of radioxenon characterization. The literature indicates that medical isotope production is a major contributor to atmospheric radioxenon and is the main source of confusion in determining the source of radioxenon. While radioxenon emissions from nuclear power plants can be distinguished from that from nuclear weapon explosions, emissions from medical isotope production generate signatures similar to certain nuclide ratios found in nuclear weapons explosions. Different techniques for analyzing nuclide concentrations and ratios as well as including other sensing modalities via sensor fusion are discussed.

1. Similarity relations in visual search predict rapid visual categorization

PubMed Central

Mohan, Krithika; Arun, S. P.

2012-01-01

How do we perform rapid visual categorization?It is widely thought that categorization involves evaluating the similarity of an object to other category items, but the underlying features and similarity relations remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that categorization performance is based on perceived similarity relations between items within and outside the category. To this end, we measured the categorization performance of human subjects on three diverse visual categories (animals, vehicles, and tools) and across three hierarchical levels (superordinate, basic, and subordinate levels among animals). For the same subjects, we measured their perceived pair-wise similarities between objects using a visual search task. Regardless of category and hierarchical level, we found that the time taken to categorize an object could be predicted using its similarity to members within and outside its category. We were able to account for several classic categorization phenomena, such as (a) the longer times required to reject category membership; (b) the longer times to categorize atypical objects; and (c) differences in performance across tasks and across hierarchical levels. These categorization times were also accounted for by a model that extracts coarse structure from an image. The striking agreement observed between categorization and visual search suggests that these two disparate tasks depend on a shared coarse object representation. PMID:23092947

2. Absolute nuclear material assay

DOEpatents

Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

2012-05-15

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

3. Absolute nuclear material assay

DOEpatents

Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

2010-07-13

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

4. Absolute calibration of optical tweezers

SciTech Connect

Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.

2006-03-27

As a step toward absolute calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.

5. Categorizing Teacher Behavior: Test Manual.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pugh, Richard C.; And Others

Categorizing Teacher Behavior, developed to measure acquisition of concepts portrayed in the Concepts and Patterns in Teacher-Pupil Interaction film series, measures the ability to identify and categorize instances of the specificed concepts as they are portrayed in reasonably complex filmed classroom interactions. The film series itself is based…

6. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

2008-01-01

Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

7. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

PubMed Central

Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

2016-01-01

In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

8. Visual Search and the Collapse of Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

David, Smith, J.; Redford, Joshua S.; Gent, Lauren C.; Washburn, David A.

2005-01-01

Categorization researchers typically present single objects to be categorized. But real-world categorization often involves object recognition within complex scenes. It is unknown how the processes of categorization stand up to visual complexity or why they fail facing it. The authors filled this research gap by blending the categorization and…

9. Absolute and relative blindsight.

PubMed

Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul

2015-03-01

The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, absolute blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or absolute blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and absolute blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight.

10. Absolute neutrino mass scale

Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

2013-04-01

Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

11. The absolute path command

SciTech Connect

Moody, A.

2012-05-11

The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

12. Image categorization for marketing purposes

Almishari, Mishari I.; Lee, Haengju; Gnanasambandam, Nathan

2011-03-01

Images meant for marketing and promotional purposes (i.e. coupons) represent a basic component in incentivizing customers to visit shopping outlets and purchase discounted commodities. They also help department stores in attracting more customers and potentially, speeding up their cash flow. While coupons are available from various sources - print, web, etc. categorizing these monetary instruments is a benefit to the users. We are interested in an automatic categorizer system that aggregates these coupons from different sources (web, digital coupons, paper coupons, etc) and assigns a type to each of these coupons in an efficient manner. While there are several dimensions to this problem, in this paper we study the problem of accurately categorizing/classifying the coupons. We propose and evaluate four different techniques for categorizing the coupons namely, word-based model, n-gram-based model, externally weighing model, weight decaying model which take advantage of known machine learning algorithms. We evaluate these techniques and they achieve high accuracies in the range of 73.1% to 93.2%. We provide various examples of accuracy optimizations that can be performed and show a progressive increase in categorization accuracy for our test dataset.

13. Categorical properties of soft sets.

PubMed

Zhou, Min; Li, Shenggang; Akram, Muhammad

2014-01-01

The present study investigates some novel categorical properties of soft sets. By combining categorical theory with soft set theory, a categorical framework of soft set theory is established. It is proved that the category SFun of soft sets and soft functions has equalizers, finite products, pullbacks, and exponential properties. It is worth mentioning that we find that SFun is both a topological construct and Cartesian closed. The category SRel of soft sets and Z-soft set relations is also characterized, which shows the existence of the zero objects, biproducts, additive identities, injective objects, projective objects, injective hulls, and projective covers. Finally, by constructing proper adjoint situations, some intrinsic connections between SFun and SRel are established.

14. A generalized concordance correlation coefficient for continuous and categorical data.

PubMed

King, T S; Chinchilli, V M

2001-07-30

This paper discusses a generalized version of the concordance correlation coefficient for agreement data. The concordance correlation coefficient evaluates the accuracy and precision between two measures, and is based on the expected value of the squared function of distance. We have generalized this coefficient by applying alternative functions of distance to produce more robust versions of the concordance correlation coefficient. In this paper we extend the application of this class of estimators to categorical data as well, and demonstrate similarities to the kappa and weighted kappa statistics. We also introduce a stratified concordance correlation coefficient which adjusts for explanatory factors, and an extended concordance correlation coefficient which measures agreement among more than two responses. With these extensions, the generalized concordance correlation coefficient provides a unifying approach to assessing agreement among two or more measures that are either continuous or categorical in scale.

15. Categorical perception of tactile distance.

PubMed

Knight, Frances Le Cornu; Longo, Matthew R; Bremner, Andrew J

2014-05-01

The tactile surface forms a continuous sheet covering the body. And yet, the perceived distance between two touches varies across stimulation sites. Perceived tactile distance is larger when stimuli cross over the wrist, compared to when both fall on either the hand or the forearm. This effect could reflect a categorical distortion of tactile space across body-part boundaries (in which stimuli crossing the wrist boundary are perceptually elongated) or may simply reflect a localised increased in acuity surrounding anatomical landmarks (in which stimuli near the wrist are perceptually elongated). We tested these two interpretations across two experiments, by comparing a well-documented bias to perceive mediolateral tactile distances across the forearm/hand as larger than proximodistal ones along the forearm/hand at three different sites (hand, wrist, and forearm). According to the 'categorical' interpretation, tactile distances should be elongated selectively in the proximodistal axis thus reducing the anisotropy. According to the 'localised acuity' interpretation, distances will be perceptually elongated in the vicinity of the wrist regardless of orientation, leading to increased overall size without affecting anisotropy. Consistent with the categorical account, we found a reduction in the magnitude of anisotropy at the wrist, with no evidence of a corresponding localised increase in precision. These findings demonstrate that we reference touch to a representation of the body that is categorically segmented into discrete parts, which consequently influences the perception of tactile distance.

16. Categorical evidence, confidence, and urgency during probabilistic categorization

PubMed Central

Braunlich, Kurt; Seger, Carol A.

2015-01-01

We used a temporally-extended categorization task to investigate the neural substrates underlying our ability to integrate information over time and across multiple stimulus features. Using model-based fMRI, we tracked the temporal evolution of two important variables as participants deliberated about impending choices: 1) categorical evidence, and 2) confidence (the total amount of evidence provided by the stimuli, irrespective of the particular category favored). Importantly, in each model, we also included a covariate which allowed us to differentiate signals related to information accumulation from other, evidence-independent functions that increased monotonically with time (such as urgency or cognitive load). We found that somatomotor regions tracked the temporal evolution of categorical evidence, while regions in both medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and the striatum tracked decision confidence. As both theory and experimental work suggest that patterns of activity thought to be related to information-accumulation may reflect, in whole or in part, an interaction between sensory evidence and urgency, we additionally investigated whether urgency might modulate the slopes of the two evidence-dependent functions. We found that the slopes of both functions were likely modulated by urgency such that the difference between the high and low evidence states increased as the response deadline loomed. PMID:26564532

17. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leviton, Douglas B.

2006-01-01

An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

18. Absolute airborne gravimetry

Baumann, Henri

This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

19. Latent Scope Bias in Categorization

DTIC Science & Technology

2014-01-01

processes that underlie the generation and evaluation of explanations might help account for performance on categorization tasks along with consequences...that this process is not normative: compare the experiment to a situation where one urn (category A) contains 3 red and 3 green balls while another...rely on category level representations to aid the process of person perception. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 showed that people pre ferred to

20. Absolute-structure reports.

PubMed

Flack, Howard D

2013-08-01

All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of absolute structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the absolute structure.

1. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shebalin, John V.

1997-01-01

The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

2. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

PubMed

Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

2015-07-01

Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

3. Absolute multilateration between spheres

Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

2017-04-01

Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

4. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.4 Categorical exclusion. Categorical exclusion means a category of actions which do not individually...

5. Comparison and Contrast in Perceptual Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Simmons, Claire L.

2005-01-01

People categorized pairs of perceptual stimuli that varied in both category membership and pairwise similarity. Experiments 1 and 2 showed categorization of 1 color of a pair to be reliably contrasted from that of the other. This similarity-based contrast effect occurred only when the context stimulus was relevant for the categorization of the…

6. Using Categorical Variables in Discriminant Analysis.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Huberty, Carl J.; And Others

1986-01-01

Three methods of transforming unordered categorical response variables are described: (1) analysis using dummy variables; (2) eigenanalysis of frequency patterns scaled relative to within-groups variance; (3) categorical variables analyzed separately with scale values generated so that the grouping variable and the categorical variable are…

7. 42 CFR 493.17 - Test categorization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test categorization. 493.17 Section 493.17 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 493.17 Test categorization. (a) Categorization by criteria. Notices will be published in the Federal Register which list each specific...

8. Infant Categorization of Faces: Ladies First

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ramsey, J.L.; Langlois, J.H.; Marti, N.C.

2005-01-01

We review and provide empirical evidence to show that infants categorize and process male and female faces differently, with an advantage in processing female faces. To understand this asymmetry in categorization and processing of male and female faces, we evaluate three mechanisms influencing infant categorization of male and female faces:…

9. Decision making under uncertain categorization

PubMed Central

Chen, Stephanie Y.; Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

2014-01-01

Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of whether categories are relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use both was and was not appropriate. PMID:25309475

10. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

PubMed

Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

2013-02-01

Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms.

11. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

SciTech Connect

Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

2004-07-15

The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency) by removing the source spectrum (moment-rate spectrum) from

12. Categorization and nomenclature of vitreous silicate wools.

PubMed

Moore, Martin A; Boymel, Paul M; Maxim, L Daniel; Turim, Jay

2002-02-01

There is substantial interest among government agencies in categorizing fibers for hazard classification purposes, particularly the commercially important synthetic vitreous fibers (e.g., rock wool, slag wool, glass wool, and refractory ceramic fibers). The intent of this categorization is to partition the population of fibers into distinct categories, which are mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive, easy to understand and implement, and homogeneous with respect to potential biological activity. This paper identifies criteria for categorization, summarizes historical systems for categorization (e.g., by origin, chemistry and structure, physical form and morphology, and application), analyzes the current categorization schemes used by the European Community (EC) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and proposes an improved partitioning method based upon biopersistence/durability. The proposed basis for categorization incorporates the best features of the EC and IARC methods, eliminates some of their inconsistencies, exploits available knowledge of fiber toxicology (much of which was developed in recent years), and is practical to implement.

13. Categorizing identity from facial motion.

PubMed

Girges, Christine; Spencer, Janine; O'Brien, Justin

2015-01-01

Advances in marker-less motion capture technology now allow the accurate replication of facial motion and deformation in computer-generated imagery (CGI). A forced-choice discrimination paradigm using such CGI facial animations showed that human observers can categorize identity solely from facial motion cues. Animations were generated from motion captures acquired during natural speech, thus eliciting both rigid (head rotations and translations) and nonrigid (expressional changes) motion. To limit interferences from individual differences in facial form, all animations shared the same appearance. Observers were required to discriminate between different videos of facial motion and between the facial motions of different people. Performance was compared to the control condition of orientation-inverted facial motion. The results show that observers are able to make accurate discriminations of identity in the absence of all cues except facial motion. A clear inversion effect in both tasks provided consistency with previous studies, supporting the configural view of human face perception. The accuracy of this motion capture technology thus allowed stimuli to be generated that closely resembled real moving faces. Future studies may wish to implement such methodology when studying human face perception.

14. An agreement coefficient for image comparison

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ji, L.; Gallo, K.

2006-01-01

Combination of datasets acquired from different sensor systems is necessary to construct a long time-series dataset for remotely sensed land-surface variables. Assessment of the agreement of the data derived from various sources is an important issue in understanding the data continuity through the time-series. Some traditional measures, including correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean square error, are not always optimal for evaluating the data agreement. For this reason, we developed a new agreement coefficient for comparing two different images. The agreement coefficient has the following properties: non-dimensional, bounded, symmetric, and distinguishable between systematic and unsystematic differences. The paper provides examples of agreement analyses for hypothetical data and actual remotely sensed data. The results demonstrate that the agreement coefficient does include the above properties, and therefore is a useful tool for image comparison. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

15. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

16. A Probabilistic Model of Cross-Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Mansinghka, Vikash; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

2011-01-01

Most natural domains can be represented in multiple ways: we can categorize foods in terms of their nutritional content or social role, animals in terms of their taxonomic groupings or their ecological niches, and musical instruments in terms of their taxonomic categories or social uses. Previous approaches to modeling human categorization have…

17. 42 CFR 493.17 - Test categorization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... directly, and will simultaneously inform both CMS and CDC of the device/test category. FDA will consult with CDC concerning test categorization in the following three situations: (A) When categorizing... be forwarded to CDC for evaluation; CDC will determine complexity category and notify the...

18. 42 CFR 493.17 - Test categorization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... directly, and will simultaneously inform both CMS and CDC of the device/test category. FDA will consult with CDC concerning test categorization in the following three situations: (A) When categorizing... be forwarded to CDC for evaluation; CDC will determine complexity category and notify the...

19. On the Reliability of Categorically Scored Examinations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kupermintz, Haggai

2004-01-01

A decision-theoretic approach to the question of reliability in categorically scored examinations is explored. The concepts of true scores and errors are discussed as they deviate from conventional psychometric definitions and measurement error in categorical scores is cast in terms of misclassifications. A reliability measure based on…

20. The Dynamics of Preschoolers' Categorization Choices.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deak, Gedeon O.; Bauer, Patricia J.

1996-01-01

Three experiments explored effects of stimulus and task factors on tendency to categorize according to taxonomic relations when those relations conflict with appearances. When provided with information that constrained categorization, preschoolers and adults reliably based their decisions on taxonomic relations between physically dissimilar items.…

1. 12 CFR 1815.110 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.110 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ regulations provide for the categorical..., equipment, supplies and services; space acquisition; property management; and security); (b) Actions... replacement after rehabilitation; and (4) The Project does not involve the demolition of one or more...

2. 12 CFR 1815.110 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.110 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ regulations provide for the categorical..., equipment, supplies and services; space acquisition; property management; and security); (b) Actions... replacement after rehabilitation; and (4) The Project does not involve the demolition of one or more...

3. 24 CFR 58.35 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... Environmental Review Process: Documentation, Range of Activities, Project Aggregation and Classification § 58.35 Categorical exclusions. Categorical exclusion refers to a category of activities for which no environmental... needed with respect to environmental requirements, except where paragraph (c) of this section...

4. Categorization: The View from Animal Cognition

PubMed Central

Smith, J. David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C.; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Valleau, Jeanette C.; Church, Barbara A.

2016-01-01

Exemplar, prototype, and rule theory have organized much of the enormous literature on categorization. From this theoretical foundation have arisen the two primary debates in the literature—the prototype-exemplar debate and the single system-multiple systems debate. We review these theories and debates. Then, we examine the contribution that animal-cognition studies have made to them. Animals have been crucial behavioral ambassadors to the literature on categorization. They reveal the roots of human categorization, the basic assumptions of vertebrates entering category tasks, the surprising weakness of exemplar memory as a category-learning strategy. They show that a unitary exemplar theory of categorization is insufficient to explain human and animal categorization. They show that a multiple-systems theoretical account—encompassing exemplars, prototypes, and rules—will be required for a complete explanation. They show the value of a fitness perspective in understanding categorization, and the value of giving categorization an evolutionary depth and phylogenetic breadth. They raise important questions about the internal similarity structure of natural kinds and categories. They demonstrate strong continuities with humans in categorization, but discontinuities, too. Categorization’s great debates are resolving themselves, and to these resolutions animals have made crucial contributions. PMID:27314392

5. Pragmatic and Prescriptive Aspects of Children's Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kalish, Charles W.

2007-01-01

Categorization judgments may be right or wrong and more or less useful. When a child calls a whale "a fish," is she making an error, or just describing an interesting similarity? This chapter explores the challenges children face in learning to conform to conventions governing categorization. (Contains 1 figure.)

6. Term weighting schemes for question categorization.

PubMed

Quan, Xiaojun; Liu, Wenyin; Qiu, Bite

2011-05-01

Term weighting has proven to be an effective way to improve the performance of text categorization. Very recently, with the development of user-interactive question answering or community question answering, there has emerged a need to accurately categorize questions into predefined categories. However, as a question is usually a piece of short text, can the existing term-weighting methods perform consistently in question categorization as they do in text categorization? The answer is not clear, since to the best of our knowledge, we have not seen any work related to this problem despite of its significance. In this study, we investigate the popular unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods for question categorization. At the same time, we propose three new supervised term-weighting methods, namely, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf, and vrf. Comparisons of them with existing unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods are made through a series of experiments on question collections of Yahoo! Answers. The experimental results show that iqf*qf*icf achieves the best performance among all term-weighting methods, while qf*icf and vrf are also competitive for question categorization. Meanwhile, tf*OR is proven to be the most significant one among existing methods. In addition, iqf*qf*icf and vrf are also effective for long document categorization.

7. Population Code Dynamics in Categorical Perception

PubMed Central

Tajima, Chihiro I.; Tajima, Satohiro; Koida, Kowa; Komatsu, Hidehiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki

2016-01-01

Categorical perception is a ubiquitous function in sensory information processing, and is reported to have important influences on the recognition of presented and/or memorized stimuli. However, such complex interactions among categorical perception and other aspects of sensory processing have not been explained well in a unified manner. Here, we propose a recurrent neural network model to process categorical information of stimuli, which approximately realizes a hierarchical Bayesian estimation on stimuli. The model accounts for a wide variety of neurophysiological and cognitive phenomena in a consistent framework. In particular, the reported complexity of categorical effects, including (i) task-dependent modulation of neural response, (ii) clustering of neural population representation, (iii) temporal evolution of perceptual color memory, and (iv) a non-uniform discrimination threshold, are explained as different aspects of a single model. Moreover, we directly examine key model behaviors in the monkey visual cortex by analyzing neural population dynamics during categorization and discrimination of color stimuli. We find that the categorical task causes temporally-evolving biases in the neuronal population representations toward the focal colors, which supports the proposed model. These results suggest that categorical perception can be achieved by recurrent neural dynamics that approximates optimal probabilistic inference in the changing environment. PMID:26935275

8. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

2002-12-01

32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

9. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

1992-01-01

An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

10. An estimate of global absolute dynamic topography

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tai, C.-K.; Wunsch, C.

1984-01-01

The absolute dynamic topography of the world ocean is estimated from the largest scales to a short-wavelength cutoff of about 6700 km for the period July through September, 1978. The data base consisted of the time-averaged sea-surface topography determined by Seasat and geoid estimates made at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The issues are those of accuracy and resolution. Use of the altimetric surface as a geoid estimate beyond the short-wavelength cutoff reduces the spectral leakage in the estimated dynamic topography from erroneous small-scale geoid estimates without contaminating the low wavenumbers. Comparison of the result with a similarly filtered version of Levitus' (1982) historical average dynamic topography shows good qualitative agreement. There is quantitative disagreement, but it is within the estimated errors of both methods of calculation.

11. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... environment and are therefore categorically excluded from the preparation of environmental impact statements... that normally do not require either an environmental impact statement or an environmental...

12. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... environment and are therefore categorically excluded from the preparation of environmental impact statements... that normally do not require either an environmental impact statement or an environmental...

13. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... environment and are therefore categorically excluded from the preparation of environmental impact statements... that normally do not require either an environmental impact statement or an environmental...

14. Random matrix approach to categorical data analysis

Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M. S.

2015-09-01

Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean.

15. Automated Psychological Categorization via Linguistic Processing System

DTIC Science & Technology

2004-09-01

categorizing large amounts of documents. 36 Brucher, Heide, Knolmayer, Gerhard, Mittermayer and...Washington 6, D.C. December 1962. Brucher, Heide, Gerhard Knolmayer and Marc-Andre Mittermayer . “Document Classification Methods for Organizing

16. From perceptual to language-mediated categorization

PubMed Central

Westermann, Gert; Mareschal, Denis

2014-01-01

From at least two months onwards, infants can form perceptual categories. During the first year of life, object knowledge develops from the ability to represent individual object features to representing correlations between attributes and to integrate information from different sources. At the end of the first year, these representations are shaped by labels, opening the way to conceptual knowledge. Here, we review the development of object knowledge and object categorization over the first year of life. We then present an artificial neural network model that models the transition from early perceptual categorization to categories mediated by labels. The model informs a current debate on the role of labels in object categorization by suggesting that although labels do not act as object features they nevertheless affect perceived similarity of perceptually distinct objects sharing the same label. The model presents the first step of an integrated account from early perceptual categorization to language-based concept learning. PMID:24324235

17. 32 CFR 989.13 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.13 Categorical exclusion. (a) CATEXs define those categories... environment and do not, therefore, require further environmental analysis in an EA or an EIS. The list of...

18. Intersectionality and risk for ischemic heart disease in Sweden: Categorical and anti-categorical approaches.

PubMed

Wemrell, Maria; Mulinari, Shai; Merlo, Juan

2017-03-01

Intersectionality theory can contribute to epidemiology and public health by furthering understanding of power dynamics driving production of health disparities, and increasing knowledge about heterogeneities within, and overlap between, social categories. Drawing on McCall, we relate the first of these potential contributions to categorical intersectionality and the second to anti-categorical intersectionality. Both approaches are used in study of risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), based on register data on 3.6 million adults residing in Sweden by 2010, followed for three years. Categorical intersectionality is here coupled with between-group differences in average risk calculation, as we use intersectional categorizations while estimating odds ratios through logistic regressions. The anti-categorical approach is operationalized through measurement of discriminatory accuracy (DA), i.e., capacity to accurately categorize individuals with or without a certain outcome, through computation of the area under the curve (AUC). Our results show substantial differences in average risk between intersectional groupings. The DA of social categorizations is found to be low, however, due to outcome variability within and overlap between categories. We argue that measures of DA should be used for proper interpretation of differences in average risk between social (or any other) categories. Tension between average between-group risk and the DA of categorizations, which can be related to categorical and anti-categorical intersectional analyses, should be made explicit and discussed to a larger degree in epidemiology and public health.

19. Interference effects of categorization on decision making.

PubMed

Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R

2016-05-01

Many decision making tasks in life involve a categorization process, but the effects of categorization on subsequent decision making has rarely been studied. This issue was explored in three experiments (N=721), in which participants were shown a face stimulus on each trial and performed variations of categorization-decision tasks. On C-D trials, they categorized the stimulus and then made an action decision; on X-D trials, they were told the category and then made an action decision; on D-alone trials, they only made an action decision. An interference effect emerged in some of the conditions, such that the probability of an action on the D-alone trials (i.e., when there was no explicit categorization before the decision) differed from the total probability of the same action on the C-D or X-D trials (i.e., when there was explicit categorization before the decision). Interference effects are important because they indicate a violation of the classical law of total probability, which is assumed by many cognitive models. Across all three experiments, a complex pattern of interference effects systematically occurred for different types of stimuli and for different types of categorization-decision tasks. These interference effects present a challenge for traditional cognitive models, such as Markov and signal detection models, but a quantum cognition model, called the belief-action entanglement (BAE) model, predicted that these results could occur. The BAE model employs the quantum principles of superposition and entanglement to explain the psychological mechanisms underlying the puzzling interference effects. The model can be applied to many important and practical categorization-decision situations in life.

20. Successful associateship agreements.

PubMed

Crafton, B C

1997-08-01

When evaluating potential associateship agreements, dentists need to recognize and understand how status, noncompete clauses, scheduling and compensation affect the strength of an associateship agreement. Dentists should not enter an associateship agreement without fully understanding the agreement and its obligations or without the help of an accountant and an attorney.

1. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

1971-01-01

Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

2. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vogt, W. Paul

1982-01-01

Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

3. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

Leckey, J.

2016-10-01

In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

4. Similarity, Induction, Naming, and Categorization (SINC): Generalization or Inductive Reasoning? Reply to Heit and Hayes (2005)

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sloutsky, Vladimir M.; Fisher, Anna V.

2006-01-01

This article is a response to E. Heit and B. K. Hayes's comment on the target article "Induction and Categorization in Young Children: A Similarity-Based Model" (V. M. Sloutsky & A. V. Fisher, 2004a). The response discusses points of agreement and disagreement with Heit and Hayes; phenomena predicted by similarity, induction, naming, and…

5. CATEGORIZATION OF EVENT SEQUENCES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

SciTech Connect

G.E. Ragan; P. Mecheret; D. Dexheimer

2005-04-14

The purposes of this analysis are: (1) Categorize (as Category 1, Category 2, or Beyond Category 2) internal event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. (2) Categorize external event sequences that may occur before permanent closure of the repository at Yucca Mountain. This includes examining DBGM-1 seismic classifications and upgrading to DBGM-2, if appropriate, to ensure Beyond Category 2 categorization. (3) State the design and operational requirements that are invoked to make the categorization assignments valid. (4) Indicate the amount of material put at risk by Category 1 and Category 2 event sequences. (5) Estimate frequencies of Category 1 event sequences at the maximum capacity and receipt rate of the repository. (6) Distinguish occurrences associated with normal operations from event sequences. It is beyond the scope of the analysis to propose design requirements that may be required to control radiological exposure associated with normal operations. (7) Provide a convenient compilation of the results of the analysis in tabular form. The results of this analysis are used as inputs to the consequence analyses in an iterative design process that is depicted in Figure 1. Categorization of event sequences for permanent retrieval of waste from the repository is beyond the scope of this analysis. Cleanup activities that take place after an event sequence and other responses to abnormal events are also beyond the scope of the analysis.

6. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Absolute Calibration of Stellar Spectrophotometry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warren, W. H., Jr.

1982-01-01

The machine-readable data file of The Absolute Calibration of Stellar Spectrophotometry as distributed by the Astronomical Data Center is described. The data file contains the absolute fluxes for 16 stars published in Tables 1 and 2 of Johnson (1980). The absolute calibrations were accomplished by combining the 13-color photometry calibrations of Johnson and Mitchell (1975) with spectra obtained with a Michelson spectrophotometer and covering the wavelength range 4000 to 10300 A (Johnson 1977). The agreement between this absolute calibration and another recent one based upon data for a Lyr and 109 Vir by Tug, White and Lockwood (1977) is shown by Johnson (1980) to be quite good.

7. Absolute calibration of optical flats

DOEpatents

Sommargren, Gary E.

2005-04-05

The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

8. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kogut, A. J.

2010-01-01

The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

9. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

2017-01-01

Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

10. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

Davuluri, Sankar

2016-07-01

In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

11. Tough and tender: embodied categorization of gender.

PubMed

Slepian, Michael L; Weisbuch, Max; Rule, Nicholas O; Ambady, Nalini

2011-01-01

Emerging evidence has shown that human thought can be embodied within physical sensations and actions. Indeed, abstract concepts such as morality, time, and interpersonal warmth can be based on metaphors that are grounded in bodily experiences (e.g., physical temperature can signal interpersonal warmth). We hypothesized that social-category knowledge is similarly embodied, and we tested this hypothesis by examining a sensory metaphor related to categorical judgments of gender. We chose the dimension of "toughness" (ranging from tough to tender), which is often used to characterize differences between males and females. Across two studies, the proprioceptive experience of toughness (vs. tenderness) was manipulated as participants categorized sex-ambiguous faces as male or female. Two different manipulations of proprioceptive toughness predictably biased the categorization of faces toward "male." These findings suggest that social-category knowledge is at least partially embodied.

12. Relative cue encoding in the context of sophisticated models of categorization: Separating information from categorization

PubMed Central

McMurray, Bob

2014-01-01

Traditional studies of human categorization often treat the processes of encoding features and cues as peripheral to the question of how stimuli are categorized. However, in domains where the features and cues are less transparent, how information is encoded prior to categorization may constrain our understanding of the architecture of categorization. This is particularly true in speech perception, where acoustic cues to phonological categories are ambiguous and influenced by multiple factors. Here, it is crucial to consider the joint contributions of the information in the input and the categorization architecture. We contrasted accounts that argue for raw acoustic information encoding with accounts that posit that cues are encoded relative to expectations, and investigated how two categorization architectures—exemplar models and back-propagation parallel distributed processing models—deal with each kind of information. Relative encoding, akin to predictive coding, is a form of noise reduction, so it can be expected to improve model accuracy; however, like predictive coding, the use of relative encoding in speech perception by humans is controversial, so results are compared to patterns of human performance, rather than on the basis of overall accuracy. We found that, for both classes of models, in the vast majority of parameter settings, relative cues greatly helped the models approximate human performance. This suggests that expectation-relative processing is a crucial precursor step in phoneme categorization, and that understanding the information content is essential to understanding categorization processes. PMID:25475048

13. Stimulus Type, Level of Categorization, and Spatial-Frequencies Utilization: Implications for Perceptual Categorization Hierarchies

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harel, Assaf; Bentin, Shlomo

2009-01-01

The type of visual information needed for categorizing faces and nonface objects was investigated by manipulating spatial frequency scales available in the image during a category verification task addressing basic and subordinate levels. Spatial filtering had opposite effects on faces and airplanes that were modulated by categorization level. The…

14. Analysis of the Object Categorization Test and the Picture Categorization Test for Preschool Children.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sigel, Irving E.; Olmsted, Patricia P.

This study analyzes the Object Categorization Test (OCT) and the Picture Categorization Test (PCT) to provide (1) psychometric analysis of the tests, (2) substantive analysis detailing variation in performance level as a function of age, race, class, and sex, and (3) normative data yielding frequencies of various score patterns. Data was taken…

15. Toddlers Can Adaptively Change How They Categorize: Same Objects, Same Session, Two Different Categorical Distinctions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horst, Jessica S.; Ellis, Ann E.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Trejo, Erika; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Peltan, Jessica R.; Oakes, Lisa M.

2009-01-01

Two experiments demonstrate that 14- to 18-month-old toddlers can adaptively change how they categorize a set of objects within a single session, and that this ability is related to vocabulary size. In both experiments, toddlers were presented with a sequential touching task with objects that could be categorized either according to some…

16. Accurate absolute GPS positioning through satellite clock error estimation

Han, S.-C.; Kwon, J. H.; Jekeli, C.

2001-05-01

An algorithm for very accurate absolute positioning through Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite clock estimation has been developed. Using International GPS Service (IGS) precise orbits and measurements, GPS clock errors were estimated at 30-s intervals. Compared to values determined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the agreement was at the level of about 0.1 ns (3 cm). The clock error estimates were then applied to an absolute positioning algorithm in both static and kinematic modes. For the static case, an IGS station was selected and the coordinates were estimated every 30 s. The estimated absolute position coordinates and the known values had a mean difference of up to 18 cm with standard deviation less than 2 cm. For the kinematic case, data obtained every second from a GPS buoy were tested and the result from the absolute positioning was compared to a differential GPS (DGPS) solution. The mean differences between the coordinates estimated by the two methods are less than 40 cm and the standard deviations are less than 25 cm. It was verified that this poorer standard deviation on 1-s position results is due to the clock error interpolation from 30-s estimates with Selective Availability (SA). After SA was turned off, higher-rate clock error estimates (such as 1 s) could be obtained by a simple interpolation with negligible corruption. Therefore, the proposed absolute positioning technique can be used to within a few centimeters' precision at any rate by estimating 30-s satellite clock errors and interpolating them.

17. Bristol Stool Form Scale reliability and agreement decreases when determining Rome III stool form designations

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rater reproducibility of the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS), which categorizes stools into one of seven types, is unknown. We sought to determine reliability and agreement by individual stool type and when responses are categorized by Rome III clinical designation as normal or abnormal (constipatio...

18. 78 FR 57587 - Environmental Impact and Related Procedures-Programmatic Agreements and Additional Categorical...

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2013-09-19

... the theory that most of the areas are already disturbed), the action would lack independent utility (e.... ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) provides... project-by-project review and approval (as long as the action meets specified constraints), and...

19. Categorical encoding of color in the brain

PubMed Central

Bird, Chris M.; Berens, Samuel C.; Horner, Aidan J.; Franklin, Anna

2014-01-01

The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., “blue 1 and blue 2” or “blue 1 and green 1”), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain. PMID:24591602

20. 24 CFR 58.35 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

..., except in extraordinary circumstances (see § 58.2(a)(3)) in which a normally excluded activity may have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Categorical exclusions. 58.35 Section 58.35 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and...

1. 24 CFR 58.35 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

..., except in extraordinary circumstances (see § 58.2(a)(3)) in which a normally excluded activity may have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Categorical exclusions. 58.35 Section 58.35 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and...

2. 24 CFR 58.35 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

..., except in extraordinary circumstances (see § 58.2(a)(3)) in which a normally excluded activity may have a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Categorical exclusions. 58.35 Section 58.35 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and...

3. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

4. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

5. 28 CFR 91.55 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program § 91.55... consistent with any of the following categories are presumed not to have a significant effect on the human environment and thus, are categorically excluded from the preparation of either an EA or an EIS....

6. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and which have been found to have no such... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX §...

7. 42 CFR 493.17 - Test categorization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... troubleshooting and equipment maintenance—(i) Score 1. (A) Test system troubleshooting is automatic or self-correcting, or clearly described or requires minimal judgment; and (B) Equipment maintenance is provided by... system, assay, and examination categorized by complexity. Using the seven criteria specified in...

8. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

2013-01-01

This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

9. Categorical encoding of color in the brain.

PubMed

Bird, Chris M; Berens, Samuel C; Horner, Aidan J; Franklin, Anna

2014-03-25

The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., "blue 1 and blue 2" or "blue 1 and green 1"), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain.

10. Categorical Variables in Multiple Regression: Some Cautions.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

O'Grady, Kevin E.; Medoff, Deborah R.

1988-01-01

Limitations of dummy coding and nonsense coding as methods of coding categorical variables for use as predictors in multiple regression analysis are discussed. The combination of these approaches often yields estimates and tests of significance that are not intended by researchers for inclusion in their models. (SLD)

11. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

2012-01-01

Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

12. Categorically Defined Targets Trigger Spatiotemporal Visual Attention

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wyble, Brad; Bowman, Howard; Potter, Mary C.

2009-01-01

Transient attention to a visually salient cue enhances processing of a subsequent target in the same spatial location between 50 to 150 ms after cue onset (K. Nakayama & M. Mackeben, 1989). Do stimuli from a categorically defined target set, such as letters or digits, also generate transient attention? Participants reported digit targets among…

13. Multivariate sensitivity to voice during auditory categorization.

PubMed

Lee, Yune Sang; Peelle, Jonathan E; Kraemer, David; Lloyd, Samuel; Granger, Richard

2015-09-01

Past neuroimaging studies have documented discrete regions of human temporal cortex that are more strongly activated by conspecific voice sounds than by nonvoice sounds. However, the mechanisms underlying this voice sensitivity remain unclear. In the present functional MRI study, we took a novel approach to examining voice sensitivity, in which we applied a signal detection paradigm to the assessment of multivariate pattern classification among several living and nonliving categories of auditory stimuli. Within this framework, voice sensitivity can be interpreted as a distinct neural representation of brain activity that correctly distinguishes human vocalizations from other auditory object categories. Across a series of auditory categorization tests, we found that bilateral superior and middle temporal cortex consistently exhibited robust sensitivity to human vocal sounds. Although the strongest categorization was in distinguishing human voice from other categories, subsets of these regions were also able to distinguish reliably between nonhuman categories, suggesting a general role in auditory object categorization. Our findings complement the current evidence of cortical sensitivity to human vocal sounds by revealing that the greatest sensitivity during categorization tasks is devoted to distinguishing voice from nonvoice categories within human temporal cortex.

14. Multisample Analysis of Multivariate Ordinal Categorical Variables.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poon, Wai-Yin; Tang, Fung-Chu

2002-01-01

Studied a multiple group model with ordinal categorical observed variables that are manifestations of underlying normal variables. Proposed to apply across-group stochastic constraints on thresholds to identify the model and used a Bayesian approach to analyze the model. Simulation findings and the analysis of a real data set show the usefulness…

15. Categorizing Network Attacks Using Pattern Classification Algorithms

DTIC Science & Technology

2002-03-01

attacks into predefined categories such as Flooding Denial of Service, Distributed Denial of Service, Nukers, and Portscans . Such categorization decreases...Detection of Stealthy Portscans . Tech- nical Report, Silicon Defense, 2000. [Stevens94] Stevens, W. Richard. TCP/IP Illustrated Volume 1 . Reading: Addison

16. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

17. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

18. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

19. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

20. 32 CFR 651.55 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Categorical exclusions. 651.55 Section 651.55 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

1. 46 CFR 504.4 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.4 Categorical exclusions. (a) No environmental analyses need be undertaken or environmental... effect on the quality of the human environment because they are purely ministerial actions or...

2. 46 CFR 504.4 - Categorical exclusions.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.4 Categorical exclusions. (a) No environmental analyses need be undertaken or environmental... effect on the quality of the human environment because they are purely ministerial actions or...

3. The Education of the Categorical Imperative

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnston, James Scott

2006-01-01

In this article, I examine anew the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant and its contributions to educational theory. I make four claims. First, that Kant should be read as having the Categorical Imperative develop out of subjective maxims. Second, that moral self-perfection is the aim of moral education. Third, that moral self-perfection develops by…

4. 12 CFR 1815.110 - Categorical exclusion.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1815.110 Section 1815.110 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... assessment and EIS have been prepared; (c) Actions directly related to the granting or receipt of...

5. How experimental trial context affects perceptual categorization.

PubMed

Palmeri, Thomas J; Mack, Michael L

2015-01-01

To understand object categorization, participants are tested in experiments often quite different from how people experience object categories in the real world. Learning and knowledge of categories is measured in discrete experimental trials, those trials may or may not provide feedback, trials appear one after another, after some fixed inter-trial interval, with hundreds of trials in a row, within experimental blocks with some structure dictated by the experimental design. In the real world, outside of certain educational and vocational contexts, opportunities to learn and use categories are intermixed over time with a whole multitude of intervening experiences. It is clear from any elementary understanding of human cognition that sequential effects matter, yet this understanding is often ignored, and categorization trials are often instead treated as independent events, immune to local trial context. In this perspective, we use some of our work to illustrate some of the consequences of the fact that categorization experiments have a particular trial structure. Experimental trial context can affect performance in category learning and categorization experiments in ways that can profoundly affect theoretical conclusions.

6. Bayesian Estimation of Categorical Dynamic Factor Models

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2007-01-01

Dynamic factor models have been used to analyze continuous time series behavioral data. We extend 2 main dynamic factor model variations--the direct autoregressive factor score (DAFS) model and the white noise factor score (WNFS) model--to categorical DAFS and WNFS models in the framework of the underlying variable method and illustrate them with…

7. Development of Categorical Exclusivity in Young Infants.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eimas, Peter D.; And Others

Previous research has shown that 3- to 4-month-old infants form a global categorical representation for cats that includes female lions, whereas 6- to 7-month-old infants differentiate between cats and lions. Three experiments using familiarization-novelty preference procedures attempted to determine whether the differentiation of a global…

8. Neurophysiological Evidence for Categorical Perception of Color

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holmes, Amanda; Franklin, Anna; Clifford, Alexandra; Davies, Ian

2009-01-01

The aim of this investigation was to examine the time course and the relative contributions of perceptual and post-perceptual processes to categorical perception (CP) of color. A visual oddball task was used with standard and deviant stimuli from same (within-category) or different (between-category) categories, with chromatic separations for…

9. 42 CFR 493.17 - Test categorization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... test; and (B) Knowledge required to perform the test may be obtained through on-the-job instruction...) When categorizing previously uncategorized new technology; (B) When FDA determines it to be necessary... a change of category or for previously uncategorized new technology, PHS will receive the...

10. Mining agreements III

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1991-01-01

This book cover the following: Forms of mining agreements; Preliminary letter agreements; Acquisition of mineral interests involving securities; Partnership tax treatment in mining agreements; Non-tax consequences of partnerships under state law; Protection against joint venturers' liabilities; Joint venture decision making; Mining royalties; Commingling and unitization provisions; Indemnification and insurance provisions; Area of interest provision; Dispute resolution; and Non-participation and default provisions.

11. Absolute calibration of forces in optical tweezers

Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.

2014-07-01

Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.

12. Student Categorization of Problems—An Extension

Harper, Kathleen A.; Hite, Zachary D.; Freuler, Richard J.; Demel, John T.

2007-11-01

As part of gathering baseline data for a study on problem categorization, first-year engineering honors students who had recently completed a two-quarter sequence in physics were interviewed. The primary task in this interview was much like the problem categorization study described by Chi et al. There were, however, at least two distinct modifications: 1) in addition to the problem statements, solutions were included on the cards to be sorted 2) the problems were written such that they could also be grouped according to the nature of information presented in the problem statements and/or the number of possible solutions. The students in this baseline study, although similar in background to the novices described by Chi et al., in many ways performed more like experts. Several possibilities for this behavior are discussed.

13. [Review and categorization of quinolone antibiotics].

PubMed

Benes, Jirí

2005-02-01

No standard categorization of quinolone antibiotics into generations may be found in either Czech or world literature. The author recommends a categorization into four groups defined according to their spectrum of action and utilization: 1) preparations for the treatment of urinary tract infections; 2) systemically acting quinolones chiefly efficacious against Gram-negative bacteria; 3) so-called respiratory quinolones; and 4) quinolones with a very broad spectrum of action suitable for the treatment of very complicated infections. The author describes the chief characteristics of the most important quinolone antibiotics, including preparations either in their development stage or whose development has been prematurely interrupted because of adverse side-effects. The list includes all preparations that are or were temporarily registered in the Czech Republic.

14. Speech perception as complex auditory categorization

Holt, Lori L.

2002-05-01

Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.

15. Disentangling multimodal processes in social categorization.

PubMed

Slepian, Michael L

2015-03-01

The current work examines the role of sensorimotor processes (manipulating whether visual exposure to hard and soft stimuli encourage sensorimotor simulation) and metaphor processes (assessing whether participants have understanding of a pertinent metaphor: "hard" Republicans and "soft" Democrats) in social categorization. Using new methodology to disassociate these multimodal processes (i.e., semantic, metaphoric, and sensorimotoric), the current work demonstrates that both sensorimotor and metaphor processes, combined, are needed to find an effect upon conceptual processing, providing evidence in support of the combined importance of these two theorized components. When participants comprehended the metaphor of hard Republicans and soft Democrats, and when encouraged to simulate sensorimotor experiences of hard and soft stimuli, those stimuli influenced categorization of faces as Republican and Democrat.

16. Phonetic categorization in auditory word perception.

PubMed

Ganong, W F

1980-02-01

To investigate the interaction in speech perception of auditory information and lexical knowledge (in particular, knowledge of which phonetic sequences are words), acoustic continua varying in voice onset time were constructed so that for each acoustic continuum, one of the two possible phonetic categorizations made a word and the other did not. For example, one continuum ranged between the word dash and the nonword tash; another used the nonword dask and the word task. In two experiments, subjects showed a significant lexical effect--that is, a tendency to make phonetic categorizations that make words. This lexical effect was greater at the phoneme boundary (where auditory information is ambiguous) than at the ends of the condinua. Hence the lexical effect must arise at a stage of processing sensitive to both lexical knowledge and auditory information.

17. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

2016-08-01

Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

18. The Representation and Matching of Categorical Shape

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-07-01

with added flexibility for representing complex 3-D objects. Leibe and Schiele [23] propose a new database for comparing different methods for object cat...for object class recognition. In Workshop on Learning, Snowbird, Utah, 2004. [22] B. Leibe and B. Schiele . Analyzing appearance and contour based...and Bernt Schiele . Analyzing appearance and contour based methods for object categorization. In CVPR (2), pages 409–415, 2003. [24] T. Lindeberg. Edge

19. Integrating image data into biomedical text categorization.

PubMed

Shatkay, Hagit; Chen, Nawei; Blostein, Dorothea

2006-07-15

Categorization of biomedical articles is a central task for supporting various curation efforts. It can also form the basis for effective biomedical text mining. Automatic text classification in the biomedical domain is thus an active research area. Contests organized by the KDD Cup (2002) and the TREC Genomics track (since 2003) defined several annotation tasks that involved document classification, and provided training and test data sets. So far, these efforts focused on analyzing only the text content of documents. However, as was noted in the KDD'02 text mining contest-where figure-captions proved to be an invaluable feature for identifying documents of interest-images often provide curators with critical information. We examine the possibility of using information derived directly from image data, and of integrating it with text-based classification, for biomedical document categorization. We present a method for obtaining features from images and for using them-both alone and in combination with text-to perform the triage task introduced in the TREC Genomics track 2004. The task was to determine which documents are relevant to a given annotation task performed by the Mouse Genome Database curators. We show preliminary results, demonstrating that the method has a strong potential to enhance and complement traditional text-based categorization methods.

20. Echocardiographic agreement in the diagnostic evaluation for infective endocarditis.

PubMed

Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Selton-Suty, Christine; Tong, Steven; Afonso, Luis; Cecchi, Enrico; Park, Lawrence; Yow, Eric; Barnhart, Huiman X; Paré, Carlos; Samad, Zainab; Levine, Donald; Peterson, Gail; Stancoven, Amy Butler; Johansson, Magnus Carl; Dickerman, Stuart; Tamin, Syahidah; Habib, Gilbert; Douglas, Pamela S; Bruun, Niels Eske; Crowley, Anna Lisa

2016-07-01

Echocardiography is essential for the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis (IE). However, the reproducibility for the echocardiographic assessment of variables relevant to IE is unknown. Objectives of this study were: (1) To define the reproducibility for IE echocardiographic variables and (2) to describe a methodology for assessing quality in an observational cohort containing site-interpreted data. IE reproducibility was assessed on a subset of echocardiograms from subjects enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis registry. Specific echocardiographic case report forms were used. Intra-observer agreement was assessed from six site readers on ten randomly selected echocardiograms. Inter-observer agreement between sites and an echocardiography core laboratory was assessed on a separate random sample of 110 echocardiograms. Agreement was determined using intraclass correlation (ICC), coverage probability (CP), and limits of agreement for continuous variables and kappa statistics (κweighted) and CP for categorical variables. Intra-observer agreement for LVEF was excellent [ICC = 0.93 ± 0.1 and all pairwise differences for LVEF (CP) were within 10 %]. For IE categorical echocardiographic variables, intra-observer agreement was best for aortic abscess (κweighted = 1.0, CP = 1.0 for all readers). Highest inter-observer agreement for IE categorical echocardiographic variables was obtained for vegetation location (κweighted = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.92-0.99) and lowest agreement was found for vegetation mobility (κweighted = 0.69; 95 % CI 0.62-0.86). Moderate to excellent intra- and inter-observer agreement is observed for echocardiographic variables in the diagnostic assessment of IE. A pragmatic approach for determining echocardiographic data reproducibility in a large, multicentre, site interpreted observational cohort is feasible.

1. ANALYSIS OF A CLASSIFICATION ERROR MATRIX USING CATEGORICAL DATA TECHNIQUES.

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rosenfield, George H.; Fitzpatrick-Lins, Katherine

1984-01-01

Summary form only given. A classification error matrix typically contains tabulation results of an accuracy evaluation of a thematic classification, such as that of a land use and land cover map. The diagonal elements of the matrix represent the counts corrected, and the usual designation of classification accuracy has been the total percent correct. The nondiagonal elements of the matrix have usually been neglected. The classification error matrix is known in statistical terms as a contingency table of categorical data. As an example, an application of these methodologies to a problem of remotely sensed data concerning two photointerpreters and four categories of classification indicated that there is no significant difference in the interpretation between the two photointerpreters, and that there are significant differences among the interpreted category classifications. However, two categories, oak and cottonwood, are not separable in classification in this experiment at the 0. 51 percent probability. A coefficient of agreement is determined for the interpreted map as a whole, and individually for each of the interpreted categories. A conditional coefficient of agreement for the individual categories is compared to other methods for expressing category accuracy which have already been presented in the remote sensing literature.

2. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords.

PubMed

2014-01-01

Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing.

3. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing. PMID:24855499

4. Comparisons of absolute gravimeters (COOMET.M.G-S1)

Vinnichenko, Mr Alexander; Germak, Alessandro, Dr

2017-01-01

This report describes the results of the RMO supplementary comparison COOMET.M.G-S1 (also known as bilateral comparison COOMET 634/UA/14). The comparison measurements between the two participants NSC 'IM' (pilot laboratory) and INRIM were started in December 2015 and finished in January 2016. Participants of comparisons were conducted at their national standards the measurements of the free fall acceleration in gravimetric point laboratory of absolute gravimetry of INRIM named INRiM.2. Absolute measurements of gravimetric acceleration were conducted by ballistic gravimeters. The agreement between the two participants is good. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

5. The Research of Tax Text Categorization based on Rough Set

Liu, Bin; Xu, Guang; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Nan

To solve the problem of effective of categorization of text data in taxation system, the paper analyses the text data and the size calculation of key issues first, then designs text categorization based on rough set model.

6. Hazard categorization of 105-KE basin debris removal project

SciTech Connect

Meichle, R.H.

1996-01-25

This supporting document provides the hazard categorization for 105-KE Basin Debris Removal Project activities planned in the K east Basin. All activities are categorized as less than Hazard Category 3.

7. What is a Planet?-Categorizing Objects

Lebofsky, Larry A.

2009-05-01

Observing, communicating, comparing, organizing, relating, and inferring are fundamental to scientific thinking processes. Teaching this way, rather than just teaching "the facts,” is also important for developing the critical thinking skills of our future generations of a scientifically literate society. Since the IAU started its discussions on a definition of a planet in 2005, I have been presenting a hands-on activity called "What is a Planet?” at the annual meeting of the DPS. This activity has been designed for short (20 minute) to long (two hour) presentations depending on the venue and the audience. This has been presented to elementary-grade students, middle school students, K-12 teachers, and scientists and educators. Depending on the amount of time available, I show students how people, as well as scientists group or categorize things such as plants and animals, cats and dog, etc. The students are then broken up into groups. Science is usually done by teams of scientists working together, not as individuals working alone. I assess their prior knowledge (how many planets, their names, their properties, etc.). They also do a hands-on group activity where they group/categorize ten spheres by their properties (size, color, etc.). Finally we discuss the process by which the IAU came up with a definition of a planet. I then discuss with them why some scientists, including myself, do not agree with this definition: as with the spheres, there may be more than one "right” answer. There are many ways to look at the properties of objects in the Solar System and group them into planets and other designations. This is the way that science should be done, to look at all of the properties of an object and categorize them in a meaningful way. There may be more than one right answer.

8. Visual Scenes are Categorized by Function

PubMed Central

Greene, Michelle R.; Baldassano, Christopher; Esteva, Andre; Beck, Diane M.; Fei-Fei, Li

2015-01-01

How do we know that a kitchen is a kitchen by looking? Traditional models posit that scene categorization is achieved through recognizing necessary and sufficient features and objects, yet there is little consensus about what these may be. However, scene categories should reflect how we use visual information. We therefore test the hypothesis that scene categories reflect functions, or the possibilities for actions within a scene. Our approach is to compare human categorization patterns with predictions made by both functions and alternative models. We collected a large-scale scene category distance matrix (5 million trials) by asking observers to simply decide whether two images were from the same or different categories. Using the actions from the American Time Use Survey, we mapped actions onto each scene (1.4 million trials). We found a strong relationship between ranked category distance and functional distance (r=0.50, or 66% of the maximum possible correlation). The function model outperformed alternative models of object-based distance (r=0.33), visual features from a convolutional neural network (r=0.39), lexical distance (r=0.27), and models of visual features. Using hierarchical linear regression, we found that functions captured 85.5% of overall explained variance, with nearly half of the explained variance captured only by functions, implying that the predictive power of alternative models was due to their shared variance with the function-based model. These results challenge the dominant school of thought that visual features and objects are sufficient for scene categorization, suggesting instead that a scene’s category may be determined by the scene’s function. PMID:26709590

9. A Framework for Categorizing Important Project Variables

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parsons, Vickie S.

2003-01-01

While substantial research has led to theories concerning the variables that affect project success, no universal set of such variables has been acknowledged as the standard. The identification of a specific set of controllable variables is needed to minimize project failure. Much has been hypothesized about the need to match project controls and management processes to individual projects in order to increase the chance for success. However, an accepted taxonomy for facilitating this matching process does not exist. This paper surveyed existing literature on classification of project variables. After an analysis of those proposals, a simplified categorization is offered to encourage further research.

10. Categorization of Quantum Mechanics Problems by Professors and Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-01-01

We discuss the categorization of 20 quantum mechanics problems by physics professors and undergraduate students from two honours-level quantum mechanics courses. Professors and students were asked to categorize the problems based upon similarity of solution. We also had individual discussions with professors who categorized the problems. Faculty…

11. Multiracial Children's and Adults' Categorizations of Multiracial Individuals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roberts, Steven O.; Gelman, Susan A.

2017-01-01

Research has explored how multiracial individuals are categorized by monoracial individuals, but it has not yet explored how they are categorized by multiracial individuals themselves. We examined how multiracial children (aged 4-9 years old) and adults categorized multiracial targets (presented with and without parentage information). When…

12. The Curious Case of Orthographic Distinctiveness: Disruption of Categorical Processing

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McDaniel, Mark A.; Cahill, Michael J.; Bugg, Julie M.

2016-01-01

How does orthographic distinctiveness affect recall of structured (categorized) word lists? On one theory, enhanced item-specific information (e.g., more distinct encoding) in concert with robust relational information (e.g., categorical information) optimally supports free recall. This predicts that for categorically structured lists,…

13. Auditing concept categorizations in the UMLS.

PubMed

Gu, Huanying; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Min, Hua; Zhang, Li; Peng, Yi

2004-05-01

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) integrates about 880,000 concepts from 100 biomedical terminologies. Each concept is categorized to at least one semantic type of the Semantic Network. During the integration, it is unavoidable that some categorization errors and inconsistencies will be introduced. In this paper, we present an auditing technique to find such errors and inconsistencies. Our technique is based on an expert reviewing the pure intersections of meta-semantic types of a metaschema, a compact abstract view of the UMLS Semantic Network. We use a divide and conquer approach, handling differently small pure intersections and medium to large pure intersections. By using this approach, we limit the number of concepts reviewed, for which we expect a high percentage of errors. We reviewed all concepts in 657 pure intersections containing one to 10 concepts. Various kinds of errors are identified and the analysis of the results are presented in the paper. Also, we checked the pure intersections containing more than 10 concepts for their semantic soundness, where the semantically suspicious pure intersections are presented in the paper and their concepts are reviewed.

14. Transfer learning for visual categorization: a survey.

PubMed

Shao, Ling; Zhu, Fan; Li, Xuelong

2015-05-01

Regular machine learning and data mining techniques study the training data for future inferences under a major assumption that the future data are within the same feature space or have the same distribution as the training data. However, due to the limited availability of human labeled training data, training data that stay in the same feature space or have the same distribution as the future data cannot be guaranteed to be sufficient enough to avoid the over-fitting problem. In real-world applications, apart from data in the target domain, related data in a different domain can also be included to expand the availability of our prior knowledge about the target future data. Transfer learning addresses such cross-domain learning problems by extracting useful information from data in a related domain and transferring them for being used in target tasks. In recent years, with transfer learning being applied to visual categorization, some typical problems, e.g., view divergence in action recognition tasks and concept drifting in image classification tasks, can be efficiently solved. In this paper, we survey state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms in visual categorization applications, such as object recognition, image classification, and human action recognition.

15. What is automatized during perceptual categorization?

PubMed

Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory

2016-09-01

An experiment is described that tested whether stimulus-response associations or an abstract rule are automatized during extensive practice at perceptual categorization. Twenty-seven participants each completed 12,300 trials of perceptual categorization, either on rule-based (RB) categories that could be learned explicitly or information-integration (II) categories that required procedural learning. Each participant practiced predominantly on a primary category structure, but every third session they switched to a secondary structure that used the same stimuli and responses. Half the stimuli retained their same response on the primary and secondary categories (the congruent stimuli) and half switched responses (the incongruent stimuli). Several results stood out. First, performance on the primary categories met the standard criteria of automaticity by the end of training. Second, for the primary categories in the RB condition, accuracy and response time (RT) were identical on congruent and incongruent stimuli. In contrast, for the primary II categories, accuracy was higher and RT was lower for congruent than for incongruent stimuli. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that rules are automatized in RB tasks, whereas stimulus-response associations are automatized in II tasks. A cognitive neuroscience theory is proposed that accounts for these results.

SciTech Connect

Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lapointe, S.P.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Adams, J.; Cajka, M.G.; McNeil, W.; Drysdale, J.A. )

1992-05-01

This is a progress report of work carried out under the terms of a research agreement entitled the Canadian Seismic Agreement'' between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Canadian Commercial Corporation and the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The Canadian Seismic Agreement'' supports generally the operation of various seismograph stations in eastern Canada and the collection and analysis of earthquake data for the purpose of mitigating seismic hazards in eastern Canada and the northeastern US. The specific activities carried out in this one-year period are summarized below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong-motion network developments and earthquake activity. During this period the first surface fault unequivocably determined to have accompanied a historic earthquake in eastern North America, occurred in northern Quebec.

17. FFTF Authorization Agreement

SciTech Connect

DAUTEL, W.A.

2000-09-25

The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Work must be accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public, and complying with applicable contractual and regulatory requirements. It is the intent of this Agreement to address those items of significant importance in establishing and supporting the FFTF Authorization Envelope, but this Agreement in no way alters the terms and conditions of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), Contract Number DE-AC06-96RL13200.

18. Infant Object Categorization Transcends Diverse Object-Context Relations

PubMed Central

Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.; Mash, Clay

2010-01-01

Infants’ categorization of objects in different object-context relations was investigated. The experiment used a multiple-exemplar habituation-categorization procedure where 92 6-month-olds formed categories of animals and vehicles embedded in congruent, incongruent, and homogeneous object-context relations. Across diverse object-context relations, infants habituated to multiple exemplars within a category and categorized novel members of both animal and vehicle categories. Infants showed a slight advantage for categorizing animals. Infant object categorization appears to be robust to diversity in object-context relations. PMID:20031232

19. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

2005-01-01

We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

20. ON A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY.

DTIC Science & Technology

The formulation of a condition which yields absolute continuity when combined with continuity and bounded variation is the problem considered in the...Briefly, the formulation is achieved through a discussion which develops a proof by contradiction of a sufficiently theorem for absolute continuity which uses in its hypothesis the condition of continuity and bounded variation .

1. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gorard, Stephen

2015-01-01

This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

2. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

SciTech Connect

Wanke, Michael C.

2016-07-12

Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

3. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

1987-01-01

Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

4. Some 2-Categorical Aspects in Physics

Parzygnat, Arthur J.

2-categories provide a useful transition point between ordinary category theory and infinity-category theory where one can perform concrete computations for applications in physics and at the same time provide rigorous formalism for mathematical structures appearing in physics. We survey three such broad instances. First, we describe two-dimensional algebra as a means of constructing non-abelian parallel transport along surfaces which can be used to describe strings charged under non-abelian gauge groups in string theory. Second, we formalize the notion of convex and cone categories, provide a preliminary categorical definition of entropy, and exhibit several examples. Thirdly, we provide a universal description of the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction as a canonical procedure from states on C*-algebras to representations of C*-algebras equipped with pure state.

5. Neural network models of categorical perception.

PubMed

Damper, R I; Harnad, S R

2000-05-01

Studies of the categorical perception (CP) of sensory continua have a long and rich history in psychophysics. In 1977, Macmillan, Kaplan, and Creelman introduced the use of signal detection theory to CP studies. Anderson and colleagues simultaneously proposed the first neural model for CP, yet this line of research has been less well explored. In this paper, we assess the ability of neural-network models of CP to predict the psychophysical performance of real observers with speech sounds and artificial/novel stimuli. We show that a variety of neural mechanisms are capable of generating the characteristics of CP. Hence, CP may not be a special model of perception but an emergent property of any sufficiently powerful general learning system.

6. Categorization in neural networks and prosopagnosia

Virasoro, M. A.

1989-12-01

Prosopagnosia is a syndrome characterized by a generalized difficulty to visually recognize individual patterns among those that are similar, and can therefore be said to belong to the same category. I suggest that the existence of this disfunction may be an important clue for understanding the categorization process in the brain. In this direction the performance of neural networks under random destruction of synapses is analysed. It is found that in almost every network that stores correlated patterns the coding of the discriminating details between individuals inside a class is more sensitive to noise or to random destruction than the coding that distinguishes between classes. It follows that a process of death and/or deterioration at an intermediate level of intensity, even if it acts randomly on the network may lead to a malfunctioning of the network that resembles prosopagnosia.

7. Neon and Oxygen Absolute Abundances in the Solar Corona

Landi, E.; Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.

2007-04-01

In the present work we use the UV spectrum of a solar flare observed with SOHO SUMER to measure the absolute abundance of Ne in the solar atmosphere. The measurement is carried out using the intensity ratio between the allowed 1s2s3S1-1s2p3P2 Ne IX line at 1248.28 Å and the free-free continuum radiation observed close to the Ne IX line. We find a value of the absolute Ne abundance ANe=8.11+/-0.12, in agreement with previous estimates but substantially higher than the very recent estimate by Asplund et al. based on the oxygen photospheric abundance and the Ne/O relative abundance. Considering our measured ANe value, we argue that the absolute oxygen abundance of Asplund et al. is too low by a factor 1.9. This result has important consequences for models of the solar interior based on helioseismology measurements, as well as on the FIP bias determination of the solar upper atmosphere, solar wind, and solar energetic particles.

8. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

1985-01-01

Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

9. Categorical biases in perceiving spatial relations.

PubMed

Kranjec, Alexander; Lupyan, Gary; Chatterjee, Anjan

2014-01-01

We investigate the effect of spatial categories on visual perception. In three experiments, participants made same/different judgments on pairs of simultaneously presented dot-cross configurations. For different trials, the position of the dot within each cross could differ with respect to either categorical spatial relations (the dots occupied different quadrants) or coordinate spatial relations (the dots occupied different positions within the same quadrant). The dot-cross configurations also varied in how readily the dot position could be lexicalized. In harder-to-name trials, crosses formed a "+" shape such that each quadrant was associated with two discrete lexicalized spatial categories (e.g., "above" and "left"). In easier-to-name trials, both crosses were rotated 45° to form an "×" shape such that quadrants were unambiguously associated with a single lexicalized spatial category (e.g., "above" or "left"). In Experiment 1, participants were more accurate when discriminating categorical information between easier-to-name categories and more accurate at discriminating coordinate spatial information within harder-to-name categories. Subsequent experiments attempted to down-regulate or up-regulate the involvement of language in task performance. Results from Experiment 2 (verbal interference) and Experiment 3 (verbal training) suggest that the observed spatial relation type-by-nameability interaction is resistant to online language manipulations previously shown to affect color and object-based perceptual processing. The results across all three experiments suggest that robust biases in the visual perception of spatial relations correlate with patterns of lexicalization, but do not appear to be modulated by language online.

10. Categorical Biases in Perceiving Spatial Relations

PubMed Central

Kranjec, Alexander; Lupyan, Gary; Chatterjee, Anjan

2014-01-01

We investigate the effect of spatial categories on visual perception. In three experiments, participants made same/different judgments on pairs of simultaneously presented dot-cross configurations. For different trials, the position of the dot within each cross could differ with respect to either categorical spatial relations (the dots occupied different quadrants) or coordinate spatial relations (the dots occupied different positions within the same quadrant). The dot-cross configurations also varied in how readily the dot position could be lexicalized. In harder-to-name trials, crosses formed a “+” shape such that each quadrant was associated with two discrete lexicalized spatial categories (e.g., “above” and “left”). In easier-to-name trials, both crosses were rotated 45° to form an “×” shape such that quadrants were unambiguously associated with a single lexicalized spatial category (e.g., “above” or “left”). In Experiment 1, participants were more accurate when discriminating categorical information between easier-to-name categories and more accurate at discriminating coordinate spatial information within harder-to-name categories. Subsequent experiments attempted to down-regulate or up-regulate the involvement of language in task performance. Results from Experiment 2 (verbal interference) and Experiment 3 (verbal training) suggest that the observed spatial relation type-by-nameability interaction is resistant to online language manipulations previously shown to affect color and object-based perceptual processing. The results across all three experiments suggest that robust biases in the visual perception of spatial relations correlate with patterns of lexicalization, but do not appear to be modulated by language online. PMID:24870560

11. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

PubMed

Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

2015-01-01

Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

12. Acoustic and Categorical Dissimilarity of Musical Timbre: Evidence from Asymmetries Between Acoustic and Chimeric Sounds.

PubMed

Siedenburg, Kai; Jones-Mollerup, Kiray; McAdams, Stephen

2015-01-01

This paper investigates the role of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity ratings. Using a Gammatone-filterbank-based sound transformation, we created tones that were rated as less familiar than recorded tones from orchestral instruments and that were harder to associate with an unambiguous sound source (Experiment 1). A subset of transformed tones, a set of orchestral recordings, and a mixed set were then rated on pairwise dissimilarity (Experiment 2A). We observed that recorded instrument timbres clustered into subsets that distinguished timbres according to acoustic and categorical properties. For the subset of cross-category comparisons in the mixed set, we observed asymmetries in the distribution of ratings, as well as a stark decay of inter-rater agreement. These effects were replicated in a more robust within-subjects design (Experiment 2B) and cannot be explained by acoustic factors alone. We finally introduced a novel model of timbre dissimilarity based on partial least-squares regression that compared the contributions of both acoustic and categorical timbre descriptors. The best model fit (R (2) = 0.88) was achieved when both types of descriptors were taken into account. These findings are interpreted as evidence for an interplay of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity perception.

13. Acoustic and Categorical Dissimilarity of Musical Timbre: Evidence from Asymmetries Between Acoustic and Chimeric Sounds

PubMed Central

Siedenburg, Kai; Jones-Mollerup, Kiray; McAdams, Stephen

2016-01-01

This paper investigates the role of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity ratings. Using a Gammatone-filterbank-based sound transformation, we created tones that were rated as less familiar than recorded tones from orchestral instruments and that were harder to associate with an unambiguous sound source (Experiment 1). A subset of transformed tones, a set of orchestral recordings, and a mixed set were then rated on pairwise dissimilarity (Experiment 2A). We observed that recorded instrument timbres clustered into subsets that distinguished timbres according to acoustic and categorical properties. For the subset of cross-category comparisons in the mixed set, we observed asymmetries in the distribution of ratings, as well as a stark decay of inter-rater agreement. These effects were replicated in a more robust within-subjects design (Experiment 2B) and cannot be explained by acoustic factors alone. We finally introduced a novel model of timbre dissimilarity based on partial least-squares regression that compared the contributions of both acoustic and categorical timbre descriptors. The best model fit (R2 = 0.88) was achieved when both types of descriptors were taken into account. These findings are interpreted as evidence for an interplay of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity perception. PMID:26779086

14. Absolute realization of low BRDF value

Liu, Zilong; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu

2010-10-01

Low BRDF value is widespread used in many critical domains such as space and military fairs. These values below 0.1 Sr-1 . So the Absolute realization of these value is the most critical issue in the absolute measurement of BRDF. To develop the Absolute value realization theory of BRDF , defining an arithmetic operators of BRDF , achieving an absolute measurement Eq. of BRDF based on radiance. This is a new theory method to solve the realization problem of low BRDF value. This theory method is realized on a self-designed common double orientation structure in space. By designing an adding structure to extend the range of the measurement system and a control and processing software, Absolute realization of low BRDF value is achieved. A material of low BRDF value is measured in this measurement system and the spectral BRDF value are showed within different angles allover the space. All these values are below 0.4 Sr-1 . This process is a representative procedure about the measurement of low BRDF value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis of this measurement data is given depend on the new theory of absolute realization and the performance of the measurement system. The relative expand uncertainty of the measurement data is 0.078. This uncertainty analysis is suitable for all measurements using the new theory of absolute realization and the corresponding measurement system.

15. Countries renew rescue agreement

Bush, Susan M.

To insure long-term continuity for the international satellite search and rescue system, COSPAS/SARSAT, an intergovernmental agreement binding the four sponsoring nations to cooperate was signed July 1 in Paris. According to Russell Vollmers of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the agreement is binding for 15 years, with an automatic extension.The system marked the fifth anniversary of its first rescue last year, when on September 10, 1982, three persons were rescued. Begun in the 1970s by NASA as an experiment, COSPAS/SARSAT (a Russian-English acronym) is now a cooperative project among the United States, Canada, France, and the Soviet Union. Its goal is to reduce the time required to rescue air and maritime distress victims and also to locate victims who otherwise may not be found, thus using the satellite system as a life-saving device.

16. Developmental and social determinants of religious social categorization.

PubMed

Waillet, Nastasya van der Straten; Roskam, Isabelle

2012-01-01

The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this religious social categorization. Moreover, social factors play a role in the development. Religious categorization is likely to appear sooner in children attending heterogeneous schools than in those at homogeneous schools, and children from the minority religious group in the country understand religious categorization earlier than children from the majority group. However, no relation was found between the age at which religious categorization was understood and parents' religious socialization practices. This study is of both theoretical and practical interest: It complements what is already known about gender, race, and ethnic categorization by integrating developmental and social frameworks, and it can serve as a guideline for educational programs.

17. The time course of explicit and implicit categorization.

PubMed

Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Herberger, Eric R; Boomer, Joseph; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A

2015-10-01

Contemporary theory in cognitive neuroscience distinguishes, among the processes and utilities that serve categorization, explicit and implicit systems of category learning that learn, respectively, category rules by active hypothesis testing or adaptive behaviors by association and reinforcement. Little is known about the time course of categorization within these systems. Accordingly, the present experiments contrasted tasks that fostered explicit categorization (because they had a one-dimensional, rule-based solution) or implicit categorization (because they had a two-dimensional, information-integration solution). In Experiment 1, participants learned categories under unspeeded or speeded conditions. In Experiment 2, they applied previously trained category knowledge under unspeeded or speeded conditions. Speeded conditions selectively impaired implicit category learning and implicit mature categorization. These results illuminate the processing dynamics of explicit/implicit categorization.

18. Categorization, categorical perception, and asymmetry in infants' representation of face race

PubMed Central

Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Lee, Kang

2013-01-01

The present study examined whether 6- and 9-month-old Caucasian infants could categorize faces according to race. In Experiment 1, infants were familiarized with different female faces from a common ethnic background (i.e. either Caucasian or Asian) and then tested with female faces from a novel race category. Nine-month-olds were able to form discrete categories of Caucasian and Asian faces. However, 6-month-olds did not form discrete categories of faces based on race. In Experiment 2, a second group of 6- and 9-month-olds was tested to determine whether they could discriminate between different faces from the same race category. Results showed that both age groups could only discriminate between different faces from the own-race category of Caucasian faces. The findings of the two experiments taken together suggest that 9-month-olds formed a category of Caucasian faces that are further differentiated at the individual level. In contrast, although they could form a category of Asian faces, they could not discriminate between such other-race faces. This asymmetry in category formation at 9 months (i.e. categorization of own-race faces vs. categorical perception of other-race faces) suggests that differential experience with own- and other-race faces plays an important role in infants' acquisition of face processing abilities. PMID:20590720

19. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ayorinde, F. O.

1983-01-01

A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

20. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

SciTech Connect

Tyc, Tomas

2011-09-15

We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

1. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mijuskovic, Ben

1975-01-01

In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

2. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

Capurro, O. A.

1993-11-01

The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

3. Kelvin and the absolute temperature scale

Erlichson, Herman

2001-07-01

This paper describes the absolute temperature scale of Kelvin (William Thomson). Kelvin found that Carnot's axiom about heat being a conserved quantity had to be abandoned. Nevertheless, he found that Carnot's fundamental work on heat engines was correct. Using the concept of a Carnot engine Kelvin found that Q1/Q2 = T1/T2. Thermometers are not used to obtain absolute temperatures since they are calculated temperatures.

4. Semantic categorization precedes affective evaluation of visual scenes.

PubMed

Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G

2010-05-01

We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by a predefined target scene. The affective task involved saccading toward an unpleasant or pleasant scene, and the semantic task involved saccading toward a scene containing an animal. Both affective and semantic target scenes could be reliably categorized in less than 220 ms, but semantic categorization was always faster than affective categorization. This finding was replicated with singly, foveally presented scenes and manual responses. In comparison with foveal presentation, extrafoveal presentation slowed down the categorization of affective targets more than that of semantic targets. Exposure threshold for accurate categorization was lower for semantic information than for affective information. Superordinate-, basic-, and subordinate-level semantic categorizations were faster than affective evaluation. We conclude that affective analysis of scenes cannot bypass object recognition. Rather, semantic categorization precedes and is required for affective evaluation.

5. External distraction impairs categorization performance in older adults.

PubMed

2014-09-01

The detrimental influence of distraction on memory and attention is well established, yet it is not as clear whether irrelevant information impacts categorization abilities and whether this impact changes in aging. We examined categorization with morphed prototype stimuli in both younger and older adults, using an adaptive staircase approach to assess participants' performance in conditions with and without visual distractors. Results showed that distraction did not affect younger adults, but produced a negative impact on older adults' categorization such that there was an interaction of age and distraction. These results suggest a relationship between the increased susceptibility to visual distraction in normal aging and impairment in categorization.

6. Automatic Categorization of Tags in Collaborative Environments

Wang, Qihua; Jin, Hongxia; Nusser, Stefan

Tagging allows individuals to use whatever terms they think are appropriate to describe an item. With the growing popularity of tagging, more and more tags have been collected by a variety of applications. An item may be associated with tags describing its different aspects, such as appearance, functionality, and location. However, little attention has been paid in the organization of tags; in most tagging systems, all the tags associated with an item are listed together regardless of their meanings. When the number of tags becomes large, finding useful information with regards to a certain aspect of an item becomes difficult. Improving the organization of tags in existing tagging systems is thus highly desired. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical approach to organize tags. In our approach, tags are placed into different categories based on their meanings. To find information with respect to a certain aspect of an item, one just needs to refer to its associated tags in the corresponding category. Since existing applications have already collected a large number of tags, manually categorizing all the tags is infeasible. We propose to use data-mining and machine-learning techniques to automatically and rapidly classify tags in tagging systems. A prototype of our approaches has been developed for a real-word tagging system.

7. Categorical representation of North American precipitation projections

Greene, Arthur M.; Seager, Richard

2016-04-01

We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change “fingerprints”. Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format.

8. Categorical Colormap Optimization with Visualization Case Studies.

PubMed

Fang, H; Walton, S; Delahaye, E; Harris, J; Storchak, D A; Chen, M

2017-01-01

Mapping a set of categorical values to different colors is an elementary technique in data visualization. Users of visualization software routinely rely on the default colormaps provided by a system, or colormaps suggested by software such as ColorBrewer. In practice, users often have to select a set of colors in a semantically meaningful way (e.g., based on conventions, color metaphors, and logological associations), and consequently would like to ensure their perceptual differentiation is optimized. In this paper, we present an algorithmic approach for maximizing the perceptual distances among a set of given colors. We address two technical problems in optimization, i.e., (i) the phenomena of local maxima that halt the optimization too soon, and (ii) the arbitrary reassignment of colors that leads to the loss of the original semantic association. We paid particular attention to different types of constraints that users may wish to impose during the optimization process. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this work, we tested this technique in two case studies. To reach out to a wider range of users, we also developed a web application called Colourmap Hospital.

9. A classification framework for lung tissue categorization

Depeursinge, Adrien; Iavindrasana, Jimison; Hidki, Asmâa; Cohen, Gilles; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning

2008-03-01

We compare five common classifier families in their ability to categorize six lung tissue patterns in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of patients affected with interstitial lung diseases (ILD) but also normal tissue. The evaluated classifiers are Naive Bayes, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), J48 decision trees, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The dataset used contains 843 regions of interest (ROI) of healthy and five pathologic lung tissue patterns identified by two radiologists at the University Hospitals of Geneva. Correlation of the feature space composed of 39 texture attributes is studied. A grid search for optimal parameters is carried out for each classifier family. Two complementary metrics are used to characterize the performances of classification. Those are based on McNemar's statistical tests and global accuracy. SVM reached best values for each metric and allowed a mean correct prediction rate of 87.9% with high class-specific precision on testing sets of 423 ROIs.

10. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

PubMed

Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

2009-09-01

Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

11. Infant Categorization of Path Relations during Dynamic Events

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pruden, Shannon M.; Roseberry, Sarah; Goksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

2013-01-01

Fundamental to amassing a lexicon of relational terms (i.e., verbs, prepositions) is the ability to abstract and categorize spatial relations such as a figure (e.g., "boy") moving along a path (e.g., "around" the barn). Three studies examine how infants learn to categorize path over changes in "manner," or how an action is performed (e.g., running…

12. Working Memory Does Not Dissociate between Different Perceptual Categorization Tasks

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Yang, Lee-Xieng; Newell, Ben R.; Kalish, Michael L.

2012-01-01

Working memory is crucial for many higher level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization. This…

13. Automatic vs. Manual Categorization of Documents in Spanish.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Figuerola, Carlos G.; Rodriguez, Angel Francisco Zazo; Berrocal, Jose Luis Alonso

2001-01-01

Describes an experiment in automatic categorization, which is based on the vector model, widely used in information retrieval. Shows how the construction of the class patterns was carried out. Discusses the evaluation measures adopted and results obtained in the automatic categorization of a collection of documents in Spanish. Describes the manual…

14. Atypical Categorical Perception in Autism: Autonomy of Discrimination?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soulieres, Isabelle; Mottron, Laurent; Saumier, Daniel; Larochelle, Serge

2007-01-01

A diminished top-down influence has been proposed in autism, to account for enhanced performance in low-level perceptual tasks. Applied to perceptual categorization, this hypothesis predicts a diminished influence of category on discrimination. In order to test this hypothesis, we compared categorical perception in 16 individuals with and 16…

15. CATEGORIZATION OF EXTRANEOUS MATTER IN COTTON USING MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) was developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory to identify and categorize extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneous matter calls assigned ...

16. Categorization of extraneous matter in cotton using machine vision systems

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory was evaluated for identification and categorization of extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneou...

17. Analyses of Categorical Program Participation and Long-Term Effects.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pfannenstiel, Judy

An examination of Chapter 1 services delivered in St. Louis, Missouri and Lincoln, Nebraska, the coordination of those services with other categorical programs, and the effectiveness of those services for Chapter 1 students revealed the following conclusions: (1) relatively few Chapter 1 students receive multiple categorical program services; (2)…

18. Beyond Nonutilization: Irrelevant Cues Can Gate Learning in Probabilistic Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little, Daniel R.; Lewandowsky, Stephan

2009-01-01

In probabilistic categorization, also known as multiple cue probability learning (MCPL), people learn to predict a discrete outcome on the basis of imperfectly valid cues. In MCPL, normatively irrelevant cues are usually ignored, which stands in apparent conflict with recent research in deterministic categorization that has shown that people…

19. Semantic Categorization Precedes Affective Evaluation of Visual Scenes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyona, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G.

2010-01-01

We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by…

20. The neural basis of contextual influences on face categorization.

PubMed

Freeman, Jonathan B; Ma, Yina; Barth, Maria; Young, Steven G; Han, Shihui; Ambady, Nalini

2015-02-01

From only brief exposure to a face, individuals spontaneously categorize another's race. Recent behavioral evidence suggests that visual context may affect such categorizations. We used fMRI to examine the neural basis of contextual influences on the race categorization of faces. Participants categorized the race of faces that varied along a White-Asian morph continuum and were surrounded by American, neutral, or Chinese scene contexts. As expected, the context systematically influenced categorization responses and their efficiency (response times). Neuroimaging results indicated that the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) exhibited highly sensitive, graded responses to the compatibility of facial and contextual cues. These regions showed linearly increasing responses as a face became more White when in an American context, and linearly increasing responses as a face became more Asian when in a Chinese context. Further, RSC activity partially mediated the effect of this face-context compatibility on the efficiency of categorization responses. Together, the findings suggest a critical role of the RSC and OFC in driving contextual influences on face categorization, and highlight the impact of extraneous cues beyond the face in categorizing other people.

1. Categorical Representation of Facial Expressions in the Infant Brain

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leppanen, Jukka M.; Richmond, Jenny; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Moulson, Margaret C.; Nelson, Charles A.

2009-01-01

Categorical perception, demonstrated as reduced discrimination of within-category relative to between-category differences in stimuli, has been found in a variety of perceptual domains in adults. To examine the development of categorical perception in the domain of facial expression processing, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP)…

2. Categorical Perception of Emotional Facial Expressions in Preschoolers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cheal, Jenna L.; Rutherford, M. D.

2011-01-01

Adults perceive emotional facial expressions categorically. In this study, we explored categorical perception in 3.5-year-olds by creating a morphed continuum of emotional faces and tested preschoolers' discrimination and identification of them. In the discrimination task, participants indicated whether two examples from the continuum "felt the…

3. Working Memory Capacity and Categorization: Individual Differences and Modeling

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lewandowsky, Stephan

2011-01-01

Working memory is crucial for many higher-level cognitive functions, ranging from mental arithmetic to reasoning and problem solving. Likewise, the ability to learn and categorize novel concepts forms an indispensable part of human cognition. However, very little is known about the relationship between working memory and categorization, and…

4. Familiarity Effects on Categorization Levels of Faces and Objects

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anaki, David; Bentin, Shlomo

2009-01-01

It is well established that faces, in contrast to objects, are categorized as fast or faster at the individual level (e.g., Bill Clinton) than at the basic-level (e.g., human face). This subordinate-shift from basic-level categorization has been considered an outcome of visual expertise with processing faces. However, in the present study we found…

5. Using Log Linear Analysis for Categorical Family Variables.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moen, Phyllis

The Goodman technique of log linear analysis is ideal for family research, because it is designed for categorical (non-quantitative) variables. Variables are dichotomized (for example, married/divorced, childless/with children) or otherwise categorized (for example, level of permissiveness, life cycle stage). Contingency tables are then…

6. 42 CFR 405.203 - FDA categorization of investigational devices.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FDA categorization of investigational devices. 405... Coverage Decisions That Relate to Health Care Technology § 405.203 FDA categorization of investigational devices. (a) The FDA assigns a device with an FDA-approved IDE to one of two categories: (1)...

7. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

Kostro, Ludwik

The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

8. Categorization in ASD: The Role of Typicality and Development

PubMed Central

Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Strauss, Mark S.

2012-01-01

There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) differ in the way in which they cognitively process information. A critical aspect of cognitive processing that is receiving more attention in studies of ASD is categorization. The studies presented here examined the effect of typicality on categorization of objects and gender in high-functioning children, adolescents, and adults with ASD and matched controls. The ASD and control groups showed improved categorization throughout the lifespan for typical and somewhat typical object category members and typical gender faces. However, individuals with ASD took more time to categorize atypical object category members and were less accurate in categorizing atypical gender faces from 8–12 years through adulthood. The implications of these results for teaching categories and category labels to individuals with ASD will be discussed. PMID:22708002

9. Person (mis)perception: functionally biased sex categorization of bodies

PubMed Central

Johnson, Kerri L.; Iida, Masumi; Tassinary, Louis G.

2012-01-01

Social perception is among the most important tasks that occur in daily life, and perceivers readily appreciate the social affordances of others. Here, we demonstrate that sex categorizations are functionally biased towards a male percept. Perceivers judged body shapes that varied in waist-to-hip ratio to be men if they were not, in reality, exclusive to women, and male categorizations occurred more quickly than female categorizations (studies 1 and 4). This pattern was corroborated when participants identified the average body shapes of men and women (study 2) and when we assessed participants' cognitive representations (study 3). Moreover, these tendencies were modulated by emotion context (study 4). Thus, male categorizations occurred readily and rapidly, demonstrating a pronounced categorization bias and temporal advantage for male judgements. PMID:23075835

10. Infant categorization of path relations during dynamic events.

PubMed

Pruden, Shannon M; Roseberry, Sarah; Göksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M

2013-01-01

Fundamental to amassing a lexicon of relational terms (i.e., verbs, prepositions) is the ability to abstract and categorize spatial relations such as a figure (e.g., boy) moving along a path (e.g., around the barn). Three studies examine how infants learn to categorize path over changes in manner, or how an action is performed (e.g., running vs. crawling). Experiment 1 (n = 60) finds that 10- to 12-month-old English-learning infants categorize a figure's path. In Experiment 2 (n = 27) categorization is disrupted when the ground object is removed, suggesting the relation between figure and ground defines the path. Experiment 3 (n = 24) shows that language may be a mechanism guiding category formation. These studies suggest that English-learning infants can categorize path, a component lexicalized in the world's languages.

11. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

PubMed

2014-01-01

Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

12. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

2003-01-01

The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

13. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

PubMed

Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

2016-02-01

Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

14. Novel Absolute Displacement Sensor with Wide Range Based on Malus Law

PubMed Central

Li, Wei; Lu, Xiaoping; Lin, Yonggang

2009-01-01

The paper presents a novel wide range absolute displacement sensor based on polarized light detection principle. The sensor comprises of two sets of polarized light detecting systems which are coupled by pulleys. The inherent disadvantage in optic system like light source intensity drift is solved and absolute measurement with wide-range is achieved. A prototype and the relevant test bed have been built. The test results are in good agreement with expectation. Its measurement range is 540 mm, and its linearity is better than 0.05%. PMID:22303181

15. ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR V335 SERPENTIS

SciTech Connect

Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Fekel, Francis C.; Claret, Antonio E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu

2012-08-15

V335 Ser is now known to be an eccentric double-lined A1+A3 binary star with fairly deep (0.5 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7456 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 5666 from the NFO WebScope, and 67 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope. From dates of minima, the apsidal period is about 880 years. Accurate (better than 2%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and the radial velocity curve. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 380 Myr, though the age agreement for the two components is poor. Tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric, but we find that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed asynchronous rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

16. A SOLAR SPECTROSCOPIC ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCE OF ARGON FROM RESIK

SciTech Connect

Sylwester, J.; Sylwester, B.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Kuznetsov, V. D. E-mail: kjhp@mssl.ucl.ac.u

2010-09-10

Observations of He-like and H-like Ar (Ar XVII and Ar XVIII) lines at 3.949 A and 3.733 A, respectively, with the RESIK X-ray spectrometer on the CORONAS-F spacecraft, together with temperatures and emission measures from the two channels of GOES, have been analyzed to obtain the abundance of Ar in flare plasmas in the solar corona. The line fluxes per unit emission measure show a temperature dependence like that predicted from theory and lead to spectroscopically determined values for the absolute Ar abundance, A(Ar) = 6.44 {+-} 0.07 (Ar XVII) and 6.49 {+-} 0.16 (Ar XVIII), which are in agreement to within uncertainties. The weighted mean is 6.45 {+-} 0.06, which is between two recent compilations of the solar Ar abundance and suggests that the photospheric and coronal abundances of Ar are very similar.

17. Interrater agreement for Critical Care EEG Terminology

PubMed Central

Gaspard, Nicolas; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; LaRoche, Suzette M.; Hahn, Cecil D.; Westover, M. Brandon

2016-01-01

Summary Objective The interpretation of critical care electroencephalography (EEG) studies is challenging because of the presence of many periodic and rhythmic patterns of uncertain clinical significance. Defining the clinical significance of these patterns requires standardized terminology with high interrater agreement (IRA). We sought to evaluate IRA for the final, published American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS)–approved version of the critical care EEG terminology (2012 version). Our evaluation included terms not assessed previously and incorporated raters with a broad range of EEG reading experience. Methods After reviewing a set of training slides, 49 readers independently completed a Web-based test consisting of 11 identical questions for each of 37 EEG samples (407 questions). Questions assessed whether a pattern was an electrographic seizure; pattern location (main term 1), pattern type (main term 2); and presence and classification of eight other key features (“plus” modifiers, sharpness, absolute and relative amplitude, frequency, number of phases, fluctuation/evolution, and the presence of “triphasic” morphology). Results IRA statistics (κ values) were almost perfect (90–100%) for seizures, main terms 1 and 2, the +S modifier (superimposed spikes/sharp waves or sharply contoured rhythmic delta activity), sharpness, absolute amplitude, frequency, and number of phases. Agreement was substantial for the +F (superimposed fast activity) and +R (superimposed rhythmic delta activity) modifiers (66% and 67%, respectively), moderate for triphasic morphology (58%), and fair for evolution (21%). Significance IRA for most terms in the ACNS critical care EEG terminology is high. These terms are suitable for multicenter research on the clinical significance of critical care EEG patterns. PMID:24888711

18. A method to estimate the absolute ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter from relative measurements.

PubMed

Kim, Jongbeom; Song, Dong-Gi; Jhang, Kyung-Young

2017-02-17

The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter, β, is determined from the displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic frequency component generated during the propagation of ultrasonic waves through a material. This parameter is generally referred to as the absolute parameter. Meanwhile, it is difficult to measure the small displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic component; therefore, most studies measure the relative parameter determined from the detected signal amplitude. However, for quantitative assessment of material degradation, the absolute parameter is still required. This study proposes a method to estimate the absolute parameter for damaged material by measuring the relative parameter. This method is based on the fact that the fractional ratio of the relative parameters between different materials is identical to that of the absolute parameters after compensation for material dependent differences such as the wavenumber and detection-sensitivity. In order to experimentally verify the method, the relative parameters of heat-treated Al6061-T6 alloy specimens with different aging times were measured to compare with absolute parameters directly measured by piezo-electric detection. The results show that the fluctuations of both parameters with respect to aging time were very similar to each other, and that the absolute parameters estimated by the proposed method were in good agreement with those measured directly.

19. Inviscid instability of the Batchelor vortex: Absolute-convective transition and spatial branches

Olendraru, Cornel; Sellier, Antoine; Rossi, Maurice; Huerre, Patrick

1999-07-01

The main objective of the study is to examine the spatio-temporal instability properties of the Batchelor q-vortex, as a function of swirl ratio q and external axial flow parameter a. The inviscid dispersion relation between complex axial wave number and frequency is determined by numerical integration of the Howard-Gupta ordinary differential equation. The absolute-convective nature of the instability is then ascertained by application of the Briggs-Bers zero-group-velocity criterion. A moderate amount of swirl is found to promote the onset of absolute instability. In the case of wakes, transition from convective to absolute instability always takes place via the helical mode of azimuthal wave number m=-1. For sufficiently large swirl, co-flowing wakes become absolutely unstable. In the case of jets, transition from absolute to convective instability occurs through various helical modes, the transitional azimuthal wave number m being negative but sensitive to increasing swirl. For sufficiently large swirl, weakly co-flowing jets become absolutely unstable. These results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with those obtained by Delbende et al. through a direct numerical simulation of the linear response. Finally, the spatial (complex axial wave number, real frequency) instability characteristics are illustrated for the case of zero-external flow swirling jets.

20. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

PubMed Central

Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; de Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz

2015-01-01

Objective To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. Methods The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ2) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). Results The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. Conclusion The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue. PMID:26466060

1. Experiments on Supervised Learning Algorithms for Text Categorization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Namburu, Setu Madhavi; Tu, Haiying; Luo, Jianhui; Pattipati, Krishna R.

2005-01-01

Modern information society is facing the challenge of handling massive volume of online documents, news, intelligence reports, and so on. How to use the information accurately and in a timely manner becomes a major concern in many areas. While the general information may also include images and voice, we focus on the categorization of text data in this paper. We provide a brief overview of the information processing flow for text categorization, and discuss two supervised learning algorithms, viz., support vector machines (SVM) and partial least squares (PLS), which have been successfully applied in other domains, e.g., fault diagnosis [9]. While SVM has been well explored for binary classification and was reported as an efficient algorithm for text categorization, PLS has not yet been applied to text categorization. Our experiments are conducted on three data sets: Reuter's- 21578 dataset about corporate mergers and data acquisitions (ACQ), WebKB and the 20-Newsgroups. Results show that the performance of PLS is comparable to SVM in text categorization. A major drawback of SVM for multi-class categorization is that it requires a voting scheme based on the results of pair-wise classification. PLS does not have this drawback and could be a better candidate for multi-class text categorization.

2. Mining Agreements with Indian Tribes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Luebben, Tom

1976-01-01

The article discusses aspects of negotiating agreements for exploration, development, and mining of hard minerals on Indian Reservations. The agreements discussed are typical of copper agreements, but the general points under discussion are applicable to most hard minerals except for uranium, coal, and oil which are substantially different.…

3. Agreement and Attraction in Russian

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lorimor, Heidi; Bock, Kathryn; Zalkind, Ekaterina; Sheyman, Alina; Beard, Robert

2008-01-01

We assessed whether and under what conditions noncanonical agreement patterns occur in Russian, with the goal of understanding the factors involved in normal agreement. Russian is a morphosyntactically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, gender, and case. If consistent, overt specification of number and gender agreement…

4. Agreement with Subjects in Lubukusu

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diercks, Michael J. K.

2010-01-01

This dissertation examines three topics in the morphosyntax of Lubukusu (Bantu, Kenya), all of which are concerned with agreement with subjects: locative inversion, complementizer agreement, and alternative agreement effects in subject extraction. Each topic reports novel Lubukusu data which are both typologically interesting and theoretically…

5. Comparative vs. Absolute Judgments of Trait Desirability

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hofstee, Willem K. B.

1970-01-01

Reversals of trait desirability are studied. Terms indicating conservativw behavior appeared to be judged relatively desirable in comparative judgement, while traits indicating dynamic and expansive behavior benefited from absolute judgement. The reversal effect was shown to be a general one, i.e. reversals were not dependent upon the specific…

6. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.

DTIC Science & Technology

1983-01-07

Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

7. An Absolute Electrometer for the Physics Laboratory

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Straulino, S.; Cartacci, A.

2009-01-01

A low-cost, easy-to-use absolute electrometer is presented: two thin metallic plates and an electronic balance, usually available in a laboratory, are used. We report on the very good performance of the device that allows precise measurements of the force acting between two charged plates. (Contains 5 footnotes, 2 tables, and 6 figures.)

8. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

2016-01-01

This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

9. Absolute Positioning Using the Global Positioning System

DTIC Science & Technology

1994-04-01

Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has becom a useful tool In providing relativ survey...Includes the development of a low cost navigator for wheeled vehicles. ABSTRACT The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has become a useful tool In providing...technique of absolute or point positioning involves the use of a single Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver to determine the three-dimenslonal

10. Relationship between listeners' nonnative speech recognition and categorization abilities.

PubMed

Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

2015-01-01

Enhancement of the perceptual encoding of talker characteristics (indexical information) in speech can facilitate listeners' recognition of linguistic content. The present study explored this indexical-linguistic relationship in nonnative speech processing by examining listeners' performance on two tasks: nonnative accent categorization and nonnative speech-in-noise recognition. Results indicated substantial variability across listeners in their performance on both the accent categorization and nonnative speech recognition tasks. Moreover, listeners' accent categorization performance correlated with their nonnative speech-in-noise recognition performance. These results suggest that having more robust indexical representations for nonnative accents may allow listeners to more accurately recognize the linguistic content of nonnative speech.

11. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

2017-04-01

A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

12. Research in Communication and Instruction: Categorization and Synthesis.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staton-Spicer, Ann O.; Wulff, Donald H.

1984-01-01

Categorizes and synthesizes 186 empirical studies published from 1974-1982 in the areas of teacher characteristics, student characteristics, teaching strategies, speech criticism, student evaluation, speech communication content and programs. (PD)

13. Categorization of Indoor Places Using the Kinect Sensor

PubMed Central

Mozos, Oscar Martinez; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Kurazume, Ryo; Hasegawa, Tsutomu

2012-01-01

The categorization of places in indoor environments is an important capability for service robots working and interacting with humans. In this paper we present a method to categorize different areas in indoor environments using a mobile robot equipped with a Kinect camera. Our approach transforms depth and grey scale images taken at each place into histograms of local binary patterns (LBPs) whose dimensionality is further reduced following a uniform criterion. The histograms are then combined into a single feature vector which is categorized using a supervised method. In this work we compare the performance of support vector machines and random forests as supervised classifiers. Finally, we apply our technique to distinguish five different place categories: corridors, laboratories, offices, kitchens, and study rooms. Experimental results show that we can categorize these places with high accuracy using our approach. PMID:22778665

14. Interaction between categorical knowledge and episodic memory across domains

PubMed Central

Hemmer, Pernille; Persaud, Kimele

2014-01-01

Categorical knowledge and episodic memory have traditionally been viewed as separate lines of inquiry. Here, we present a perspective on the interrelatedness of categorical knowledge and reconstruction from memory. We address three underlying questions: what knowledge do people bring to the task of remembering? How do people integrate that knowledge with episodic memory? Is this the optimal way for the memory system to work? In the review of five studies spanning four category domains (discrete, continuous, temporal, and linguistic), we evaluate the relative contribution and the structure of influence of categorical knowledge on long-term episodic memory. These studies suggest a robustness of peoples’ knowledge of the statistical regularities of the environment, and provide converging evidence of the quality and influence of category knowledge on reconstructive memory. Lastly, we argue that combining categorical knowledge and episodic memory is an efficient strategy of the memory system. PMID:24966848

15. Color Vision and Hue Categorization in Young Human Infants

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bornstein, Marc H.; And Others

1976-01-01

The main objective of the present investigations was to determine whether or not young human infants see the physical spectrum in a categorical fashion as human adults and animals who possess color vision regularly do. (Author)

16. A Goal-Directed Bayesian Framework for Categorization

PubMed Central

Rigoli, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Dolan, Raymond; Friston, Karl

2017-01-01

Categorization is a fundamental ability for efficient behavioral control. It allows organisms to remember the correct responses to categorical cues and not for every stimulus encountered (hence eluding computational cost or complexity), and to generalize appropriate responses to novel stimuli dependant on category assignment. Assuming the brain performs Bayesian inference, based on a generative model of the external world and future goals, we propose a computational model of categorization in which important properties emerge. These properties comprise the ability to infer latent causes of sensory experience, a hierarchical organization of latent causes, and an explicit inclusion of context and action representations. Crucially, these aspects derive from considering the environmental statistics that are relevant to achieve goals, and from the fundamental Bayesian principle that any generative model should be preferred over alternative models based on an accuracy-complexity trade-off. Our account is a step toward elucidating computational principles of categorization and its role within the Bayesian brain hypothesis. PMID:28382008

17. "Absolute" quantification in magnetic resonance spectroscopy: validation of a clinical protocol in multiple sclerosis.

PubMed

Bagory, Matthieu; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Ibarrola, Danielle; Confavreux, Christian; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

2007-01-01

MRS allows to measure cerebral metabolites, thus helping to characterize brain disease diagnosis and followup. Metabolite concentration quantification is usually based on metabolite ratio referring to creatine. If this metabolite concentration is supposed to be constant, it may vary in pathological processes. Therefore, "absolute" concentration methodology is needed. The aim of this study is to validate a clinical "absolute" quantification protocol through the development of an external metabolic phantom, calibration and correction, and the investigation of reproducibility issues. When phantom stability was investigated by a short-term and a long-term reproducibility study, both Standard Deviations (SD) were in agreement with literature values. This "absolute" quantification method was applied to patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The results show a significant decrease in both N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA) and choline concentrations.

18. A diagrammatic approach to the categorical coherent state

Chen, Wei; Lin, Bing-Sheng

2013-11-01

In this paper, we study the categorification of the coherent states, which is equivalent to the categorification of corresponding displacement operators. Based on the categorification of Heisenberg algebras, we construct some complexes in a homotopy category which can be considered as the categorical analogues of the displacement operators. Using the diagrammatic calculus, we find that the properties of the categorical displacement operators coincide with those in normal quantum mechanics.

19. A diagrammatic approach to the categorical coherent state

SciTech Connect

Chen, Wei; Lin, Bing-Sheng

2013-11-15

In this paper, we study the categorification of the coherent states, which is equivalent to the categorification of corresponding displacement operators. Based on the categorification of Heisenberg algebras, we construct some complexes in a homotopy category which can be considered as the categorical analogues of the displacement operators. Using the diagrammatic calculus, we find that the properties of the categorical displacement operators coincide with those in normal quantum mechanics.

20. Context-dependent categorical perception in a songbird

PubMed Central

Lachlan, Robert F.; Nowicki, Stephen

2015-01-01

Some of the psychological abilities that underlie human speech are shared with other species. One hallmark of speech is that linguistic context affects both how speech sounds are categorized into phonemes, and how different versions of phonemes are produced. We here confirm earlier findings that swamp sparrows categorically perceive the notes that constitute their learned songs and then investigate how categorical boundaries differ according to context. We clustered notes according to their acoustic structure, and found statistical evidence for clustering into 10 population-wide note types. Examining how three related types were perceived, we found, in both discrimination and labeling tests, that an “intermediate” note type is categorized with a “short” type when it occurs at the beginning of a song syllable, but with a “long” type at the end of a syllable. In sum, three produced note-type clusters appear to be underlain by two perceived categories. Thus, in birdsong, as in human speech, categorical perception is context-dependent, and as is the case for human phonology, there is a complex relationship between underlying categorical representations and surface forms. Our results therefore suggest that complex phonology can evolve even in the absence of rich linguistic components, like syntax and semantics. PMID:25561538

1. Appropriate medical data categorization for data mining classification techniques.

PubMed

Liao, Shang-Chih; Lee, I-Nong

2002-03-01

Some data mining (DM) methods, or software tools, require normalized data, others rely on categorized data, and some can accommodate multiple data scales. Each DM technique has a specific background theory; therefore, different results are expected when applying multiple methods. The purpose of this study is to find the data format appropriate for each DM classification technique for wider applications, and efficiently to obtain trustworthy results. Considering the nature of medical data, categorical variables are sometimes useful for making decisions and can make it easier to extrapolate knowledge. In this study, three mathematical data categorization methods (Fusinter, minimum description length principle [MDLPC] and Chi-merge) were applied to accommodate five data mining classification techniques (statistics discriminant analysis, supervised classification with Neural Networks, Decision trees, Genetic supervised clustering and Bayesian classification [probability neural networks; PNN]) using a heart disease database with four types of data (continuous data, binary data, nominal data, and ordinal data). Compared with original or normalized data, data categorized by the MDLPC categorization method was found to perform better in most of the DM classification techniques used in this study. Categorical data is good for most DM classification techniques (e.g. classification of disease and non-disease groups) and is relatively easy to use for extracting medical knowledge.

2. Inference and coherence in causal-based artifact categorization.

PubMed

Puebla, Guillermo; Chaigneau, Sergio E

2014-01-01

In four experiments, we tested conditions under which artifact concepts support inference and coherence in causal categorization. In all four experiments, participants categorized scenarios in which we systematically varied information about artifacts' associated design history, physical structure, user intention, user action and functional outcome, and where each property could be specified as intact, compromised or not observed. Consistently across experiments, when participants received complete information (i.e., when all properties were observed), they categorized based on individual properties and did not show evidence of using coherence to categorize. In contrast, when the state of some property was not observed, participants gave evidence of using available information to infer the state of the unobserved property, which increased the value of the available information for categorization. Our data offers answers to longstanding questions regarding artifact categorization, such as whether there are underlying causal models for artifacts, which properties are part of them, whether design history is an artifact's causal essence, and whether physical appearance or functional outcome is the most central artifact property.

3. Evaluation of color categorization for representing vehicle colors

Zeng, Nan; Crisman, Jill D.

1997-02-01

This paper evaluates the accuracy of three color categorization techniques in describing vehicles colors for a system, AutoColor, which we are developing for Intelligent Transportation Systems. Color categorization is used to efficiently represent 24-bit color images with up to 8 bits of color information. Our inspiration for color categorization is based on the fact that humans typically use only a few color names to describe the numerous colors they perceive. Our Crayon color categorization technique uses a naming scheme for digitized colors which is roughly based on human names for colors. The fastest and most straight forward method for compacting a 24-bit representation into an 8-bit representation is to use the most significant bits (MSB) to represent the colors. In addition, we have developed an Adaptive color categorization technique which can derive a set of color categories for the current imaging conditions. In this paper, we detail the three color categorization techniques, Crayon, MSB, and Adaptive, and we evaluate their performance on representing vehicle colors in our AutoColor system.

4. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

2012-01-01

Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

5. Consistent thermostatistics forbids negative absolute temperatures

Dunkel, Jörn; Hilbert, Stefan

2014-01-01

Over the past 60 years, a considerable number of theories and experiments have claimed the existence of negative absolute temperature in spin systems and ultracold quantum gases. This has led to speculation that ultracold gases may be dark-energy analogues and also suggests the feasibility of heat engines with efficiencies larger than one. Here, we prove that all previous negative temperature claims and their implications are invalid as they arise from the use of an entropy definition that is inconsistent both mathematically and thermodynamically. We show that the underlying conceptual deficiencies can be overcome if one adopts a microcanonical entropy functional originally derived by Gibbs. The resulting thermodynamic framework is self-consistent and implies that absolute temperature remains positive even for systems with a bounded spectrum. In addition, we propose a minimal quantum thermometer that can be implemented with available experimental techniques.

6. Absolute measurement of length with nanometric resolution

Apostol, D.; Garoi, F.; Timcu, A.; Damian, V.; Logofatu, P. C.; Nascov, V.

2005-08-01

Laser interferometer displacement measuring transducers have a well-defined traceability route to the definition of the meter. The laser interferometer is de-facto length scale for applications in micro and nano technologies. However their physical unit -half lambda is too large for nanometric resolution. Fringe interpolation-usual technique to improve the resolution-lack of reproducibility could be avoided using the principles of absolute distance measurement. Absolute distance refers to the use of interferometric techniques for determining the position of an object without the necessity of measuring continuous displacements between points. The interference pattern as produced by the interference of two point-like coherent sources is fitted to a geometric model so as to determine the longitudinal location of the target by minimizing least square errors. The longitudinal coordinate of the target was measured with accuracy better than 1 nm, for a target position range of 0.4μm.

7. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tedesco, Edward F.

1991-01-01

A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

8. Computer processing of spectrograms for absolute intensities.

PubMed

Guttman, A; Golden, J; Galbraith, H J

1967-09-01

A computer program was developed to process photographically recorded spectra for absolute intensity. Test and calibration films are subjected to densitometric scans that provide digitally recorded densities on magnetic tapes. The nonlinear calibration data are fitted by least-squares cubic polynomials to yield a good approximation to the monochromatic H&D curves for commonly used emulsions (2475 recording film, Royal-X, Tri-X, 4-X). Several test cases were made. Results of these cases show that the machine processed absolute intensities are accurate to within 15%o. Arbitrarily raising the sensitivity threshold by 0.1 density units above gross fog yields cubic polynomial fits to the H&D curves that are radiometrically accurate within 10%. In addition, curves of gamma vs wavelength for 2475, Tri-X, and 4-X emulsions were made. These data show slight evidence of the photographic Purkinje effect in the 2475 emulsion.

9. An absolute measure for a key currency

Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

10. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

PubMed

Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

2014-12-10

Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum.

11. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

2013-07-01

The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

12. Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors

SciTech Connect

Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie

2010-06-23

The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

13. Negative absolute temperature for mobile particles

Braun, Simon; Ronzheimer, Philipp; Schreiber, Michael; Hodgman, Sean; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

2013-05-01

Absolute temperature is usually bound to be strictly positive. However, negative absolute temperature states, where the occupation probability of states increases with their energy, are possible in systems with an upper energy bound. So far, such states have only been demonstrated in localized spin systems with finite, discrete spectra. We realized a negative absolute temperature state for motional degrees of freedom with ultracold bosonic 39K atoms in an optical lattice, by implementing the attractive Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. This new state strikingly revealed itself by a quasimomentum distribution that is peaked at maximum kinetic energy. The measured kinetic energy distribution and the extracted negative temperature indicate that the ensemble is close to degeneracy, with coherence over several lattice sites. The state is as stable as a corresponding positive temperature state: The negative temperature stabilizes the system against mean-field collapse driven by negative pressure. Negative temperatures open up new parameter regimes for cold atoms, enabling fundamentally new many-body states. Additionally, they give rise to several counterintuitive effects such as heat engines with above unity efficiency.

14. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

2011-01-01

This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

15. System for absolute measurements by interferometric sensors

Norton, Douglas A.

1993-03-01

The most common problem of interferometric sensors is their inability to measure absolute path imbalance. Presented in this paper is a signal processing system that gives absolute, unambiguous reading of optical path difference for almost any style of interferometric sensor. Key components are a wide band (incoherent) optical source, a polychromator, and FFT electronics. Advantages include no moving parts in the signal processor, no active components at the sensor location, and the use of standard single mode fiber for sensor illumination and signal transmission. Actual absolute path imbalance of the interferometer is determined without using fringe counting or other inferential techniques. The polychromator extracts the interference information that occurs at each discrete wavelength within the spectral band of the optical source. The signal processing consists of analog and digital filtering, Fast Fourier analysis, and a peak detection and interpolation algorithm. This system was originally designed for use in a remote pressure sensing application that employed a totally passive fiber optic interferometer. A performance qualification was made using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercially available laser interferometer to measure the reference displacement.

16. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

PubMed

Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

2010-02-10

Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

17. Constrained Least Absolute Deviation Neural Networks

PubMed Central

2008-01-01

18. Agreements at the Pharmaceutical/University Interface.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ku, Katherine

1987-01-01

Specific agreements that arise at the interface between universities and pharmaceutical companies are described including sponsored research agreements, license agreements, clinical study agreements, material transfer agreements, and patient consent forms with respect to commercialization rights. (Author/MLW)

19. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

20. Experience and grammatical agreement: statistical learning shapes number agreement production.

PubMed

Haskell, Todd R; Thornton, Robert; Macdonald, Maryellen C

2010-02-01

A robust result in research on the production of grammatical agreement is that speakers are more likely to produce an erroneous verb with phrases such as the key to the cabinets, with a singular noun followed by a plural one, than with phrases such as the keys to the cabinet, where a plural noun is followed by a singular. These asymmetries are thought to reflect core language production processes. Previous accounts have attributed error patterns to a syntactic number feature present on plurals but not singulars. An alternative approach is presented in which a process similar to structural priming contributes to the error asymmetry via speakers' past experiences with related agreement constructions. A corpus analysis and two agreement production studies test this account. The results suggest that agreement production is shaped by statistical learning from past language experience. Implications for accounts of agreement are discussed.

1. Experience and grammatical agreement: Statistical learning shapes number agreement production

PubMed Central

Haskell, Todd R.; Thornton, Robert; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2009-01-01

A robust result in research on the production of grammatical agreement is that speakers are more likely to produce an erroneous verb with phrases such as the key to the cabinets, with a singular noun followed by a plural one, than with phrases such as the keys to the cabinet, where a plural noun is followed by a singular. These asymmetries are thought to reflect core language production processes. Previous accounts have attributed error patterns to a syntactic number feature present on plurals but not singulars. An alternative approach is presented in which a process similar to structural priming contributes to the error asymmetry via speakers' past experiences with related agreement constructions. A corpus analysis and two agreement production studies test this account. The results suggest that agreement production is shaped by statistical learning from past language experience. Implications for accounts of agreement are discussed. PMID:19942213

2. Absolute distance measurement by chirped pulse interferometry using a femtosecond pulse laser.

PubMed

Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Meng, Fei; Li, Jianshuang; Qu, Xinghua

2015-11-30

We propose here a method for absolute distance measurement by chirped pulse interferometry using frequency comb. The principle is introduced, and the distance can be measured via the shift of the widest fringe. The experimental results show an agreement within 26 μm in a range up to 65 m, corresponding to a relative precision of 4 × 10-7, compared with a reference distance meter.

3. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

PubMed

Chen, Z; D'Alfonso, A J; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

2015-10-01

We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens.

4. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

SciTech Connect

Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

2014-09-15

This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

5. One Giant Leap for Categorizers: One Small Step for Categorization Theory

PubMed Central

Smith, J. David; Ell, Shawn W.

2015-01-01

We explore humans’ rule-based category learning using analytic approaches that highlight their psychological transitions during learning. These approaches confirm that humans show qualitatively sudden psychological transitions during rule learning. These transitions contribute to the theoretical literature contrasting single vs. multiple category-learning systems, because they seem to reveal a distinctive learning process of explicit rule discovery. A complete psychology of categorization must describe this learning process, too. Yet extensive formal-modeling analyses confirm that a wide range of current (gradient-descent) models cannot reproduce these transitions, including influential rule-based models (e.g., COVIS) and exemplar models (e.g., ALCOVE). It is an important theoretical conclusion that existing models cannot explain humans’ rule-based category learning. The problem these models have is the incremental algorithm by which learning is simulated. Humans descend no gradient in rule-based tasks. Very different formal-modeling systems will be required to explain humans’ psychology in these tasks. An important next step will be to build a new generation of models that can do so. PMID:26332587

6. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize.

PubMed

Skaare, Dagfinn; Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

2015-11-01

Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion.

7. A Regional Categorization for "New-Type Urbanization" in China.

PubMed

Fang, Chuanglin; Ma, Haitao; Wang, Jing

2015-01-01

Regional differences in the character of urbanization in China are substantial. The promotion of what has been termed "new-type urbanization" cannot, as a result of these regional differences, be expected to follow a universal approach--rather, such a development must objectively adhere to locational and category-specific principles and adopt differentiated urbanization development models. Regional categorization is often used in geography, but is rarely deployed in research addressing human and social problems relating to urbanization. In March 2014, China published the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014-2020), which calls for the scientific and reasonable planning of "new-type urbanization," and appropriate regional categorizations are urgently needed in order to guide this reform. Responding to this challenge, this research engaged in the design of a "dominantly quantitative analysis, qualitatively supplemented" method in order to divide China into 5 main regions and 47 sub-regions in terms of new-type urbanization. The paper discusses the features and key problems of each region. This study introduces a new method for regional categorization, thereby remedying the lack of regional categorization in relation to "new-type urbanization" in China, and ultimately promoting the development of regional categorization in the humanities as a valuable reference for healthy and sustainable Chinese urbanization.

8. Mentality or morality? Membership categorization, multiple meanings and mass murder.

PubMed

Rapley, Mark; McCarthy, David; McHoul, Alec

2003-09-01

A central topic for social psychology is how we identify, categorize or represent ourselves to ourselves and to each other. Previous work on this topic stemming from attribution theory, social identity theory, self-categorization theory and social representations theory has tended to accept the dominant cognitivist tenet of an interior self which is (with varying degrees of success) re-presented in ordinary discourse. Against this tradition, and drawing on membership categorization analysis, we argue here for an attention to ordinary members' methods of categorizing the self. Such devices are constitutive of a culture. Accounts of the self (whether lay or professional) cannot avoid reliance on such devices. Our particular case involves a corpus of materials from the press surrounding the Port Arthur massacre: the shooting of 35 people by a lone gunman, Martin Bryant, in Tasmania in 1996. In this case, where public accountings for what 'makes up' a particular person are tied to an otherwise inexplicable but ultra-newsworthy event, we find that lay and professional methods of accounting are remarkably congruent. One of the reasons for this congruence, we suggest, is that the categorization of persons is a fundamentally moral matter. Devices for producing everyday moral accounts, in actual practical circumstances, precede and ground, for example, 'technical', 'clinical' or 'scientific' judgments. We conclude that describing such routine (but ultimately grounding) cultural devices can be a central goal of social psychology, as opposed to explaining 'the self' by tacitly relying upon those same devices in an unacknowledged and unproblematized fashion.

9. Learning shapes spatiotemporal brain patterns for flexible categorical decisions.

PubMed

Li, Sheng; Mayhew, Stephen D; Kourtzi, Zoe

2012-10-01

Learning is thought to facilitate our ability to perform complex perceptual tasks and optimize brain circuits involved in decision making. However, little is known about the experience-dependent mechanisms in the human brain that support our ability to make fine categorical judgments. Previous work has focused on identifying spatial brain patterns (i.e., areas) that change with learning. Here, we take advantage of the complementary high spatial and temporal resolution of simultaneous electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics between cortical networks involved in flexible category learning. Observers were trained to use different decision criteria (i.e., category boundaries) when making fine categorical judgments on morphed stimuli (i.e., radial vs. concentric patterns). Our findings demonstrate that learning acts on a feedback-based circuit that supports fine categorical judgments. Experience-dependent changes in the behavioral decision criterion were associated with changes in later perceptual processes engaging higher occipitotemporal and frontoparietal circuits. In contrast, category learning did not modulate early processes in a medial frontotemporal network that are thought to support the coarse interpretation of visual scenes. These findings provide evidence that learning flexible criteria for fine categorical judgments acts on distinct spatiotemporal brain circuits and shapes the readout of sensory signals that provide evidence for categorical decisions.

10. Procedural learning of semantic categorization in Parkinson's disease.

PubMed

Arroyo-Anlló, Eva M; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Gil, Roger

2015-01-01

This paper studies the procedural learning of semantic categorization in 29 patients with non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated whether the PD group was able to develop semantic skill, using a cognitive procedural task developed in our laboratory, applying a manual and serial reaction time paradigm to semantic categorization. The PD group showed similar scores to those of the control group on semantic categorization. Both groups showed reaction time reduction over the semantic procedural task, but the PD group produced longer reaction times than the control subjects. Contrary to our prediction, we observed an improvement in semantic categorization reaction times with practice, even with new verbal material for the PD patients to categorize despite their motor impairments and executive deficits. By contrast, we found a significant negative correlation between axial motor signs and the ratio of semantic procedural learning, but not for lateral motor signs. The present results support the notion that non-demented PD patients may be capable of acquiring comparable semantic skill to those of the control group.

11. Clock time is absolute and universal

Shen, Xinhang

2015-09-01

A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

12. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

2007-01-01

13. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

2013-01-01

The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

14. Brownian motion: Absolute negative particle mobility

Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario

2005-08-01

Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force (`absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells.

15. Arbitrary segments of absolute negative mobility

Chen, Ruyin; Nie, Linru; Chen, Chongyang; Wang, Chaojie

2017-01-01

In previous research work, investigators have reported only one or two segments of absolute negative mobility (ANM) in a periodic potential. In fact, many segments of ANM also occur in the system considered here. We investigate transport of an inertial particle in a gating ratchet periodic potential subjected to a constant bias force. Our numerical results show that its mean velocity can decrease with the bias force increasing, i.e. ANM phenomenon. Furthermore, the ANM can take place arbitrary segments, even up to more than thirty. Intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for arbitrary segments of ANM to occur are discussed in detail.

16. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow.

PubMed

Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara

2016-07-21

With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.

17. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

1990-01-01

Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

18. Absolute Rate Theories of Epigenetic Stability

Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, Jose N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

2006-03-01

Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape, and the transmission factor, depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates.

19. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

2005-12-01

Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

20. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

1959-01-01

An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

1. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

2. Social Categorization on Perception Bias in the Practice of Microteaching

Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Lu, Chow-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei

2016-01-01

Microteaching has gained considerable attention for its effectiveness in rapid and contextual training in professional development programs. However, the interpretive quality of the teaching demonstration and peer feedback may influence individuals' attribution and self-correction, leading to ineffective learning. In this study, a microteaching workshop in a professional development program for 78 elementary school science teachers was investigated. The results showed that the effectiveness of microteaching was negatively affected by participants' perception bias due to social categorization. Moreover, it was indicated that the participants' perception of the in-group and out-group, classified by the degree of the individuals' science knowledge, fostered social categorization. Participants tended to experience perception conflicts caused by their inability to see personal faults, and a typical perception bias of "seeing one's own strengths and seeing others' shortcomings" was more frequently recognized in the out-group. These results converge to highlight the importance of social categorization in perception bias relevant to microteaching.

3. Cross-cutting categorization schemes in the digital humanities.

PubMed

Allen, Colin

2013-09-01

Digital access to large amounts of scholarly text presents both challenges and opportunities for researchers in the humanities. Meeting these challenges depends on having high-quality representations of the contents of digital resources suitable for both machines and humans to use. Different ways of categorizing these contents are appropriate for different purposes, leading to the further problem of relating the contents of different categorization schemes to each other. This essay discusses the rationale for categorizing philosophical concepts and surveys some of the main approaches to doing so for materials that are continuously changing. It describes the goals and methods of the Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) project and provides an example of the kind of analysis that is made possible by powerful modeling methods.

4. Auditory-Induced Emotion Mediates Perceptual Categorization of Everyday Sounds

PubMed Central

Bergman, Penny; Västfjäll, Daniel; Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Asutay, Erkin

2016-01-01

Research has shown that emotion categorization plays an important role in perception and categorization in the visual domain. In the present paper, we investigated the role of auditory-induced emotions for auditory perception. We further investigated whether the emotional responses mediate other perceptual judgments of sounds. In an experiment, participants either rated general dissimilarities between sounds or dissimilarities of specific aspects of sounds. The results showed that the general perceptual salience map could be explained by both the emotional responses to, and perceptual aspects of, the sounds. Importantly, the perceptual aspects were mediated by emotional responses. Together these results show that emotions are an integral part of auditory perception that is used as the intuitive basis for categorizing everyday sounds. PMID:27790172

5. Performance categorization of structures, systems & components and related issues

SciTech Connect

Hossain, Q.A.

1993-09-30

Provisions of DOE-STD-1021-93 on performance categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to natural phenomena hazards (NPHs) are summarized. The interrelationship among safety classification of SSCs (per DOE 6430.1A and DOE 5480.30), facility hazard categorization/classification (per DOE 5481.1B and DOE 5480.23), and NPH performance categorization of SSCs (per DOE 5480.28 and DOE-STD-1021-93) is discussed. The compatibility between the safety goals in the Department of Energy Safety Policy, SEN-35-91, and the numerical NPH performance goals of DOE 5480.28, as presented in UCRL-ID-12612 (draft), is examined.

6. Social Categorization on Perception Bias in the Practice of Microteaching

Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Lu, Chow-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei

2017-02-01

Microteaching has gained considerable attention for its effectiveness in rapid and contextual training in professional development programs. However, the interpretive quality of the teaching demonstration and peer feedback may influence individuals' attribution and self-correction, leading to ineffective learning. In this study, a microteaching workshop in a professional development program for 78 elementary school science teachers was investigated. The results showed that the effectiveness of microteaching was negatively affected by participants' perception bias due to social categorization. Moreover, it was indicated that the participants' perception of the in-group and out-group, classified by the degree of the individuals' science knowledge, fostered social categorization. Participants tended to experience perception conflicts caused by their inability to see personal faults, and a typical perception bias of "seeing one's own strengths and seeing others' shortcomings" was more frequently recognized in the out-group. These results converge to highlight the importance of social categorization in perception bias relevant to microteaching.

7. Sports video categorizing method using camera motion parameters

Takagi, Shinichi; Hattori, Shinobu; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Kodate, Akihisa; Tominaga, Hideyoshi

2003-06-01

In this paper, we propose a content based video categorizing method for broadcasted sports videos using camera motion parameters. We define and introduce two new features in the proposed method; "Camera motion extraction ratio" and "Camera motion transition". Camera motion parameters in the video sequence contain very significant information for categorization of broadcasted sports video, because in most of sports video, camera motions are closely related to the actions taken in the sports, which are mostly based on a certain rule depending on types of sports. Based on the charactersitics, we design a sports video categorization algorithm for identifying 6 major different sports types. In our algorithm, the features automatically extracted from videos are analysed statistically. The experimental results show a clear tendency and the applicability of the proposed method for sports genre identification.

8. Suspension agreements: The status quota

SciTech Connect

1996-01-01

Since the initial filing of anti-dumping actions uranium imports from the former Soviet Union, a maze of filings, agreements, amendments, bills, measures, and deals have emerged on which only the closest observers remain current. Even with all the actions that have taken place, none of the parties appear content with the status quo and changes to the agreements are ongoing. Given this dynamic state of affairs, a recap of events and a summary of the current agreements is helpful for understanding the concerns of the involved parties and digesting future events.

9. Federal Facility Agreement progress report

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1993-10-01

The (SRS) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) was made effective by the US. Environmental Protection Agency Region IV (EPA) on August 16, 1993. To meet the reporting requirements in Section XXV of the Agreement, the FFA Progress Report was developed. The FFA Progress Report is the first of a series of quarterly progress reports to be prepared by the SRS. As such this report describes the information and action taken to September 30, 1993 on the SRS units identified for investigation and remediation in the Agreement. This includes; rubble pits, runoff basins, retention basin, seepage basin, burning pits, H-Area Tank 16, and spill areas.

10. Interrater Reliability of the Categorization of Late Radiographic Changes After Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

SciTech Connect

Faruqi, Salman; Giuliani, Meredith E.; Raziee, Hamid; Yap, Mei Ling; Roberts, Heidi; Le, Lisa W.; Brade, Anthony; Cho, John; Sun, Alexander; Bezjak, Andrea; Hope, Andrew J.

2014-08-01

Purpose: Radiographic changes after lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) have been categorized into 4 groups: modified conventional pattern (A), mass-like fibrosis; (B), scar-like fibrosis (C), and no evidence of increased density (D). The purpose of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of this categorization system in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Seventy-seven patients were included in this study, all treated with SBRT for early-stage (T1/2) NSCLC at a single institution, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Six experienced clinicians familiar with post-SBRT radiographic changes scored the serial posttreatment CT images independently in a blinded fashion. The proportion of patients categorized as A, B, C, or D at each interval was determined. Krippendorff's alpha (KA), Multirater kappa (M-kappa), and Gwet's AC1 (AC1) scores were used to establish interrater reliability. A leave-one-out analysis was performed to demonstrate the variability among raters. Interrater agreement of the first and last 20 patients scored was calculated to explore whether a training effect existed. Results: The number of ratings ranged from 450 at 6 months to 84 at 48 months of follow-up. The proportion of patients in each category was as follows: A, 45%; B, 16%; C, 13%; and D, 26%. KA and M-kappa ranged from 0.17 to 0.34. AC1 measure range was 0.22 to 0.48. KA increased from 0.24 to 0.36 at 12 months with training. The percent agreement for pattern A peaked at 12 month with a 54% chance of having >50% raters in agreement and decreased over time, whereas that for patterns B and C increased over time to a maximum of 20% and 22%, respectively. Conclusion: This post-SBRT radiographic change categorization system has modest interrater agreement, and there is a suggestion of a training effect. Patterns of fibrosis evolve after SBRT and alternative categorization systems should be evaluated.

11. Absolute Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars

Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.

1994-12-01

We present absolute spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in absolute calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).

12. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

PubMed

Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

2017-02-01

Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters.

13. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

PubMed

Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

2014-11-01

Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.

14. The absolute threshold of cone vision

PubMed Central

Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

2013-01-01

We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

15. [Estimation of absolute risk for fracture].

PubMed

Fujiwara, Saeko

2009-03-01

Osteoporosis treatment aims to prevent fractures and maintain the QOL of the elderly. However, persons at high risk of future fracture cannot be effectively identified on the basis of bone density (BMD) alone, although BMD is used as an diagnostic criterion. Therefore, the WHO recommended that absolute risk for fracture (10-year probability of fracture) for each individual be evaluated and used as an index for intervention threshold. The 10-year probability of fracture is calculated based on age, sex, BMD at the femoral neck (body mass index if BMD is not available), history of previous fractures, parental hip fracture history, smoking, steroid use, rheumatoid arthritis, secondary osteoporosis and alcohol consumption. The WHO has just announced the development of a calculation tool (FRAX: WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) in February this year. Fractures could be prevented more effectively if, based on each country's medical circumstances, an absolute risk value for fracture to determine when to start medical treatment is established and persons at high risk of fracture are identified and treated accordingly.

16. Absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A and alterporriols.

PubMed

Kanamaru, Saki; Honma, Miho; Murakami, Takanori; Tsushima, Taro; Kudo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Nihei, Ken-Ichi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Masaru

2012-02-01

The absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A (1) was established by observing a positive exciton couplet in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the C3,C4-O-bis(2-naphthoyl) derivative 10 and by chemical correlations with known compound 8. Before the discussion, the relative stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The shielding effect at C7'-OMe group by C1-O-benzoylation established the relative stereochemical relationship between the C8-C8' axial bonding and the C1-C4/C1'-C4' polyol moieties of alterporriols E (3), an atropisomer of the C8-C8' dimer of 1. As 3 could be obtained by dimerization of 1 in vitro, the absolute configuration of its central chirality elements (C1-C4) must be identical to those of 1. Spectral comparison between the experimental and theoretical CD spectra supported the above conclusion. Axial stereochemistry of novel C4-O-deoxy dimeric derivatives, alterporriols F (4) and G (5), were also revealed by comparison of their CD spectra to those of 2 and 3.

17. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

2016-03-01

Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

18. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

SciTech Connect

O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. )

1991-12-01

EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.

19. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results

Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

2014-12-01

Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide absolute scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.

20. Extracting infrared absolute reflectance from relative reflectance measurements.

PubMed

Berets, Susan L; Milosevic, Milan

2012-06-01

Absolute reflectance measurements are valuable to the optics industry for development of new materials and optical coatings. Yet, absolute reflectance measurements are notoriously difficult to make. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of extracting the absolute reflectance from a relative reflectance measurement using a reference material with known refractive index.

1. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

2011-01-01

The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

2. Quick Guide: Power Purchase Agreements

SciTech Connect

2010-06-25

Introduction to Federal power purchase agreements (PPAs), including available FEMP services and technical assistance as well as questions to ask when evaluating PPAs for a Federal renewable energy project.

3. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

4. Good Agreements Make Good Friends

PubMed Central

Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom

2013-01-01

When starting a new collaborative endeavor, it pays to establish upfront how strongly your partner commits to the common goal and what compensation can be expected in case the collaboration is violated. Diverse examples in biological and social contexts have demonstrated the pervasiveness of making prior agreements on posterior compensations, suggesting that this behavior could have been shaped by natural selection. Here, we analyze the evolutionary relevance of such a commitment strategy and relate it to the costly punishment strategy, where no prior agreements are made. We show that when the cost of arranging a commitment deal lies within certain limits, substantial levels of cooperation can be achieved. Moreover, these levels are higher than that achieved by simple costly punishment, especially when one insists on sharing the arrangement cost. Not only do we show that good agreements make good friends, agreements based on shared costs result in even better outcomes. PMID:24045873

5. Empirical agreement in model validation.

PubMed

Jebeile, Julie; Barberousse, Anouk

2016-04-01

Empirical agreement is often used as an important criterion when assessing the validity of scientific models. However, it is by no means a sufficient criterion as a model can be so adjusted as to fit available data even though it is based on hypotheses whose plausibility is known to be questionable. Our aim in this paper is to investigate into the uses of empirical agreement within the process of model validation.

6. Application Agreement and Integration Services

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Driscoll, Kevin R.; Hall, Brendan; Schweiker, Kevin

2013-01-01

Application agreement and integration services are required by distributed, fault-tolerant, safety critical systems to assure required performance. An analysis of distributed and hierarchical agreement strategies are developed against the backdrop of observed agreement failures in fielded systems. The documented work was performed under NASA Task Order NNL10AB32T, Validation And Verification of Safety-Critical Integrated Distributed Systems Area 2. This document is intended to satisfy the requirements for deliverable 5.2.11 under Task 4.2.2.3. This report discusses the challenges of maintaining application agreement and integration services. A literature search is presented that documents previous work in the area of replica determinism. Sources of non-deterministic behavior are identified and examples are presented where system level agreement failed to be achieved. We then explore how TTEthernet services can be extended to supply some interesting application agreement frameworks. This document assumes that the reader is familiar with the TTEthernet protocol. The reader is advised to read the TTEthernet protocol standard [1] before reading this document. This document does not re-iterate the content of the standard.

7. Predictions of Ligand Selectivity from Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations

PubMed Central

2016-01-01

Binding selectivity is a requirement for the development of a safe drug, and it is a critical property for chemical probes used in preclinical target validation. Engineering selectivity adds considerable complexity to the rational design of new drugs, as it involves the optimization of multiple binding affinities. Computationally, the prediction of binding selectivity is a challenge, and generally applicable methodologies are still not available to the computational and medicinal chemistry communities. Absolute binding free energy calculations based on alchemical pathways provide a rigorous framework for affinity predictions and could thus offer a general approach to the problem. We evaluated the performance of free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics for the prediction of selectivity by estimating the affinity profile of three bromodomain inhibitors across multiple bromodomain families, and by comparing the results to isothermal titration calorimetry data. Two case studies were considered. In the first one, the affinities of two similar ligands for seven bromodomains were calculated and returned excellent agreement with experiment (mean unsigned error of 0.81 kcal/mol and Pearson correlation of 0.75). In this test case, we also show how the preferred binding orientation of a ligand for different proteins can be estimated via free energy calculations. In the second case, the affinities of a broad-spectrum inhibitor for 22 bromodomains were calculated and returned a more modest accuracy (mean unsigned error of 1.76 kcal/mol and Pearson correlation of 0.48); however, the reparametrization of a sulfonamide moiety improved the agreement with experiment. PMID:28009512

8. Recent Developments in the Factor Analysis of Categorical Variables.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mislevy, Robert J.

1986-01-01

Recent work in factor analysis of categorical variables is reviewed, emphasizing a generalized least squares solution and a maximum likelihood approach. A common factor model for dichotomous items is introduced, and the estimation of factor loadings from matrices of tetracorrelations is discussed. (LMO)

9. Categorical Biases in Spatial Memory: The Role of Certainty

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

2015-01-01

Memories for spatial locations often show systematic errors toward the central value of the surrounding region. The Category Adjustment (CA) model suggests that this bias is due to a Bayesian combination of categorical and metric information, which offers an optimal solution under conditions of uncertainty (Huttenlocher, Hedges, & Duncan,…

10. The Categorical Perception Deficit in Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noordenbos, Mark W.; Serniclaes, Willy

2015-01-01

Speech perception in dyslexia is characterized by a categorical perception (CP) deficit, demonstrated by weaker discrimination of acoustic differences between phonemic categories in conjunction with better discrimination of acoustic differences within phonemic categories. We performed a meta-analysis of studies that examined the reliability of the…

11. The role of piriform associative connections in odor categorization.

PubMed

Bao, Xiaojun; Raguet, Louise Lg; Cole, Sydni M; Howard, James D; Gottfried, Jay

2016-04-28

Distributed neural activity patterns are widely proposed to underlie object identification and categorization in the brain. In the olfactory domain, pattern-based representations of odor objects are encoded in piriform cortex. This region receives both afferent and associative inputs, though their relative contributions to odor perception are poorly understood. Here, we combined a placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI paradigm with multivariate pattern analyses to test the role of associative connections in sustaining olfactory categorical representations. Administration of baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist known to attenuate piriform associative inputs, interfered with within-category pattern separation in piriform cortex, and the magnitude of this drug-induced change predicted perceptual alterations in fine-odor discrimination performance. Comparatively, baclofen reduced pattern separation between odor categories in orbitofrontal cortex, and impeded within-category generalization in hippocampus. Our findings suggest that odor categorization is a dynamic process concurrently engaging stimulus discrimination and generalization at different stages of olfactory information processing, and highlight the importance of associative networks in maintaining categorical boundaries.

12. Categorization in Infancy: Labeling Induces a Persisting Focus on Commonalities

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2016-01-01

Recent studies with infants and adults demonstrate a facilitative role of labels in object categorization. A common interpretation is that labels highlight commonalities between objects. However, direct evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Using a novel object category with spatially separate features that are either of low or high…

13. The Origin of Exemplar Effects in Rule-Driven Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lacroix, Guy L.; Giguere, Gyslain; Larochelle, Serge

2005-01-01

S. W. Allen and L. R. Brooks (1991) have shown that exemplar memory can affect categorization even when participants are provided with a classification rule. G. Regehr and L. R. Brooks (1993) argued that stimuli must be individuated for such effects to occur. In this study, the authors further analyze the conditions that yield exemplar effects in…

14. A categorical account of the Hofmann-Mislove theorem

Townsend, Christopher F.

2005-11-01

A categorical account is given of the Hofmann-Mislove theorem, describing the Scott open filters on a frame. The account is stable under an order duality and so is shown to also cover Bunge and Funk's constructive description of the points of the lower power locale.

15. Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

2012-01-01

The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…

16. An Experimental Study in Automatically Categorizing Medical Documents.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ribeiro-Neto, Berthier; Laender, Alberto H. F.; de Lima, Luciano R. S.

2001-01-01

Evaluates the retrieval performance of an algorithm that automatically categorizes medical documents, which consists in assigning an International Code of Disease (ICD) based on well-known information retrieval techniques. Reports on experimental results that tested precision using a database of over 20,000 medical documents. (Author/LRW)

17. NEW CATEGORICAL METRICS FOR AIR QUALITY MODEL EVALUATION

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional categorical metrics used in model evaluations are "clear-cut" measures in that the model's ability to predict an exceedance is defined by a fixed threshold concentration and the metrics are defined by observation-forecast sets that are paired both in space and time. T...

18. Discriminant Analysis Using Mixed Continuous, Dichotomous, and Ordered Categorical Variables

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan; Lu, Bin

2007-01-01

This article proposes an intuitive approach for predictive discriminant analysis with mixed continuous, dichotomous, and ordered categorical variables that are defined via an underlying multivariate normal distribution with a threshold specification. The classification rule is based on the comparison of the observed data logarithm probability…

19. Semantic Categorization: A Comparison between Deaf and Hearing Children

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ormel, Ellen A.; Gijsel, Martine A. R.; Hermans, Daan; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

2010-01-01

Learning to read is a major obstacle for children who are deaf. The otherwise significant role of phonology is often limited as a result of hearing loss. However, semantic knowledge may facilitate reading comprehension. One important aspect of semantic knowledge concerns semantic categorization. In the present study, the quality of the semantic…

20. Generalizing a Categorization of Students' Interpretations of Linear Kinematics Graphs

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

2016-01-01

We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque…

1. Categorization and Analysis of Explanatory Writing in Mathematics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Craig, Tracy S.

2011-01-01

The aim of this article is to present a scheme for coding and categorizing students' written explanations of mathematical problem-solving activities. The scheme was used successfully within a study project carried out to determine whether student problem-solving behaviour could be positively affected by writing explanatory strategies to…

2. Implicit and Explicit Categorization: A Tale of Four Species

PubMed Central

Smith, J. David; Berg, Mark E.; Cook, Robert G.; Murphy, Matthew S.; Crossley, Matthew J.; Boomer, Joe; Spiering, Brian; Beran, Michael J.; Church, Barbara A.; Ashby, F. Gregory; Grace, Randolph C.

2013-01-01

Categorization is essential for survival, and it is a widely studied cognitive adaptation in humans and animals. An influential neuroscience perspective differentiates in humans an explicit, rule-based categorization system from an implicit system that slowly associates response outputs to different regions of perceptual space. This perspective is being extended to study categorization in other vertebrate species, using category tasks that have a one-dimensional, rule-based solution or a two-dimensional, information-integration solution. Humans, macaques, and capuchin monkeys strongly dimensionalize perceptual stimuli and learn rule-based tasks more quickly. In sharp contrast, pigeons learn these two tasks equally quickly. Pigeons represent a cognitive system in which the commitment to dimensional analysis and category rules was not strongly made. Their results may reveal the character of the ancestral vertebrate categorization system from which that of primates emerged. The primate results establish continuity with human cognition, suggesting that nonhuman primates share aspects of humans' capacity for explicit cognition. The emergence of dimensional analysis and rule learning could have been an important step in primates' cognitive evolution. PMID:22981878

3. 78 FR 56837 - 2012 Liquid Chemical Categorization Updates

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2013-09-16

... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 30, 150, and 153 RIN 1625-AB94 2012 Liquid Chemical Categorization... tables that list liquid hazardous materials, liquefied gases, and compressed gases that have...

4. The role of piriform associative connections in odor categorization

PubMed Central

Bao, Xiaojun; Raguet, Louise LG; Cole, Sydni M; Howard, James D; Gottfried, Jay A

2016-01-01

Distributed neural activity patterns are widely proposed to underlie object identification and categorization in the brain. In the olfactory domain, pattern-based representations of odor objects are encoded in piriform cortex. This region receives both afferent and associative inputs, though their relative contributions to odor perception are poorly understood. Here, we combined a placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI paradigm with multivariate pattern analyses to test the role of associative connections in sustaining olfactory categorical representations. Administration of baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist known to attenuate piriform associative inputs, interfered with within-category pattern separation in piriform cortex, and the magnitude of this drug-induced change predicted perceptual alterations in fine-odor discrimination performance. Comparatively, baclofen reduced pattern separation between odor categories in orbitofrontal cortex, and impeded within-category generalization in hippocampus. Our findings suggest that odor categorization is a dynamic process concurrently engaging stimulus discrimination and generalization at different stages of olfactory information processing, and highlight the importance of associative networks in maintaining categorical boundaries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13732.001 PMID:27130519

5. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

2011-01-01

A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

6. Labeling Bias and Categorical Induction: Generative Aspects of Category Information

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Yamauchi, Takashi

2005-01-01

When a person is characterized categorically with a label (e.g., Linda is a feminist), people tend to think that the attributes associated with that person are central and long lasting (S. Gelman & G. D. Heyman, 1999). This bias, which is related to category-based induction and stereotyping, has been thought to arise because a category label…

7. Gender under Incomplete Acquisition: Heritage Speakers' Knowledge of Noun Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Polinsky, Maria

2008-01-01

The author discusses a study of gender assignment (noun categorization) in heritage Russian and presents issues in the methodology of heritage language study. To anticipate the conclusions of this article, the gender assignment data presented argue for the systematicity of what emerges under incomplete acquisition. The system is different from its…

8. Perceptual, Categorical, and Affective Processing of Ambiguous Smiling Facial Expressions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calvo, Manuel G.; Fernandez-Martin, Andres; Nummenmaa, Lauri

2012-01-01

Why is a face with a smile but non-happy eyes likely to be interpreted as happy? We used blended expressions in which a smiling mouth was incongruent with the eyes (e.g., angry eyes), as well as genuine expressions with congruent eyes and mouth (e.g., both happy or angry). Tasks involved detection of a smiling mouth (perceptual), categorization of…

9. Overdistribution illusions: Categorical judgments produce them, confidence ratings reduce them.

PubMed

Brainerd, C J; Nakamura, K; Reyna, V F; Holliday, R E

2017-01-01

Overdistribution is a form of memory distortion in which an event is remembered as belonging to too many episodic states, states that are logically or empirically incompatible with each other. We investigated a response formatting method of suppressing 2 basic types of overdistribution, disjunction and conjunction illusions, which parallel some classic illusions in the judgment and decision making literature. In this method, subjects respond to memory probes by rating their confidence that test cues belong to specific episodic states (e.g., presented on List 1, presented on List 2), rather than by making the usual categorical judgments about those states. The central prediction, which was derived from the task calibration principle of fuzzy-trace theory, was that confidence ratings should reduce overdistribution by diminishing subjects' reliance on noncompensatory gist memories. The data of 3 experiments agreed with that prediction. In Experiment 1, there were reliable disjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, both response formats produced reliable disjunction illusions, but those for confidence ratings were much smaller than those for categorical judgments. In Experiment 3, there were reliable conjunction illusions with categorical judgments but not with confidence ratings. Apropos of recent controversies over confidence-accuracy correlations in memory, such correlations were positive for hits, negative for correct rejections, and the 2 types of correlations were of equal magnitude. (PsycINFO Database Record

10. The Differing Roles of Comparison and Contrast in Children's Categorization

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Namy, Laura L.; Clepper, Lauren E.

2010-01-01

Comparison of perceptually similar exemplars from an object category encourages children to overlook compelling perceptual similarities and use relational and functional properties more relevant for taxonomic categorization. This article investigates whether showing children a contrasting object that is perceptually similar but out of kind serves…

11. Federal Student Assistance and Categorical Programs. 1981 Edition.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Balz, Frank J.

The fourth edition of analyses of selected federal student assistance and categorical programs prepared by the National Institute of Independent Colleges and Universities is presented. Sections include: (1) federal student assistance--undergraduate programs (Pell Grants, Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants, State Student Incentive Grants,…

12. Prevalence of Psychopathology in Childhood Epilepsy: Categorical and Dimensional Measures

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.

2009-01-01

Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…

13. Multitrait mixed modeling and categorical data analyses of phenotypic variances

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative and categorical data were digitally recorded, measured or scored on whole canopies; single plants, leaves, and siliques; and on random seed samples of 224 genotypes in a phenotyping nursery of Brassica napus. They were used to (1) develop a pyramiding phenotyping model based on multitra...

14. Identifying the Enemy: Social Categorization and National Security Policy

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unsworth, Kristene

2010-01-01

This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…

15. Similar Task Features Shape Judgment and Categorization Processes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hoffmann, Janina A.; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

2016-01-01

The distinction between similarity-based and rule-based strategies has instigated a large body of research in categorization and judgment. Within both domains, the task characteristics guiding strategy shifts are increasingly well documented. Across domains, past research has observed shifts from rule-based strategies in judgment to…

16. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

2009-01-01

Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

17. Assessing Expertise in Introductory Physics Using Categorization Task

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2011-01-01

The ability to categorize problems based upon underlying principles, rather than surface features or contexts, is considered one of several proxy predictors of expertise in problem solving. With inspiration from the classic study by Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser, we assess the distribution of expertise among introductory physics students by asking…

18. Does Categorical Perception in the Left Hemisphere Depend on Language?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Holmes, Kevin J.; Wolff, Phillip

2012-01-01

Categorical perception (CP) refers to the influence of category knowledge on perception and is revealed by a superior ability to discriminate items across categories relative to items within a category. In recent years, the finding that CP is lateralized to the left hemisphere in adults has been interpreted as evidence for a kind of CP driven by…

19. 75 FR 20248 - Categorical Exclusions From Environmental Review

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2010-04-19

... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI27 Categorical Exclusions From Environmental Review AGENCY: Nuclear... its regulations that describe the categories of actions which do not require an environmental review under the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) as the NRC has...

20. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

2010-01-01

Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

1. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...

2. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...

3. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...

4. 18 CFR 380.4 - Projects or actions categorically excluded.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Projects or actions categorically excluded. 380.4 Section 380.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... and classification of United States lands as water power sites and other actions under section 24...

5. A Self-Categorization Explanation for Opinion Consensus Perceptions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.

2013-01-01

The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…

6. Imputation of Missing Categorical Data by Maximizing Internal Consistency.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

van Buuren, Stef; van Rijckevorsel, Jan L. A.

1992-01-01

A technique is presented to transform incomplete categorical data into complete data by imputing appropriate scores into missing cells. A solution of the optimization problem is suggested, and relevant psychometric theory is discussed. The average correlation should be at least 0.50 before the method becomes practical. (SLD)

7. The Use of Bigrams To Enhance Text Categorization.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tan, Chade-Meng; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Lee, Chan-Do

2002-01-01

Presents an efficient text categorization (or text classification) algorithm for document retrieval of natural language texts that generates bigrams (two-word phrases) and uses the information gain metric, combined with various frequency thresholds. Experimental results suggest that the bigrams can substantially raise the quality of feature sets.…

8. ProbCD: enrichment analysis accounting for categorization uncertainty

PubMed Central

Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Shmulevich, Ilya

2007-01-01

Background As in many other areas of science, systems biology makes extensive use of statistical association and significance estimates in contingency tables, a type of categorical data analysis known in this field as enrichment (also over-representation or enhancement) analysis. In spite of efforts to create probabilistic annotations, especially in the Gene Ontology context, or to deal with uncertainty in high throughput-based datasets, current enrichment methods largely ignore this probabilistic information since they are mainly based on variants of the Fisher Exact Test. Results We developed an open-source R-based software to deal with probabilistic categorical data analysis, ProbCD, that does not require a static contingency table. The contingency table for the enrichment problem is built using the expectation of a Bernoulli Scheme stochastic process given the categorization probabilities. An on-line interface was created to allow usage by non-programmers and is available at: . Conclusion We present an analysis framework and software tools to address the issue of uncertainty in categorical data analysis. In particular, concerning the enrichment analysis, ProbCD can accommodate: (i) the stochastic nature of the high-throughput experimental techniques and (ii) probabilistic gene annotation. PMID:17935624

9. The Impact of Categorization with Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DiStefano, Christine

2002-01-01

Investigated the impact of categorization on confirmatory factor analysis parameter estimates, standard errors, and five ad hoc fit indexes through simulation studies. Results replicate some previous studies but also suggest that tests of parameter estimates will be underestimated and the amount of underestimation will increase as saturation…

10. Learning to Manipulate and Categorize in Human and Artificial Agents

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morlino, Giuseppe; Gianelli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M.; Nolfi, Stefano

2015-01-01

This study investigates the acquisition of integrated object manipulation and categorization abilities through a series of experiments in which human adults and artificial agents were asked to learn to manipulate two-dimensional objects that varied in shape, color, weight, and color intensity. The analysis of the obtained results and the…

11. Can race be erased? Coalitional computation and social categorization

PubMed Central

Kurzban, Robert; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda

2001-01-01

Previous studies have established that people encode the race of each individual they encounter, and do so via computational processes that appear to be both automatic and mandatory. If true, this conclusion would be important, because categorizing others by their race is a precondition for treating them differently according to race. Here we report experiments, using unobtrusive measures, showing that categorizing individuals by race is not inevitable, and supporting an alternative hypothesis: that encoding by race is instead a reversible byproduct of cognitive machinery that evolved to detect coalitional alliances. The results show that subjects encode coalitional affiliations as a normal part of person representation. More importantly, when cues of coalitional affiliation no longer track or correspond to race, subjects markedly reduce the extent to which they categorize others by race, and indeed may cease doing so entirely. Despite a lifetime's experience of race as a predictor of social alliance, less than 4 min of exposure to an alternate social world was enough to deflate the tendency to categorize by race. These results suggest that racism may be a volatile and eradicable construct that persists only so long as it is actively maintained through being linked to parallel systems of social alliance. PMID:11742078

12. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

2008-01-01

Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

13. ALTERNATE APPROACH TO HAZARD CATEGORIZATION FOR SALTSTONE FACILITY AT SRS

SciTech Connect

Roy, B.

2009-04-28

The Saltstone Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) was originally segmented into two segments: the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Based on the inventory of radionuclides available for release the SPF and SDF were categorized as Nonreactor Hazard Category (HC)-3. The hazard categorization recognized the SDF will contain contributions of radionuclides which would exceed the HC-2 Threshold Quantity (TQ) in the form of grout. However it was determined not to impact the facility hazard categorization based on the grout being in a solid, monolithic form which was not easily dispersible. But, the impact of a quantity of unset grout expected to be present at the vault following operation of the process was not addressed. A Potential Inadequacy in Safety Analysis (PISA) was later issued based on the hazard categorization determination for the facility not addressing unset grout. This initiated a re-evaluation of the accident scenarios within the hazards analysis. During this re-evaluation, the segmentation of the facility was challenged based on the potential interaction between facility segments; specifically, the leachate return line and the grout transfer line, which were considered separate segments, are located in close proximity at one point. such that for certain events (NPH as well as External Vehicle Impact) both could be damaged simultaneously and spill contents on the ground that could commingle. This would violate the guideline for segmentation. Therefore, the Hazard Categorization (HC) was reevaluated based on the facility being a single segment and including the additional unset grout as part of total inventory. This total inventory far exceeded the limit for HC-2 TQ and made the facility's initial categorization as HC-2. However, alternative analysis methodology based on credible release fractions allowed in DOE-STD-1027-92 (Ref.1) showed that the Saltstone facility could still be categorized as Hazard Category

14. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

Stump, Kurt E.

the current instrument to direct further work in this field. It has been found that for sources with powers above approximately 2 muW the instrument is able to determine the source power in agreement to within less than 7% of what is expected based upon the current source strength standard. For lower power sources, the agreement is still within the uncertainty of the power measurement, but the calorimeter noise dominates. Thus, to provide absolute calibration of lower power sources additional measures must be taken. The conclusion of this thesis describes these measures and how they will improve the factors that limit the current instrument. The results of the work presented in this thesis establish the methodology of active radiometric calorimetey for the absolute calibration of radioactive sources. The method is an improvement over previous techniques in that there is no reliance upon the thermal properties of the materials used or the heat flow pathways on the source measurements. The initial work presented here will help to shape future refinements of this technique to allow lower power sources to be calibrated with high precision and high accuracy.

15. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star AP Andromedae

SciTech Connect

Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Torres, Guillermo; Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W. E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu

2014-06-01

AP And is a well-detached F5 eclipsing binary star for which only a very limited amount of information was available before this publication. We have obtained very extensive measurements of the light curve (19,097 differential V magnitude observations) and a radial velocity curve (83 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.277 ± 0.004 and 1.251 ± 0.004 M {sub ☉}, radii of 1.233 ± 0.006 and 1.1953 ± 0.005 R {sub ☉}, and temperatures of 6565 ± 150 K and 6495 ± 150 K. The distance to the system is about 400 ± 30 pc. Comparison with the theoretical properties of the stellar evolutionary models of the Yonsei-Yale series of Yi et al. shows good agreement between the observations and the theory at an age of about 500 Myr and a slightly sub-solar metallicity.

16. Experimental absolute cross section for photoionization of Xe^7+

Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Esteves, D.; Habibi, M.; Aguilar, A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

2010-03-01

Collision processes with highly charged xenon ions are of interest for UV-radiation generation in plasma discharges, for fusion research and for space craft propulsion. Here we report results for the photoionization of Xe^7+ ionsootnotetextS. Schippers et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (in print) which were measured at the photon-ion end station of ALS beamline 10.0.1. As compared with the only previous experimental studyootnotetextJ. M. Bizau et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 435 (2000) of this reaction, the present cross sections were obtained at higher energy resolution (50--80 meV vs. 200--500 meV) and on an absolute cross section scale. In the experimental photon energy range of 95--145 eV the cross section is dominated by resonances associated with 4d->5f excitation and subsequent autoionization. The most prominent feature in the measured spectrum is the 4d^9,s,f, resonance at 121.14±0.02 eV which reaches a peak cross section of 1.2 Gb at 50 meV photon energy spread. The experimental resonance strength of 160 Mb eV (corresponding to an absorption oscillator strength of 1.46) is in fair agreement with the theoretical result^2.

17. Categorical speech perception during active discrimination of consonants and vowels.

PubMed

Altmann, Christian F; Uesaki, Maiko; Ono, Kentaro; Matsuhashi, Masao; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao

2014-11-01

Categorical perception of phonemes describes the phenomenon that, when phonemes are classified they are often perceived to fall into distinct categories even though physically they follow a continuum along a feature dimension. While consonants such as plosives have been proposed to be perceived categorically, the representation of vowels has been described to be more continuous. We aimed at testing this difference in representation at a behavioral and neurophysiological level using human magnetoencephalography (MEG). To this end, we designed stimuli based on natural speech by morphing along a phonological continuum entailing changes of the voiced stop-consonant or the steady-state vowel of a consonant-vowel (CV) syllable. Then, while recording MEG, we presented participants with consecutive pairs of either same or different CV syllables. The differences were such that either both CV syllables were from within the same category or belonged to different categories. During the MEG experiment, the participants actively discriminated the stimulus pairs. Behaviorally, we found that discrimination was easier for the between-compared to the within-category contrast for both consonants and vowels. However, this categorical effect was significantly stronger for the consonants compared to vowels, in line with a more continuous representation of vowels. At the neural level, we observed significant repetition suppression of MEG evoked fields, i.e. lower amplitudes for physically same compared to different stimulus pairs, at around 430 to 500ms after the onset of the second stimulus. Source reconstruction revealed generating sources of this repetition suppression effect within left superior temporal sulcus and gyrus, posterior to Heschl׳s gyrus. A region-of-interest analysis within this region showed a clear categorical effect for consonants, but not for vowels, providing further evidence for the important role of left superior temporal areas in categorical representation

18. Effects of Age on Cognitive Control during Semantic Categorization

PubMed Central

Mudar, Raksha A.; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Maguire, Mandy J.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Eroh, Justin; Michael, A. Kraut; Hart, John

2015-01-01

19. Gender categorization is abnormal in cochlear implant users.

PubMed

Fuller, Christina D; Gaudrain, Etienne; Clarke, Jeanne N; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Free, Rolien H; Başkent, Deniz

2014-12-01

In normal hearing (NH), the perception of the gender of a speaker is strongly affected by two anatomically related vocal characteristics: the fundamental frequency (F0), related to vocal pitch, and the vocal tract length (VTL), related to the height of the speaker. Previous studies on gender categorization in cochlear implant (CI) users found that performance was variable, with few CI users performing at the level of NH listeners. Data collected with recorded speech produced by multiple talkers suggests that CI users might rely more on F0 and less on VTL than NH listeners. However, because VTL cannot be accurately estimated from recordings, it is difficult to know how VTL contributes to gender categorization. In the present study, speech was synthesized to systematically vary F0, VTL, or both. Gender categorization was measured in CI users, as well as in NH participants listening to unprocessed (only synthesized) and vocoded (and synthesized) speech. Perceptual weights for F0 and VTL were derived from the performance data. With unprocessed speech, NH listeners used both cues (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 3.76, VTL = 5.56). With vocoded speech, NH listeners still made use of both cues but less efficiently (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 1.68, VTL = 0.63). CI users relied almost exclusively on F0 while VTL perception was profoundly impaired (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 6.88, VTL = 0.59). As a result, CI users' gender categorization was abnormal compared to NH listeners. Future CI signal processing should aim to improve the transmission of both F0 cues and VTL cues, as a normal gender categorization may benefit speech understanding in competing talker situations.

20. Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication

Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

2015-09-01

Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.

1. In vivo absorption spectroscopy for absolute measurement.

PubMed

Furukawa, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Takashi

2012-10-01

In in vivo spectroscopy, there are differences between individual subjects in parameters such as tissue scattering and sample concentration. We propose a method that can provide the absolute value of a particular substance concentration, independent of these individual differences. Thus, it is not necessary to use the typical statistical calibration curve, which assumes an average level of scattering and an averaged concentration over individual subjects. This method is expected to greatly reduce the difficulties encountered during in vivo measurements. As an example, for in vivo absorption spectroscopy, the method was applied to the reflectance measurement in retinal vessels to monitor their oxygen saturation levels. This method was then validated by applying it to the tissue phantom under a variety of absorbance values and scattering efficiencies.

2. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

2008-04-01

The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1°C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273°C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales using a simple, well-known physics experiment. By making multiple measurements of the speed of sound at different temperatures, using the classic physics experiment of determining the speed of sound with a tuning fork and variable-length tube, they can determine the temperature at which the speed of sound is zero—absolute zero.

3. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acuna, M. H.

1981-01-01

A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

4. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

1999-01-01

The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

5. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.

PubMed

Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M

2010-08-01

Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.

6. Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland

Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.

2012-12-01

Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.

7. Absolute bioavailability of quinine formulations in Nigeria.

PubMed

Babalola, C P; Bolaji, O O; Ogunbona, F A; Ezeomah, E

2004-09-01

This study compared the absolute bioavailability of quinine sulphate as capsule and as tablet against the intravenous (i.v.) infusion of the drug in twelve male volunteers. Six of the volunteers received intravenous infusion over 4 h as well as the capsule formulation of the drug in a cross-over manner, while the other six received the tablet formulation. Blood samples were taken at predetermined time intervals and plasma analysed for quinine (QN) using reversed-phase HPLC method. QN was rapidly absorbed after the two oral formulations with average t(max) of 2.67 h for both capsule and tablet. The mean elimination half-life of QN from the i.v. and oral dosage forms varied between 10 and 13.5 hr and were not statistically different (P > 0.05). On the contrary, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC) from capsule were comparable to those from i.v. (P > 0.05), while these values were markedly higher than values from tablet formulation (P < 0.05). The therapeutic QN plasma levels were not achieved with the tablet formulation. The absolute bioavailability (F) were 73% (C.l., 53.3 - 92.4%) and 39 % (C.I., 21.7 - 56.6%) for the capsule and tablet respectively and the difference was significant (P < 0.05). The subtherapeutic levels obtained from the tablet form used in this study may cause treatment failure during malaria and caution should be taken when predictions are made from results obtained from different formulations of QN.

8. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

Ramillien, G.

A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

9. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

PubMed

Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

2008-01-01

We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.

10. Gender agreement and multiple referents

PubMed Central

Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

2010-01-01

We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana ‘the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem’) than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro ‘the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas’). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.* PMID:21037930

11. Experience and Grammatical Agreement: Statistical Learning Shapes Number Agreement Production

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Haskell, Todd R.; Thornton, Robert; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2010-01-01

A robust result in research on the production of grammatical agreement is that speakers are more likely to produce an erroneous verb with phrases such as "the key to the cabinets", with a singular noun followed by a plural one, than with phrases such as "the keys to the cabinet", where a plural noun is followed by a singular. These asymmetries are…

12. Bayesian inference for agreement measures.

PubMed

Vidal, Ignacio; de Castro, Mário

2016-08-25

The agreement of different measurement methods is an important issue in several disciplines like, for example, Medicine, Metrology, and Engineering. In this article, some agreement measures, common in the literature, were analyzed from a Bayesian point of view. Posterior inferences for such agreement measures were obtained based on well-known Bayesian inference procedures for the bivariate normal distribution. As a consequence, a general, simple, and effective method is presented, which does not require Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods and can be applied considering a great variety of prior distributions. Illustratively, the method was exemplified using five objective priors for the bivariate normal distribution. A tool for assessing the adequacy of the model is discussed. Results from a simulation study and an application to a real dataset are also reported.

13. How do researchers categorize drugs, and how do drug users categorize them?

PubMed Central

Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.

2011-01-01

This paper considers drug classifications and terms widely used in US survey research, and compares these to classifications and terms used by drug users. We begin with a critical review of drug classification systems, including those oriented to public policy and health services as well as survey research. We then consider the results of a pile sort exercise we conducted with 76 respondents within a mixed method study of Southeast Asian American adolescent and young adult drug users in urban Northern California, USA. We included the pile sort to clarify how respondents handled specific terms which we understood to be related to Ecstasy and methamphetamines. Results of the pile sort were analyzed using graphic layout algorithms as well as content analysis of pile labels. Similar to the national surveys, our respondents consistently differentiated Ecstasy terms from methamphetamine terms. We found high agreement between some specific local terms (thizz, crystal) and popular drug terms, while other terms thought to be mainstream (crank, speed) were reported as unknown by many respondents. In labeling piles, respondents created taxonomies based on consumption method (in particular, pill) as well as the social contexts of use. We conclude by proposing that divergences between drug terms utilized in survey research and those used by drug users may reflect two opposing tendencies: the tendency of survey researchers to utilize standardized language that constructs persons and experiences as relatively homogeneous, varying only within measurable degrees, and the tendency of drug users to utilize specialized language (argot) that reflects their understandings of their experiences as hybrid and diverse. The findings problematize the validity of drug terms and categories used in survey research. PMID:24431475

14. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

SciTech Connect

Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

2012-05-03

A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

15. Material-not-categorized-as-waste survey for 1992

SciTech Connect

Jacobsen, P.H.

1993-07-01

In October 1992, the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) requested that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) respond to a letter from EM-331 asking for completion of a survey of items in storage but not categorized as waste (Roberts 1992). The letter contained an attachment with instructions on how to fill out the attached form and what to exclude from the survey (Appendix A). This report is a summary of the information from the response issued to RL. This report primarily is for use in estimating future waste volumes that may have been overlooked because of the nature of their classification as material not categorized as waste (MNCAW) (i.e., not yet declared Waste).

16. A comparison of incomplete-data methods for categorical data.

PubMed

van der Palm, Daniël W; van der Ark, L Andries; Vermunt, Jeroen K

2016-04-01

We studied four methods for handling incomplete categorical data in statistical modeling: (1) maximum likelihood estimation of the statistical model with incomplete data, (2) multiple imputation using a loglinear model, (3) multiple imputation using a latent class model, (4) and multivariate imputation by chained equations. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and it is unknown which method should be recommended to practitioners. We reviewed the merits of each method and investigated their effect on the bias and stability of parameter estimates and bias of the standard errors. We found that multiple imputation using a latent class model with many latent classes was the most promising method for handling incomplete categorical data, especially when the number of variables used in the imputation model is large.

17. Interference of verbal labels in color categorical perception

Yokoi, Kenji; Nishimori, Tomoaki; Saida, Shinya

2008-11-01

Previous studies demonstrated that color categorical perception (CP; better cross-category than within-category discrimination) was reduced by verbal interference, suggesting that CP is mediated by verbal labeling. Here, we examined chromatic generality and experience-dependency of verbal interference in CP using the Stroop effect. We employed a simultaneous two-alternative forced choice discrimination task. Congruent or incongruent words were presented prior to discrimination. In experiment 1, incongruent color names reduced CP regardless of color boundary pairs. Next, we used noncolor words that seemed to be associated with color through experience. The results showed that the tested noncolor words did not modify CP (experiment 2). However, combined presentation of color and shape produced Stroop interference (experiment 3). Our finding suggests that familiarity or mastery of categorized information through experience may be evaluated by verbal interference.

18. Categorization and analysis of explanatory writing in mathematics

Craig, Tracy S.

2011-10-01

The aim of this article is to present a scheme for coding and categorizing students' written explanations of mathematical problem-solving activities. The scheme was used successfully within a study project carried out to determine whether student problem-solving behaviour could be positively affected by writing explanatory strategies to mathematical problem-solving processes. The rationale for the study was the recognized importance of mathematical problem-solving, the widely acknowledged challenge of teaching problem-solving skills directly and the evidence in the literature that writing in mathematics provides a tool for learning. The study was carried out in a first-year mathematics course at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Students' written submissions were categorized and analysed through use of an adaptation of a journal entry classification scheme. The scheme successfully observed positive changes over the experimental period in students' level of engagement with the mathematical material and with their stance towards knowledge.

19. University of Scranton: Master Agreement.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scranton Univ., PA.

This document is the collective bargaining agreement between the University of Scranton and its faculty effective September 1, 1975 until August 31, 1976. Its provisions include all full-time faculty members associated with the Reading Clinic and Counseling Center, full-time faculty assigned to the Department of Physical Education, full-time…

20. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bastedo, Helena

2010-01-01

The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

1. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1990-01-01

In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees.

2. Important historical efforts at emergency department categorization in the United States and implications for regionalization.

PubMed

Mehrotra, Abhishek; Sklar, David P; Tayal, Vivek S; Kocher, Keith E; Handel, Daniel A; Myles Riner, R

2010-12-01

This article is drawn from a report created for the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Emergency Department (ED) Categorization Task Force and also reflects the proceedings of a breakout session, "Beyond ED Categorization-Matching Networks to Patient Needs," at the 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." The authors describe a brief history of the significant national and state efforts at categorization and suggest reasons why many of these efforts failed to persevere or gain wider implementation. The history of efforts to categorize hospital (and ED) emergency services demonstrates recognition of the potential benefits of categorization, but reflects repeated failures to implement full categorization systems or limited excursions into categorization through licensing of EDs or designation of receiving and referral facilities. An understanding of the history of hospital and ED categorization could better inform current efforts to develop categorization schemes and processes.

3. Implicit and Explicit Categorization: A Tale of Four Species

DTIC Science & Technology

2012-01-01

evolutionary origin than with the hominids , and it raises the questions of when that dimensionally analytic system of categorization emerged, and why...in a sense represent or lie on the main sequence of primate-ape- hominid evolution. In addition, macaques are notoriously flexible, adaptive...for dimensional analysis and category rules may have been a premier adaptation that fostered cognitive evolution in the primate- hominid lineage

4. Categorical and Continuous Models of Liability to Externalizing Disorders

PubMed Central

Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.

2008-01-01

Context Patterns of genetic, environmental, and phenotypic relationships among antisocial behavior and substance use disorders indicate the presence of a common externalizing liability. However, whether this liability is relatively continuous and graded, or categorical and class-like, has not been well established. Objectives To compare the fit of categorical and continuous models of externalizing liability in a large, nationally representative sample. Design Categorical and continuous models of externalizing liability were compared using interview data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Setting Face-to-face interviews conducted in the United States. Participants Random sample of 43 093 noninstitutionalized adult civilians living in the United States. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime and current (past 12 months) diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence, marijuana dependence, cocaine dependence, and other substance dependence. Results In the entire sample, as well as for males and females separately, using either lifetime or current diagnoses, the best-fitting model of externalizing liability was a continuous normal model. Moreover, there was a general trend toward latent trait models fitting better than latent class models, indicating that externalizing liability was continuous and graded, rather than categorical and class-like. Conclusions Liability to externalizing spectrum disorders is graded and continuous normal in distribution. Research regarding etiology, assessment, and treatment of externalizing disorders should target externalizing liability over a range of severity. Current diagnoses represent extremes of this continuous liability distribution, indicating that conditions currently classified as subthreshold are likely to provide important information regarding liability to externalizing phenomena. PMID:16330723

5. Are Categorical Spatial Relations Encoded by Shifting Visual Attention between Objects?

PubMed Central

Uttal, David; Franconeri, Steven

2016-01-01

Perceiving not just values, but relations between values, is critical to human cognition. We tested the predictions of a proposed mechanism for processing categorical spatial relations between two objects—the shift account of relation processing—which states that relations such as ‘above’ or ‘below’ are extracted by shifting visual attention upward or downward in space. If so, then shifts of attention should improve the representation of spatial relations, compared to a control condition of identity memory. Participants viewed a pair of briefly flashed objects and were then tested on either the relative spatial relation or identity of one of those objects. Using eye tracking to reveal participants’ voluntary shifts of attention over time, we found that when initial fixation was on neither object, relational memory showed an absolute advantage for the object following an attention shift, while identity memory showed no advantage for either object. This result is consistent with the shift account of relation processing. When initial fixation began on one of the objects, identity memory strongly benefited this fixated object, while relational memory only showed a relative benefit for objects following an attention shift. This result is also consistent, although not as uniquely, with the shift account of relation processing. Taken together, we suggest that the attention shift account provides a mechanistic explanation for the overall results. This account can potentially serve as the common mechanism underlying both linguistic and perceptual representations of spatial relations. PMID:27695104

6. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

1996-01-01

With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

7. What is Needed for Absolute Paleointensity?

Valet, J. P.

2015-12-01

Many alternative approaches to the Thellier and Thellier technique for absolute paleointensity have been proposed during the past twenty years. One reason is the time consuming aspect of the experiments. Another reason is to avoid uncertainties in determinations of the paleofield which are mostly linked to the presence of multidomain grains. Despite great care taken by these new techniques, there is no indication that they always provide the right answer and in fact sometimes fail. We are convinced that the most valid approach remains the original double heating Thellier protocol provided that natural remanence is controlled by pure magnetite with a narrow distribution of small grain sizes, mostly single domains. The presence of titanium, even in small amount generates biases which yield incorrect field values. Single domain grains frequently dominate the magnetization of glass samples, which explains the success of this selective approach. They are also present in volcanic lava flows but much less frequently, and therefore contribute to the low success rate of most experiments. However the loss of at least 70% of the magnetization at very high temperatures prior to the Curie point appears to be an essential prerequisite that increases the success rate to almost 100% and has been validated from historical flows and from recent studies. This requirement can easily be tested by thermal demagnetization while low temperature experiments can document the detection of single domain magnetite using the δFC/δZFC parameter as suggested (Moskowitz et al, 1993) for biogenic magnetite.

8. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

SciTech Connect

Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

2011-01-10

A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

9. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leckey, John P.

2015-01-01

The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

10. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

1987-01-01

While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

11. Memory, reasoning, and categorization: parallels and common mechanisms

PubMed Central

Hayes, Brett K.; Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

2014-01-01

12. Memory, reasoning, and categorization: parallels and common mechanisms.

PubMed

Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M

2014-01-01

13. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in social categorization.

PubMed

Molenberghs, Pascal; Morrison, Samantha

2014-03-01

Group membership is an important aspect of our everyday behavior. Recently, we showed that existing relevant in-group labels increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) compared with out-group labels, suggesting a role of the MPFC in social categorization. However, the question still remains whether this increase in MPFC activation for in-group representation is solely related with previous experience with the in-group. To test this, we randomly assigned participants to a red or blue team and in a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment they categorized red and blue team words as belonging to either the in-group or the out-group. Results showed that even under these minimal conditions increased activation was found in the MPFC when participants indicated that they belonged to a group, as compared with when they did not. This effect was found to be associated with the level of group identification. These results confirm the role of MPFC in social categorization.

14. Categorizing asthma severity: an overview of national guidelines.

PubMed

Colice, Gene L

2004-08-01

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways associated with intermittent episodes of bronchospasm. Corticosteroids are the most effective anti-inflammatory class of medication currently available for the treatment of asthma. However, as higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids are used the risks of systemic exposure and side effects will correspondingly increase. Justification of the benefits from higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids can only be made if patients with more severe asthma can be identified. Methods to categorize asthma severity have been introduced in various national asthma management guidelines. Unfortunately, there are substantial conceptual and practical differences among these recommended approaches to asthma severity categorization. Furthermore, these recommended approaches suffer from a focus on features of asthma control, such as symptoms, short-acting beta-agonist use, and lung function rather than actual measures of asthma severity that would encompass markers of airway inflammation. Without the endpoints necessary to assess airway inflammation, current recommendations for asthma severity categorization may lead to systematic under dosing of appropriate anti-inflammatory therapy with subsequent perpetuation of the asthma exacerbation cycle.

15. Impact of a short intervention on novices' categorization criteria

Docktor, Jennifer L.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

2012-12-01

Research on physics problem categorization has established that proficient problem solvers are able to group together physics problems that would be solved by similar principles and use conceptual approaches when solving problems, whereas weak solvers rely more heavily upon surface features (objects, contexts, and quantities provided) to identify specific equations that match to the problem situation. This study explores the degree to which novices are able to shift their categorization strategies toward one that is more principle based as a result of a brief, computer-based intervention designed to highlight the role of principles as categorization criteria. Students finishing an introductory algebra-based mechanics course were presented with a sequence of problem pairs, asked to judge whether each pair would be solved similarly, and provided with feedback. Students in one condition received feedback that was very sparse and only indicated correctness, whereas students in a second condition viewed elaborate feedback that linked problem features to the appropriate concepts and principles to solve each problem. We found an increased use of physics principles in the reasoning provided by students who received the elaborate feedback whereas students who did not view this elaboration primarily cited quantities in the problem statement. Although these results suggest it is possible to increase students’ attention to principles when approaching problems, poor performance on the items indicates that considering the appropriateness of principles remains a difficult task for beginning physics students.

16. Press to grasp: how action dynamics shape object categorization.

PubMed

Triberti, Stefano; Repetto, Claudia; Costantini, Marcello; Riva, Giuseppe; Sinigaglia, Corrado

2016-03-01

Action and object are deeply linked to each other. Not only can viewing an object influence an ongoing action, but motor representations of action can also influence visual categorization of objects. It is tempting to assume that this influence is effector-specific. However, there is indirect evidence suggesting that this influence may be related to the action goal and not just to the effector involved in achieving it. This paper aimed, for the first time, to tackle this issue directly. Participants were asked to categorize different objects in terms of the effector (e.g. hand or foot) typically used to act upon them. The task was delivered before and after a training session in which participants were instructed either just to press a pedal with their foot or to perform the same foot action with the goal of guiding an avatar's hand to grasp a small ball. Results showed that pressing a pedal to grasp a ball influenced how participants correctly identified graspable objects as hand-related ones, making their responses more uncertain than before the training. Just pressing a pedal did not have any similar effect. This is evidence that the influence of action on object categorization can be goal-related rather than effector-specific.

17. Mechanism of Perceptual Categorization in the Pre-Linguistic Period

Sudo, Tamami; Mogi, Ken

In this study, we conducted a series of experiments using stimuli characterized by various attributes in order to understand the categorization process in an infant's pre-linguistic development. The infants are able to assign the same label to members within the same category by focusing attention on specific features or functions common to the members. The ability to categorize is likely to play an essential role in an infant's overall cognitive development. Specifically, we investigated how the infants use different strategies in the process of linguistic categorization. In one strategy, members of a single category are derived from perceptual similarities within the most representative members, i. e., the prototypical members. Alternatively, each membership is established by referring to the linguistic labels for each category provided by the caretaker, in a symbol grounding process. We found that the infant is able to employ these strategies in a flexible manner in its development. We discuss the interplay between different cognitive strategies, including the prototype effects in the infant's cognitive development and the implications for cortical mechanism involved.

18. 29 CFR 1908.10 - Cooperative Agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative Agreements. 1908.10 Section 1908.10 Labor... CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS § 1908.10 Cooperative Agreements. (a) Who may make Agreements. The Assistant Secretary may make a Cooperative Agreement under this part with the Governor of a State or with any State...

19. 29 CFR 1908.10 - Cooperative Agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative Agreements. 1908.10 Section 1908.10 Labor... CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS § 1908.10 Cooperative Agreements. (a) Who may make Agreements. The Assistant Secretary may make a Cooperative Agreement under this part with the Governor of a State or with any State...

20. 29 CFR 1908.10 - Cooperative Agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative Agreements. 1908.10 Section 1908.10 Labor... CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS § 1908.10 Cooperative Agreements. (a) Who may make Agreements. The Assistant Secretary may make a Cooperative Agreement under this part with the Governor of a State or with any State...

1. 2 CFR 1401.220 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1401.220 Section 1401....220 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

2. 29 CFR 1908.10 - Cooperative Agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative Agreements. 1908.10 Section 1908.10 Labor... CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS § 1908.10 Cooperative Agreements. (a) Who may make Agreements. The Assistant Secretary may make a Cooperative Agreement under this part with the Governor of a State or with any State...

3. 29 CFR 1908.10 - Cooperative Agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative Agreements. 1908.10 Section 1908.10 Labor... CONSULTATION AGREEMENTS § 1908.10 Cooperative Agreements. (a) Who may make Agreements. The Assistant Secretary may make a Cooperative Agreement under this part with the Governor of a State or with any State...

4. 2 CFR 182.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 182.620 Section 182... § 182.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

5. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

DOEpatents

Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

2015-12-01

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

6. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

DOEpatents

Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

2012-06-05

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

7. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

Fehr, F.; Distefano, C.; Antares Collaboration

2010-01-01

A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

8. Enhancing chemistry problem-solving achievement using problem categorization

Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.

The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem

9. Absolute and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lin, S. P.; Hudman, M.; Chen, J. N.

1999-01-01

The existence of absolute instability in a liquid jet has been predicted for some time. The disturbance grows in time and propagates both upstream and downstream in an absolutely unstable liquid jet. The image of absolute instability is captured in the NASA 2.2 sec drop tower and reported here. The transition from convective to absolute instability is observed experimentally. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions on the transition Weber number as functions of the Reynolds number. The role of interfacial shear relative to all other relevant forces which cause the onset of jet breakup is explained.

10. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

2015-04-01

The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

11. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

2012-01-01

The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

12. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shindell, D. T.

2012-01-01

The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

13. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

1994-01-01

Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

14. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

2016-06-01

This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

15. Limiting technology by negotiated agreement

SciTech Connect

Carnesale, A.

1983-01-01

The author concentrates on anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems as an example of a continuing effort to limit technology by negotiated agreement. He first discusses the ABM treaty of 1972, ratified by both the US and the USSR. Afterwards, he briefly treats each of the following: ballistic missile defense (BMD) dilemmas; nature of the BMD choice; technology; economics; deterrence; nuclear warfighting; relations with allies; arms control; Star Wars; and on limiting technology.

16. 77 FR 32115 - Notice of Agreements Filed

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2012-05-31

... Agreement Western Mediterranean-U.S. East Coast. Parties: CMA CGM, S.A. and A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S. Filing.... Synopsis: The amendment would add Morocco to the geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement No.:...

17. 48 CFR 842.1203 - Processing agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Novation and Change-of-Name Agreements 842.1203 Processing agreements. Before execution of novation and change-of-name agreements, contracting officers...

18. 48 CFR 842.1203 - Processing agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Novation and Change-of-Name Agreements 842.1203 Processing agreements. Before execution of novation and change-of-name agreements, contracting officers...

19. 78 FR 15951 - Notice of Agreements Filed

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2013-03-13

... agreement. Agreement No.: 012196. Title: MSC/CSAV Ecuador--North Europe Vessel Sharing Agreement. Parties... on the U.S. East Coast on the one hand, and from ports on the U.S. East Coast to Panama and...

20. 76 FR 20668 - Notice of Agreements Filed

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2011-04-13

... amendment deletes Hanjin Shipping as a party to the Agreement. Agreement No.: 012105-001. Title: SCM Lines Transportes/CCNI Agreement. Parties: Compania Chilena de Navegacion Interoceanica S.A. and SCM...

1. Absolute differential cross sections for electron capture and loss by kilo-electron-volt hydrogen atoms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smith, G. J.; Johnson, L. K.; Gao, R. S.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.

1991-01-01

This paper reports measurements of absolute differential cross sections for electron capture and loss for fast hydrogen atoms incident on H2, N2, O2, Ar, and He. Cross sections have been determined in the 2.0- to 5.0-keV energy range over the laboratory angular range 0.02-2 deg, with an angular, resolution of 0.02 deg. The high angular resolution allows observation of the structure at small angles in some of the cross sections. Comparison of the present results with those of other authors generally shows very good agreement.

2. Absolute Helmholtz free energy of highly anharmonic crystals: theory vs Monte Carlo.

PubMed

Yakub, Lydia; Yakub, Eugene

2012-04-14

We discuss the problem of the quantitative theoretical prediction of the absolute free energy for classical highly anharmonic solids. Helmholtz free energy of the Lennard-Jones (LJ) crystal is calculated accurately while accounting for both the anharmonicity of atomic vibrations and the pair and triple correlations in displacements of the atoms from their lattice sites. The comparison with most precise computer simulation data on sublimation and melting lines revealed that theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulation data in the whole range of temperatures and densities studied.

3. Absolute differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering from small biomolecules

Maljković, Jelena

2014-12-01

The results of an experimental investigation of electrons colliding with a set of biomolecules that are assumed to be analogues of the building blocks of DNA (furan, 3- hydroxytetrahydrofuran and pyrimidine) and proteins (formamide, N-methylformamide) are presented. Absolute differential cross sections at medium incident electron energies 40 eV- 300 eV are presented and compared for these different targets. The experimental results are also compared with available calculations, based on the corrected form of independent atom model and show good agreement over the energy range studied.

4. Measurement of the lithium 10p fine structure interval and absolute energy

SciTech Connect

Oxley, Paul; Collins, Patrick

2010-02-15

We report a measurement of the fine structure interval of the {sup 7}Li 10p atomic state with a precision significantly better than previous measurements of fine structure intervals of Rydberg {sup 7}Li p states. Our result of 74.97(74) MHz provides an experimental value for the only n=10 fine structure interval which is yet to be calculated. We also report a measurement of the absolute energy of the 10p state and its quantum defect, which are, respectively, 42379.498(23)cm{sup -1} and 0.04694(10). These results are in good agreement with recent calculations.

5. Absolute spectrophotometry of Titan, Uranus, and Neptune 3500-10,500 A

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neff, J. S.; Humm, D. C.; Bergstralh, J. T.; Cochran, A. L.; Cochran, W. D.; Barker, E. S.; Tull, R. G.

1984-01-01

The present absolute measurements of Titan, Uranus and Neptune geometric albedo spectra in the 3500-10,500 A range have a resolution of about 7 A, together with high SNR, in virtue of the exceptional effeciency of the spectrograph and Reticon detector employed. The high precision and spectral resolution of the data, which are in excellent agreement with the Uranus albedo measurements of Lockwood et al. (1983), make possible quantitative measurements of the effects of Raman scattering by H2 in the Uranus and Neptune atmospheres.

6. Contracting for professional service agreements.

PubMed

Berman, M L

1995-08-01

A review of several professional service agreements (PSA) of managed care organizations which contract with gynecologic oncologists in the Southern California area demonstrates several distinct patterns of practice restrictions and financial benefits which can help guide the physician who is considering signing such an agreement. These contracts must be evaluated in a manner similar to any business transaction as they are legally binding and can enhance or adversely impact one's clinical practice. Their advantages include increased numbers of referrals resulting in higher practice income; however, their disadvantages include practice restrictions which can adversely impact office overhead, practice efficiency, and the ability to deliver quality medical care. General guidelines to physicians evaluating a PSA include (1) avoiding "hold harmless" clauses, (2) avoiding contracts which tie enrollment in one plan to others, (3) the need to enter any verbal agreements by managed care administrators into the contract language, and (4) avoidance of actions which might be construed as being in violation of antitrust activities. Furthermore, physicians must avoid contracts which will result in the uncontrolled growth of a practice beyond its capabilities for expansion.

7. Characterizing flow in oil reservoir rock using SPH: absolute permeability

Holmes, David W.; Williams, John R.; Tilke, Peter; Leonardi, Christopher R.

2016-04-01

In this paper, a three-dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulator for modeling grain scale fluid flow in porous rock is presented. The versatility of the SPH method has driven its use in increasingly complex areas of flow analysis, including flows related to permeable rock for both groundwater and petroleum reservoir research. While previous approaches to such problems using SPH have involved the use of idealized pore geometries (cylinder/sphere packs etc), in this paper we detail the characterization of flow in models with geometries taken from 3D X-ray microtomographic imaging of actual porous rock; specifically 25.12 % porosity dolomite. This particular rock type has been well characterized experimentally and described in the literature, thus providing a practical `real world' means of verification of SPH that will be key to its acceptance by industry as a viable alternative to traditional reservoir modeling tools. The true advantages of SPH are realized when adding the complexity of multiple fluid phases, however, the accuracy of SPH for single phase flow is, as yet, under developed in the literature and will be the primary focus of this paper. Flow in reservoir rock will typically occur in the range of low Reynolds numbers, making the enforcement of no-slip boundary conditions an important factor in simulation. To this end, we detail the development of a new, robust, and numerically efficient method for implementing no-slip boundary conditions in SPH that can handle the degree of complexity of boundary surfaces, characteristic of an actual permeable rock sample. A study of the effect of particle density is carried out and simulation results for absolute permeability are presented and compared to those from experimentation showing good agreement and validating the method for such applications.

8. 40 CFR 35.1615 - Substate agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... agencies. The agreement shall be developed, administered and approved in accordance with the provisions of... this subchapter. The agreement shall specify outputs, milestone schedule, and the budget required...

9. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amrani, D.

2007-01-01

We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

10. A Global Forecast of Absolute Poverty and Employment.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hopkins, M. J. D.

1980-01-01

Estimates are made of absolute poverty and employment under the hypothesis that existing trends continue. Concludes that while the number of people in absolute poverty is not likely to decline by 2000, the proportion will fall. Jobs will have to grow 3.9% per year in developing countries to achieve full employment. (JOW)

11. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

2010-12-01

Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

12. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mika, Carl

2016-01-01

Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

13. An Empirical Analysis of Rough Set Categorical Clustering Techniques

PubMed Central

2017-01-01

Clustering a set of objects into homogeneous groups is a fundamental operation in data mining. Recently, many attentions have been put on categorical data clustering, where data objects are made up of non-numerical attributes. For categorical data clustering the rough set based approaches such as Maximum Dependency Attribute (MDA) and Maximum Significance Attribute (MSA) has outperformed their predecessor approaches like Bi-Clustering (BC), Total Roughness (TR) and Min-Min Roughness(MMR). This paper presents the limitations and issues of MDA and MSA techniques on special type of data sets where both techniques fails to select or faces difficulty in selecting their best clustering attribute. Therefore, this analysis motivates the need to come up with better and more generalize rough set theory approach that can cope the issues with MDA and MSA. Hence, an alternative technique named Maximum Indiscernible Attribute (MIA) for clustering categorical data using rough set indiscernible relations is proposed. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike other rough set theory techniques, it uses the domain knowledge of the data set. It is based on the concept of indiscernibility relation combined with a number of clusters. To show the significance of proposed approach, the effect of number of clusters on rough accuracy, purity and entropy are described in the form of propositions. Moreover, ten different data sets from previously utilized research cases and UCI repository are used for experiments. The results produced in tabular and graphical forms shows that the proposed MIA technique provides better performance in selecting the clustering attribute in terms of purity, entropy, iterations, time, accuracy and rough accuracy. PMID:28068344

14. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data.

PubMed

Neale, Joanne

2016-06-01

The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided.

15. Some applications of categorical data analysis to epidemiological studies.

PubMed

Grizzle, J E; Koch, G G

1979-10-01

Several examples of categorized data from epidemiological studies are analyzed to illustrate that more informative analysis than tests of independence can be performed by fitting models. All of the analyses fit into a unified conceptual framework that can be performed by weighted least squares. The methods presented show how to calculate point estimate of parameters, asymptotic variances, and asymptotically valid chi 2 tests. The examples presented are analysis of relative risks estimated from several 2 x 2 tables, analysis of selected features of life tables, construction of synthetic life tables from cross-sectional studies, and analysis of dose-response curves.

16. Marketing image categorization using hybrid human-machine combinations

2012-03-01

Marketing instruments with nested, short-form, symbol loaded content need to be studied differently. Image classification in the Web2.0 world can dynamically use a configurable amount of internal and external data as well as varying levels of crowd-sourcing. Our work is one such examination of how to construct a hybrid technique involving learning and crowd-sourcing. Through a parameter called turkmix and a multitude of crowd-sourcing techniques available we show that we can control the trend of metrics such as precision and recall on the hybrid categorizer.

17. Diamond like carbon coatings: Categorization by atomic number density

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Angus, John C.

1986-01-01

Dense diamond-like hydrocarbon films grown at the NASA Lewis Research Center by radio frequency self bias discharge and by direct ion beam deposition were studied. A new method for categorizing hydrocarbons based on their atomic number density and elemental composition was developed and applied to the diamond-like hydrocarbon films. It was shown that the diamond-like hydrocarbon films are an entirely new class of hydrocarbons with atomic number densities lying between those of single crystal diamond and adamantanes. In addition, a major review article on these new materials was completed in cooperation with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel.

18. The picture superiority effect in categorization: visual or semantic?

PubMed

Job, R; Rumiati, R; Lotto, L

1992-09-01

Two experiments are reported whose aim was to replicate and generalize the results presented by Snodgrass and McCullough (1986) on the effect of visual similarity in the categorization process. For pictures, Snodgrass and McCullough's results were replicated because Ss took longer to discriminate elements from 2 categories when they were visually similar than when they were visually dissimilar. However, unlike Snodgrass and McCullough, an analogous increase was also observed for word stimuli. The pattern of results obtained here can be explained most parsimoniously with reference to the effect of semantic similarity, or semantic and visual relatedness, rather than to visual similarity alone.

19. Graphics and statistics for cardiology: comparing categorical and continuous variables.

PubMed

Rice, Kenneth; Lumley, Thomas

2016-03-01

Graphs are a standard tool for succinctly describing data, and play a crucial role supporting statistical analyses of that data. However, all too often, graphical display of data in submitted manuscripts is either inappropriate for the task at hand or poorly executed, requiring revision prior to publication. To assist authors, in this paper, we present several forms of graph, for data typically seen in Heart, including dot charts, violin plots, histograms and boxplots for quantitative data, and mosaic plots and bar charts for categorical data. Justification for using these specific plots is drawn from the literature on visual perception; we also provide software instruction and examples, using various popular packages.

20. Building-specific categorical processing in the retrosplenial cortex.

PubMed

Sung, Yul-Wan; Kamba, Masayuki; Ogawa, Seiji

2008-10-09

This study investigates by functional MRI (fMRI) the characteristics of processing activities at the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and compares them to activities at the parahippocampal place area (PPA). A special categorical selectivity of the RSC in the recognition of buildings was elucidated. RSC activation-which is related to the processing of information vis-à-vis buildings, as well as the perception and recollection thereof-deals with buildings per se, or the conceptual aspects of buildings; it is not involved in distinguishing information regarding individual buildings, as is the case with PPA.

1. Learning to manipulate and categorize in human and artificial agents.

PubMed

Morlino, Giuseppe; Gianelli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M; Nolfi, Stefano

2015-01-01

This study investigates the acquisition of integrated object manipulation and categorization abilities through a series of experiments in which human adults and artificial agents were asked to learn to manipulate two-dimensional objects that varied in shape, color, weight, and color intensity. The analysis of the obtained results and the comparison of the behavior displayed by human and artificial agents allowed us to identify the key role played by features affecting the agent/environment interaction, the relation between category and action development, and the role of cognitive biases originating from previous knowledge.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slater, P. N.

1982-01-01

The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

3. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

PubMed

Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

2017-03-01

The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

4. Categorical Speech Perception Deficits Distinguish Language and Reading Impairments in Children

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Ng, Stella

2009-01-01

We examined categorical speech perception in school-age children with developmental dyslexia or Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to age-matched and younger controls. Stimuli consisted of synthetic speech tokens in which place of articulation varied from "b" to "d". Children were tested on categorization, categorization in noise, and…

5. Infant Perceptual and Conceptual Categorization: The Roles of Static and Dynamic Stimulus Attributes.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arterberry, Martha E.; Bornstein, Marc H.

2002-01-01

Five experiments used a categorization habituation-of-looking paradigm to investigate infants' categorization of animals and vehicles based on static versus dynamic attributes of stimuli (color images versus dynamic point-light displays). Findings showed that 6-month-olds categorize animals and vehicles based on static and dynamic information, and…

6. 42 CFR 405.213 - Re-evaluation of a device categorization.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Re-evaluation of a device categorization. 405.213... Decisions That Relate to Health Care Technology § 405.213 Re-evaluation of a device categorization. (a... experimental/investigational (Category A) may request re-evaluation of the categorization decision. (2)...

7. Categorizing High Energy Laser Effects for the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-06-01

CATEGORIZING HIGH ENERGY LASER EFFECTS FOR THE JOINT MUNITIONS EFFECTIVENESS MANUAL THESIS...AFIT/GOR/ENS/05-11 CATEGORIZING HIGH ENERGY LASER EFFECTS FOR THE JOINT MUNITIONS EFFECTIVENESS MANUAL THESIS Presented to the Faculty...Captain, USAF June 2005 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT/GOR/ENS/05-11 CATEGORIZING HIGH ENERGY LASER EFFECTS FOR

8. Color Term Knowledge Does Not Affect Categorical Perception of Color in Toddlers

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Franklin, A.; Clifford, A.; Williamson, E.; Davies, I.

2005-01-01

Categorical perception of color is shown when colors from the same category are discriminated less easily than equivalently spaced colors that cross a category boundary. The current experiments tested various models of categorical perception. Experiment 1 tested for categorical responding in 2- to 4-year-olds, the age range for the onset…

9. Gender and Prior Science Achievement Affect Categorization on a Procedural Learning Task

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hong, Jon-Chao; Lu, Chow-Chin; Wang, Jen-Lian; Liao, Shin; Wu, Ming-Ray; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Pei-Hsin

2013-01-01

Categorization is one of the main mental processes by which perception and conception develop. Nevertheless, categorization receives little attention with the development of critical thinking in Taiwan elementary schools. Thus, the present study investigates the effect that individual differences have on performing categorization tasks.…

10. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

Rapp, M.; Gumbel, J.; Lübken, F.-J.

2001-05-01

In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N) to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

11. Absolute measurement of the photodisintegration of deuterium

SciTech Connect

Knott, J.E.

1988-01-01

This experiment measured the differential cross section for deuteron photodisintegration between photon energies of 63 and 71 MeV. The photon beam was produced by the bremsstrahlung of an 88.4 MeV CW electron beam, from the University of Illinois Nuclear Physics Laboratory electron microtron, in a 1.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} radiation length aluminum converter. The photon energy was determined to .25 MeV by the technique of bremsstrahlung tagging. The deuterium target gas, at atmospheric pressure, was contained in a thin walled cylinder 2.4 m long. The protons from deuteron photo-disintegration were detected in the LArge Solid Angle detector, which was built for this experiment. The LASA detector consists of three concentric, cylindrical MWPC chambers surrounded by segmented plastic scintillators. The target cylinder is on the axis of the chamber. Particles were collected from 20{degrees} to 160{degrees}, the angle determined by the charge division technique in the wire chamber. The de/dx measurements in the wire chamber and the scintillators allowed the separation of protons from electrons. The differential cross sections have been fit by Legendre polynomials. These results are in reasonable agreement with previous experiments and theoretical calculations.

12. High-accuracy absolute distance measurement with a mode-resolved optical frequency comb

Voigt, Dirk; van den Berg, Steven A.; Lešundák, Adam; van Eldik, Sjoerd; Bhattacharya, Nandini

2016-04-01

Optical interferometry enables highly accurate non-contact displacement measurement. The optical phase ambiguity needs to be resolved for absolute distance ranging. In controlled laboratory conditions and for short distances it is possible to track a non-interrupted displacement from a reference position to a remote target. With large distances covered in field applications this may not be feasible, e.g. in structure monitoring, large scale industrial manufacturing or aerospace navigation and attitude control. We use an optical frequency comb source to explore absolute distance measurement by means of a combined spectral and multi-wavelength homodyne interferometry. This relaxes the absolute distance ambiguity to a few tens of centimeters, covered by simpler electronic distance meters, while maintaining highly accurate optical phase measuring capability. A virtually imaged phased array spectrometer records a spatially dispersed interferogram in a single exposure and allows for resolving the modes of our near infrared comb source with 1 GHz mode separation. This enables measurements with direct traceability of the atomic clock referenced comb source. We observed agreement within 500 nm in comparison with a commercial displacement interferometer for target distances up to 50 m. Furthermore, we report on current work toward applicability in less controlled conditions. A filter cavity decimates the comb source to an increased mode separation larger than 20 GHz. A simple grating spectrometer then allows to record mode-resolved interferograms.

13. A new absolute reference for atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements with traceability to SI units

Gröbner, J.; Reda, I.; Wacker, S.; Nyeki, S.; Behrens, K.; Gorman, J.

2014-06-01

Two independently designed and calibrated absolute radiometers measuring downwelling longwave irradiance were compared during two field campaigns in February and October 2013 at Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC). One absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP) developed by NREL and up to four Integrating Sphere Infrared Radiometers (IRIS) developed by PMOD/WRC took part in these intercomparisons. The internal consistency of the IRIS radiometers and the agreement with the ACP were within ±1 W m-2, providing traceability of atmospheric longwave irradiance to the international system of units with unprecedented accuracy. Measurements performed during the two field campaigns and over the past 4 years have shown that the World Infrared Standard Group (WISG) of pyrgeometers is underestimating clear-sky atmospheric longwave irradiance by 2 to 6 W m-2, depending on the amount of integrated water vapor (IWV). This behavior is an instrument-dependent feature and requires an individual sensitivity calibration of each pyrgeometer with respect to an absolute reference such as IRIS or ACP. For IWV larger than 10 mm, an average sensitivity correction of +6.5% should be applied to the WISG in order to be consistent with the longwave reference represented by the ACP and IRIS radiometers. A concerted effort at international level will need to be implemented in order to correct measurements of atmospheric downwelling longwave irradiance traceable to the WISG.

14. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

PubMed

Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

2012-12-01

At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

15. Results of the first North American comparison of absolute gravimeters, NACAG-2010

Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.; Henton, J.; Ingles, D.; Jones, D.; Kennedy, J.; Krauterbluth, K.; Liard, J.; Newell, D.; Sands, R.; Schiel, A.; Silliker, J.; van Westrum, D.

2012-08-01

The first North American Comparison of absolute gravimeters (NACAG-2010) was hosted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at its newly renovated Table Mountain Geophysical Observatory (TMGO) north of Boulder, Colorado, in October 2010. NACAG-2010 and the renovation of TMGO are part of NGS's GRAV-D project (Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum). Nine absolute gravimeters from three countries participated in the comparison. Before the comparison, the gravimeter operators agreed to a protocol describing the strategy to measure, calculate, and present the results. Nine sites were used to measure the free-fall acceleration of g. Each gravimeter measured the value of g at a subset of three of the sites, for a total set of 27 g-values for the comparison. The absolute gravimeters agree with one another with a standard deviation of 1.6 μGal (1 Gal ≡ 1 cm s -2). The minimum and maximum offsets are -2.8 and 2.7 μGal. This is an excellent agreement and can be attributed to multiple factors, including gravimeters that were in good working order, good operators, a quiet observatory, and a short duration time for the experiment. These results can be used to standardize gravity surveys internationally.

16. Results of the first North American comparison of absolute gravimeters, NACAG-2010

USGS Publications Warehouse

Schmerge, David; Francis, Olvier; Henton, J.; Ingles, D.; Jones, D.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Krauterbluth, K.; Liard, J.; Newell, D.; Sands, R.; Schiel, J.; Silliker, J.; van Westrum, D.

2012-01-01

The first North American Comparison of absolute gravimeters (NACAG-2010) was hosted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at its newly renovated Table Mountain Geophysical Observatory (TMGO) north of Boulder, Colorado, in October 2010. NACAG-2010 and the renovation of TMGO are part of NGS’s GRAV-D project (Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum). Nine absolute gravimeters from three countries participated in the comparison. Before the comparison, the gravimeter operators agreed to a protocol describing the strategy to measure, calculate, and present the results. Nine sites were used to measure the free-fall acceleration of g. Each gravimeter measured the value of g at a subset of three of the sites, for a total set of 27 g-values for the comparison. The absolute gravimeters agree with one another with a standard deviation of 1.6 µGal (1 Gal = 1 cm s-2). The minimum and maximum offsets are -2.8 and 2.7 µGal. This is an excellent agreement and can be attributed to multiple factors, including gravimeters that were in good working order, good operators, a quiet observatory, and a short duration time for the experiment. These results can be used to standardize gravity surveys internationally.

17. 7 CFR 1948.98 - Grant agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant agreements. 1948.98 Section 1948.98 Agriculture... § 1948.98 Grant agreements. The following Grant Agreements are a part of this regulation. (a) Exhibit A of this subpart is a Grant Agreement for Growth Management and Housing Planning Grants for...

18. 7 CFR 1948.98 - Grant agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Grant agreements. 1948.98 Section 1948.98 Agriculture... § 1948.98 Grant agreements. The following Grant Agreements are a part of this regulation. (a) Exhibit A of this subpart is a Grant Agreement for Growth Management and Housing Planning Grants for...

19. 25 CFR 163.71 - Agreement funding.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Agreement funding. 163.71 Section 163.71 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Cooperative Agreements § 163.71 Agreement funding. In cooperative agreements, the Secretary is authorized to advance...

20. 25 CFR 163.71 - Agreement funding.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agreement funding. 163.71 Section 163.71 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Cooperative Agreements § 163.71 Agreement funding. In cooperative agreements, the Secretary is authorized to advance...

1. 25 CFR 163.71 - Agreement funding.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-04-01

... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agreement funding. 163.71 Section 163.71 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Cooperative Agreements § 163.71 Agreement funding. In cooperative agreements, the Secretary is authorized to advance...

2. 25 CFR 163.71 - Agreement funding.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agreement funding. 163.71 Section 163.71 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Cooperative Agreements § 163.71 Agreement funding. In cooperative agreements, the Secretary is authorized to advance...

3. 25 CFR 163.71 - Agreement funding.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Agreement funding. 163.71 Section 163.71 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Cooperative Agreements § 163.71 Agreement funding. In cooperative agreements, the Secretary is authorized to advance...

4. 78 FR 63474 - Notice of Agreements Filed

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

2013-10-24

... under the Shipping Act of 1984. Interested parties may submit comments on the agreements to the....gov . Agreement No.: 012204-001. Title: ELJSA-Hanjin Shipping Slot Exchange Agreement. Parties: Evergreen Line Joint Service Agreement and Hanjin Shipping Co. Ltd. Filing Party: Paul M. Keane,...

5. 23 CFR 710.307 - Project agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project agreement. 710.307 Section 710.307 Highways... REAL ESTATE Project Development § 710.307 Project agreement. As a condition of Federal-aid, the STD... project agreement in accordance with 23 CFR part 630, subpart C. The agreement shall be based on...

6. 46 CFR 356.41 - Management agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management agreements. 356.41 Section 356.41 Shipping..., Management Agreements and Exclusive or Long-Term Contracts § 356.41 Management agreements. (a) An owner or bareboat charterer of a Fishing Industry Vessel may enter into a management agreement with a Non-Citizen...

7. 46 CFR 356.41 - Management agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management agreements. 356.41 Section 356.41 Shipping..., Management Agreements and Exclusive or Long-Term Contracts § 356.41 Management agreements. (a) An owner or bareboat charterer of a Fishing Industry Vessel may enter into a management agreement with a Non-Citizen...

8. 7 CFR 947.111 - Marketing agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing agreement. 947.111 Section 947.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Definitions § 947.111 Marketing agreement. Marketing agreement means Marketing Agreement No. 114, as amended....

9. 7 CFR 947.111 - Marketing agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marketing agreement. 947.111 Section 947.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Definitions § 947.111 Marketing agreement. Marketing agreement means Marketing Agreement No. 114, as amended....

10. 7 CFR 947.111 - Marketing agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing agreement. 947.111 Section 947.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Definitions § 947.111 Marketing agreement. Marketing agreement means Marketing Agreement No. 114, as amended....

11. 7 CFR 947.111 - Marketing agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing agreement. 947.111 Section 947.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Definitions § 947.111 Marketing agreement. Marketing agreement means Marketing Agreement No. 114, as amended....

12. 7 CFR 947.111 - Marketing agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marketing agreement. 947.111 Section 947.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Definitions § 947.111 Marketing agreement. Marketing agreement means Marketing Agreement No. 114, as amended....

13. 46 CFR 356.41 - Management agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management agreements. 356.41 Section 356.41 Shipping..., Management Agreements and Exclusive or Long-Term Contracts § 356.41 Management agreements. (a) An owner or bareboat charterer of a Fishing Industry Vessel may enter into a management agreement with a Non-Citizen...

14. 46 CFR 356.41 - Management agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management agreements. 356.41 Section 356.41 Shipping..., Management Agreements and Exclusive or Long-Term Contracts § 356.41 Management agreements. (a) An owner or bareboat charterer of a Fishing Industry Vessel may enter into a management agreement with a Non-Citizen...

15. 46 CFR 356.41 - Management agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-10-01

... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management agreements. 356.41 Section 356.41 Shipping..., Management Agreements and Exclusive or Long-Term Contracts § 356.41 Management agreements. (a) An owner or bareboat charterer of a Fishing Industry Vessel may enter into a management agreement with a Non-Citizen...

16. 40 CFR 46.170 - Fellowship agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fellowship agreement. 46.170 Section 46... FELLOWSHIPS Award § 46.170 Fellowship agreement. (a) The “Fellowship Agreement” (EPA Form 5770-8) is the written agreement, including amendments, between EPA and you. The fellowship agreement will state...

17. 40 CFR 46.170 - Fellowship agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fellowship agreement. 46.170 Section 46... FELLOWSHIPS Award § 46.170 Fellowship agreement. (a) The “Fellowship Agreement” (EPA Form 5770-8) is the written agreement, including amendments, between EPA and you. The fellowship agreement will state...

18. 40 CFR 46.170 - Fellowship agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fellowship agreement. 46.170 Section 46... FELLOWSHIPS Award § 46.170 Fellowship agreement. (a) The “Fellowship Agreement” (EPA Form 5770-8) is the written agreement, including amendments, between EPA and you. The fellowship agreement will state...

19. 40 CFR 46.170 - Fellowship agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fellowship agreement. 46.170 Section 46... FELLOWSHIPS Award § 46.170 Fellowship agreement. (a) The “Fellowship Agreement” (EPA Form 5770-8) is the written agreement, including amendments, between EPA and you. The fellowship agreement will state...

20. 40 CFR 46.170 - Fellowship agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fellowship agreement. 46.170 Section 46... FELLOWSHIPS Award § 46.170 Fellowship agreement. (a) The “Fellowship Agreement” (EPA Form 5770-8) is the written agreement, including amendments, between EPA and you. The fellowship agreement will state...

1. 45 CFR 1155.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-10-01

... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1155.620 Section 1155.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

2. 22 CFR 312.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 312.620 Section 312.620...) Definitions § 312.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

3. 22 CFR 1008.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-04-01

... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1008.620 Section 1008.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

4. 36 CFR 1212.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1212... § 1212.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

5. 36 CFR 1212.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1212... § 1212.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

6. 22 CFR 133.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 133.620 Section 133.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

7. 2 CFR 1401.220 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1401.220 Section 1401... INTERIOR REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1401.220 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that, consistent with 31 U.S.C....

8. 34 CFR 84.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-07-01

... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 84.620 Section 84.620 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C....

9. 45 CFR 1155.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-10-01

... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1155.620 Section 1155.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

10. 34 CFR 84.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-07-01

... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 84.620 Section 84.620 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C....

11. 22 CFR 312.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 312.620 Section 312.620...) Definitions § 312.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

12. 22 CFR 1509.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1509.620 Section 1509.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15...

13. 20 CFR 439.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

2010-04-01

... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 439.620 Section 439... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an... contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as...

14. 2 CFR 200.24 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

2014-01-01

... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 200.24 Section 200.24... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.24 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... include: (1) A cooperative research and development agreement as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a; or (2)...

15. 22 CFR 1008.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1008.620 Section 1008.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

16. 26 CFR 601.802 - Cooperative agreements.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-04-01

... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative agreements. 601.802 Section 601.802... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Tax Counseling for the Elderly § 601.802 Cooperative agreements. (a) General... cooperative agreements with the Internal Revenue Service. Use of cooperative agreements is in accordance...

17. 22 CFR 1008.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

2013-04-01

... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1008.620 Section 1008.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

18. 45 CFR 1155.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1155.620 Section 1155.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

19. 49 CFR 32.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

2012-10-01

... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 32.620 Section 32.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

20. 29 CFR 94.620 - Cooperative agreement.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

2011-07-01

... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 94.620 Section 94.620 Labor Office...) Definitions § 94.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....