Science.gov

Sample records for absolute cell counts

  1. The absolute counting of red cell-derived microparticles with red cell bead by flow rate based assay.

    PubMed

    Nantakomol, Duangdao; Imwong, Malika; Soontarawirat, Ingfar; Kotjanya, Duangporn; Khakhai, Chulalak; Ohashi, Jun; Nuchnoi, Pornlada

    2009-05-01

    Activation of red blood cell is associated with the formation of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs). Analysis of circulating RMPs is becoming more refined and clinically useful. A quantitative Trucount tube method is the conventional method uses for quantitating RMPs. In this study, we validated a quantitative method called "flow rate based assay using red cell bead (FCB)" to measure circulating RMPs in the peripheral blood of healthy subjects. Citrated blood samples collected from 30 cases of healthy subjects were determined the RMPs count by using double labeling of annexin V-FITC and anti-glycophorin A-PE. The absolute RMPs numbers were measured by FCB, and the results were compared with the Trucount or with flow rate based calibration (FR). Statistical correlation and agreement were analyzed using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. There was no significant difference in the absolute number of RMPs quantitated by FCB when compared with those two reference methods including the Trucount tube and FR method. The absolute RMPs count obtained from FCB method was highly correlated with those obtained from Trucount tube (r(2) = 0.98, mean bias 4 cell/microl, limit of agreement [LOA] -20.3 to 28.3 cell/microl), and FR method (r(2) = 1, mean bias 10.3 cell/microl, and LOA -5.5 to 26.2 cell/microl). This study demonstrates that FCB is suitable and more affordable for RMPs quantitation in the clinical samples. This method is a low cost and interchangeable to latex bead-based method for generating the absolute counts in the resource-limited areas. (c) 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  2. Low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Athena P; Bramson, Brian; van der Horst, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Yusuf; Chasela, Charles; Hosseinipour, Mina; Knight, Rodney; Lugalia, Lebah; Tegha, Gerald; Joaki, George; Jafali, Robert; Jamieson, Denise J

    2005-07-01

    Infants of African origin have a lower normal range of absolute neutrophil counts than white infants; this fact, however, remains under appreciated by clinical researchers in the United States. During the initial stages of a clinical trial in Malawi, the authors noted an unexpectedly high number of infants with absolute neutrophil counts that would be classifiable as neutropenic using the National Institutes of Health's Division of AIDS toxicity tables. The authors argue that the relevant Division of AIDS table does not take into account the available evidence of low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants and that a systematic collection of data from many African settings might help establish the absolute neutrophil count cutpoints to be used for defining neutropenia in African populations.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. [Prognostic value of absolute monocyte count in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Riskó, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    The low peripheral absolute lymphocyte and high monocyte count have been reported to correlate with poor clinical outcome in various lymphomas and other cancers. However, a few data known about the prognostic value of absolute monocyte count in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The aim of the authors was to investigate the impact of absolute monocyte count measured at the time of diagnosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia on the time to treatment and overal survival. Between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012, 223 patients with newly-diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were included. The rate of patients needing treatment, time to treatment, overal survival and causes of mortality based on Rai stages, CD38, ZAP-70 positivity and absolute monocyte count were analyzed. Therapy was necessary in 21.1%, 57.4%, 88.9%, 88.9% and 100% of patients in Rai stage 0, I, II, III an IV, respectively; in 61.9% and 60.8% of patients exhibiting CD38 and ZAP-70 positivity, respectively; and in 76.9%, 21.2% and 66.2% of patients if the absolute monocyte count was <0.25 G/l, between 0.25-0.75 G/l and >0.75 G/l, respectively. The median time to treatment and the median overal survival were 19.5, 65, and 35.5 months; and 41.5, 65, and 49.5 months according to the three groups of monocyte counts. The relative risk of beginning the therapy was 1.62 (p<0.01) in patients with absolute monocyte count <0.25 G/l or >0.75 G/l, as compared to those with 0.25-0.75 G/l, and the risk of overal survival was 2.41 (p<0.01) in patients with absolute monocyte count lower than 0.25 G/l as compared to those with higher than 0.25 G/l. The relative risks remained significant in Rai 0 patients, too. The leading causes of mortality were infections (41.7%) and the chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (58.3%) in patients with low monocyte count, while tumours (25.9-35.3%) and other events (48.1 and 11.8%) occurred in patients with medium or high monocyte counts. Patients with low and high monocyte

  7. Correlation of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Absolute Neutrophil Count With Outcomes With PD-1 Axis Inhibitors in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zer, Alona; Sung, Mike R; Walia, Preet; Khoja, Leila; Maganti, Manjula; Labbe, Catherine; Shepherd, Frances A; Bradbury, Penelope A; Feld, Ronald; Liu, Geoffrey; Iazzi, Melissa; Zawisza, Dianne; Nouriany, Nazanin; Leighl, Natasha B

    2018-05-08

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) axis inhibitors have become standard therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Response might be delayed and pseudo-progression occasionally occurs in patients who eventually benefit from treatment. Additional markers beyond programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression are needed to assist in patient selection, response evaluation, and treatment decisions. The relationship between prospectively collected clinical outcomes (response, disease control rate [DCR], treatment duration, overall survival) and hematologic parameters (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio [NLR], absolute neutrophil count [ANC], and platelet to lymphocyte ratio [PLR]) was explored retrospectively in advanced NSCLC patients treated with PD-1 axis inhibitors at a major cancer center from May 2013 to August 2016. Hematologic parameters at baseline and during treatment (week 2 or 3 and week 8) were included. Of 88 patients treated with PD-1 axis inhibitors, 22 (25%) experienced partial response. Baseline NLR ≤4 was associated with superior DCR (74% vs. 50%; P = .025), treatment duration (P = .037), time to progression (P = .053), and overall survival (P = .019), with no differential association according to PD-L1 tumor expression. Lower NLR and ANC during treatment were also associated with response to treatment (P = .025 and P = .017, respectively), and treatment duration (P = .036 and P = .008). No association was found between baseline PLR and DCR, response, treatment duration, nor overall survival. Baseline NLR ≤4 and lower NLR and ANC during treatment might correlate with disease control and treatment response and should be explored further as potential predictors of treatment benefit in larger studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Paul C

    2004-05-01

    There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.

  9. Total lymphocyte count as a predictor of absolute CD4+ count and CD4+ percentage in HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Blatt, S P; Lucey, C R; Butzin, C A; Hendrix, C W; Lucey, D R

    1993-02-03

    To determine whether the total lymphocyte count (TLC) accurately predicts a low absolute CD4+ T-cell count and CD4+ percentage in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Retrospective analysis of data collected in the US Air Force HIV Natural History Study. Military medical center that performs annual medical evaluation of all HIV-infected US Air Force personnel. A total of 828 consecutive patients with no prior history of zidovudine use, evaluated from January 1985 through July 1991. For patients with multiple observations over time, a single data point within each 6-month interval was included in the analysis (N = 2866). The sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LR) of the TLC, in the range of 1.00 x 10(9)/L to 2.00 x 10(9)/L, in predicting an absolute CD4+ T-cell count less than 0.20 x 10(9)/L or a CD4+ percentage less than 20% were calculated. In addition, the LR and pretest probability of significant immunosuppression were used to calculate posttest probabilities of a low CD4+ count for a given TLC value. The LR of the TLC in predicting an absolute CD4+ count < 0.20 x 10(9)/L increased from 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 2.5) for all TLCs less than 2.00 x 10(9)/L, to 33.2 (95% confidence interval, 24.1 to 45.7) for all TLCs less than 1.00 x 10(9)/L. The specificity for this prediction increased from 57% to 97% over this range. The LR also increased from 1.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.6) for all TLCs less than 2.00 x 10(9)/L to 9.7 (95% confidence interval, 7.1 to 13.1) for all TLCs less than 1.00 x 10(9)/L in predicting a CD4+ percentage less than 20%. The TLC, between 1.00 x 10(9)/L and 2.00 x 10(9)/L, appears to be a useful predictor of significant immunosuppression as measured by a CD4+ T-cell count less than 0.20 x 10(9)/L in HIV-infected persons. The LR for a given TLC value and the pretest probability of immunosuppression can be used to determine the posttest probability of significant immunosuppression in

  10. GeneCount: genome-wide calculation of absolute tumor DNA copy numbers from array comparative genomic hybridization data

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, Heidi; Lando, Malin; Brøvig, Runar S; Svendsrud, Debbie H; Johansen, Morten; Galteland, Eivind; Brustugun, Odd T; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Myklebost, Ola; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Hovig, Eivind; Stokke, Trond

    2008-01-01

    Absolute tumor DNA copy numbers can currently be achieved only on a single gene basis by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We present GeneCount, a method for genome-wide calculation of absolute copy numbers from clinical array comparative genomic hybridization data. The tumor cell fraction is reliably estimated in the model. Data consistent with FISH results are achieved. We demonstrate significant improvements over existing methods for exploring gene dosages and intratumor copy number heterogeneity in cancers. PMID:18500990

  11. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can develop a low WBC count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may be in ...

  12. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  13. Perfect count: a novel approach for the single platform enumeration of absolute CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Storie, Ian; Sawle, Alex; Goodfellow, Karen; Whitby, Liam; Granger, Vivian; Ward, Rosalie Y; Peel, Janet; Smart, Theresa; Reilly, John T; Barnett, David

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of reliable CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts is vital for the monitoring of disease progression and therapeutic effectiveness in HIV(+) individuals. Flow cytometry has emerged as the method of choice for CD4(+) T lymphocyte enumeration, with single-platform technology, coupled with reference counting beads, fast becoming the "gold standard." However, although single-platform, bead-based, sample acquisition requires the ratio of beads to cells to remain unchanged, there is no available method, until recently, to monitor this. Perfect Count beads have been developed to address this issue and to incorporate two bead populations, with different densities, to allow the detection of inadequate mixing. Comparison of the relative proportions of both beads with the manufacture's defined limits enables an internal QC check during sample acquisition. In this study, we have compared CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts, obtained from 104 HIV(+) patients, using TruCount beads with MultiSet software (defined as the predicated method) and the new Perfect Count beads, incorporating an in house sequential gating strategy. We have demonstrated an excellent degree of correlation between the predicate method and the Perfect Count system (r(2) = 0.9955; Bland Altman bias +27 CD4(+) T lymphocytes/microl). The Perfect Count system is a robust method for performing single platform absolute counts and has the added advantage of having internal QC checks. Such an approach enables the operator to identify potential problems during sample preparation, acquisition and analysis. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. T-cell count

    MedlinePlus

    ... or multiple myeloma Infections, such as hepatitis or mononucleosis Lower than normal T-cell levels may be due to: Acute viral infections Aging Cancer Immune system diseases, such as HIV/AIDS Radiation therapy Steroid treatment Risks Risks associated with having blood ...

  15. Arraycount, an algorithm for automatic cell counting in microwell arrays.

    PubMed

    Kachouie, Nezamoddin; Kang, Lifeng; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-09-01

    Microscale technologies have emerged as a powerful tool for studying and manipulating biological systems and miniaturizing experiments. However, the lack of software complementing these techniques has made it difficult to apply them for many high-throughput experiments. This work establishes Arraycount, an approach to automatically count cells in microwell arrays. The procedure consists of fluorescent microscope imaging of cells that are seeded in microwells of a microarray system and then analyzing images via computer to recognize the array and count cells inside each microwell. To start counting, green and red fluorescent images (representing live and dead cells, respectively) are extracted from the original image and processed separately. A template-matching algorithm is proposed in which pre-defined well and cell templates are matched against the red and green images to locate microwells and cells. Subsequently, local maxima in the correlation maps are determined and local maxima maps are thresholded. At the end, the software records the cell counts for each detected microwell on the original image in high-throughput. The automated counting was shown to be accurate compared with manual counting, with a difference of approximately 1-2 cells per microwell: based on cell concentration, the absolute difference between manual and automatic counting measurements was 2.5-13%.

  16. Evaluation of absolute measurement using a 4π plastic scintillator for the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting method.

    PubMed

    Unno, Y; Sanami, T; Sasaki, S; Hagiwara, M; Yunoki, A

    2018-04-01

    Absolute measurement by the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting method was conducted by two photomultipliers facing across a plastic scintillator to be focused on β ray counting efficiency. The detector was held with a through-hole-type NaI(Tl) detector. The results include absolutely determined activity and its uncertainty especially about extrapolation. A comparison between the obtained and known activities showed agreement within their uncertainties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High absolute basophil count is a powerful independent predictor of inferior overall survival in patients with primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lucijanic, Marko; Livun, Ana; Stoos-Veic, Tajana; Pejsa, Vlatko; Jaksic, Ozren; Cicic, David; Lucijanic, Jelena; Romic, Zeljko; Orehovec, Biserka; Aralica, Gorana; Miletic, Marko; Kusec, Rajko

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of absolute basophil count (ABC) in patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). We retrospectively investigated 58 patients with PMF treated in our institution in the period from 2006 to 2017. ABC was obtained in addition to other hematological and clinical parameters. Patients were separated into high and low ABC groups using the Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. ABC was higher in PMF patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Patients with high ABC had higher white blood cells (P < 0.001), higher red cell distribution width (P = 0.035), higher lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001), more frequently had circulatory blasts (P < 0.001), constitutional symptoms (P = 0.030) and massive splenomegaly (P = 0.014). ABC was also positively correlated with absolute monocyte count (AMC) (P < 0.001) and other components of differential blood count. There was no difference in ABC regarding driver mutations or degree of bone marrow fibrosis. Univariately, high ABC was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 4.79, P < 0.001). This effect remained statistically significant (HR 4.27, P = 0.009) in a multivariate Cox regression model adjusted for age, gender, Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (HR 2.6, P = 0.001) and AMC (HR 8.45, P = 0.002). High ABC reflects higher disease activity and stronger proliferative potential of disease. ABC and AMC independently predict survival and therefore seem to reflect different underlying pathophysiologic processes. Hence, both have a potential for improvement of current prognostic scores. Basophils represent a part of malignant clone in PMF and are associated with unfavorable disease features and poor prognosis which is independent of currently established prognostic scoring system and monocytosis.

  18. Counting numbers of synaptic proteins: absolute quantification and single molecule imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Patrizio, Angela; Specht, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The ability to count molecules is essential to elucidating cellular mechanisms, as these often depend on the absolute numbers and concentrations of molecules within specific compartments. Such is the case at chemical synapses, where the transmission of information from presynaptic to postsynaptic terminals requires complex interactions between small sets of molecules. Be it the subunit stoichiometry specifying neurotransmitter receptor properties, the copy numbers of scaffold proteins setting the limit of receptor accumulation at synapses, or protein packing densities shaping the molecular organization and plasticity of the postsynaptic density, all of these depend on exact quantities of components. A variety of proteomic, electrophysiological, and quantitative imaging techniques have yielded insights into the molecular composition of synaptic complexes. In this review, we compare the different quantitative approaches and consider the potential of single molecule imaging techniques for the quantification of synaptic components. We also discuss specific neurobiological data to contextualize the obtained numbers and to explain how they aid our understanding of synaptic structure and function. PMID:27335891

  19. Counting numbers of synaptic proteins: absolute quantification and single molecule imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Patrizio, Angela; Specht, Christian G

    2016-10-01

    The ability to count molecules is essential to elucidating cellular mechanisms, as these often depend on the absolute numbers and concentrations of molecules within specific compartments. Such is the case at chemical synapses, where the transmission of information from presynaptic to postsynaptic terminals requires complex interactions between small sets of molecules. Be it the subunit stoichiometry specifying neurotransmitter receptor properties, the copy numbers of scaffold proteins setting the limit of receptor accumulation at synapses, or protein packing densities shaping the molecular organization and plasticity of the postsynaptic density, all of these depend on exact quantities of components. A variety of proteomic, electrophysiological, and quantitative imaging techniques have yielded insights into the molecular composition of synaptic complexes. In this review, we compare the different quantitative approaches and consider the potential of single molecule imaging techniques for the quantification of synaptic components. We also discuss specific neurobiological data to contextualize the obtained numbers and to explain how they aid our understanding of synaptic structure and function.

  20. Digital encoding of cellular mRNAs enabling precise and absolute gene expression measurement by single-molecule counting.

    PubMed

    Fu, Glenn K; Wilhelmy, Julie; Stern, David; Fan, H Christina; Fodor, Stephen P A

    2014-03-18

    We present a new approach for the sensitive detection and accurate quantitation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcripts in single cells. First, the entire population of mRNAs is encoded with molecular barcodes during reverse transcription. After amplification of the gene targets of interest, molecular barcodes are counted by sequencing or scored on a simple hybridization detector to reveal the number of molecules in the starting sample. Since absolute quantities are measured, calibration to standards is unnecessary, and many of the relative quantitation challenges such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias are avoided. We apply the method to gene expression analysis of minute sample quantities and demonstrate precise measurements with sensitivity down to sub single-cell levels. The method is an easy, single-tube, end point assay utilizing standard thermal cyclers and PCR reagents. Accurate and precise measurements are obtained without any need for cycle-to-cycle intensity-based real-time monitoring or physical partitioning into multiple reactions (e.g., digital PCR). Further, since all mRNA molecules are encoded with molecular barcodes, amplification can be used to generate more material for multiple measurements and technical replicates can be carried out on limited samples. The method is particularly useful for small sample quantities, such as single-cell experiments. Digital encoding of cellular content preserves true abundance levels and overcomes distortions introduced by amplification.

  1. Initial Characterization of Unequal-Length, Low-Background Proportional Counters for Absolute Gas-Counting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily K.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco

    Abstract. Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., 37Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counters (ULBPC) designs and now operate in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of OFHC copper components for use in an above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates,more » gas gain, energy resolution, and shielding considerations. These results will be presented along with uncertainty estimates of future absolute gas counting measurements.« less

  2. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160...

  3. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160...

  4. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160...

  5. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160...

  6. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  7. Increment of absolute neutrophil count in the third trimester and increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth: Hirakata Risk Associated with Pregnancy Assessment Research (HIRAPAR).

    PubMed

    Harita, Nobuko; Kariya, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Nakamura, Kimihiko; Endo, Ginji; Narimoto, Katsuhiko

    2012-09-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, who have growth restriction, have higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Excessive inflammatory reaction such as neutrophil activation has been observed in pregnant women whose offspring had restricted fetal growth, but the association between white blood cell (WBC) counts and SGA birth has not yet been assessed. We therefore examined the association of WBC count and its change with the risk of SGA birth. We enrolled 2356 pregnant women who had full-term singleton delivery at a private maternity hospital in Hirakata, Japan. SGA was defined as under the 10th percentile of birthweight for gestational age, baby sex, and mother's parity according to the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts renewed in 2010. Blood samples were measured in the first and third trimesters. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to assess associations between total and differential WBC counts and SGA birth. Women with SGA birth tended to have higher total WBC count in the third trimester compared with women who did not have SGA birth. This tendency was not observed for total WBC count in the first trimester. After adjustment for age, height, body mass index at entry, smoking habit, weekly gestational weight gain, and pregnancy-induced hypertension, higher total WBC count in the third trimester was associated with an increased risk of SGA birth. Total WBC count in the first trimester did not show any significant association with SGA birth. The ratio of total WBC count in the third trimester to that in the first trimester was associated with SGA birth; the odds ratio for 1 unit increase was 3.02 (95% CI: 1.54-5.92). Regarding differential WBC counts in the third trimester, neutrophil count but not lymphocyte count was associated positively with SGA birth. Higher total WBC and absolute neutrophil counts in the third trimester were associated with SGA birth. In addition, greater ratio of increase in total WBC counts during pregnancy

  8. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generationmore » of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.« less

  9. Prognostic roles of absolute monocyte and absolute lymphocyte counts in patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma in the rituximab era: an analysis from the FOLL05 trial of the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi.

    PubMed

    Marcheselli, Luigi; Bari, Alessia; Anastasia, Antonella; Botto, Barbara; Puccini, Benedetta; Dondi, Alessandra; Carella, Angelo M; Alvarez, Isabel; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Arcari, Annalisa; Salvi, Flavia; Federico, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Recently, in an attempt to improve the discrimination power of the international prognostic index (IPI), patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were evaluated to determine the prognostic roles of peripheral blood absolute monocyte count (AMC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC). Here, we analysed data of 428 patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial (FOLL05 study) conducted by Fondazione Italiana Linfomi, to assess the impact of AMC and ALC on progression-free survival (PFS). All patients had been treated with one of three treatment combinations: (i) rituximab (R) plus cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone; (ii) R plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone or (iii) R plus mitoxantrone and fludarabine. We showed that only AMC was a powerful predictor of PFS, and possibly overall survival, in patients with FL treated with combination chemotherapy regimens that contained R. The AMC can be used alone as a novel, simple factor that can predict survival outcome in patients with FL, independent of the immunochemotherapy regimen. It may therefore be widely used by clinicians, due to its simplicity and broad applicability. Additionally, it can be combined with other factors that determine the IPI or FLIPI, to increase the discriminating ability of these indices. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Initial characterization of unequal-length, low-background proportional counters for absolute gas-counting applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R.

    Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., {sup 37}Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counter designs and now operate in PNNL's shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity copper components for use in a shielded above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of backgroundmore » rates, gas gain, and energy resolution. These results will be presented along with a shielding study for the above-ground cave.« less

  11. Counting the Photons: Determining the Absolute Storage Capacity of Persistent Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Burbano, Diana C.; Capobianco, John A.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a persistent phosphor is often determined by comparing luminance decay curves, expressed in cd/m2. However, these photometric units do not enable a straightforward, objective comparison between different phosphors in terms of the total number of emitted photons, as these units are dependent on the emission spectrum of the phosphor. This may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding the storage capacity of the phosphor. An alternative and convenient technique of characterizing the performance of a phosphor was developed on the basis of the absolute storage capacity of phosphors. In this technique, the phosphor is incorporated in a transparent polymer and the measured afterglow is converted into an absolute number of emitted photons, effectively quantifying the amount of energy that can be stored in the material. This method was applied to the benchmark phosphor SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy and to the nano-sized phosphor CaS:Eu. The results indicated that only a fraction of the Eu ions (around 1.6% in the case of SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy) participated in the energy storage process, which is in line with earlier reports based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These findings imply that there is still a significant margin for improving the storage capacity of persistent phosphors. PMID:28773228

  12. Self-digitization microfluidic chip for absolute quantification of mRNA in single cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Alison M; Gansen, Alexander; Paguirigan, Amy L; Kreutz, Jason E; Radich, Jerald P; Chiu, Daniel T

    2014-12-16

    Quantification of mRNA in single cells provides direct insight into how intercellular heterogeneity plays a role in disease progression and outcomes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the current gold standard for evaluating gene expression, is insufficient for providing absolute measurement of single-cell mRNA transcript abundance. Challenges include difficulties in handling small sample volumes and the high variability in measurements. Microfluidic digital PCR provides far better sensitivity for minute quantities of genetic material, but the typical format of this assay does not allow for counting of the absolute number of mRNA transcripts samples taken from single cells. Furthermore, a large fraction of the sample is often lost during sample handling in microfluidic digital PCR. Here, we report the absolute quantification of single-cell mRNA transcripts by digital, one-step reverse transcription PCR in a simple microfluidic array device called the self-digitization (SD) chip. By performing the reverse transcription step in digitized volumes, we find that the assay exhibits a linear signal across a wide range of total RNA concentrations and agrees well with standard curve qPCR. The SD chip is found to digitize a high percentage (86.7%) of the sample for single-cell experiments. Moreover, quantification of transferrin receptor mRNA in single cells agrees well with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments. The SD platform for absolute quantification of single-cell mRNA can be optimized for other genes and may be useful as an independent control method for the validation of mRNA quantification techniques.

  13. CD4 cell responses to combination antiretroviral therapy in patients starting therapy at high CD4 cell counts.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen T; Carr, Andrew; Woolley, Ian; Giles, Michelle; Hoy, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Law, Matthew G

    2011-09-01

    To examine CD4 cell responses to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in patients enrolled in the Australian HIV Observational Database who commenced cART at CD4 cell counts >350 cells per microliter. CD4 cell counts were modelled using random effects, repeated measurement models in 432 HIV-infected adults from Australian HIV Observational Database who commenced their first cART regimen and had a baseline CD4 count >350 cells per microliter. Using published AIDS and/or death incidence rates combined with the data summarized by time and predicted CD4 cell count, we calculated the expected reduction in risk of an event for different starting baseline CD4 strata. Mean CD4 counts increased above 500 cells per microliter in all baseline CD4 strata by 12 months (means of 596, 717, and 881 cells/μL in baseline CD4 strata 351-500, 501-650, and >650 cells/μL, respectively) and after 72 months since initiating cART, mean CD4 cell counts (by increasing baseline CD4 strata) were 689, 746, 742 cells per microliter. The expected reduction in risk of mortality for baseline CD4 counts >650 cells per microliter relative to 351-500 cells per microliter was approximately 8%, an absolute risk reduction 0.33 per 1000 treated patient-years. Patients starting cART at high CD4 cell counts (>650 cells/μL) tend to maintain this immunological level over 6 years of follow-up. Patients starting from 351 to 500 CD4 cells per microliter achieve levels of >650 cells per microliter after approximately 3 years of cART. Initiating cART with a baseline CD4 count 501-650 or >650 cells per microliter relative to 351-500 cells per microliter indicated a minimal reduction in risk of AIDS incidence and/or death.

  14. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lympho

  15. Optimally achieving milk bulk tank somatic cell count thresholds.

    PubMed

    Troendle, Jason A; Tauer, Loren W; Gröhn, Yrjo T

    2017-01-01

    High somatic cell count in milk leads to reduced shelf life in fluid milk and lower processed yields in manufactured dairy products. As a result, farmers are often penalized for high bulk tank somatic cell count or paid a premium for low bulk tank somatic cell count. Many countries also require all milk from a farm to be lower than a specified regulated somatic cell count. Thus, farms often cull cows that have high somatic cell count to meet somatic cell count thresholds. Rather than naïvely cull the highest somatic cell count cows, a mathematical programming model was developed that determines the cows to be culled from the herd by maximizing the net present value of the herd, subject to meeting any specified bulk tank somatic cell count level. The model was applied to test-day cows on 2 New York State dairy farms. Results showed that the net present value of the herd was increased by using the model to meet the somatic cell count restriction compared with naïvely culling the highest somatic cell count cows. Implementation of the model would be straightforward in dairy management decision software. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  17. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended...

  18. Low Blood Cell Counts: Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, in particular, a low level of neutrophils (neutropenia), a type of white blood cell that fights ... Cancer Institute, 2011 Low white blood cell count Fever higher than 100.5 F (38 C) Chills ...

  19. [A multicenter study of correlation between peripheral lymphocyte counts and CD(+)4T cell counts in HIV/AIDS patients].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Qiu, Zhifeng; Han, Yang; Li, Yanling; Song, Xiaojing; Li, Taisheng

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of lymphocyte count as a surrogate for CD(+)4T cell count in treatment-naїve HIV-infected adults. A total of 2 013 HIV-infected patients were screened at 23 sites in China. CD(+)4T cell counts were measured by flow cytometry. Correlation between CD(+)4T cell count and peripheral lymphocyte count were analyzed by spearman coefficient. AUCROC were used to evaluate the performance of lymphocyte count as a surrogate for CD(+)4T cell count. The lymphocyte count and CD(+)4T cell count of these 2 013 patients were (1 600 ± 670) × 10(6)/L and (244 ± 148) × 10(6)/L respectively. CD(+)4T cell count were positively correlated with lymphocyte count (r = 0.482, P < 0.000 1). AUCROC of lymphocyte count as a surrogate for CD(+)4T cell counts of <100×10(6)/L, <200×10(6)/L and <350×10(6)/L were 0.790 (95%CI 0.761-0.818, P < 0.000 1), 0.733 (95%CI 0.710-0.755, P < 0.000 1) and 0.732 (95%CI 0.706-0.758, P < 0.000 1) respectively. Lymphocyte count could be considerad as a potential surrogate marker for CD(+)4T cell count in HIV/AIDS patients not having access to T cell subset test by flowcytometry.

  20. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or both. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or both. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting...

  2. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or both. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting...

  3. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments intended to count red cells, white cells, or both. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting...

  4. Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Jia; Li, Ya-Jun; Xia, Yi; Wang, Yu; Wei, Wen-Xiao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lin, Tong-Yu; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-03

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL.

  5. Prognostic significance of peripheral monocyte count in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) has heterogeneous clinical manifestations and prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic impact of absolute monocyte count (AMC) in ENKL, and provide some immunologically relevant information for better risk stratification in patients with ENKL. Methods Retrospective data from 163 patients newly diagnosed with ENKL were analyzed. The absolute monocyte count (AMC) at diagnosis was analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. Independent prognostic factors of survival were determined by Cox regression analysis. Results The AMC at diagnosis were related to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with ENKL. Multivariate analysis identified AMC as independent prognostic factors of survival, independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and Korean prognostic index (KPI). The prognostic index incorporating AMC and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), another surrogate factor of immune status, could be used to stratify all 163 patients with ENKL into different prognostic groups. For patients who received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (102 cases), the three AMC/ALC index categories identified patients with significantly different survivals. When superimposed on IPI or KPI categories, the AMC/ALC index was better able to identify high-risk patients in the low-risk IPI or KPI category. Conclusion The baseline peripheral monocyte count is shown to be an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKL patients. The prognostic index related to tumor microenvironment might be helpful to identify high-risk patients with ENKL. PMID:23638998

  6. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  7. WBC count

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count; White blood cell differential; WBC differential; Infection - WBC count; Cancer - WBC count ... called leukopenia. A count less than 4,500 cells per microliter (4.5 × 10 9 /L) is ...

  8. [Correlation between red blood cell count and liver function status].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaomeng; Wang, Leijie; Yao, Mingjie; Wen, Xiajie; Chen, Xiangmei; You, Hong; Jia, Jidong; Zhao, Jingmin; Lu, Fengmin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the changes in red blood cell count in patients with different liver diseases and the correlation between red blood cell count and degree of liver damage. The clinical data of 1427 patients with primary liver cancer, 172 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 185 patients with hepatitis were collected, and the Child-Pugh class was determined for all patients. The differences in red blood cell count between patients with different liver diseases were retrospectively analyzed, and the correlation between red blood cell count and liver function status was investigated. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, rank sum test, Spearman rank sum correlation test, and chi-square test were performed for different types of data. Red blood cell count showed significant differences between patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cancer, and liver cirrhosis and was highest in patients with chronic hepatitis and lowest in patients with liver cirrhosis (P < 0.05). In the patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count tended to decrease in patients with a higher Child-Pugh class (P < 0.05). For patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count can reflect the degree of liver damage, which may contribute to an improved liver function prediction model for these patients.

  9. High throughput single cell counting in droplet-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Lu, Heng; Caen, Ouriel; Vrignon, Jeremy; Zonta, Eleonora; El Harrak, Zakaria; Nizard, Philippe; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Taly, Valérie

    2017-05-02

    Droplet-based microfluidics is extensively and increasingly used for high-throughput single-cell studies. However, the accuracy of the cell counting method directly impacts the robustness of such studies. We describe here a simple and precise method to accurately count a large number of adherent and non-adherent human cells as well as bacteria. Our microfluidic hemocytometer provides statistically relevant data on large populations of cells at a high-throughput, used to characterize cell encapsulation and cell viability during incubation in droplets.

  10. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool.

  11. A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ∼2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ∼15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement.

  12. Making stem cells count for global health.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Dominique S; Thorsteinsdóttir, Halla

    2011-11-01

    Developing countries such as China, India and Brazil are making large investments in the stem cell field. Here we argue that hands-on involvement in the field by these countries is essential if the products developed are going to be locally relevant, affordable and appropriate. However, stem cells are a high-risk investment and any global health impacts are still likely to be far off. Even if they are eventually successful, better clinical oversight and measures to ensure access are required for stem cells to have a substantial and equitable impact.

  13. Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.

  14. [Automated hematology analysers and spurious counts Part 3. Haemoglobin, red blood cells, cell count and indices, reticulocytes].

    PubMed

    Godon, Alban; Genevieve, Franck; Marteau-Tessier, Anne; Zandecki, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Several situations lead to abnormal haemoglobin measurement or to abnormal red blood cells (RBC) counts, including hyperlipemias, agglutinins and cryoglobulins, haemolysis, or elevated white blood cells (WBC) counts. Mean (red) cell volume may be also subject to spurious determination, because of agglutinins (mainly cold), high blood glucose level, natremia, anticoagulants in excess and at times technological considerations. Abnormality related to one measured parameter eventually leads to abnormal calculated RBC indices: mean cell haemoglobin content is certainly the most important RBC parameter to consider, maybe as important as flags generated by the haematology analysers (HA) themselves. In many circumstances, several of the measured parameters from cell blood counts (CBC) may be altered, and the discovery of a spurious change on one parameter frequently means that the validity of other parameters should be considered. Sensitive flags allow now the identification of several spurious counts, but only the most sophisticated HA have optimal flagging, and simpler ones, especially those without any WBC differential scattergram, do not share the same capacity to detect abnormal results. Reticulocytes are integrated into the CBC in many HA, and several situations may lead to abnormal counts, including abnormal gating, interference with intraerythrocytic particles, erythroblastosis or high WBC counts.

  15. Development of a low-level 39Ar calibration standard – Analysis by absolute gas counting measurements augmented with simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Brandenberger, J. M.; ...

    2017-02-17

    Here, this paper describes the generation of 39Ar, via reactor irradiation of potassium carbonate, followed by quantitative analysis (length-compensated proportional counting) to yield two calibration standards that are respectively 50 and 3 times atmospheric background levels. Measurements were performed in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's shallow underground counting laboratory studying the effect of gas density on beta-transport; these results are compared with simulation. The total expanded uncertainty of the specific activity for the ~50 × 39Ar in P10 standard is 3.6% (k=2).

  16. Development of a low-level 39Ar calibration standard – Analysis by absolute gas counting measurements augmented with simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Brandenberger, J. M.

    Here, this paper describes the generation of 39Ar, via reactor irradiation of potassium carbonate, followed by quantitative analysis (length-compensated proportional counting) to yield two calibration standards that are respectively 50 and 3 times atmospheric background levels. Measurements were performed in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's shallow underground counting laboratory studying the effect of gas density on beta-transport; these results are compared with simulation. The total expanded uncertainty of the specific activity for the ~50 × 39Ar in P10 standard is 3.6% (k=2).

  17. [Absolute numbers of peripheral blood CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells prior to a leukapheresis procedure as a parameter predicting the efficiency of stem cell collection].

    PubMed

    Galtseva, I V; Davydova, Yu O; Gaponova, T V; Kapranov, N M; Kuzmina, L A; Troitskaya, V V; Gribanova, E O; Kravchenko, S K; Mangasarova, Ya K; Zvonkov, E E; Parovichnikova, E N; Mendeleeva, L P; Savchenko, V G

    To identify a parameter predicting a collection of at least 2·106 CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)/kg body weight per leukapheresis (LA) procedure. The investigation included 189 patients with hematological malignancies and 3 HSC donors, who underwent mobilization of stem cells with their subsequent collection by LA. Absolute numbers of peripheral blood leukocytes and CD34+ cells before a LA procedure, as well as a number of CD34+ cells/kg body weight (BW) in the LA product stored on the same day were determined in each patient (donor). There was no correlation between the number of leukocytes and that of stored CD34+ cells/kg BW. There was a close correlation between the count of peripheral blood CD34+ cells prior to LA and that of collected CD34+ cells calculated with reference to kg BW. The optimal absolute blood CD34+ cell count was estimated to 20 per µl, at which a LA procedure makes it possible to collect 2·106 or more CD34+ cells/kg BW.

  18. Absolute dose calibration of an X-ray system and dead time investigations of photon-counting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentieri, C.; Schwarz, C.; Ludwig, J.; Ashfaq, A.; Fiederle, M.

    2002-07-01

    High precision concerning the dose calibration of X-ray sources is required when counting and integrating methods are compared. The dose calibration for a dental X-ray tube was executed with special dose calibration equipment (dosimeter) as function of exposure time and rate. Results were compared with a benchmark spectrum and agree within ±1.5%. Dead time investigations with the Medipix1 photon-counting chip (PCC) have been performed by rate variations. Two different types of dead time, paralysable and non-paralysable will be discussed. The dead time depends on settings of the front-end electronics and is a function of signal height, which might lead to systematic defects of systems. Dead time losses in excess of 30% have been found for the PCC at 200 kHz absorbed photons per pixel.

  19. The counting of native blood cells by digital microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbin, S. O.; Doubrovski, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.; Tsareva, O. E.

    2017-03-01

    An algorithm for photographic images processing of blood samples in its native state was developed to determine the concentration of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets without individual separate preparation of cells' samples. Special "photo templates" were suggested to use in order to identify red blood cells. The effect of "highlighting" of leukocytes, which was found by authors, was used to increase the accuracy of this type of cells counting. Finally to raise the resolution of platelets from leukocytes the areas of their photo images were used, but not their sizes. It is shown that the accuracy of cells counting for native blood samples may be comparable with the accuracy of similar studies for smears. At the same time the proposed native blood analysis simplifies greatly the procedure of sample preparation in comparison to smear, permits to move from the detection of blood cells ratio to the determination of their concentrations in the sample.

  20. Relationship of milking rate to somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Brown, C A; Rischette, S J; Schultz, L H

    1986-03-01

    Information on milking rate, monthly bucket somatic cell counts, mastitis treatment, and milk production was obtained from 284 lactations of Holstein cows separated into three lactation groups. Significant correlations between somatic cell count (linear score) and other parameters included production in lactation 1 (-.185), production in lactation 2 (-.267), and percent 2-min milk in lactation 2 (.251). Somatic cell count tended to increase with maximum milking rate in all lactations, but correlations were not statistically significant. Twenty-nine percent of cows with milking rate measurements were treated for clinical mastitis. Treated cows in each lactation group produced less milk than untreated cows. In the second and third lactation groups, treated cows had a shorter total milking time and a higher percent 2-min milk than untreated cows, but differences were not statistically significant. Overall, the data support the concept that faster milking cows tend to have higher cell counts and more mastitis treatments, particularly beyond first lactation. However, the magnitude of the relationship was small.

  1. A New Method for Calculating Counts in Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szapudi, István

    1998-04-01

    In the near future, a new generation of CCD-based galaxy surveys will enable high-precision determination of the N-point correlation functions. The resulting information will help to resolve the ambiguities associated with two-point correlation functions, thus constraining theories of structure formation, biasing, and Gaussianity of initial conditions independently of the value of Ω. As one of the most successful methods of extracting the amplitude of higher order correlations is based on measuring the distribution of counts in cells, this work presents an advanced way of measuring it with unprecedented accuracy. Szapudi & Colombi identified the main sources of theoretical errors in extracting counts in cells from galaxy catalogs. One of these sources, termed as measurement error, stems from the fact that conventional methods use a finite number of sampling cells to estimate counts in cells. This effect can be circumvented by using an infinite number of cells. This paper presents an algorithm, which in practice achieves this goal; that is, it is equivalent to throwing an infinite number of sampling cells in finite time. The errors associated with sampling cells are completely eliminated by this procedure, which will be essential for the accurate analysis of future surveys.

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. A comparison of manual and electronic counting for total nucleated cell counts on synovial fluid from canine stifle joints.

    PubMed

    Atilola, M A; Lumsden, J H; Rooke, F

    1986-04-01

    Synovial fluids collected from the stifle joints of 20 physically normal adult dogs were subjected to cytological examination. A total nucleated cell count was performed on each sample using both an electronic cell counter and a hemocytometer. The mean of the total counts done with the electronic counter was significantly higher (1008 cells/microL) than that obtained manually with the hemocytometer (848 cells/microL).

  5. The Case for Absolute Ligand Discrimination: Modeling Information Processing and Decision by Immune T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Paul; Altan-Bonnet, Grégoire

    2016-03-01

    Some cells have to take decision based on the quality of surroundings ligands, almost irrespective of their quantity, a problem we name "absolute discrimination". An example of absolute discrimination is recognition of not-self by immune T Cells. We show how the problem of absolute discrimination can be solved by a process called "adaptive sorting". We review several implementations of adaptive sorting, as well as its generic properties such as antagonism. We show how kinetic proofreading with negative feedback implement an approximate version of adaptive sorting in the immune context. Finally, we revisit the decision problem at the cell population level, showing how phenotypic variability and feedbacks between population and single cells are crucial for proper decision.

  6. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  7. Quality specification in haematology: the automated blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Buttarello, Mauro

    2004-08-02

    Quality specifications for automated blood cell counts include topics that go beyond the traditional analytic stage (imprecision, inaccuracy, quality control) and extend to pre- and post-analytic phases. In this review pre-analytic aspects concerning the choice of anticoagulants, maximum conservation times and differences between storage at room temperature or at 4 degrees C are considered. For the analytic phase, goals for imprecision and bias obtained with various approaches (ratio to biologic variation, state of the art, specific clinical situations) are evaluated. For the post-analytic phase, medical review criteria (algorithm, decision limit and delta check) and the structure of the report (general part and comments), which constitutes the formal act through which a laboratory communicates with clinicians, are considered. K2EDTA is considered the anticoagulant of choice for automated cell counts. Regarding storage, specimens should be analyzed as soon as possible. Storage at 4 degrees C may stabilize specimens from 24 to 72 h when complete blood count (CBC) and differential leucocyte count (DLC) is performed. For precision, analytical goals based on the state of the art are acceptable while for bias this is satisfactory only for some parameters. In haematology quality specifications for pre- and analytical phases are important, but the review criteria and the quality of the report play a central role in assuring a definite clinical value.

  8. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    PubMed

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nucleated red blood cells count as a prognostic biomarker in predicting the complications of asphyxia in neonates.

    PubMed

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Zakerihamidi, Maryam; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Avan, Amir; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-11-01

    Nucleated-red-blood-cells (NRBC) count in umbilical cord of newborns is been suggested as a sign of birth asphyxia. The present study was conducted to explore the value of NRBC count in prognosis of asphyxiated neonates. Sixty-three neonates with asphyxia were followed up for two years. Maternal and neonatal information was recorded follow by clinical and laboratory evaluation. NRBC-level was determined per 100 white-blood-cells (WBC). After discharge, follow-up of asphyxiated infants was performed using Denver II test at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Neonates were divided into two groups, with favorable and unfavorable outcome based on developmental delay or death. We observed that NRBC count with more than 11 per 100 WBC, had sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 90% in predicting complications of asphyxia, while in absolute NRBC count with more than 1554, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% and of 87%, respectively. Combination of NRBC + HIE (hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy) grade had a high-predictive power for determining the prognosis of asphyxia in neonates. We demonstrate that NRBC/100 WBC and absolute NRCB count can be used as prognostic marker for neonatal asphyxia, which in combination with the severity of asphyxia could indicate high infant mortality, and complications of asphyxia. Further studies in a larger and multi center setting trail are warranted to investigate the value of NRBC and HIE in asphyxiate term infants.

  10. Automatic choroid cells segmentation and counting in fluorescence microscopic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Jianjun; Zhu, Weifang; Shi, Fei; Xiang, Dehui; Lin, Xiao; Yang, Lei; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a method to automatically segment and count the rhesus choroid-retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF/6A) in fluorescence microscopic images which is based on shape classification, bottleneck detection and accelerated Dijkstra algorithm. The proposed method includes four main steps. First, a thresholding filter and morphological operations are applied to reduce the noise. Second, a shape classifier is used to decide whether a connected component is needed to be segmented. In this step, the AdaBoost classifier is applied with a set of shape features. Third, the bottleneck positions are found based on the contours of the connected components. Finally, the cells segmentation and counting are completed based on the accelerated Dijkstra algorithm with the gradient information between the bottleneck positions. The results show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial Statistics for Tumor Cell Counting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirjadi, Oliver; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Breuel, Thomas

    To count and classify cells in histological sections is a standard task in histology. One example is the grading of meningiomas, benign tumors of the meninges, which requires to assess the fraction of proliferating cells in an image. As this process is very time consuming when performed manually, automation is required. To address such problems, we propose a novel application of Markov point process methods in computer vision, leading to algorithms for computing the locations of circular objects in images. In contrast to previous algorithms using such spatial statistics methods in image analysis, the present one is fully trainable. This is achieved by combining point process methods with statistical classifiers. Using simulated data, the method proposed in this paper will be shown to be more accurate and more robust to noise than standard image processing methods. On the publicly available SIMCEP benchmark for cell image analysis algorithms, the cell count performance of the present paper is significantly more accurate than results published elsewhere, especially when cells form dense clusters. Furthermore, the proposed system performs as well as a state-of-the-art algorithm for the computer-aided histological grading of meningiomas when combined with a simple k-nearest neighbor classifier for identifying proliferating cells.

  13. Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12 mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ≤ 25,000 cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000 cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ≤ 25,000 or >25,000 cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density of hemp shiv

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, M.; Ansell, M. P.; Hussain, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper, for the first time, fully characterizes the intrinsic physical parameters of hemp shiv including cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density. Scanning electron microscopy revealed microstructural features similar to hardwoods. Confocal microscopy revealed three major layers in the cell wall: middle lamella, primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. Computed tomography improved the visualization of pore shape and pore connectivity in three dimensions. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that the average accessible porosity was 76.67 ± 2.03% and pore size classes could be distinguished into micropores (3–10 nm) and macropores (0.1–1 µm and 20–80 µm). The absolute density was evaluated by helium pycnometry, MIP and Archimedes' methods. The results show that these methods can lead to misinterpretation of absolute density. The MIP method showed a realistic absolute density (1.45 g cm−3) consistent with the density of the known constituents, including lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. However, helium pycnometry and Archimedes’ methods gave falsely low values owing to 10% of the volume being inaccessible pores, which require sample pretreatment in order to be filled by liquid or gas. This indicates that the determination of the cell wall density is strongly dependent on sample geometry and preparation. PMID:29765652

  15. Cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density of hemp shiv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Lawrence, M.; Ansell, M. P.; Hussain, A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper, for the first time, fully characterizes the intrinsic physical parameters of hemp shiv including cell wall microstructure, pore size distribution and absolute density. Scanning electron microscopy revealed microstructural features similar to hardwoods. Confocal microscopy revealed three major layers in the cell wall: middle lamella, primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. Computed tomography improved the visualization of pore shape and pore connectivity in three dimensions. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that the average accessible porosity was 76.67 ± 2.03% and pore size classes could be distinguished into micropores (3-10 nm) and macropores (0.1-1 µm and 20-80 µm). The absolute density was evaluated by helium pycnometry, MIP and Archimedes' methods. The results show that these methods can lead to misinterpretation of absolute density. The MIP method showed a realistic absolute density (1.45 g cm-3) consistent with the density of the known constituents, including lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. However, helium pycnometry and Archimedes' methods gave falsely low values owing to 10% of the volume being inaccessible pores, which require sample pretreatment in order to be filled by liquid or gas. This indicates that the determination of the cell wall density is strongly dependent on sample geometry and preparation.

  16. CDC staging based on absolute CD4 count and CD4 percentage in an HIV-1-infected Indian population: treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Vajpayee, M; Kaushik, S; Sreenivas, V; Wig, N; Seth, P

    2005-01-01

    CD4+ T-cell levels are an important criterion for categorizing HIV-related clinical conditions according to the CDC classification system and are therefore important in the management of HIV by initiating antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis for opportunistic infections due to HIV among HIV-infected individuals. However, it has been observed that the CD4 counts are affected by the geographical location, race, ethnic origin, age, gender and changes in total and differential leucocyte counts. In the light of this knowledge, we classified 600 HIV seropositive antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve Indian individuals belonging to different CDC groups A, B and C on the basis of CDC criteria of both CD4% and CD4 counts and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. Importantly, CDC staging on the basis of CD4% indicated significant clinical implications, requiring an early implementation of effective antiretroviral treatment regimen in HIV-infected individuals deprived of treatment when classified on the basis of CD4 counts. PMID:16045738

  17. Interrelationships of somatic cell count, mastitis, and milk yield in a low somatic cell count herd.

    PubMed

    Deluyker, H A; Gay, J M; Weaver, L D

    1993-11-01

    In a high yielding low SCC herd, changes in milk yield associated with SCC and occurrence of clinical mastitis and differences in SCC with parity, clinical mastitis, and DIM were investigated. Milk yield data were obtained at every milking, and SCC was measured once every 48 h in 117 cows during the first 119 d postpartum. Effects of SCC and clinical mastitis on cumulative milk yield in the first 119 d postpartum were evaluated with least squares linear regression. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to detect changes in SCC. The SCC was highest at lactation onset, and cows with clinical mastitis had significantly higher SCC. During the 10 d prior to onset of clinical mastitis, SCC was higher in affected cows than in matched unaffected controls and surged just prior to diagnosis. During the 10-d period following a mastitis treatment, SCC differences between treated and control cows remained significant but became smaller with time and returned to the premastitis differences. Occurrence of clinical mastitis was associated with 5% milk yield loss. Cows with mean SCC > 245,000 cells/ml over the 119 d showed 6.2% yield loss compared with cows with SCC < or = 90,000 cells/ml. Cows with clinical mastitis had higher SCC prior to and following the end of treatment for mastitis than did controls. Clinical mastitis and SCC were associated with significant yield loss. Milk yield loss attributed to clinical mastitis was greater than that associated with elevated SCC (> 245,000 cells/ml) because a greater percentage of cows (26%) had clinical mastitis than elevated SCC (12.5%).

  18. Counting Legionella cells within single amoeba host cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we present the first attempt to quantify L. pneumophila cell numbers within individual amoebae hosts that may be released into engineered water systems. The maximum numbers of culturable L. pneumophila cells grown within Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri were 134...

  19. Long terms trends in CD4+ cell counts, CD8+ cell counts, and the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Rachael A.; May, Margaret T.; Tilling, Kate; Taylor, Ninon; Wittkop, Linda; Reiss, Peter; Gill, John; Schommers, Philipp; Costagliola, Dominique; Guest, Jodie L.; Lima, Viviane D.; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Smith, Colette; Cavassini, Matthias; Saag, Michael; Castilho, Jessica L.; Sterne, Jonathan A.C.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Model trajectories of CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts after starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and use the model to predict trends in these counts and the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio. Design: Cohort study of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive adults who started ART after 1997 (ART Cohort Collaboration) with more than 6 months of follow-up data. Methods: We jointly estimated CD4+ and CD8+ cell count trends and their correlation using a bivariate random effects model, with linear splines describing their population trends, and predicted the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio trend from this model. We assessed whether CD4+ and CD8+ cell count trends and the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio trend varied according to CD4+ cell count at start of ART (baseline), and, whether these trends differed in patients with and without virological failure more than 6 months after starting ART. Results: A total of 39 979 patients were included (median follow-up was 53 months). Among patients with baseline CD4+ cell count at least 50 cells/μl, predicted mean CD8+ cell counts continued to decrease between 3 and 15 years post-ART, partly driving increases in the predicted mean CD4+ : CD8+ ratio. During 15 years of follow-up, normalization of the predicted mean CD4+ : CD8+ ratio (to >1) was only observed among patients with baseline CD4+ cell count at least 200 cells/μl. A higher baseline CD4+ cell count predicted a shorter time to normalization. Conclusion: Declines in CD8+ cell count and increases in CD4+ : CD8+ ratio occurred up to 15 years after starting ART. The likelihood of normalization of the CD4+ : CD8+ ratio is strongly related to baseline CD4+ cell count. PMID:29851663

  20. Pharmacometric Analysis of the Relationship Between Absolute Lymphocyte Count and Expanded Disability Status Scale and Relapse Rate, Efficacy End Points, in Multiple Sclerosis Trials.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, A M; Thorsted, A; Schindler, E; Jönsson, S; Munafo, A; Karlsson, M O

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), and disability (as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and occurrence of relapses, 2 efficacy endpoints, respectively, in patients with remitting-relasping multiple sclerosis. Data for ALC, EDSS, and relapse rate were available from 1319 patients receiving placebo and/or cladribine tablets. Pharmacodynamic models were developed to characterize the time course of the endpoints. ALC-related measures were then evaluated as predictors of the efficacy endpoints. EDSS data were best fitted by a model where the logit-linear disease progression is affected by the dynamics of ALC change from baseline. Relapse rate data were best described by the Weibull hazard function, and the ALC change from baseline was also found to be a significant predictor of time to relapse. Presented models have shown that once cladribine exposure driven ALC-derived measures are included in the model, the need for drug effect components is of less importance (EDSS) or disappears (relapse rate). This simplifies the models and theoretically makes them mechanism specific rather than drug specific. Having a reliable mechanism-specific model would allow leveraging historical data across compounds, to support decision making in drug development and possibly shorten the time to market. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Quantitative Relationship Between AUEC of Absolute Neutrophil Count and Duration of Severe Neutropenia for G-CSF in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Ma, Lian; Schrieber, Sarah J; Rahman, Nam Atiqur; Deisseroth, Albert; Farrell, Ann T; Wang, Yaning; Sinha, Vikram; Marathe, Anshu

    2018-02-02

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quantitative relationship between duration of severe neutropenia (DSN, the efficacy endpoint) and area under effect curve of absolute neutrophil counts (ANC-AUEC, the pharmacodynamic endpoint), based on data from filgrastim products, a human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Clinical data from filgrastim product comparator and test arms of two randomized, parallel-group, phase III studies in breast cancer patients treated with myelosuppressive chemotherapy were utilized. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model best described the negative correlation between DSN and ANC-AUEC. The models predicted that with 10 × 10 9 day/L of increase in ANC-AUEC, the mean DSN would decrease from 1.1 days to 0.93 day in Trial 1 and from 1.2 days to 1.0 day in Trial 2. The findings of the analysis provide useful information regarding the relationship between ANC and DSN that can be used for dose selection and optimization of clinical trial design for G-CSF. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Zhu, Lin; Yoshita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    World-wide studies on multi-junction (tandem) solar cells have led to record-breaking improvements in conversion efficiencies year after year. To obtain detailed and proper feedback for solar-cell design and fabrication, it is necessary to establish standard methods for diagnosing subcells in fabricated tandem devices. Here, we propose a potential standard method to quantify the detailed subcell properties of multi-junction solar cells based on absolute measurements of electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency in addition to the conventional solar-cell external-quantum-efficiency measurements. We demonstrate that the absolute-EL-quantum-efficiency measurements provide I–V relations of individual subcells without the need for referencing measured I–V data, which is in stark contrast to previous works. Moreover, our measurements quantify the absolute rates of junction loss, non-radiative loss, radiative loss, and luminescence coupling in the subcells, which constitute the “balance sheets” of tandem solar cells. PMID:25592484

  3. Evaluation of cyanobacteria cell count detection derived from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Inland waters across the United States (US) are at potential risk for increased outbreaks of toxic cyanobacteria (Cyano) harmful algal bloom (HAB) events resulting from elevated water temperatures and extreme hydrologic events attributable to climate change and increased nutrient loadings associated with intensive agricultural practices. Current monitoring efforts are limited in scope due to resource limitations, analytical complexity, and data integration efforts. The goals of this study were to validate a new ocean color algorithm for satellite imagery that could potentially be used to monitor CyanoHAB events in near real-time to provide a compressive monitoring capability for freshwater lakes (>100 ha). The algorithm incorporated narrow spectral bands specific to the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument that were optimally oriented at phytoplankton pigment absorption features including phycocyanin at 620 nm. A validation of derived Cyano cell counts was performed using available in situ data assembled from existing monitoring programs across eight states in the eastern US over a 39-month period (2009–2012). Results indicated that MERIS provided robust estimates for Low (10,000–109,000 cells/mL) and Very High (>1,000,000 cells/mL) cell enumeration ranges (approximately 90% and 83%, respectively). However, the results for two intermediate ranges (110,000–299,000 and 300,000–1,000,000 cells/mL)

  4. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C.

  5. Empirical Derivation of Correction Factors for Human Spiral Ganglion Cell Nucleus and Nucleolus Count Units.

    PubMed

    Robert, Mark E; Linthicum, Fred H

    2016-01-01

    Profile count method for estimating cell number in sectioned tissue applies a correction factor for double count (resulting from transection during sectioning) of count units selected to represent the cell. For human spiral ganglion cell counts, we attempted to address apparent confusion between published correction factors for nucleus and nucleolus count units that are identical despite the role of count unit diameter in a commonly used correction factor formula. We examined a portion of human cochlea to empirically derive correction factors for the 2 count units, using 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double counts. The Neurotology and House Histological Temporal Bone Laboratory at University of California at Los Angeles. Using a fully sectioned and stained human temporal bone, we identified and generated digital images of sections of the modiolar region of the lower first turn of cochlea, identified count units with a light microscope, labeled them on corresponding digital sections, and used 3-dimensional reconstruction software to identify double-counted count units. For 25 consecutive sections, we determined that double-count correction factors for nucleus count unit (0.91) and nucleolus count unit (0.92) matched the published factors. We discovered that nuclei and, therefore, spiral ganglion cells were undercounted by 6.3% when using nucleolus count units. We determined that correction factors for count units must include an element for undercounting spiral ganglion cells as well as the double-count element. We recommend a correction factor of 0.91 for the nucleus count unit and 0.98 for the nucleolus count unit when using 20-µm sections. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. Analysis of overall survival in a large multiethnic cohort reveals absolute neutrophil count of 1,100 as a novel prognostic cutoff in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mantzaris, Ioannis; Yu, Yiting; Msaouel, Pavlos; Lam, Anthony P.; Janakiram, Murali; Friedman, Ellen W.; Steidl, Ulrich; Verma, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Although absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) below 1.5x103/uL are used to define neutropenia as a marker of increased susceptibility to infections, their relationship with survival has not been examined. Since low counts trigger extensive investigations, determining prognostic cutoffs especially for different ethnicities and races is critical. A multiethnic cohort of 27,760 subjects, 65 years old and above, was utilized to evaluate the association of neutropenia with overall survival in different ethnicities and races. The mean ANC was 4.6±1.51x103/uL in non-Hispanic whites, 3.6±1.57x103/uL in non-Hispanic blacks and 4.3±1.54x103/uL in Hispanics (p<0.001). An ANC below 1.5x103/uL was associated with significantly shorter overall survival among whites (HR 1.74; 95% CI 1.18 - 2.58; p<0.001), but not in blacks (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.86 - 1.17; p=0.40) or Hispanics (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.76 - 1.46; p=0.82), after adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Using Cox regression multivariable models, an ANC below 1.1x103/uL in blacks was found to be associated with increased mortality (HR 1.86; 95%CI 1.21 - 2.87; p<0.01). We found no association between neutropenia and mortality at any ANC cutoff in elderly Hispanics. In conclusion, neutropenia was found to be an independent prognostic variable in the elderly, when determined in race-specific manner. Most importantly, a cutoff of 1.1x103 neutrophils/uL may be a more prognostically relevant marker in elderly blacks and could serve as a novel threshold for further evaluation and intervention in this population. PMID:27144332

  7. Process to evaluate hematological parameters that reflex to manual differential cell counts in a pediatric institution.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Atuan, Maria Ana; Nix, Barbara; Mishak, Christopher; Vejjajiva, Connie; Curtis, Cheri; Park, Sunita; Mullins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Each institution sets specific parameters obtained by automated hematology analyzers to trigger manual counts. We designed a process to decrease the number of manual differential cell counts without impacting patient care. We selected new criteria that prompt manual counts and studied the impact these changes had in 2 days of work and in samples of patients with newly diagnosed leukemia, sickle cell disease, and presence of left shift. By using fewer parameters and expanding our ranges we decreased the number of manual counts by 20%. The parameters that prompted manual counts most frequently were the presence of blast flags and nucleated red blood cells, 2 parameters that were not changed. The parameters that accounted for a decrease in the number of manual counts were the white blood cell count and large unstained cells. Eight of 32 patients with newly diagnosed leukemia did not show blast flags; however, other parameters triggered manual counts. In 47 patients with sickle cell disease, nucleated red cells and red cell variability prompted manual review. Bands were observed in 18% of the specimens and 4% would not have been counted manually with the new criteria, for the latter the mean band count was 2.6%. The process we followed to evaluate hematological parameters that reflex to manual differential cell counts increased efficiency without compromising patient care in our hospital system.

  8. Application of a non-hazardous vital dye for cell counting with automated cell counters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo In; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Ho-Jae; Lee, Kiwon; Hong, Dongpyo; Lim, Hyunchang; Cho, Keunchang; Jung, Neoncheol; Yi, Yong Weon

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in automated cell counters enable us to count cells more easily with consistency. However, the wide use of the traditional vital dye trypan blue (TB) raises environmental and health concerns due to its potential teratogenic effects. To avoid this chemical hazard, it is of importance to introduce an alternative non-hazardous vital dye that is compatible with automated cell counters. Erythrosin B (EB) is a vital dye that is impermeable to biological membranes and is used as a food additive. Similarly to TB, EB stains only nonviable cells with disintegrated membranes. However, EB is less popular than TB and is seldom used with automated cell counters. We found that cell counting accuracy with EB was comparable to that with TB. EB was found to be an effective dye for accurate counting of cells with different viabilities across three different automated cell counters. In contrast to TB, EB was less toxic to cultured HL-60 cells during the cell counting process. These results indicate that replacing TB with EB for use with automated cell counters will significantly reduce the hazardous risk while producing comparable results. Copyright © 2015 Logos Biosystems, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of a single-platform, volumetric, flow cytometry for CD4 T cell count monitoring in therapeutic mobile unit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A mobile health unit may be useful to follow up adult and pediatric patients on antiretroviral treatment and living in remote areas devoid of laboratory facilities. The study evaluated the use of the simplified, robust, single-plateform, volumetric, pan-leucogating Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) for CD4 T cell numeration in a mobile unit, compared against a reference flow cytometry method. Methods The therapeutic mobile unit of the Laboratoire National de Santé Hygiène Mobile, Yaoundé, Cameroon, was equipped with the Auto40. A FACSCalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson Immuno-cytometry System, San Jose, CA, USA) was used as reference method. EDTA-blood samples from volunteers were first subjected to CD4 T cell count in the mobile unit, and an aliquot was sent within 4 hours to Centre International de Référence Chantal Biya, Yaoundé, for FACSCalibur assay. Results Two HIV screening campaigns with the mobile unit were organised in December 2009 and January 2010. The campaign in the suburb of Yaoundé which was 20 km from the reference laboratory included 188 volunteers comprising 93 children less than 5 years old. The campaign in Ambang Bikok (53 km far from Yaoundé) included 69 adult volunteers. In Yaoundé suburb, mean ± standard deviation (SD) CD4 T cell count was 996 ± 874 cells/μl by Auto40, and 989 ± 883 cells/μl by FACSCalibur; in Ambang Bikok, mean ± SD CD4 T cell count was 1041 ± 317 cells/μl by Auto40, and 1032 ± 294 cells/μl by FACSCalibur. Results by Auto40 and FACSCalibur were highly correlated in Yaoundé (r2 = 0.982) as in Ambang Bikok (r2 = 0.921). Bland-Altman analysis showed a close agreement between Auto40 and FACSCalibur results expressed in absolute count as in percentage in Yaoundé and Ambang Bikok. When pooling the 257 CD4 T cell count measurements, the Auto40 yielded a mean difference of +7.6 CD4 T cells/μl higher than by reference flow cytometry; and the sensitivity and

  10. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  11. Determination of mammalian cell counts, cell size and cell health using the Moxi Z mini automated cell counter.

    PubMed

    Dittami, Gregory M; Sethi, Manju; Rabbitt, Richard D; Ayliffe, H Edward

    2012-06-21

    Particle and cell counting is used for a variety of applications including routine cell culture, hematological analysis, and industrial controls(1-5). A critical breakthrough in cell/particle counting technologies was the development of the Coulter technique by Wallace Coulter over 50 years ago. The technique involves the application of an electric field across a micron-sized aperture and hydrodynamically focusing single particles through the aperture. The resulting occlusion of the aperture by the particles yields a measurable change in electric impedance that can be directly and precisely correlated to cell size/volume. The recognition of the approach as the benchmark in cell/particle counting stems from the extraordinary precision and accuracy of its particle sizing and counts, particularly as compared to manual and imaging based technologies (accuracies on the order of 98% for Coulter counters versus 75-80% for manual and vision-based systems). This can be attributed to the fact that, unlike imaging-based approaches to cell counting, the Coulter Technique makes a true three-dimensional (3-D) measurement of cells/particles which dramatically reduces count interference from debris and clustering by calculating precise volumetric information about the cells/particles. Overall this provides a means for enumerating and sizing cells in a more accurate, less tedious, less time-consuming, and less subjective means than other counting techniques(6). Despite the prominence of the Coulter technique in cell counting, its widespread use in routine biological studies has been prohibitive due to the cost and size of traditional instruments. Although a less expensive Coulter-based instrument has been produced, it has limitations as compared to its more expensive counterparts in the correction for "coincidence events" in which two or more cells pass through the aperture and are measured simultaneously. Another limitation with existing Coulter technologies is the lack of metrics

  12. Secondary Electron Emission From Solar Cell Coverslides And Its Effect On Absolute Vehicle Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2011-10-01

    It has often been stated that earthed conductive solar cell coverslides are the best way to prevent electrostatic discharges on space solar arrays in GEO. While it is true that such coverslides will prevent differential charging on the solar arrays, it will be shown through NASCAP- 2k simulations that the secondary electron emission of such coverslides is very important for absolute vehicle charging. In particular, carbon nanotube coatings, due to the extremely low secondary electron emission from carbon, may exacerbate absolute vehicle charging. However, if they are earthed, because of their conductivity they may minimize differential charging and the possibility of arcing elsewhere on the spacecraft. Such results may also be true for insulative coverslides if spacecraft thermal blankets are made of materials with high secondary electron emission. Finally, photoemission from coverslides is investigated, with regard to anti-reflection coatings. Surfaces which reflect UV can have low photoemission, while those that absorb may have higher photoemission rates. Thus, anti-reflection coatings may lead to higher absolute spacecraft charging rates. NASCAP-2k simulations will be used to investigate these dependences for realistic spacecraft.

  13. Body weight, hemoglobin, and absolute neutrophil count in patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy: A single-center study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Y.; Winarto, H.

    2017-08-01

    The side effects of chemotherapy, a treatment modality of ovarian cancer, can disrupt overall treatment. To date, the clinical and laboratory profiles of ovarian cancer patients during chemotherapy have not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer who received chemotherapy in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, including body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin (Hb), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). To generate these clinical and laboratory profiles, we collected secondary data from the medical records of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. We enrolled 23 patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients who received six cycles of chemotherapy. Mean patient BMI before and after chemotherapy was 22.86 kg/m2 and 21.78 kg/m2, respectively. Hb levels before chemotherapy were 8-13 g/dl, with Hb < 10 g/dl in one patient (4.35%) and Hb ≥ 10 g/dl in 22 patients (95.65%). Mean ANC was 5845.6 ± 3325.0. An average of 24.65% of patients experienced anemia after each cycle of chemotherapy. Mean ANC before chemotherapy was 3.5582 ± 3.3250. An average of 26.81% of patients had ANC <1500 after each cycle of chemotherapy; no patients had ANC <1500 before chemotherapy initiation. After six cycles of chemotherapy, three patients (13.04%) had mild neutropenia, four patients (17.39%) had moderate neutropenia, and one patient (4.35%) had severe neutropenia. Of the 22 patients with Hb ≥ 10 g/dl before chemotherapy, 16 (72.72%) experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. Of the 20 patients (60.87%) with normal BMI or higher, 14 experienced a decrease in ANC during chemotherapy. The mean patient body weight decreased after six cycles of chemotherapy. Hb and ANC were persistently decreased in approximately a quarter of the 23 subjects. The decrease in ANC was not influenced by initial Hb

  14. Absolute Configuration of Andrographolide and Its Proliferation of Osteoblast Cell Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantrapromma, S.; Boonnak, N.; Pitakpornpreecha, T.; Yordthong, T.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Fun, H. K.

    2018-05-01

    Andrographolide, C20H30O5, is a labdane diterpenoid which was isolated from the leave of Andrographis paniculata. Its crystal structure is determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction: monoclinic, sp. gr. P21, Z = 2. Absolute configuration is determined by the refinement of the Flack parameter to 0.21(19). In the crystal, molecules are linked by O-H···O hydrogen bonds and C-H···O interactions into two dimensional network parallel to the (001) plane. Its proliferation of osteoblast cell lines is reported.

  15. Pooling across cells to normalize single-cell RNA sequencing data with many zero counts.

    PubMed

    Lun, Aaron T L; Bach, Karsten; Marioni, John C

    2016-04-27

    Normalization of single-cell RNA sequencing data is necessary to eliminate cell-specific biases prior to downstream analyses. However, this is not straightforward for noisy single-cell data where many counts are zero. We present a novel approach where expression values are summed across pools of cells, and the summed values are used for normalization. Pool-based size factors are then deconvolved to yield cell-based factors. Our deconvolution approach outperforms existing methods for accurate normalization of cell-specific biases in simulated data. Similar behavior is observed in real data, where deconvolution improves the relevance of results of downstream analyses.

  16. Quercetin decrease somatic cells count in mastitis of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burmańczuk, Artur; Hola, Piotr; Milczak, Andrzej; Piech, Tomasz; Kowalski, Cezary; Wojciechowska, Beata; Grabowski, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which has an effect on inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation. In several other flavonoids (e.g. kaempferol, astragalin, alpinetin, baicalein, indirubin), anti-inflammatory mechanism was proven by using mice mastitis model. The aim of the current study was pilot analysis of quercetin tolerability and its impact on somatic cells count (SCC) after multiple intramammary treatment on dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Based on SCC and clinical investigation, 9 dairy cows with clinical mastitis of one quarter were selected for the pilot study. Baseline analysis (hematology, TNFα, SCC) was performed every 24h among all cows three days before the first dose (B1-B3). After the baseline monitoring (B1-B3) eight days treatment (D1-D8) was performed with a high and low dose. Selected blood parameters were analyzed. Starting from D1 to D8, a decrease of SCC in relation to baseline was characterized by declining trend. The presented results allowed the confirmation of the significant influence of quercetin on the reduction of SCC in mastitis in dairy cows after 8days of therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of lactate, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte count as biomarkers for sepsis in emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Karon, Brad S; Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Block, Darci R; Baumann, Nikola A; Bryant, Sandra C; Clements, Casey M

    2017-11-01

    Lactate, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte (IG) count were compared for the prediction of sepsis, and severe sepsis or septic shock, in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively enrolled 501 ED patients with a sepsis panel ordered for suspicion of sepsis. WBC, neutrophil, and IG counts were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i analyzer. Lactate was measured by i-STAT, and procalcitonin by Brahms Kryptor. We classified patients as having sepsis using a simplification of the 1992 consensus conference sepsis definitions. Patients with sepsis were further classified as having severe sepsis or septic shock using established criteria. Univariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), and sensitivity/specificity at optimal cut-off for prediction of sepsis (vs. no sepsis), and prediction of severe sepsis or septic shock (vs. no sepsis). There were 267 patients without sepsis; and 234 with sepsis, including 35 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Lactate had the highest OR (1.44, 95th% CI 1.20-1.73) for the prediction of sepsis; while WBC, neutrophil count and percent (neutrophil/WBC) had OR>1.00 (p<0.05). All biomarkers had AUC<0.70 and sensitivity and specificity <70% at the optimal cut-off. Initial lactate was the best biomarker for predicting severe sepsis or septic shock, with an odds ratio (95th% CI) of 2.70 (2.02-3.61) and AUC 0.89 (0.82-0.96). Traditional biomarkers (lactate, WBC, neutrophil count, procalcitonin, IG) have limited utility in the prediction of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Significance of Maternal and Cord Blood Nucleated Red Blood Cell Count in Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Misha, Mehak; Rai, Lavanya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia on the cord blood and maternal NRBC count and to correlate NRBC count and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia and control groups. Study Design. This is a prospective case control observational study. Patients and Methods. Maternal and cord blood NRBC counts were studied in 50 preeclamptic women and 50 healthy pregnant women. Using automated cell counter total leucocyte count was obtained and peripheral smear was prepared to obtain NRBC count. Corrected WBC count and NRBC count/100 leucocytes in maternal venous blood and in cord blood were compared between the 2 groups. Results. No significant differences were found in corrected WBC count in maternal and cord blood in cases and controls. Significant differences were found in mean cord blood NRBC count in preeclampsia and control groups (40.0 ± 85.1 and 5.9 ± 6.3, P = 0.006). The mean maternal NRBC count in two groups was 2.4 ± 9.0 and 0.8 ± 1.5, respectively (P = 0.214). Cord blood NRBC count cut off value ≤13 could rule out adverse neonatal outcome with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 89%. Conclusion. Cord blood NRBC are significantly raised in preeclampsia. Neonates with elevated cord blood NRBC counts are more likely to have IUGR, low birth weight, neonatal ICU admission, respiratory distress syndrome, and assisted ventilation. Below the count of 13/100 leucocytes, adverse neonatal outcome is quite less likely. PMID:24734183

  19. Absolute configuration of podophyllotoxone and its inhibitory activity against human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Feng, Juan; Luo, Cheng; Herman, Ho-Yung Sung; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2015-01-01

    Podophyllotoxone (1) was isolated from the roots of Dysosma versipellis. The structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis in combination with single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was assigned based on the Flack parameter. It showed significant inhibitory activities against human prostate cancer cells PC3 and DU145 with IC50 values being 14.7 and 20.6 μmol·L(-1), respectively. It also arrested the cells at G2/M phase. Tubulin polymerization assay showed that it inhibited the tubulin polymerization in a dose-dependent manner, and molecular docking analysis revealed a different binding mode with tubulin as compared with those known tubulin inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between proximity to major roads and sputum cell counts

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Julie; D’silva, Liesel; Brannan, John; Hargreave, Frederick E; Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Nair, Parameswaran

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution caused by motor vehicle emissions has been associated with exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases; however, the nature of the resulting bronchitis has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proximity to major roads or highways is associated with an increase in sputum neutrophils or eosinophils, and to evaluate the effect of proximity to roads on spirometry and exacerbations in patients with asthma. METHODS: A retrospective study of 485 sputum cell counts from patients attending a tertiary chest clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, identified eosinophilic or neutrophilic bronchitis. Patients’ residences were geocoded to the street network of Hamilton using geographic information system software. Associations among bronchitis, lung function, and proximity to major roads and highways were examined using multinomial logistic and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for patient age, smoking status and corticosteroid medications. RESULTS: Patients living within 1000 m of highways showed an increased risk of bronchitis (OR 3.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 13.7]; P<0.05), particularly neutrophilic bronchitis (OR 4.7 [95% CI 1.2 to 18.7]; P<0.05) as well as an increased risk of an asthma diagnosis (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.0 to 3.4]; P<0.05). Patients living within 300 m of a major road were at increased risk for an asthma exacerbation (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.5 to 15.5]; P<0.01) and lower lung function, particularly in women (P=0.036). CONCLUSION: In patients with airway diseases, living close to a highway or major road was associated with neutrophilic bronchitis, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis, asthma exacerbations and lower lung function. PMID:21369545

  1. Task-shifting of CD4 T cell count monitoring by the touchscreen-based Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% single-platform system for CD4 T cell numeration: Implication for decentralization in resource-constrained settings.

    PubMed

    Kouabosso, André; Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney Mboumba; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Mbeko Simaleko, Marcel; Grésenguet, Gérard; Bélec, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    The accuracy of CD4 T cell monitoring by the recently developed flow cytometry-based CD4 T cell counting Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% Assay analyzer (EMD Millipore Corporation, Merck Life Sciences, KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) was evaluated in trained lay providers against laboratory technicians. After 2 days of training on the Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% analyzer, EDTA-blood samples from 6 HIV-positive and 4 HIV-negative individuals were used for CD4 T cell counting in triplicate in parallel by 12 trained lay providers as compared to 10 lab technicians. Mean number of CD4 T cells in absolute number was 829 ± 380 cells/μl by lay providers and 794 ± 409 cells/μl by technicians (P > 0.05); and in percentage 36.2 ± 14.8%CD4 by lay providers and 36.1 ± 15.0%CD4 by laboratory technician (P > 0.05). The unweighted linear regression and Passing-Bablok regression analyses on CD4 T cell results expressed in absolute count revealed moderate correlation between CD4 T cell counts obtained by lay providers and lab technicians. The mean absolute bias measured by Bland-Altman analysis between CD4 T cell/μl obtained by lay providers and lab technicians was -3.41 cells/μl. Intra-assay coefficient of variance (CV) of Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% in absolute number was 10.1% by lay providers and 8.5% by lab technicians (P > 0.05), and in percentage 5.5% by lay providers and 4.4% by lab technicians (P > 0.05). The inter-assay CV of Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% in absolute number was 13.4% by lay providers and 10.3% by lab technicians (P > 0.05), and in percentage 7.8% by lay providers and 6.9% by lab technicians (P > 0.05). The study demonstrates the feasibility of CD4 T cell counting using the alternative flow cytometer Muse™ Auto CD4/CD4% analyzer by trained lay providers and therefore the practical possibility of decentralization CD4 T cell counting to health community centers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  3. Factors affecting the CD34+ cell yields from the second donations of healthy donors: The steady-state lymphocyte count is a good predictive factor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Tao; Xu, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Yu; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Chang, Ying-Jun

    2016-12-01

    A second allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion using cells from the same donor is a therapeutic option in the case of stem-cell graft failure or disease relapse, but little is known about the factors associated with the CD34 + cell yields from second donations. One-hundred healthy donors who underwent a second mobilization treatment and peripheral blood stem-cell (PBSC) collection were studied. For both mobilization processes, 5 µg of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor per kg per day was administered. The blood counts of the donors were monitored during the processes. The second donations from the same donors provided lower apheresis yields than did the initial collections. The number of CD34 + cells collected from normal donors after a second cycle of PBSC mobilization was associated with their steady-state lymphocyte counts and the intertransplantation interval. Female sex negatively affected the CD34 + cell yields. The cutoff value for the steady-state absolute lymphocyte count was 2.055 × 10 9 /L. To harvest greater numbers of CD34 + cells from second collections, male donors and those with intervals of longer than 9 months between donations should be selected. The lymphocyte counts prior to the first donations may predict the content of CD34 + cells in the allografts prepared using the second donations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Absolute Density Calibration Cell for Laser Induced Fluorescence Erosion Rate Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Stevens, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Flight qualification of ion thrusters typically requires testing on the order of 10,000 hours. Extensive knowledge of wear mechanisms and rates is necessary to establish design confidence prior to long duration tests. Consequently, real-time erosion rate measurements offer the potential both to reduce development costs and to enhance knowledge of the dependency of component wear on operating conditions. Several previous studies have used laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure real-time, in situ erosion rates of ion thruster accelerator grids. Those studies provided only relative measurements of the erosion rate. In the present investigation, a molybdenum tube was resistively heated such that the evaporation rate yielded densities within the tube on the order of those expected from accelerator grid erosion. This work examines the suitability of the density cell as an absolute calibration source for LIF measurements, and the intrinsic error was evaluated.

  5. Determination of the Absolute Number of Cytokine mRNA Molecules within Individual Activated Human T Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Laurel J.; Marshall, Gwen; Hockett, Richard D.; Bucy, R. Pat; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A primary function of activated T cells is the expression and subsequent secretion of cytokines, which orchestrate the differentiation of other lymphocytes, modulate antigen presenting cell activity, and alter vascular endothelium to mediate an immune response. Since many features of immune regulation probably result from modest alterations of endogenous rates of multiple interacting processes, quantitative analysis of the frequency and specific activity of individual T cells is critically important. Using a coordinated set of quantitative methods, the absolute number of molecules of several key cytokine mRNA species in individual T cells has been determined. The frequency of human blood T cells activated in vitro by mitogens and recall protein antigens was determined by intracellular cytokine protein staining, in situ hybridization for cytokine mRNA, and by limiting dilution analysis for cytokine mRNA+ cells. The absolute number of mRNA molecules was simultaneously determined in both homogenates of the entire population of cells and in individual cells obtained by limiting dilution, using a quantitative, competitive RT-PCR assay. The absolute numbers of mRNA molecules in a population of cells divided by the frequency of individual positive cells, yielded essentially the same number of mRNA molecules per cell as direct analysis of individual cells by limiting dilution analysis. Mean numbers of mRNA per positive cell from both mitogen and antigen activated T cells, using these stimulation conditions, were 6000 for IL-2, 6300 for IFN-gamma, and 1600 for IL-4.

  6. Immature germ cells in semen - correlation with total sperm count and sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Patil, Priya S; Humbarwadi, Rajendra S; Patil, Ashalata D; Gune, Anita R

    2013-07-01

    Current data regarding infertility suggests that male factor contributes up to 30% of the total cases of infertility. Semen analysis reveals the presence of spermatozoa as well as a number of non-sperm cells, presently being mentioned in routine semen report as "round cells" without further differentiating them into leucocytes or immature germ cells. The aim of this work was to study a simple, cost-effective, and convenient method for differentiating the round cells in semen into immature germ cells and leucocytes and correlating them with total sperm counts and motility. Semen samples from 120 males, who had come for investigation for infertility, were collected, semen parameters recorded, and stained smears studied for different round cells. Statistical analysis of the data was done to correlate total sperm counts and sperm motility with the occurrence of immature germ cells and leucocytes. The average shedding of immature germ cells in different groups with normal and low sperm counts was compared. The clinical significance of "round cells" in semen and their differentiation into leucocytes and immature germ cells are discussed. Round cells in semen can be differentiated into immature germ cells and leucocytes using simple staining methods. The differential counts mentioned in a semen report give valuable and clinically relevant information. In this study, we observed a negative correlation between total count and immature germ cells, as well as sperm motility and shedding of immature germ cells. The latter was statistically significant with a P value 0.000.

  7. Evaluating the quality of a cell counting measurement process via a dilution series experimental design.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumona; Lund, Steven P; Vyzasatya, Ravi; Vanguri, Padmavathy; Elliott, John T; Plant, Anne L; Lin-Gibson, Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Cell counting measurements are critical in the research, development and manufacturing of cell-based products, yet determining cell quantity with accuracy and precision remains a challenge. Validating and evaluating a cell counting measurement process can be difficult because of the lack of appropriate reference material. Here we describe an experimental design and statistical analysis approach to evaluate the quality of a cell counting measurement process in the absence of appropriate reference materials or reference methods. The experimental design is based on a dilution series study with replicate samples and observations as well as measurement process controls. The statistical analysis evaluates the precision and proportionality of the cell counting measurement process and can be used to compare the quality of two or more counting methods. As an illustration of this approach, cell counting measurement processes (automated and manual methods) were compared for a human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) preparation. For the hMSC preparation investigated, results indicated that the automated method performed better than the manual counting methods in terms of precision and proportionality. By conducting well controlled dilution series experimental designs coupled with appropriate statistical analysis, quantitative indicators of repeatability and proportionality can be calculated to provide an assessment of cell counting measurement quality. This approach does not rely on the use of a reference material or comparison to "gold standard" methods known to have limited assurance of accuracy and precision. The approach presented here may help the selection, optimization, and/or validation of a cell counting measurement process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Short communication: bulk tank total bacterial count in dairy sheep: factors of variation and relationship with somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; Beneitez, E; Juárez, M T; De La Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F

    2006-02-01

    A total of 9,353 records for bulk tank total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 1 yr from 315 dairy ewe flocks belonging to the Sheep Improvement Consortium (CPO) in Castilla-León (Spain). Analysis of variance showed significant effects of flock, breed, month within flock, dry therapy, milking type and installation, and logSCC on logTBC. Flock and month within flock were important variation factors as they accounted for 22.0 and 22.1% of the variance, respectively. Considerable repeatability values were obtained for both random factors. Hand milking and bucket-milking machines elicited highest logTBC (5.31), whereas parlor systems with looped milkline (5.01) elicited the lowest logTBC. The implementation of dry therapy practice (5.12) showed significantly lower logTBC than when not used (5.25). Variability in logTBC among breeds ranged from 5.24 (Awassi) to 5.07 (Churra). However, clinical outbreaks of contagious agalactia did not increase TBC significantly. A statistically significant relationship was found between logTBC and logSCC, the correlation coefficient between the variables being r = 0.23. Programs for improving milk hygiene should be implemented for both total bacterial count and somatic cell count variables at the same time.

  9. Accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos using optical quadrature and differential interference contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Zhao, Bing; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2006-02-01

    Present imaging techniques used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics are unable to produce accurate cell counts in developing embryos past the eight-cell stage. We have developed a method that has produced accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos ranging from 13-25 cells by combining Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) and Optical Quadrature Microscopy. Optical Quadrature Microscopy is an interferometric imaging modality that measures the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. The phase is transformed into an image of optical path length difference, which is used to determine the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell. DIC microscopy gives distinct cell boundaries for cells within the focal plane when other cells do not lie in the path to the objective. Fitting an ellipse to the boundary of a single cell in the DIC image and combining it with the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell creates an ellipsoidal model cell of optical path length deviation. Subtracting the model cell from the Optical Quadrature image will either show the optical path length deviation of the culture medium or reveal another cell underneath. Once all the boundaries are used in the DIC image, the subtracted Optical Quadrature image is analyzed to determine the cell boundaries of the remaining cells. The final cell count is produced when no more cells can be subtracted. We have produced exact cell counts on 5 samples, which have been validated by Epi-Fluorescence images of Hoechst stained nuclei.

  10. Somatic cell counts in bulk milk and their importance for milk processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić, N. R.; Mikulec, D. P.; Radovanović, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts are the indicator of the mammary gland health in the dairy herds and may be regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality. Elevated somatic cell counts are correlated with changes in milk composition The aim of this study was to assess the somatic cell counts that significantly affect the quality of milk and dairy products. We examined the somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk samples from 38 farms during the period of 6 months, from December to the May of the next year. The flow cytometry, Fossomatic was used for determination of somatic cell counts. In the same samples content of total proteins and lactose was determined by Milcoscan. Our results showed that average values for bulk tank milk samples were 273,605/ml from morning milking and 292,895/ml from evening milking. The average values for total proteins content from morning and evening milking are 3,31 and 3,34%, respectively. The average values for lactose content from morning and evening milking are 4,56 and 4,63%, respectively. The highest somatic cell count (516,000/ml) was detected in bulk tank milk sample from evening milk in the Winter and the lowest content of lactose was 4,46%. Our results showed that obtained values for bulk tank milk somatic cell counts did not significantly affected the content of total proteins and lactose.

  11. Preparing nuclei from cells in monolayer cultures suitable for counting and for following synchronized cells through the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Butler, W B

    1984-08-15

    A procedure is described for preparing nuclei from cells in monolayer culture so that they may be counted using an electronic particle counter. It takes only 10 to 15 min, and consists of swelling the cells in hypotonic buffer and then lysing them with the quaternary ammonium salt, ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide. The cells are completely lysed, yielding a suspension of clean single nuclei which is stable, free of debris, and easily counted. The method was developed for a cell line of epithelial origin (MCF-7), which is often difficult to trypsinize to single cells. It works equally well at all cell densities up to and beyond confluence, and has been used with a variety of cells in culture, including 3T3 cells, bovine macrophages, rat mammary epithelial cells, mouse mammary tumor cell lines, and human fibroblasts. The size of the nuclei produced by this procedure is related to their DNA content, and the method is thus suitable for following cultures of synchronized cells through the cell cycle, and for performing differential counts of cells with substantial differences in DNA content.

  12. Automated cell counts on CSF samples: A multicenter performance evaluation of the GloCyte system.

    PubMed

    Hod, E A; Brugnara, C; Pilichowska, M; Sandhaus, L M; Luu, H S; Forest, S K; Netterwald, J C; Reynafarje, G M; Kratz, A

    2018-02-01

    Automated cell counters have replaced manual enumeration of cells in blood and most body fluids. However, due to the unreliability of automated methods at very low cell counts, most laboratories continue to perform labor-intensive manual counts on many or all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. This multicenter clinical trial investigated if the GloCyte System (Advanced Instruments, Norwood, MA), a recently FDA-approved automated cell counter, which concentrates and enumerates red blood cells (RBCs) and total nucleated cells (TNCs), is sufficiently accurate and precise at very low cell counts to replace all manual CSF counts. The GloCyte System concentrates CSF and stains RBCs with fluorochrome-labeled antibodies and TNCs with nucleic acid dyes. RBCs and TNCs are then counted by digital image analysis. Residual adult and pediatric CSF samples obtained for clinical analysis at five different medical centers were used for the study. Cell counts were performed by the manual hemocytometer method and with the GloCyte System following the same protocol at all sites. The limits of the blank, detection, and quantitation, as well as precision and accuracy of the GloCyte, were determined. The GloCyte detected as few as 1 TNC/μL and 1 RBC/μL, and reliably counted as low as 3 TNCs/μL and 2 RBCs/μL. The total coefficient of variation was less than 20%. Comparison with cell counts obtained with a hemocytometer showed good correlation (>97%) between the GloCyte and the hemocytometer, including at very low cell counts. The GloCyte instrument is a precise, accurate, and stable system to obtain red cell and nucleated cell counts in CSF samples. It allows for the automated enumeration of even very low cell numbers, which is crucial for CSF analysis. These results suggest that GloCyte is an acceptable alternative to the manual method for all CSF samples, including those with normal cell counts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis and maintaining platelet count in patients with plasma cell neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Mair, Yasmin; Zheng, Yan; Cai, Donghong

    2013-05-01

    Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in patients with the plasma cell neoplasm (PCN) is rarely discussed in the literature. The puzzling phenomenon, which PCN patients maintaining normal platelet count even when the marrow is mostly replaced by plasma cells, is hardly explored. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in PCN and the relationships between bone marrow (BM) plasma cell percentage, plasma cell immunomarkers, the severity of dysmegakaryocytopoiesis, and peripheral blood platelet count in PCN. We randomly selected 16 cases of PCN, among which 4 were with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 12 were with plasma cell myeloma. OUR STUDY SHOWED THAT: (1) Dysmegakaryocytopoiesis was present in all the selected cases of PCN and its severity was not correlated with the percentage of the plasma cells in BM; (2) almost all patients maintained normal platelet count even when BM was mostly replaced by plasma cells; (3) immunomarkers of the neoplastic plasma cells were not associated with dysmegakaryocytopoiesis or maintaining of platelet count. The possible mechanisms behind dysmegakaryocytopoiesis and maintaining of platelet count were also discussed. Despite the universal presence of dysmegakaryocytopoiesis in PCN, the platelet count is maintained at normal range.

  14. Increased circulating blood cell counts in combat-related PTSD: Associations with inflammation and PTSD severity.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Mellon, Synthia H; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Yehuda, Rachel; Grenon, S Marlene; Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Abu-Amara, Duna; Coy, Michelle; Makotkine, Iouri; Reus, Victor I; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Bersani, F Saverio; Marmar, Charles R; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation is reported in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have investigated circulating blood cells that may contribute to inflammation. We assessed circulating platelets, white blood cells (WBC) and red blood cells (RBC) in PTSD and assessed their relationship to inflammation and symptom severity. One-hundred and sixty-three male combat-exposed veterans (82 PTSD, 81 non-PTSD) had blood assessed for platelets, WBC, and RBC. Data were correlated with symptom severity and inflammation. All cell counts were significantly elevated in PTSD. There were small mediation effects of BMI and smoking on these relationships. After adjusting for these, the differences in WBC and RBC remained significant, while platelet count was at trend level. In all subjects, all of the cell counts correlated significantly with inflammation. Platelet count correlated with inflammation only in the PTSD subjects. Platelet count, but none of the other cell counts, was directly correlated with PTSD severity ratings in the PTSD group. Combat PTSD is associated with elevations in RBC, WBC, and platelets. Dysregulation of all three major lineages of hematopoietic cells in PTSD, as well as their significant correlation with inflammation, suggest clinical significance of these changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Current automated 3D cell detection methods are not a suitable replacement for manual stereologic cell counting

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Christoph; Eastwood, Brian S.; Tappan, Susan J.; Glaser, Jack R.; Peterson, Daniel A.; Hof, Patrick R.

    2014-01-01

    Stereologic cell counting has had a major impact on the field of neuroscience. A major bottleneck in stereologic cell counting is that the user must manually decide whether or not each cell is counted according to three-dimensional (3D) stereologic counting rules by visual inspection within hundreds of microscopic fields-of-view per investigated brain or brain region. Reliance on visual inspection forces stereologic cell counting to be very labor-intensive and time-consuming, and is the main reason why biased, non-stereologic two-dimensional (2D) “cell counting” approaches have remained in widespread use. We present an evaluation of the performance of modern automated cell detection and segmentation algorithms as a potential alternative to the manual approach in stereologic cell counting. The image data used in this study were 3D microscopic images of thick brain tissue sections prepared with a variety of commonly used nuclear and cytoplasmic stains. The evaluation compared the numbers and locations of cells identified unambiguously and counted exhaustively by an expert observer with those found by three automated 3D cell detection algorithms: nuclei segmentation from the FARSIGHT toolkit, nuclei segmentation by 3D multiple level set methods, and the 3D object counter plug-in for ImageJ. Of these methods, FARSIGHT performed best, with true-positive detection rates between 38 and 99% and false-positive rates from 3.6 to 82%. The results demonstrate that the current automated methods suffer from lower detection rates and higher false-positive rates than are acceptable for obtaining valid estimates of cell numbers. Thus, at present, stereologic cell counting with manual decision for object inclusion according to unbiased stereologic counting rules remains the only adequate method for unbiased cell quantification in histologic tissue sections. PMID:24847213

  16. Machine Learning Based Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing for Lensless Blood Cell Counting

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiwei; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Xu; Xu, Hang; Han, Zhi; Rong, Hailong; Yang, Haiping; Yan, Mei; Yu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT). However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR) processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR) and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR). Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR. When one captured low-resolution lensless cell image is input, an improved high-resolution cell image will be output. The experimental results show that the cell resolution is improved by 4×, and CNNSR has 9.5% improvement over the ELMSR on resolution enhancing performance. The cell counting results also match well with a commercial flow cytometer. Such ELMSR and CNNSR therefore have the potential for efficient resolution improvement in lensless blood cell counting systems towards POCT applications. PMID:27827837

  17. Consequence for dairy herds in the United States of imposing different standards for somatic cell count

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New European Union (E.U.) regulations may require that a somatic cell count (SCC) limit of 400,000 cells/mL for milk be met by every farm that contributes to pooled milk exported to Europe. In the United States, the standard is 750,000 cells/mL. Because bulk tank SCC is not readily available through...

  18. Comparison of bulk-tank standard plate count and somatic cell count for Wisconsin dairy farms in three size categories.

    PubMed

    Ingham, S C; Hu, Y; Ané, C

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible claims by advocates of small-scale dairy farming that milk from smaller Wisconsin farms is of higher quality than milk from larger Wisconsin farms. Reported bulk tank standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) test results for Wisconsin dairy farms were obtained for February to December, 2008. Farms were sorted into 3 size categories using available size-tracking criteria: small (≤118 cows; 12,866 farms), large (119-713 cattle; 1,565 farms), and confined animal feeding operations (≥714 cattle; 160 farms). Group means were calculated (group=farm size category) for the farms' minimum, median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC. Statistical analysis showed that group means for median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC were almost always significantly higher for the small farm category than for the large farm and confined animal feeding operations farm categories. With SPC and SCC as quality criteria and the 3 farm size categories of ≤118, 119 to 713, and ≥714 cattle, the claim of Wisconsin smaller farms producing higher quality milk than Wisconsin larger farms cannot be supported. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wan, X. Steven; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Wroe, Andrew J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one's immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of γ-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to γ-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (γ-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). PMID:25356435

  20. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  1. A microfluidic biochip for complete blood cell counts at the point-of-care.

    PubMed

    Hassan, U; Reddy, B; Damhorst, G; Sonoiki, O; Ghonge, T; Yang, C; Bashir, R

    2015-12-01

    Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world.

  2. A microfluidic biochip for complete blood cell counts at the point-of-care

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, U.; Reddy, B.; Damhorst, G.; Sonoiki, O.; Ghonge, T.; Yang, C.; Bashir, R.

    2016-01-01

    Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world. PMID:26909365

  3. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  4. Evaluation of mouse red blood cell and platelet counting with an automated hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Teruko; Asou, Eri; Nogi, Kimiko; Goto, Kazuo

    2017-10-07

    An evaluation of mouse red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) counting with an automated hematology analyzer was performed with three strains of mice, C57BL/6 (B6), BALB/c (BALB) and DBA/2 (D2). There were no significant differences in RBC and PLT counts between manual and automated optical methods in any of the samples, except for D2 mice. For D2, RBC counts obtained using the manual method were significantly lower than those obtained using the automated optical method (P<0.05), and PLT counts obtained using the manual method were higher than those obtained using the automated optical method (P<0.05). An automated hematology analyzer can be used for RBC and PLT counting; however, an appropriate method should be selected when D2 mice samples are used.

  5. Different binarization processes validated against manual counts of fluorescent bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Tamminga, Gerrit G; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H; Jansen, Gijsbert J; Euverink, Gert-Jan W

    2016-09-01

    State of the art software methods (such as fixed value approaches or statistical approaches) to create a binary image of fluorescent bacterial cells are not as accurate and precise as they should be for counting bacteria and measuring their area. To overcome these bottlenecks, we introduce biological significance to obtain a binary image from a greyscale microscopic image. Using our biological significance approach we are able to automatically count about the same number of cells as an individual researcher would do by manual/visual counting. Using the fixed value or statistical approach to obtain a binary image leads to about 20% less cells in automatic counting. In our procedure we included the area measurements of the bacterial cells to determine the right parameters for background subtraction and threshold values. In an iterative process the threshold and background subtraction values were incremented until the number of particles smaller than a typical bacterial cell is less than the number of bacterial cells with a certain area. This research also shows that every image has a specific threshold with respect to the optical system, magnification and staining procedure as well as the exposure time. The biological significance approach shows that automatic counting can be performed with the same accuracy, precision and reproducibility as manual counting. The same approach can be used to count bacterial cells using different optical systems (Leica, Olympus and Navitar), magnification factors (200× and 400×), staining procedures (DNA (Propidium Iodide) and RNA (FISH)) and substrates (polycarbonate filter or glass). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined blood cell counting and classification with fluorochrome stains and flow instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, H M; Schildkraut, E R; Curbelo, R; Laird, C W; Turner, B; Hirschfeld, T

    1976-01-01

    A multiparameter flow cytophotometer was used to count and classify fixed human blood cells fluorochromed with a mixture of ethidium bromide (EB), brilliant sulfaflavine and a blue fluorescent stilbene disulfonic acid derivative (LN). The system measures light scattered by the cells and absorption at 420 nm for all cells. In addition, nuclear EB fluorescence (540 leads to 610 nm) and cytoplasmic fluorescence from LN (366 leads to 470 nm), brilliant sulfaflavine (420 leads to 520 nm) and EB exicted by energy transfer from LN (366 leads to 610 nm) are measured for all nucleated cells. This information is sufficient to perform red and white blood cell counts and to classify leukocytes as lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils or neutrophils. Light scattering and/or nuclear and cytoplasmic fluorescence values may be further analyzed to obtain the ratio of immature to mature neutrophils. Counts produced by the system are in reasonable agreement with those obtained by electronic cells counting and examination of Wright's-stained blood smears; some discrepancies appear to be due to systematic errors in the manual counting method.

  7. Tomographic brain imaging with nucleolar detail and automatic cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Chicherova, Natalia; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2016-09-01

    Brain tissue evaluation is essential for gaining in-depth insight into its diseases and disorders. Imaging the human brain in three dimensions has always been a challenge on the cell level. In vivo methods lack spatial resolution, and optical microscopy has a limited penetration depth. Herein, we show that hard X-ray phase tomography can visualise a volume of up to 43 mm3 of human post mortem or biopsy brain samples, by demonstrating the method on the cerebellum. We automatically identified 5,000 Purkinje cells with an error of less than 5% at their layer and determined the local surface density to 165 cells per mm2 on average. Moreover, we highlight that three-dimensional data allows for the segmentation of sub-cellular structures, including dendritic tree and Purkinje cell nucleoli, without dedicated staining. The method suggests that automatic cell feature quantification of human tissues is feasible in phase tomograms obtained with isotropic resolution in a label-free manner.

  8. Consequence of changing standards for somatic cell count on US Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consequence of noncompliance with European Union (EU) and current US standards for somatic cell count (SCC) as well as SCC standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation was examined for US herds. Somatic cell scores (SCS) from 14,854 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds were analyzed. H...

  9. The evolving role of CD4 cell counts in HIV care.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nathan; Meintjes, Graeme; Vitoria, Marco; Greene, Greg; Chiller, Tom

    2017-03-01

    The role of the CD4 cell count in the management of people living with HIV is once again changing, most notably with a shift away from using CD4 assays to decide when to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). This article reflects on the past, current and future role of CD4 cell count testing in HIV programmes, and the implications for clinicians, programme managers and diagnostics manufacturers. Following the results of recent randomized trials demonstrating the clinical and public health benefits of starting ART as soon as possible after HIV diagnosis is confirmed, CD4 cell count is no longer recommended as a way to decide when to initiate ART. For patients stable on ART, CD4 cell counts are no longer needed to monitor the response to treatment where HIV viral load testing is available. Nevertheless CD4 remains the best measurement of a patient's immune and clinical status, the risk of opportunistic infections, and supports diagnostic decision-making, particularly for patients with advanced HIV disease. As countries revise guidelines to provide ART to all people living with HIV and continue to scale up access to viral load, strategic choices will need to be made regarding future investments in CD4 cell count and the appropriate use for clinical disease management.

  10. A semi-automated technique for labeling and counting of apoptosing retinal cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss is one of the earliest and most important cellular changes in glaucoma. The DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells) technology enables in vivo real-time non-invasive imaging of single apoptosing retinal cells in animal models of glaucoma and Alzheimer’s disease. To date, apoptosing RGCs imaged using DARC have been counted manually. This is time-consuming, labour-intensive, vulnerable to bias, and has considerable inter- and intra-operator variability. Results A semi-automated algorithm was developed which enabled automated identification of apoptosing RGCs labeled with fluorescent Annexin-5 on DARC images. Automated analysis included a pre-processing stage involving local-luminance and local-contrast “gain control”, a “blob analysis” step to differentiate between cells, vessels and noise, and a method to exclude non-cell structures using specific combined ‘size’ and ‘aspect’ ratio criteria. Apoptosing retinal cells were counted by 3 masked operators, generating ‘Gold-standard’ mean manual cell counts, and were also counted using the newly developed automated algorithm. Comparison between automated cell counts and the mean manual cell counts on 66 DARC images showed significant correlation between the two methods (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.978 (p < 0.001), R Squared = 0.956. The Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.986 (95% CI 0.977-0.991, p < 0.001), and Cronbach’s alpha measure of consistency = 0.986, confirming excellent correlation and consistency. No significant difference (p = 0.922, 95% CI: −5.53 to 6.10) was detected between the cell counts of the two methods. Conclusions The novel automated algorithm enabled accurate quantification of apoptosing RGCs that is highly comparable to manual counting, and appears to minimise operator-bias, whilst being both fast and reproducible. This may prove to be a valuable method of quantifying apoptosing retinal

  11. The complete blood count and reticulocyte count--are they necessary in the evaluation of acute vasoocclusive sickle-cell crisis?

    PubMed

    Lopez, B L; Griswold, S K; Navek, A; Urbanski, L

    1996-08-01

    To assess the usefulness of the complete blood count (CBC) and the reticulocyte count in the evaluation of adult patients with acute vasoocclusive sickle-cell crisis (SCC) presenting to the ED. A 2-part study was performed. Part 1 was retrospective chart review of patients with a sole ED diagnosis of acute SCC. Part 2 was a prospective evaluation of consecutive patients presenting in SCC. In both parts of the study, patients with coexisting acute disease were excluded. The remaining patients were divided into 2 groups: admitted and released. The mean values for white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, and reticulocyte count were compared. In Part 2, the change (delta) from the patient's baseline in WBC count, Hb level, and reticulocyte count also was determined. Data were analyzed by 2-tailed Student's t-test. Part 1: There was no difference between the admitted (n = 33) and the released (n = 86) groups in mean WBC count (p = 0.10), Hb level (p = 0.25), or reticulocyte count (p = 0.08). Part 2: There was no difference between the admitted (n = 44) and the released (n = 160) groups in mean Hb level (p = 0.88), reticulocyte count (p = 0.47), delta Hb level (p = 0.88), and delta reticulocyte count (p = 0.76). There was a difference in mean WBC counts (15.8 +/- 4.9 x 10(9)/L admitted vs 12.8 +/- 4.9 x 10(9)/L released, p = 0.003) and delta WBC counts (5.1 +/- 4.6 x 10(9)/L admitted vs 1.8 +/- 4.6 x 10(9)/L released, p < 0.002). Determination of the Hb level and the reticulocyte count do not appear useful in the evaluation of acute SCC in the ED. Admission decisions appear associated with elevations in the WBC count. Further study is required to determine the true value of the WBC count in such decisions.

  12. Influences of red blood cell and platelet counts on the distribution and elimination of crystalloid fluid.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    A high number of blood cells increases the viscosity of the blood. The present study explored whether variations in blood cell counts are relevant to the distribution and elimination of infused crystalloid fluid. On three different occasions, 10 healthy male volunteers received an intravenous infusion of 25mL/kg of Ringer's acetate, Ringer's lactate, and isotonic saline over 30min. Blood hemoglobin and urinary excretion were monitored for 4h and used as input in a two-volume kinetic model, using nonlinear mixed effects software. The covariates used in the kinetic model were red blood cell and platelet counts, the total leukocyte count, the use of isotonic saline, and the arterial pressure. Red blood cell and platelet counts in the upper end of the normal range were associated with a decreased rate of distribution and redistribution of crystalloid fluid. Simulations showed that high counts were correlated with volume expansion of the peripheral (interstitial) fluid space, while the plasma volume was less affected. In contrast, the total leukocyte count had no influence on the distribution, redistribution, or elimination. The use of isotonic saline caused a transient reduction in the systolic arterial pressure (P<0.05) and doubled the half-life of infused fluid in the body when compared to the two Ringer solutions. Isotonic saline did not decrease the serum potassium concentration, despite the fact that saline is potassium-free. High red blood cell and platelet counts are associated with peripheral accumulation of infused crystalloid fluid. Copyright © 2017 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Hip Synovial Fluid Cell Counts in Children From a Lyme Disease Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Dart, Arianna H; Michelson, Kenneth A; Aronson, Paul L; Garro, Aris C; Lee, Thomas J; Glerum, Kimberly M; Nigrovic, Peter A; Kocher, Mininder S; Bachur, Richard G; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2018-05-01

    Patients with septic hip arthritis require surgical drainage, but they can be difficult to distinguish from patients with Lyme arthritis. The ability of synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) counts to help discriminate between septic and Lyme arthritis of the hip has not been investigated. We assembled a retrospective cohort of patients ≤21 years of age with hip monoarticular arthritis and a synovial fluid culture obtained who presented to 1 of 3 emergency departments located in Lyme disease endemic areas. Septic arthritis was defined as a positive synovial fluid culture result or synovial fluid pleocytosis (WBC count ≥50 000 cells per µL) with a positive blood culture result. Lyme arthritis was defined as positive 2-tiered Lyme disease serology results and negative synovial fluid bacterial culture results. All other patients were classified as having other arthritis. We compared median synovial fluid WBC counts by arthritis type. Of the 238 eligible patients, 26 (11%) had septic arthritis, 32 (13%) had Lyme arthritis, and 180 (76%) had other arthritis. Patients with septic arthritis had a higher median synovial fluid WBC count (126 130 cells per µL; interquartile range 83 303-209 332 cells per µL) than patients with Lyme arthritis (53 955 cells per µL; interquartile range 33 789-73 375 cells per µL). Eighteen patients (56%) with Lyme arthritis had synovial fluid WBC counts ≥50 000 cells per µL. Of the 94 patients who underwent surgical drainage, 13 were later diagnosed with Lyme arthritis. In Lyme disease endemic areas, synovial fluid WBC counts cannot always help differentiate septic from Lyme arthritis. Rapid Lyme diagnostics could help avoid unnecessary operative procedures in patients with Lyme arthritis. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Relationship between automated total nucleated cell count and enumeration of cells on direct smears of canine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Dusick, Allison; Young, Karen M; Muir, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Canine osteoarthritis is a common disorder seen in veterinary clinical practice and causes considerable morbidity in dogs as they age. Synovial fluid analysis is an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of canine joint disease and obtaining a total nucleated cell count (TNCC) is particularly important. However, the low sample volumes obtained during arthrocentesis are often insufficient for performing an automated TNCC, thereby limiting diagnostic interpretation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether estimation of TNCC in canine synovial fluid could be achieved by performing manual cell counts on direct smears of fluid. Fifty-eight synovial fluid samples, taken by arthrocentesis from 48 dogs, were included in the study. Direct smears of synovial fluid were prepared, and hyaluronidase added before cell counts were obtained using a commercial laser-based instrument. A protocol was established to count nucleated cells in a specific region of the smear, using a serpentine counting pattern; the mean number of nucleated cells per 400 × field was then calculated. There was a positive correlation between the automated TNCC and mean manual cell count, with more variability at higher TNCC. Regression analysis was performed to estimate TNCC from manual counts. By this method, 78% of the samples were correctly predicted to fall into one of three categories (within the reference interval, mildly to moderately increased, or markedly increased) relative to the automated TNCC. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was good to excellent. The results of the study suggest that interpretation of canine synovial fluid samples of low volume can be aided by methodical manual counting of cells on direct smears. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Electrical Counting and Sizing of Mammalian Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, E. C.; Steidley, K. David

    1965-01-01

    A recently developed method of determining the number and size of particles suspended in a conducting solution is to pump the suspension through a small orifice having an immersed electrode on each side to supply electrical current. The current changes due to the passage of particles of resistivity different from that of the solution. Theoretical expressions are developed which relate the current change caused by such particles to their volume and shape. It is found that most biological cells may be treated as dielectric particles whose capacitive effects are negligible. Electrolytic tank measurements on models confirm the theoretical development, and electric field plots of model orifices are used to predict the observed pulse shapes. An equivalent circuit of the orifice-electrode system is analyzed and shows that the current pulse may be made conductivity-independent when observed with a zero input impedance amplifier. PMID:5861698

  17. Liquid scintillation counting for /sup 14/C uptake of single algal cells isolated from natural samples

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, R.B.; Seliger, H.H.

    1981-07-01

    Short term rates of /sup 14/C uptake for single cells and small numbers of isolated algal cells of five phytoplankton species from natural populations were measured by liquid scintillation counting. Regression analysis of uptake rates per cell for cells isolated from unialgal cultures of seven species of dinoflagellates, ranging in volume from ca. 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ ..mu..m/sup 3/, gave results identical to uptake rates per cell measured by conventional /sup 14/C techniques. Relative standard errors or regression coefficients ranged between 3 and 10%, indicating that for any species there was little variation in photosynthesis per cell.

  18. Factors influencing variation of bulk milk antibiotic residue occurrence, somatic cell count, and total bacterial count in dairy sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; García-Jimeno, M C; Pérez-Bilbao, M; de la Fuente, L F

    2010-04-01

    To study the variations of bulk tank milk variables in dairy ewe flocks and to identify the main target practices and flock groups to improve milk quality and safety, a total of 71,228 records of antibiotic residue (AR) and milk yield and 68,781 records of somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 5 yr from the same 209 dairy ewe flocks of the Assaf breed belonging to the Consortium for Ovine Promotion of Castilla-León (Spain). Based on a logistic regression model, year, month, semester, SCC, TBC, dry therapy, and milk yield significantly contributed to AR variation. High SCC was associated with increased AR violations. When antibiotic dry therapy was implemented, AR occurrence was higher than when this practice was not used. A polynomial monthly distribution throughout the year was observed for AR occurrence; the highest values were in autumn, coinciding with low milk yields per flock. Yearly occurrences drastically diminished from 2004 (1.36%) to 2008 (0.30%), probably as a result of effective educational programs. The mixed-model ANOVA of factors influencing variation in SCC and TBC indicated that year, month, AR, dry therapy group, milking type, and year interactions were significant variation factors for SCC and TBC; mathematical model accounted for 74.1 and 35.4% of total variance for each variable, respectively. Differences in management and hygiene practice caused significant SCC and TBC variations among flocks and within flocks throughout the 5-yr study. Over time, continuously dry treated flocks showed lower logSCC (5.80) and logTBC (4.92) than untreated (6.10 and 5.18, respectively) or discontinuously dry treated (6.01 and 5.05, respectively) flocks. Continuously dry treated flocks had lower AR occurrences than did discontinuously dry treated flocks. As a whole, AR occurrence and SCC and TBC bulk tank milk variables can be used for monitoring mammary health and milk hygiene and safety in dairy sheep throughout time

  19. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  20. Label-free counting of circulating cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Quanyu; Yang, Ping; Wang, Qiyan; Pang, Kai; Zhou, Hui; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2018-02-01

    Melanoma, developing from melanocytes, is the most serious type of skin cancer. Circulating melanoma cells, the prognosis marker for metastasis, are present in the circulation at the early stage. Thus, quantitative detection of rare circulating melanoma cells is essential for monitoring tumor metastasis and prognosis evaluation. Compared with in vitro assays, in vivo flow cytometry is able to identify circulating tumor cells without drawing blood. Here, we built in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry based on the high absorption coefficient of melanoma cells, which is applied to labelfree counting of circulating melanoma cells in tumor-bearing mice.

  1. High-Throughput Quantification of Bacterial-Cell Interactions Using Virtual Colony Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Stefanie; Walter, Steffi; Blume, Anne-Kathrin; Fuchs, Stephan; Schmidt, Christiane; Scholz, Annemarie; Gerlach, Roman G.

    2018-01-01

    The quantification of bacteria in cell culture infection models is of paramount importance for the characterization of host-pathogen interactions and pathogenicity factors involved. The standard to enumerate bacteria in these assays is plating of a dilution series on solid agar and counting of the resulting colony forming units (CFU). In contrast, the virtual colony count (VCC) method is a high-throughput compatible alternative with minimized manual input. Based on the recording of quantitative growth kinetics, VCC relates the time to reach a given absorbance threshold to the initial cell count using a series of calibration curves. Here, we adapted the VCC method using the model organism Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in combination with established cell culture-based infection models. For HeLa infections, a direct side-by-side comparison showed a good correlation of VCC with CFU counting after plating. For MDCK cells and RAW macrophages we found that VCC reproduced the expected phenotypes of different S. Typhimurium mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrated the use of VCC to test the inhibition of Salmonella invasion by the probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917. Taken together, VCC provides a flexible, label-free, automation-compatible methodology to quantify bacteria in in vitro infection assays. PMID:29497603

  2. Depression and CD4 cell count among patients with HIV in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Olisah, Victor Obiajulu; Adekeye, Oluwatosin; Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common in people living with HIV/AIDS and there is some evidence that depressive symptoms may have adverse effects on immune functioning. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of current depressive disorder in patients with HIV/AIDS and its association with CD4 cell count. A consecutive sample of 310 patients with HIV/AIDS attending Out-patient clinic in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (A.B.U.T.H.), Zaria, Nigeria was assessed. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to screen for depressive symptoms, and the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) was used to confirm the diagnosis of current depressive disorder. The CD4 cell counts of participants with depressive disorder were compared with those of participants without depressive disorder. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify socio-demographic and disease-related factors associated with depression. Among the 310 HIV-infected participants assessed for depression, 14.2% had current depressive disorder. Adjusting for age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status, patients with CD4 counts < 150 cells/μl were more likely to be depressed. Depression is common among HIV-infected persons in Nigeria and is associated with low CD4 cell counts. The screening and treatment of mental health problems such as depression should be considered an integral component of HIV care and support. © 2015, The Author(s).

  3. Fluorescent intensity-based differential counting of FITC-doped silica nanoparticles: applications of CD4+ T-cell detection in microchip-type flowcytometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Bang, Hyunwoo; Lee, Won Gu; Lim, Hyunchang; Park, Junha; Lee, Joonmo; Riaz, Asif; Cho, Keunchang; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun

    2007-12-01

    Although CD4+ T-cells are an important target of HIV detection, there have been still major problems in making a diagnosis and monitoring in the third world and the region with few medical facilities. Then, it is necessary to use portable diagnosis devices at low cost when you put an enumeration of CD4+ T-cells. In general, the counting of CD4 below 200cells/uL makes it necessary to initiate antiretroviral treatment in adults (over 13 years old). However, lymphocyte subsets (including CD4 counts) of infants and young children are higher than those of adults. This fact shows the percentage of CD4+ T-cells of blood subsets, i.e., CD4/CD45%, CD4/CD8% or CD4/CD3% means a more reliable indicator of HIV infection than absolute counts in children. To know the percentage of CD4+ T-cell by using two fluorescent dyes of different emission wavelength, at least, one laser and two PMT detectors are in general needed. Then, it is so hard to develop a portable device like a 'toaster size' because this makes such a device more complex including many peripheral modules. In this study, we developed a novel technique to control the intensity of fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles. I synthesized FITC-doped silica nanoparticles conjugated CD4 antibody 10 times brighter than FITC-conjugated CD45 antibody. With the difference of intensity of two fluorescent dyes, we measured two parameters by using only a single detector and laser. Most experiments were achieved with uFACS (microfabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter) on an inverted microscope (IX71, Olympus). In conclusion, this method enables us to discriminate the difference between CD4 and CD45 in an intensity domain simultaneously. Furthermore, this technique would make it possible develop much cheaper and smaller devices which can count the number of CD4 T-cells.

  4. Modifications of haematology analyzers to improve cell counting and leukocyte differentiating in cerebrospinal fluid controls of the Joint German Society for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Tilmann O; Nebe, C Thomas; Löwer, Christa; Lehmitz, Reinhard; Kruse, Rolf; Geilenkeuser, Wolf-Jochen; Dorn-Beineke, Alexandra

    2009-08-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is used with haematology analyzers (HAs) to count cells and differentiate leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To evaluate the FCM techniques of HAs, 10 external DGKL trials with CSF controls were carried out in 2004 to 2008. Eight single platform HAs with and without CSF equipment were evaluated with living blood leukocytes and erythrocytes in CSF like DGKL controls: Coulter (LH750,755), Abbott CD3200, CD3500, CD3700, CD4000, Sapphire, ADVIA 120(R) CSF assay, and Sysmex XE-2100(R). Results were compared with visual counting of native cells in Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber, unstained, and absolute values of leukocyte differentiation, assayed by dual platform analysis with immune-FCM (FACSCalibur, CD45, CD14) and the chamber counts. Reference values X were compared with HA values Y by statistical evaluation with Passing/Bablock (P/B) linear regression analysis to reveal conformity of both methods. The HAs, studied, produced no valid results with DGKL CSF controls, because P/B regression revealed no conformity with the reference values due to:-blank problems with impedance analysis,-leukocyte loss with preanalytical erythrocyte lysis procedures, especially of monocytes,-inaccurate results with ADVIA cell sphering and cell differentiation with algorithms and enzyme activities (e.g., peroxidase). HA techniques have to be improved, e.g., using no erythrocyte lysis and CSF adequate techniques, to examine CSF samples precise and accurate. Copyright 2009 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  5. CD4+ T Lymphocytes count in sickle cell anaemia patients attending a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Omotola Toyin; Shokunbi, Wuraola Adebola

    2014-05-01

    Sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS) is the commonest abnormal haemoglobin and it has a worldwide distribution. Reports have shown that patients with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) have an increased susceptibility to infection leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Impaired leucocyte function and loss of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are some of the mechanisms that have been reported to account for the immunocompromised state in patients with sickle cell disease. This study was carried out to determine the CD4+ T lymphocytes count in patients with sickle cell anaemia. A comparative cross-sectional study of 40 sickle cell anaemia patients in steady state (asymptomatic for at least 4 weeks) attending haematology clinic and 40 age and sex-matched healthy HbA control were recruited into the study. Both HbS patients and the controls were HIV negative. The blood samples obtained were analyzed for CD4+ T cell by Flow cytometry. The study found that there was no significant difference in the number of CD4+ T lymphocyte count between individuals with sickle cell anaemia and HbA (1016 ± 513 cells/μL vs 920 ± 364cells/μL). It is recommended that the functionality of CD4+ T lymphocyte should be considered rather than the number in further attempt to elucidate the cellular immune dysfunction in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

  6. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  7. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - reticulocyte ... A higher than normal reticulocytes count may indicate: Anemia due to red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn ( ...

  8. Physical activity, white blood cell count, and lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Lee, Kristine E.; Hampton, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity may lower lung cancer risk. The association of physical activity with reduced chronic inflammation provides a potential mechanism, yet few studies have directly related inflammatory markers to cancer incidence. The relation between physical activity, inflammation, and lung cancer risk was evaluated in a prospective cohort of 4,831 subjects, 43–86 years of age, in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. A total physical activity index was created by summing kilocalories per week from sweat-inducing physical activities, city blocks walked, and flights of stairs climbed. Two inflammatory markers, white blood cell count and serum albumin, were measured at the baseline examination. During an average of 12.8 years of follow-up, 134 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest tertile of total physical activity index had a 45% reduction in lung cancer risk compared to those in the lowest tertile (OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.35–0.86). Participants with white blood cell counts in the upper tertile (≥8×103/μL) were 2.81 (95% CI: 1.58–5.01) times as likely to develop lung cancer as those with counts in the lowest tertile (<6.4×103/μL). Serum albumin was not related to lung cancer risk. There was no evidence that inflammation mediated the association between physical activity and lung cancer risk, as the physical activity risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjustment for white blood cell count. While the potential for residual confounding by smoking could not be eliminated, these data suggest that physical activity and white blood cell count are independent risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:18843014

  9. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerencser, Akos A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions.

  10. A gravimetric simplified method for nucleated marrow cell counting using an injection needle.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Toshiki; Fang, Liu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2005-08-01

    A simplified gravimetric marrow cell counting method for rats is proposed for a regular screening method. After fresh bone marrow was aspirated by an injection needle, the marrow cells were suspended in carbonate buffered saline. The nucleated marrow cell count (NMC) was measured by an automated multi-blood cell analyzer. When this gravimetric method was applied to rats, the NMC of the left and right femurs had essentially identical values due to careful handling. The NMC at 4 to 10 weeks of age in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats was 2.72 to 1.96 and 2.75 to 1.98 (x10(6) counts/mg), respectively. More useful information for evaluation could be obtained by using this gravimetric method in addition to myelogram examination. However, some difficulties with this method include low NMC due to blood contamination and variation of NMC due to handling. Therefore, the utility of this gravimetric method for screening will be clarified by the accumulation of the data on myelotoxicity studies with this method.

  11. Handheld 2-channel impedimetric cell counting system with embedded real-time processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottigni, A.; Carminati, M.; Ferrari, G.; Vahey, M. D.; Voldman, J.; Sampietro, M.

    2011-05-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have been attracting a growing attention for the perspective of miniaturization and portability of bio-chemical assays. Here we present a the design and characterization of a miniaturized, USB-powered, self-contained, 2-channel instrument for impedance sensing, suitable for label-free tracking and real-time detection of cells flowing in microfluidic channels. This original circuit features a signal generator based on a direct digital synthesizer, a transimpedance amplifier, an integrated square-wave lock-in coupled to a Σ▵ ADC converter, and a digital processing platform. Real-time automatic peak detection on two channels is implemented in a FPGA. System functionality has been tested with an electronic resistance modulator to simulate 1% impedance variation produced by cells, reaching a time resolution of 50μs (enabling a count rate of 2000 events/s) with an applied voltage as low as 200mV. Biological experiments have been carried out counting yeast cells. Statistical analysis of events is in agreement with the expected amplitude and time distributions. 2-channel yeast counting has been performed with concomitant dielectrophoretic cell separation, showing that this novel and ultra compact sensing system, thanks to the selectivity of the lock-in detector, is compatible with other AC electrical fields applied to the device.

  12. Artificial neural network-aided image analysis system for cell counting.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, P J; Frydel, B R; Wahlberg, L U

    1999-05-01

    In histological preparations containing debris and synthetic materials, it is difficult to automate cell counting using standard image analysis tools, i.e., systems that rely on boundary contours, histogram thresholding, etc. In an attempt to mimic manual cell recognition, an automated cell counter was constructed using a combination of artificial intelligence and standard image analysis methods. Artificial neural network (ANN) methods were applied on digitized microscopy fields without pre-ANN feature extraction. A three-layer feed-forward network with extensive weight sharing in the first hidden layer was employed and trained on 1,830 examples using the error back-propagation algorithm on a Power Macintosh 7300/180 desktop computer. The optimal number of hidden neurons was determined and the trained system was validated by comparison with blinded human counts. System performance at 50x and lO0x magnification was evaluated. The correlation index at 100x magnification neared person-to-person variability, while 50x magnification was not useful. The system was approximately six times faster than an experienced human. ANN-based automated cell counting in noisy histological preparations is feasible. Consistent histology and computer power are crucial for system performance. The system provides several benefits, such as speed of analysis and consistency, and frees up personnel for other tasks.

  13. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  14. A clinicopathological study of peripheral lymph nodes in HIV-infected patients with special reference to CD4+ T-cell counts: Experience from a tertiary care institution in Darjeeling (India).

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rupali; Mondal, Krishnendu; Datta, Saikat; Chakrabarti, Indranil; Giri, Amita; Goswami, Bidyut Krishna

    2015-12-01

    HIV/AIDS is a major health burden worldwide. India bears the third highest HIV-patients load globally. In the Darjeeling district, HIV-prevalence is >1% with very little known about the profile of HIV-lymphadenopathy. The aim of this study was to identify the different causes of peripheral lymphadenopathy among HIV-infected patients in this region, correlate them with CD4+ T-cell counts and formulate some common clinico-haematological parameters as potential predictors of CD4+ T-cell count. In the present study, 76 cases were evaluated. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed as an out-patient procedure in the Department of Pathology. Smears were stained routinely with Haematoxylin-Eosin and Leishman stains. ZN stains were done when indicated by the cytological findings. Immediate CD4+ T-cell count was obtained by referring the patients to the Anti-retroviral therapy centre. Cytological diagnoses included tuberculosis (82.9%), reactive hyperplasia (6.6%), nonspecific granulomatous lesions (3.9%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2.6%), histoplasmosis (2.6%) and simultaneous filariasis with toxoplasmosis (1.3%). Statistically, the opportunistic infections and lymphomas significantly concurred with a CD4+ T-cell count <350/μl. Likewise, the number of enlarged lymph nodes and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) were found to be useful predictors of CD4+ T-cell counts. Lymph node cytology in HIV-infected patients is essential to identify opportunistic infections from neoplastic lesions and; to enable therapeutic strategies. Correlation of lesions with mean CD4+ T-cell count predicts personal immunity, stage of disease and disease activity. Furthermore, enlarged lymph node numbers and ALC can be surrogate markers of CD4+ T-cell count for monitoring the severity of the immune suppression in under-resourced countries like India. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. High-Throughput Method for Automated Colony and Cell Counting by Digital Image Analysis Based on Edge Detection

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Counting cells and colonies is an integral part of high-throughput screens and quantitative cellular assays. Due to its subjective and time-intensive nature, manual counting has hindered the adoption of cellular assays such as tumor spheroid formation in high-throughput screens. The objective of this study was to develop an automated method for quick and reliable counting of cells and colonies from digital images. For this purpose, I developed an ImageJ macro Cell Colony Edge and a CellProfiler Pipeline Cell Colony Counting, and compared them to other open-source digital methods and manual counts. The ImageJ macro Cell Colony Edge is valuable in counting cells and colonies, and measuring their area, volume, morphology, and intensity. In this study, I demonstrate that Cell Colony Edge is superior to other open-source methods, in speed, accuracy and applicability to diverse cellular assays. It can fulfill the need to automate colony/cell counting in high-throughput screens, colony forming assays, and cellular assays. PMID:26848849

  16. Effect of somatic cell count and mastitis pathogens on milk composition in Gyr cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gyr cows are well adapted to tropical conditions, resistant to some tropical diseases and have satisfactory milk production. However, Gyr dairy herds have a high prevalence of subclinical mastitis, which negatively affects their milk yield and composition. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the effects of seasonality, mammary quarter location (rear x front), mastitis-causing pathogen species, and somatic cell count (SCC) on milk composition in Gyr cows with mammary quarters as the experimental units and (ii) to evaluate the effects of seasonality and somatic cell count (SCC) on milk composition in Gyr cows with cows as the experimental units. A total of 221 lactating Gyr cows from three commercial dairy farms were selected for this study. Individual foremilk quarter samples and composite milk samples were collected once a month over one year from all lactating cows for analysis of SCC, milk composition, and bacteriological culture. Results Subclinical mastitis reduced lactose, nonfat solids and total solids content, but no difference was found in the protein and fat content between infected and uninfected quarters. Seasonality influenced milk composition both in mammary quarters and composite milk samples. Nevertheless, there was no effect of mammary quarter position on milk composition. Mastitis-causing pathogens affected protein, lactose, nonfat solids, and total solids content, but not milk fat content. Somatic cell count levels affected milk composition in both mammary quarters and composite samples of milk. Conclusions Intramammary infections in Gyr cows alter milk composition; however, the degree of change depends on the mastitis-causing pathogen. Somatic cell count is negatively associated with reduced lactose and nonfat solids content in milk. Seasonality significantly affects milk composition, in which the concentration of lactose, fat, protein, nonfat solids and total solids differs between dry and wet seasons in Gyr cows. PMID

  17. The effect of season on somatic cell count and the incidence of clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Olde Riekerink, R G M; Barkema, H W; Stryhn, H

    2007-04-01

    Bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC), individual cow somatic cell count (ICSCC), and incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) are all udder health parameters. So far, no studies have been reported on the effect of season on BMSCC, IRCM, and ICSCC in the same herds and period over multiple years. The objectives of this study were to determine the seasonal pattern over a 4-yr period of 1) BMSCC, 2) elevated ICSCC, 3) IRCM, and 4) pathogen-specific IRCM. Bulk milk somatic cell count, ICSCC, and pathogen-specific clinical mastitis data were recorded in 300 Dutch dairy farms. For the analyses of BMSCC, ICSCC, and IRCM, a mixed, a transitional, and a discrete time survival analysis model were used, respectively. Sine and cosine were included in the models to investigate seasonal patterns in the data. For all parameters, a seasonal effect was present. Bulk milk somatic cell count peaked in August to September in all 4 years. The probability of cows getting or maintaining a high ICSCC was highest in August and May, respectively. Older and late-lactation cows were more likely to develop or maintain a high ICSCC. Incidence rate of clinical mastitis was highest in December to January, except for Streptococcus uberis IRCM, which was highest in August. Totally confined herds had a higher Escherichia coli IRCM in summer than in winter. Compared with the major mastitis pathogens, the seasonal differences in IRCM were smaller for the minor pathogens. Distinguishing between Strep. uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus agalactiae, and other streptococci is essential when identifying Streptococcus spp. because each of them has a unique epidemiology. Streptococcus uberis IRCM seemed to be associated with being on pasture, whereas E. coli IRCM was more housing-related.

  18. Nutritional status and CD4 cell counts in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Célia Oliveira dos; Almeida, Ana Maria Rampeloti

    2013-01-01

    Even with current highly active antiretroviral therapy, individuals with AIDS continue to exhibit important nutritional deficits and reduced levels of albumin and hemoglobin, which may be directly related to their cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell counts. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and relate the findings to the albumin level, hemoglobin level and CD4 cell count. Patients over 20 years of age with AIDS who were hospitalized in a university hospital and were receiving antiretroviral therapy were studied with regard to clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and sociodemographic characteristics. Body mass index, percentage of weight loss, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and arm muscle circumference were analyzed. Data on albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 cell count were obtained from patient charts. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test for independent variables and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of significance was set to 0.05 (α = 5%). Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0 software for Windows. Of the 50 patients evaluated, 70% were male. The prevalence of malnutrition was higher when the definition was based on arm circumference and triceps skinfold measurement. The concentrations of all biochemical variables were significantly lower among patients with a body mass index of less than 18.5kg/m2. The CD4 cell count, albumin, hemoglobin and hematocrit anthropometric measures were directly related to each other. These findings underscore the importance of nutritional follow-up for underweight patients with AIDS, as nutritional status proved to be related to important biochemical alterations.

  19. Value of counting positive PHH3 cells in the diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Shu-Jie; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Shen, Yan; Liu, Yian-Zhu; Shi, Yi-Quan; Liu, Yi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors including leiomyosarcomas (LMS), smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), bizarre (atypical) leiomyoma (BLM), mitotically active leiomyoma (MAL) and leiomyoma (LM) depends on a combination of microscopic features, such as mitoses, cytologic atypia, and coagulative tumor cell necrosis. However, a small number of these tumors still pose difficult diagnostic challenges. The assessment of accurate mitotic figures (MF) is one of the major parameters in the proper classification of uterine smooth muscle tumors. This assessment can be hampered by the presence of increased number of apoptotic bodies or pyknotic nuclei, which frequently mimic mitoses. Phospho-histone H3 (PHH3) is a recently described immunomarker specific for cells undergoing mitoses. In our study, we collected 132 cases of uterine smooth muscle tumors, including 26 LMSs, 16 STUMPs, 30 BLMs, 30 MALs and 30 LMs. We used mitosis specific marker PHH3 to count mitotic indexes (MI) of uterine smooth muscle tumors and compared with the mitotic indexes of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). There is a positive correlation with the number of mitotic figures in H&E-stained sections and PHH3-stained sections (r=0.944, P<0.05). The ratio of PHH3-MI to H&E-MI has no statistically significant difference in each group except for LMs (P>0.05). The counting value of PHH3 in LMSs have significantly higher than STUMPs, BLMs, MALs and LMs (P<0.001) and the counting value of PHH3 is 1.5±0.5 times of the number of mitotic indexes in H&E. To conclude, our results show that counting PHH3 is a useful index in the diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors and it can provide a more accurate index instead of the time-honored mitotic figure counts at a certain ratio. PMID:26191133

  20. Serum protein profile and blood cell counts in adult toads Bufo arenarum(Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae): effects of sublethal lead acetate.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, María E; Rosenberg, Carolina E; Fink, Nilda E; Salibián, Alfredo

    2006-04-01

    Lead is a multiple-source pollutant, well known for its toxicity, of great risk both for the environment and human health. The main target organs of lead are the hematopoietic, nervous, and renal systems; there are also reports in support of its impairment effects on the reproductive and immune systems. It is well known that most of the metal is accumulated in the blood cells and that many of the deleterious effects are related to its circulating concentrations. These adverse effects have been described not only in humans but also in a number of other vertebrates such as fish and birds. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effects of weekly administration of sublethal Pb (as acetate, 50 mg x kg(-1)) during 6 weeks on the profile of the serum proteins and blood cell counts of the adult South American toad, Bufo arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae). The electrophoretic patterns of serum proteins pointed out the presence of four fractions; the metal provoked a significant decrease in both total proteins and albumin fraction; among the globulin fractions, the G3 resulted augmented. These findings may be related to the impact of lead on the toads' hepatic cells and immune system. The number of total red blood cells (RBC) showed a tendency to decrease after the injections of the metal, whereas the number of white blood cells (WBC) increased significantly; the differential leukocyte counts showed a statistically significant increase in the absolute number and in the relative percentage of blast-like cells. The decrease in RBC was attributed to the negative impact of the metals on the hemoglobin synthesis. The increasing of the WBC counts may be interpreted as a consequence of the induction of proliferation of pluripotential hematopoietic cells.

  1. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts rangedmore » from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.« less

  2. Restoring Cytokine Balance in HIV-Positive Individuals with Low CD4 T Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia, Anddre; Ly, Judy; Gonzalez, Leslie; Hussain, Parveen; Saing, Tommy; Islamoglu, Hicret; Pearce, Daniel; Ochoa, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract HIV infects and destroys CD4+ T cells leading to a compromised immune system. In a double-blinded study, a group of HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/mm3 were given either an empty liposomal supplement or a liposomal glutathione (L-GSH) supplement to take over a 3-month period. Baseline measurements in HIV-positive subjects show a significant decrease in levels of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2, and interferon (IFN)-γ, along with a substantial increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and free radicals, compared to healthy individuals. Supplementation of HIV-positive subjects with L-GSH for 3 months resulted in a notable increase in the levels of IL-12, IL-2, and IFN-γ, with a concomitant decrease in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, and free radicals, and stabilization in the levels of TGF-β, IL-1, and IL-17, compared to their placebo counterparts. Levels of free radicals in CD4+ T cells stabilized, while GSH levels increased in the treatment group. Those in the placebo group showed no significant difference throughout the study. In summary, supplementation with L-GSH in HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/mm3 can help restore redox homeostasis and cytokine balance, therefore aiding the immune system to control opportunistic infections. PMID:28398068

  3. White blood cell count and the incidence of hyperuricemia: insights from a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Shen, Pingyan; Ma, Xiaobo; Yu, Xialian; Ni, Liyan; Hao, Xu; Wang, Weiming; Chen, Nan

    2018-06-23

    Hyperuricemia (HUA) is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The relationship between HUA and white blood cell (WBC) count remains unknown. A sampling survey for CKD was conducted in Sanlin community in 2012 and 2014. CKD was defined as proteinuria in at least the microalbuminuric stage or an estimated GFR of 60 mL/(min∙1.73 m 2 ). HUA was defined as serum uric acid > 420 μmol/L in men and > 360 μmol/L in women. This study included 1024 participants. The prevalence of HUAwas 17.77%. Patients with HUA were more likely to have higher levels of WBC count, which was positively associated with HUA prevalence. This association was also observed in participants without CKD, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that WBC count was independently associated with the risk for HUA in male and female participants. Compared with participants without HUA, inflammatory factors such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin 6 increased in participants with HUA. Hence, WBC count is positively associated with HUA, and this association is independent of conventional risk factors for CKD.

  4. Composition, indigenous proteolytic enzymes and coagulating behaviour of ewe milk as affected by somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Caroprese, Mariangela; Schena, Laura; Russo, Donatella Esterina; Sevi, Agostino

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of somatic cell count in ewe milk on i) composition and hygienic traits; ii) plasmin, cathepsin and elastase activities; iii) leukocyte differential count; iv) renneting parameters. Individual ewe milk samples were grouped according to somatic cell count (SCC) into five classes: SC300 (<300 000 cells/ml), SC500 (from 301 000 to 500 000 cells/ml), SC1000 (from 501 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml), SC2000 (from 1 001 000 to 2 000 000 cells/ml) and SC>2000 (>2 001 000 cells/ml). Individual milk samples were analysed for pH, chemical composition, microbial features, indigenous proteolytic enzymes, differential leukocyte population, and renneting parameters. Milk yield, lactose, protein, non casein nitrogen, microbial features were affected by SCC level. Plasmin and elastase activities were the highest in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml; plasmin had intermediate values in samples with 300 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml and the lowest in samples with less than 300 000 cells/ml of milk. Cathepsin D showed significantly lower values in SC300 and SC1000 classes than in SC500, SC2000 and SC>2000 classes. The highest percentages of lymphocyte were found in samples with less than 1 000 000 cells/ml, while the highest levels of polymorphonuclear leukocyte were found in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml of milk. Longer clotting time was found in SC>2000 samples, while reduced clot firmness was observed in SC500 and SC>2000 samples. Results on milk yield and on compositional parameters evidenced an impairment of udder efficiency in ewe milk samples starting from 300 000 cells/ml. Plasmin activity in milk can be considered as a marker of the synthetic and secreting ability of the mammary gland; furthermore plasmin and elastase were consistent with the health status of the udder. Finally cathepsin D played a role in the worsening of renneting properties of ewe milk.

  5. Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPC) Count by Multicolor Flow Cytometry in Healthy Individuals and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Patients.

    PubMed

    Falay, Mesude; Aktas, Server

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to determine circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) counts by multicolor flow cytometry in healthy individuals and diabetic subjects by means of forming an analysis procedure using a combination of monoclonal antibodies (moAbs), which would correctly detect the circulating EPC count. The circulating EPC count was detected in 40 healthy individuals (20 Female, 20 Male; age range: 26 - 50 years) and 30 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients (15 Female, 15 Male; age range: 42 - 55) by multicolor flow cytometry (FCM) in a single-tube panel consisting of 5 CD45/CD31/CD34/CD309/ SYTO® and 16 monoclonal antibodies. Circulating EPC count was 11.33 (7.89 - 15.25) cells/µL in the healthy control group and 4.80 (0.70 - 10.85) cells/µL in the DM group. EPC counts were significantly lower in DM cases that developed coronary artery disease (53.3%) as compared to those that did not (p < 0.001). In the present study, we describe a method that identifies circulating EPC counts by multicolor flow cytometry in a single tube and determines the circulating EPC count in healthy individuals. This is the first study conducted on EPC count in Turkish population. We think that the EPC count found in the present study will be a guide for future studies.

  6. Quantitative analysis of mast cell count and density in chronic periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Surekha; Raj, Anubha; Wanikar, Ishita

    2018-01-01

    Mast cells play a crucial role in activation of acquired immune response to inflammatory conditions of periodontal diseases. They promote inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators and bring about angiogenesis, degeneration of the extracellular matrix, and tissue remodeling. Since there is little literature regarding the role of mast cells in periodontitis, the present study was aimed to evaluate mast cell count (MCC) and density in periodontitis. A total of eighty participants, Group I ( n = 40) healthy participants and Group II ( n = 40) participants with moderate chronic periodontitis, were included in the study. Tissue samples of 5 micron were obtained from each participant and were fixed in 10% formalin. Inflammation assessment was carried out after staining the sections with hematoxylin/eosin (H and E) followed by toluidine blue and mast cells were counted. MCC in healthy group (1.32 ± 0.43) was significantly smaller than periodontitis group (10.28 ± 1.15) and also mast cell density in healthy group (98.08 ± 37.40) was smaller than periodontitis group (803.43 ± 89.94) with P < 0.0001. It could be concluded that participants with chronic periodontitis have a higher MCC and density when compared with healthy participants.

  7. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  8. Association between red blood cell indices and CD4 count in HIV-positive reproductive women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbanraja, S. N.; Siregar, D. I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell indices, hemoglobin, and hematocrit reflect rapidity of HIV disease progression. This study aims to determine red blood cell indices and CD4 count in HIV-positive reproductive women. This study was a cross sectional study conducted at AIDS outpatient clinic at Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan Indonesia. All seropositive reproductive women within antiretroviral therapy consented for blood count and CD4 examination. Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS 19. In subjects with CD4≤350 mm3, mean hemoglobin was 10.95 ± 2.01, hematocrit was 31.83 ± 5.04%, MCV was 84.17 ± 11.41, MCH was 25.98 ± 2.65, and MCHC was 32.18 ± 2.17. Mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCH value was significantly lower in subjects with CD4 ≤350 mm3 (p=0.014; p=0.001; p=0.01; respectively). Lower Hb, Ht, and MCH associated with thelower CD4 count.

  9. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited-Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard; Heyman, Mats; Wesenberg, Finn; Kristinsson, Jon; Vettenranta, Kim; Schrøeder, Henrik; Weinshilboum, Richard; Jensen, Katrine Lykke; Grell, Kathrine; Rosthoej, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose adjustment guidelines. To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10 9 /l. After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides or MTX (including its polyglutamates) to be significant relapse predictors. The parameters significantly associated with risk of relapse (N = 83) were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [1.3-3.1], P = 0.003), WBC at diagnosis (HR = 1.04 per 10 × 10 9 /l rise [1.00-1.09], P = 0.048), the absolute neutrophil count (ANC; HR = 1.7 per 10 9 /l rise [1.3-2.4], P = 0.0007), and Ery thiopurine methyltransferase activity (HR = 2.7 per IU/ml rise [1.1-6.7], P = 0.03). WBC was significantly related to ANC (Spearman correlation coefficient, r s  = 0.77; P < 0.001), and only a borderline significant risk factor for relapse (HR = 1.28 [95% CI: 1.00-1.64], P = 0.046) when ANC was excluded from the Cox model. This study indicates that a low neutrophil count is likely to be the best hematological target for dose adjustments of maintenance therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The prevalence of abnormal leukocyte count, and its predisposing factors, in patients with sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwar E; Ali, Yosra Z; Al-Suliman, Ahmad M; Albagshi, Jafar M; Al Salamah, Majid; Elsayid, Mohieldin; Alanazi, Wala R; Ahmed, Rayan A; McClish, Donna K; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan

    2017-01-01

    High white blood cell (WBC) count is an indicator of sickle cell disease (SCD) severity, however, there are limited studies on WBC counts in Saudi Arabian patients with SCD. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal leukocyte count (either low or high) and identify factors associated with high WBC counts in a sample of Saudi patients with SCD. A cross-sectional and retrospective chart review study was carried out on 290 SCD patients who were routinely treated at King Fahad Hospital in Hofuf, Saudi Arabia. An interview was conducted to assess clinical presentations, and we reviewed patient charts to collect data on blood test parameters for the previous 6 months. Almost half (131 [45.2%]) of the sample had abnormal leukocyte counts: low WBC counts 15 (5.2%) and high 116 (40%). High WBC counts were associated with shortness of breath ( P =0.022), tiredness ( P =0.039), swelling in hands/feet ( P =0.020), and back pain ( P =0.007). The mean hemoglobin was higher in patients with normal WBC counts ( P =0.024), while the mean hemoglobin S was high in patients with high WBC counts ( P =0.003). After adjustment for potential confounders, predictors of high WBC counts were male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.63) and patients with cough (aOR=2.18), low hemoglobin (aOR=0.76), and low heart rate (aOR=0.97). Abnormal leukocyte count was common: approximately five in ten Saudi SCD patients assessed in this sample. Male gender, cough, low hemoglobin, and low heart rate were associated with high WBC count. Strategies targeting high WBC count could prevent disease complication and thus could be beneficial for SCD patients.

  11. MEERCAT: Multiplexed Efficient Cell Free Expression of Recombinant QconCATs For Large Scale Absolute Proteome Quantification*

    PubMed Central

    Takemori, Nobuaki; Takemori, Ayako; Tanaka, Yuki; Endo, Yaeta; Hurst, Jane L.; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Harman, Victoria M.; Beynon, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge in proteomics is the absolute accurate quantification of large numbers of proteins. QconCATs, artificial proteins that are concatenations of multiple standard peptides, are well established as an efficient means to generate standards for proteome quantification. Previously, QconCATs have been expressed in bacteria, but we now describe QconCAT expression in a robust, cell-free system. The new expression approach rescues QconCATs that previously were unable to be expressed in bacteria and can reduce the incidence of proteolytic damage to QconCATs. Moreover, it is possible to cosynthesize QconCATs in a highly-multiplexed translation reaction, coexpressing tens or hundreds of QconCATs simultaneously. By obviating bacterial culture and through the gain of high level multiplexing, it is now possible to generate tens of thousands of standard peptides in a matter of weeks, rendering absolute quantification of a complex proteome highly achievable in a reproducible, broadly deployable system. PMID:29055021

  12. Laboratory blood analysis in Strigiformes-Part I: hematologic reference intervals and agreement between manual blood cell counting techniques.

    PubMed

    Ammersbach, Mélanie; Beaufrère, Hugues; Gionet Rollick, Annick; Tully, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    While hematologic reference intervals (RI) are available for multiple raptorial species of the order Accipitriformes and Falconiformes, there is a lack of valuable hematologic information in Strigiformes that can be used for diagnostic and health monitoring purposes. The objective was to report RI in Strigiformes for hematologic variables and to assess agreement between manual cell counting techniques. A multi-center prospective study was designed to assess hematologic RI and blood cell morphology in owl species. Samples were collected from individuals representing 13 Strigiformes species, including Great Horned Owl, Snowy Owl, Eurasian Eagle Owl, Barred Owl, Great Gray Owl, Ural Owl, Northern Saw-Whet Owls, Northern Hawk Owl, Spectacled Owl, Barn Owl, Eastern Screech Owl, Long-Eared Owl, and Short-Eared Owl. Red blood cell count was determined manually using a hemocytometer. White blood cell count was determined using 3 manual counting techniques: (1) phloxine B technique, (2) Natt and Herrick technique, and (3) estimation from the smear. Differential counts and blood cell morphology were determined on smears. Reference intervals were determined and agreement between methods was calculated. Important species-specific differences were observed in blood cell counts and granulocyte morphology. Differences in WBC count between species did not appear to be predictable based on phylogenetic relationships. Overall, most boreal owl species exhibited a lower WBC count than other species. Important disagreements were found between different manual WBC counting techniques. Disagreements observed between manual counting techniques suggest that technique-specific RI should be used in Strigiformes. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Performance evaluation of the automated nucleated red blood cell count of five commercial hematological analyzers.

    PubMed

    Da Rin, G; Vidali, M; Balboni, F; Benegiamo, A; Borin, M; Ciardelli, M L; Dima, F; Di Fabio, A; Fanelli, A; Fiorini, F; Francione, S; Germagnoli, L; Gioia, M; Lari, T; Lorubbio, M; Marini, A; Papa, A; Seghezzi, M; Solarino, L; Pipitone, S; Tilocca, E; Buoro, S

    2017-12-01

    Recent automated hematology analyzers (HAs) can identify and report nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) count as a separate population out of white blood cells (WBC). The aim of this study was to investigate the analytical performances of NRBC enumeration on five top of the range HAs. We evaluated the within-run and between-day precision, limit of blank (LoB), limit of detection (LoD), and limit of quantitation (LoQ) of XE-2100 and XN-module (Sysmex), ADVIA 2120i (Siemens), BC-6800 (Mindray), and UniCel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter). Automated NRBC counts were also compared with optical microscopy (OM). The limits of detection for NRBC of the BC-6800, XN-module, XE-2100, UniCel DxH 800, and ADVIA 2120i are 0.035×10 9 /L, 0.019×10 9 /L, 0.067×10 9 /L, 0.038×10 9 /L, and 0.167×10 9 /L, respectively. Our data indicated excellent performance in terms of precision. The agreement with OM was excellent for BC-6800, XN-module, and XE-2100 (Bias 0.023, 0.019, and 0.033×10 9 /L, respectively). ADVIA 2120i displayed a significant constant error and UniCel DxH 800 both proportional and small constant error. Regards to NRBC counting, the performances shown by BC-6800, XN-module, and XE-2100 are excellent also a low count, ADVIA 2120i and UniCel DxH 800 need to be improved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht 2 ) that was <2 SD below the normal means for young adults. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index [(insulin (IU/mL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/18)/22.5]. Data of white blood cell counts and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) levels were collected in the second and third year (2008-2009) of Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). The results showed that the prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht 2 were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  15. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerencser, Akos A.; Mookerjee, Shona A.; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions. PMID:27404273

  16. Reliable and accurate CD4+ T cell count and percent by the portable flow cytometer CyFlow MiniPOC and "CD4 Easy Count Kit-Dry", as revealed by the comparison with the gold standard dual platform technology.

    PubMed

    Nasi, Milena; De Biasi, Sara; Bianchini, Elena; Gibellini, Lara; Pinti, Marcello; Scacchetti, Tiziana; Trenti, Tommaso; Borghi, Vanni; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and affordable CD4+ T cells count is an essential tool in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Flow cytometry (FCM) is the "gold standard" for counting such cells, but this technique is expensive and requires sophisticated equipment, temperature-sensitive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and trained personnel. The lack of access to technical support and quality assurance programs thus limits the use of FCM in resource-constrained countries. We have tested the accuracy, the precision and the carry-over contamination of Partec CyFlow MiniPOC, a portable and economically affordable flow cytometer designed for CD4+ count and percentage, used along with the "CD4% Count Kit-Dry". Venous blood from 59 adult HIV+ patients (age: 25-58 years; 43 males and 16 females) was collected and stained with the "MiniPOC CD4% Count Kit-Dry". CD4+ count and percentage were then determined in triplicate by the CyFlow MiniPOC. In parallel, CD4 count was performed using mAbs and a CyFlow Counter, or by a dual platform system (from Beckman Coulter) based upon Cytomic FC500 ("Cytostat tetrachrome kit" for mAbs) and Coulter HmX Hematology Analyzer (for absolute cell count). The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against Cytomic FC500 showed a correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.98 and 0.97 for CD4+ count and percentage, respectively. The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against CyFlow Counter showed a CC of 0.99 and 0.99 for CD4 T cell count and percentage, respectively. CyFlow MiniPOC showed an excellent repeatability: CD4+ cell count and percentage were analyzed on two instruments, with an intra-assay precision below ± 5% deviation. Finally, there was no carry-over contamination for samples at all CD4 values, regardless of their position in the sequence of analysis. The cost-effective CyFlow MiniPOC produces rapid, reliable and accurate results that are fully comparable with those from highly expensive dual platform systems.

  17. Reliable and Accurate CD4+ T Cell Count and Percent by the Portable Flow Cytometer CyFlow MiniPOC and “CD4 Easy Count Kit-Dry”, as Revealed by the Comparison with the Gold Standard Dual Platform Technology

    PubMed Central

    Nasi, Milena; De Biasi, Sara; Bianchini, Elena; Gibellini, Lara; Pinti, Marcello; Scacchetti, Tiziana; Trenti, Tommaso; Borghi, Vanni; Mussini, Cristina; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background An accurate and affordable CD4+ T cells count is an essential tool in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Flow cytometry (FCM) is the “gold standard” for counting such cells, but this technique is expensive and requires sophisticated equipment, temperature-sensitive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and trained personnel. The lack of access to technical support and quality assurance programs thus limits the use of FCM in resource-constrained countries. We have tested the accuracy, the precision and the carry-over contamination of Partec CyFlow MiniPOC, a portable and economically affordable flow cytometer designed for CD4+ count and percentage, used along with the “CD4% Count Kit-Dry”. Materials and Methods Venous blood from 59 adult HIV+ patients (age: 25–58 years; 43 males and 16 females) was collected and stained with the “MiniPOC CD4% Count Kit-Dry”. CD4+ count and percentage were then determined in triplicate by the CyFlow MiniPOC. In parallel, CD4 count was performed using mAbs and a CyFlow Counter, or by a dual platform system (from Beckman Coulter) based upon Cytomic FC500 (“Cytostat tetrachrome kit” for mAbs) and Coulter HmX Hematology Analyzer (for absolute cell count). Results The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against Cytomic FC500 showed a correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.98 and 0.97 for CD4+ count and percentage, respectively. The accuracy of CyFlow MiniPOC against CyFlow Counter showed a CC of 0.99 and 0.99 for CD4 T cell count and percentage, respectively. CyFlow MiniPOC showed an excellent repeatability: CD4+ cell count and percentage were analyzed on two instruments, with an intra-assay precision below ±5% deviation. Finally, there was no carry-over contamination for samples at all CD4 values, regardless of their position in the sequence of analysis. Conclusion The cost-effective CyFlow MiniPOC produces rapid, reliable and accurate results that are fully comparable with those from highly expensive dual platform systems. PMID:25622041

  18. Invited review: Low milk somatic cell count and susceptibility to mastitis.

    PubMed

    Rainard, P; Foucras, G; Boichard, D; Rupp, R

    2018-05-23

    An enduring controversy exists about low milk cell counts and susceptibility to mastitis. The concentration of milk leukocytes, or somatic cell count (SCC), is a well-established direct indicator of mammary gland inflammation that is highly correlated with the presence of a mammary infection. The SCC is also used as a trait for the selection of dairy ruminants less prone to mastitis. As selection programs favor animals with less SCC, and as milk cells contribute to the defense of the mammary gland, the idea that susceptibility to mastitis could possibly be increased in the long term has been put forward and is still widely debated. Epidemiological and experimental studies aimed at relating SCC to susceptibility to mastitis have yielded results that seem contradictory at first sight. Nevertheless, by taking into account the immunobiology of milk and mammary tissue cells and their role in the defense against infection, along with recent studies on SCC-based divergent selection of animals, the issue can be settled. Apparent SCC-linked susceptibility to mastitis is a phenotypic trait that may be linked to immunomodulation but not to selection. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic utility of combined retinal ganglion cell count estimates in Japanese glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mari; Mori, Sotaro; Ueda, Kaori; Akashi, Azusa; Inoue, Yukako; Kurimoto, Takuji; Kanamori, Akiyasu; Yamada, Yuko; Nakamura, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    To assess the combined estimate of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count developed by Medeiros et al. as a tool for diagnosis of glaucoma in Japanese patients. Cross-sectional study. Thirty-one eyes of 19 healthy controls and 106 eyes of 70 glaucoma patients underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP) and three types of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) imaging using the Cirrus, RTVue, and 3D-OCT instruments. RGC counts derived from SAP and SD-OCT data were estimated using the Harwerth model (SAPrgc and OCTrgc, respectively), from which the combined RGC count estimates (CRGC) were calculated using the formula developed by Medeiros et al. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were conducted for mean deviation (MD), retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), and CRGC. The mean OCTrgc derived from the Cirrus, RTVue, and 3D-OCT instruments were 1150, 1245, and 1316 (× 1000 cells), respectively, for the control group and 463, 519, and 516 (× 1000 cells), respectively, for the patient group. SAPrgc of the controls' group was 1526 and the patients' group, 731 (× 1000 cells), and were consistently greater than OCTrgc in both groups (a generalized estimating equation model, p < 0.001). Partial area under the curve (pAUC) of MD was 0.178, and that of RNFLT and CRGC for the three OCT instruments were 0.185, 0.18, 0.189 and 0.196, 0.196, 0.197, respectively. CRGC had larger pAUC than MD, whereas there was no or marginal difference in pAUC between CRGC and cpRNFLT, irrespective of OCT device used or glaucoma severity. CRGC proved well suited to discriminate glaucoma patients from controls. However, its clinical utility did not seem to overwhelm isolated structural measures in the tested Japanese patients.

  20. Cell counting in whole mount tissue volumes using expansion OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yehe; Gu, Shi; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal cell proliferation and migration during heart development can lead to severe congenital heart defects (CHDs). Studying the spatial distribution of cells during embryonic development helps our understanding of how the heart develops and the etiology of certain CHDs. However, imaging large groups of single cells in intact tissue volumes is challenging. No current technique can accomplish this task in both a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. OCT has potential with its large field of view and micron-scale resolution, but even the highest resolution OCT systems have poor contrast for counting cells and have a small field of view compared to conventional OCT. We propose using a conventional OCT system and processing the sample to enhance cellular contrast. Inspired by the recently developed Expansion Microscopy, we permeated whole-mount embryonic tissue with a superabsorbent monomer solution and polymerized into a hydrogel. When hydrated in DI water, the tissue-hydrogel complex was uniformly enlarged ( 5X in all dimensions) without distorting the microscopic structure. This had a twofold effect: it increased the resolution by a factor of 5 and decreased scattering, which allowed us to resolve cellular level features deep in the tissue with high contrast using conventional OCT. We noted that cell nuclei caused significantly more backscattering than the other subcellular structures after expansion. Based on this property, we were able to distinguish individual cell nuclei, and thus count cells, in expanded OCT images with simple intensity thresholding. We demonstrate the technique with embryonic quail hearts at various developmental stages.

  1. Breast epithelium procurement from stereotactic core biopsy washings: flow cytometry-sorted cell count analysis.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Daniel L; Stewart, Carleton C; Stomper, Paul C

    2002-02-01

    Molecular studies of breast lesions have been constrained by difficulties in procuring adequate tissues for analyses. Standard procedures are restricted to larger, palpable masses or the use of paraffin-embedded materials, precluding facile procurement of fresh specimens of early lesions. We describe a study to determine the yield and characteristics of sorted cell populations retrieved in core needle biopsy specimen rinses from a spectrum of breast lesions. Cells from 114 consecutive stereotactic core biopsies of mammographic lesions released into saline washes were submitted for flow cytometric analysis. For each specimen, epithelial cells were separated from stromal and blood tissue based on the presence of cytokeratin 8 and 18 markers. Epithelial cell yields based on pathological diagnoses of the biopsy specimen, patient age, and mammographic appearance of the lesion were determined. Biopsies containing malignant lesions yielded significantly higher numbers of cells than were obtained from benign lesion biopsies. Significantly greater cell counts were observed from lesions from women age 50 or above compared with those of younger women. Mammographic density surrounding the biopsy site, the mammographic appearance of the lesion, and the number of cores taken at the time of biopsy appeared to have little effect on the yield of epithelial cells. We demonstrate the use of flow cytometric sorting of stereotactic core needle biopsy washes from lesions spanning the spectrum of breast pathology to obtain epithelial cells in sufficient numbers to meet the requirements of a variety of molecular and genetic analyses.

  2. Utility of Fite-Faraco stain for both mast cell count and bacillary index in skin biopsies of leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Chatura, K R; Sangeetha, S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the utility of a single stain for both mast cell count and bacillary index (BI), 50 skin-biopsie patients were stained with Fite-Faraco (FF) stain, viewed under oil immersion and BI calculated using the Ridley's logarithmic scale, and mast cells counted as the number of cells per mm2. Mean mast cell count per mm2 at the tuberculoid pole was lowest in TT 7.9 and highest in BT 14.23. At the lepromatous end, it was highest in BL 9.21, while in LL it was 8.23. Highest counts were seen in the borderline types overall. The correlation coefficient between histopathological diagnosis and BI is 0.822 which is a positive correlation to a significant degree. The correlation coefficient between histopathological diagnosis and mast cell count was found to be -0.17, which is a negative correlation but not to a significant degree. FF stain was utilised to visualise both bacilli for estimation of BI and mast cells for mast cell count, a seldom attempted feature in literature.

  3. Validation of an automated counting procedure for phthalate-induced testicular multinucleated germ cells.

    PubMed

    Spade, Daniel J; Bai, Cathy Yue; Lambright, Christy; Conley, Justin M; Boekelheide, Kim; Gray, L Earl

    2018-06-15

    In utero exposure to certain phthalate esters results in testicular toxicity, characterized at the tissue level by induction of multinucleated germ cells (MNGs) in rat, mouse, and human fetal testis. Phthalate exposures also result in a decrease in testicular testosterone in rats. The anti-androgenic effects of phthalates have been more thoroughly quantified than testicular pathology due to the significant time requirement associated with manual counting of MNGs on histological sections. An automated counting method was developed in ImageJ to quantify MNGs in digital images of hematoxylin-stained rat fetal testis tissue sections. Timed pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed by daily oral gavage from gestation day 17 to 21 with one of eight phthalate test compounds or corn oil vehicle. Both the manual counting method and the automated image analysis method identified di-n-butyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, dipentyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate as positive for induction of MNGs. Dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, the brominated phthalate di-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, and dioctyl terephthalate were negative. The correlation between automated and manual scoring metrics was high (r = 0.923). Results of MNG analysis were consistent with these compounds' anti-androgenic activities, which were confirmed in an ex vivo testosterone production assay. In conclusion, we have developed a reliable image analysis method that can be used to facilitate dose-response studies for the reproducible induction of MNGs by in utero phthalate exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1

  6. Adaptive and automatic red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xi; Zhou, Mei; Qiu, Song; Sun, Li; Liu, Hongying; Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cell counting, as a routine examination, plays an important role in medical diagnoses. Although automated hematology analyzers are widely used, manual microscopic examination by a hematologist or pathologist is still unavoidable, which is time-consuming and error-prone. This paper proposes a full-automatic red blood cell counting method which is based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging of blood smears and combines spatial and spectral information to achieve high precision. The acquired hyperspectral image data of the blood smear in the visible and near-infrared spectral range are firstly preprocessed, and then a quadratic blind linear unmixing algorithm is used to get endmember abundance images. Based on mathematical morphological operation and an adaptive Otsu’s method, a binaryzation process is performed on the abundance images. Finally, the connected component labeling algorithm with magnification-based parameter setting is applied to automatically select the binary images of red blood cell cytoplasm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can perform well and has potential for clinical applications.

  7. Accelerating a Particle-in-Cell Simulation Using a Hybrid Counting Sort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, K. J.

    2001-11-01

    In this article, performance limitations of the particle advance in a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation are discussed. It is shown that the memory subsystem and cache-thrashing severely limit the speed of such simulations. Methods to implement a PIC simulation under such conditions are explored. An algorithm based on a counting sort is developed which effectively eliminates PIC simulation cache thrashing. Sustained performance gains of 40 to 70 percent are measured on commodity workstations for a minimal 2d2v electrostatic PIC simulation. More complete simulations are expected to have even better results as larger simulations are usually even more memory subsystem limited.

  8. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-05-20

    Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6 approximately 1.1 (microm/hr) and 3.8 (microm(3)/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important

  9. Comparison of cell counting methods in rodent pulmonary toxicity studies: automated and manual protocols and considerations for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Antonini, James M; Meighan, Terence G; Young, Shih-Houng; Eye, Tracy J; Hammer, Mary Ann; Erdely, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary toxicity studies often use bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to investigate potential adverse lung responses to a particulate exposure. The BAL cellular fraction is counted, using automated (i.e. Coulter Counter®), flow cytometry or manual (i.e. hemocytometer) methods, to determine inflammatory cell influx. The goal of the study was to compare the different counting methods to determine which is optimal for examining BAL cell influx after exposure by inhalation or intratracheal instillation (ITI) to different particles with varying inherent pulmonary toxicities in both rat and mouse models. General findings indicate that total BAL cell counts using the automated and manual methods tended to agree after inhalation or ITI exposure to particle samples that are relatively nontoxic or at later time points after exposure to a pneumotoxic particle when the response resolves. However, when the initial lung inflammation and cytotoxicity was high after exposure to a pneumotoxic particle, significant differences were observed when comparing cell counts from the automated, flow cytometry and manual methods. When using total BAL cell count for differential calculations from the automated method, depending on the cell diameter size range cutoff, the data suggest that the number of lung polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) varies. Importantly, the automated counts, regardless of the size cutoff, still indicated a greater number of total lung PMN when compared with the manual method, which agreed more closely with flow cytometry. The results suggest that either the manual method or flow cytometry would be better suited for BAL studies where cytotoxicity is an unknown variable.

  10. Reticulocyte count in red-blood-cell units stored in AS-1.

    PubMed

    Urbina, A; Palomino, F

    2013-05-01

    Previous data that showed maintenance of reticulocyte percentage in whole blood stored in CPDA-1 have led to the assumption that reticulocyte maturation becomes arrested during refrigerated storage. However, reticulocyte behaviour in red-blood-cell units stored in additive solutions has not yet been studied. This study was thus aimed at determining reticulocyte count and reticulocyte subtypes in red-blood-cells units stored in AS-1. Reticulocyte percentage and subtypes were determined by flow cytometry with thiazole orange in six red-blood-cells units stored in AS-1. Reticulocyte count was 26.8 ± 4.6 × 10(9) /l at week 0.5 and 8.2 ± 2.9 × 10(9) /l at week 6. Total haemolysis during storage was 0.19 ± 0.08%. High-fluorescence reticulocytes were 2.0 ± 3.2 × 10(9) /l at week 0.5 and decreased by weeks 2, 4 and 6. Low-fluorescence reticulocytes were 22.1 ± 3.1 × 10(9) /l at week 0.5 and decreased by weeks 4 and 6. A significant decrease in reticulocytes occurred during red-blood-cells units' storage in AS-1. Even if it were assumed that all of haemolysed cells during storage were reticulocytes, there are a number of them whose disappearance cannot be explained by this mechanism. Changes observed in reticulocyte subtypes suggest that they mature during storage. © 2013 The Author(s) Vox Sanguinis © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Evaluation of a standardized procedure for [corrected] microscopic cell counts [corrected] in body fluids.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Jane F; Emerson, Scott S

    2005-01-01

    A standardized urinalysis and manual microscopic cell counting system was evaluated for its potential to reduce intra- and interoperator variability in urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts. Replicate aliquots of pooled specimens were submitted blindly to technologists who were instructed to use either the Kova system with the disposable Glasstic slide (Hycor Biomedical, Inc., Garden Grove, CA) or the standard operating procedure of the University of California-Irvine (UCI), which uses plain glass slides for urine sediments and hemacytometers for CSF. The Hycor system provides a mechanical means of obtaining a fixed volume of fluid in which to resuspend the sediment, and fixes the volume of specimen to be microscopically examined by using capillary filling of a chamber containing in-plane counting grids. Ninety aliquots of pooled specimens of each type of body fluid were used to assess the inter- and intraoperator reproducibility of the measurements. The variability of replicate Hycor measurements made on a single specimen by the same or different observers was compared with that predicted by a Poisson distribution. The Hycor methods generally resulted in test statistics that were slightly lower than those obtained with the laboratory standard methods, indicating a trend toward decreasing the effects of various sources of variability. For 15 paired aliquots of each body fluid, tests for systematically higher or lower measurements with the Hycor methods were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Also examined was the average difference between the Hycor and current laboratory standard measurements, along with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the true average difference. Without increasing labor or the requirement for attention to detail, the Hycor method provides slightly better interrater comparisons than the current method used at UCI. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Y; Hirone, T

    1994-05-01

    The present study investigated the phototoxic effect of bergamot oil and its photosensitive component, bergapten, on sunburn cell (SBC) production in guinea pig skin. The back skin was pretreated with bergamot oil or bergapten and exposed to monochromatic light under various conditions. After irradiation, skin specimens were excised, and histological sections were prepared. The number of sunburn cells in the interfollicular epidermis was counted. The SBC formation by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVB radiation was the same as that without pretreatment with any photosensitizer. In contrast, a significant number of SBCs were induced by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVA radiation, but no SBCs were found after the treatment with UVA alone. The result indicates that bergamot oil or bergapten was photosensitized by UVA irradiation. The SBCs were linearly increased in a UV-dose dependent manner. On the basis of the regression lines, an action spectrum and spectral peak for the photosensitizers plus UVA were obtained. The action spectrum for bergamot oil- and bergapten-induced SBC formation was in the ranges of 325-365 nm and 325-350 nm, and their spectral peaks were at 335-345 nm and 335-350 nm, respectively. The data are in good accordance with those estimated from skin erythema reactions. Therefore, counting SBCs is a very useful parameter for quantitative evaluation of phototoxicity.

  13. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-07-24

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys.

  14. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78–1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

  15. Rare cancer cell analyzer for whole blood applications: microcytometer cell counting and sorting subcircuits.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, C; Kokoris, M; Nabavi, M; Clemmens, J; Maloney, P; Capadanno, J; Gerdes, J; Battrell, C F

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate sorting of rare cancer cells from blood using a thin ribbon monolayer of cells within a credit-card sized, microfluidic laboratory-on-a-card ("lab card") structure. This enables higher cell throughput per minute thereby speeding up cell interrogation. In this approach, multiple cells are viewed and sorted, not individually, but as a whole cell row or section of the ribbon at a time. Gated selection of only the cell rows containing a tagged rare cell provides enrichment of the rare cell relative to background blood cells. We also designed the cell injector for laminar flow antibody labeling within 20s. The approach combines rapid laminar flow cell labeling with monolayer cell sorting thereby enabling rare cell target detection at sensitivity levels 1000 to 10,000 times that of existing flow cytometers. Using this method, total cell labeling and data acquisition time on card may be reduced to a few minutes compared to 30-60 min for standard flow methods.

  16. Two cell-counting factors regulate the aggregate size of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Okuwa, T; Katayama, T; Takano, A; Kodaira, K; Yasukawa, H

    2001-12-01

    Countin, a cell-counting factor in Dictyostelium discoideum, is considered to limit the maximum size of the multicellular structure, because a countin null strain forms a huge fruiting body compared to that of the wild-type. A novel gene, countin2, that is highly homologous to countin (40% identity in amino acid sequence) was identified in the D. discoideum genome. The countin2 null strain formed a 1.7-fold higher number of the aggregates, resulting in smaller fruiting bodies compared with those of wild-type cells. Thus, the Countin2 protein is thought to limit the minimum size of the multicellular structure. The size and number of aggregates formed by a mixture of countin null and countin2 null strains were the same as those of the wild-type. These findings demonstrate that a combination of Countin and Countin2 proteins determines the appropriate size of the multicellular structure of D. discoideum.

  17. Identification of the homolog of cell-counting factor in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Okuwa, Takako; Katayama, Takahiro; Takano, Akinori; Yasukawa, Hiroo

    2002-10-01

    Genes for the cell-counting factors in Dictyostelium discoideum, countin and countin2, are considered to control the size of the multicellular structure of this organism. A novel gene, countin3, that is homologous to countin and countin2 genes (49 and 39% identity in amino acid sequence, respectively) was identified in the D. discoideum genome. The expression of countin3 was observed in the vegetatively growing cells, decreased in the aggregating stage, increased in the mid-developmental stage and decreased again in subsequent stages. This expression pattern is different from that of countin and countin2. The distinct expression kinetics of three genes suggests that they would have unique roles in size control of D. discoideum.

  18. Association of baseline absolute neutrophil counts and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with second-line antiangiogenic therapies: exploratory analyses of the RAISE trial and validation in an electronic medical record data set

    PubMed Central

    Grothey, Axel; Yoshino, Takayuki; Bodoky, Gyorgy; Ciuleanu, Tudor; Garcia-Carbonero, Rocio; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Van Cutsem, Eric; Muro, Kei; Mytelka, Daniel S; Li, Li; Lipkovich, Olga; Hsu, Yanzhi; Sashegyi, Andreas; Ferry, David; Nasroulah, Federico; Tabernero, Josep

    2018-01-01

    Background In the RAISE trial, ramucirumab+leucovorin/fluorouracil/irinotecan (FOLFIRI) improved the median overall survival (mOS) of patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer versus patients treated with placebo+FOLFIRI but had a higher incidence of neutropaenia, leading to more chemotherapy dose modifications and discontinuations. Thus, we conducted an exploratory post-hoc analysis of RAISE and a retrospective, observational analysis of electronic medical record (EMR) data to determine and verify the association of neutropaenia, baseline absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and survival. Methods The RAISE analysis used the study safety population (n=1057). IMS Health Oncology Database (IMS EMR) was the source for the real-world data set (n=617). Results RAISE patients with treatment-emergent neutropaenia had improved mOS compared with those without (ramucirumab arm: 16.1 vs 10.7 months, HR=0.57, p<0.0001; placebo arm: 12.7 vs 10.7 months, HR=0.76, p=0.0065). RAISE patients with low ANC versus high baseline ANC also had longer mOS (ramucirumab arm: 15.2 vs 8.9 months, HR=0.49, p<0.0001; placebo arm: 13.2 vs 7.3 months, HR=0.50, p<0.0001). The results were similar for IMS EMR low versus high baseline ANC (bevacizumab+FOLFIRI patients: 14.9 vs 7.7 months, HR=0.59, p<0.0001; FOLFIRI alone: 14.6 vs 5.4 months, HR=0.37, p<0.0001). Patients in the RAISE trial with low baseline ANC were more likely to develop neutropaenia (OR: ramucirumab arm=2.62, p<0.0001; placebo arm=2.16, p=0.0003). Conclusion Neutropaenia during treatment, and subsequent dose modifications or discontinuations, do not compromise treatment efficacy. Baseline ANC is a strong prognostic factor for survival and is associated with treatment-emergent neutropaenia in the analysed population. Trial registration number NCT01183780, Results. PMID:29713498

  19. A new approach for the estimation of phytoplankton cell counts associated with algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, Majid; Wong, Man Sing; Nichol, Janet Elizabeth

    2017-07-15

    This study proposes a method for estimating phytoplankton cell counts associated with an algal bloom, using satellite images coincident with in situ and meteorological parameters. Satellite images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Operational Land Imager (OLI) and HJ-1 A/B Charge Couple Device (CCD) sensors were integrated with the meteorological observations to provide an estimate of phytoplankton cell counts. All images were atmospherically corrected using the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) atmospheric correction method with a possible error of 1.2%, 2.6%, 1.4% and 2.3% for blue (450-520nm), green (520-600nm), red (630-690nm) and near infrared (NIR 760-900nm) wavelengths, respectively. Results showed that the developed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model yields a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.95 with the in situ validation data with Sum of Squared Error (SSE) of 0.34cell/ml, Mean Relative Error (MRE) of 0.154cells/ml and a bias of -504.87. The integration of the meteorological parameters with remote sensing observations provided a promising estimation of the algal scum as compared to previous studies. The applicability of the ANN model was tested over Hong Kong as well as over Lake Kasumigaura, Japan and Lake Okeechobee, Florida USA, where algal blooms were also reported. Further, a 40-year (1975-2014) red tide occurrence map was developed and revealed that the eastern and southern waters of Hong Kong are more vulnerable to red tides. Over the 40 years, 66% of red tide incidents were associated with the Dinoflagellates group, while the remainder were associated with the Diatom group (14%) and several other minor groups (20%). The developed technology can be applied to other similar environments in an efficient and cost-saving manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mean CD4 cell count changes in patients failing a first-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in CD4 cell counts are poorly documented in individuals with low or moderate-level viremia while on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings. We assessed the impact of on-going HIV-RNA replication on CD4 cell count slopes in patients treated with a first-line combination ART. Method Naïve patients on a first-line ART regimen with at least two measures of HIV-RNA available after ART initiation were included in the study. The relationships between mean CD4 cell count change and HIV-RNA at 6 and 12 months after ART initiation (M6 and M12) were assessed by linear mixed models adjusted for gender, age, clinical stage and year of starting ART. Results 3,338 patients were included (14 cohorts, 64% female) and the group had the following characteristics: a median follow-up time of 1.6 years, a median age of 34 years, and a median CD4 cell count at ART initiation of 107 cells/μL. All patients with suppressed HIV-RNA at M12 had a continuous increase in CD4 cell count up to 18 months after treatment initiation. By contrast, any degree of HIV-RNA replication both at M6 and M12 was associated with a flat or a decreasing CD4 cell count slope. Multivariable analysis using HIV-RNA thresholds of 10,000 and 5,000 copies confirmed the significant effect of HIV-RNA on CD4 cell counts both at M6 and M12. Conclusion In routinely monitored patients on an NNRTI-based first-line ART, on-going low-level HIV-RNA replication was associated with a poor immune outcome in patients who had detectable levels of the virus after one year of ART. PMID:22742573

  1. Evaluation of the platelet counting by Abbott CELL-DYN SAPPHIRE haematology analyser compared with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, E; Del Vecchio, L; Scopacasa, F; Lo Pardo, C; Capone, F; Pariante, S; Scalia, G; De Caterina, M

    2009-04-01

    The Abbot Cell-Dyn Sapphire is a new generation haematology analyser. The system uses optical/fluorescence flow cytometry in combination with electronic impedance to produce a full blood count. Optical and impedance are the default methods for platelet counting while automated CD61-immunoplatelet analysis can be run as selectable test. The aim of this study was to determine the platelet count performance of the three counting methods available on the instrument and to compare the results with those provided by Becton Dickinson FACSCalibur flow cytometer used as reference method. A lipid interference experiment was also performed. Linearity, carryover and precision were good, and satisfactory agreement with reference method was found for the impedance, optical and CD61-immunoplatelet analysis, although this latter provided the closest results in comparison with flow cytometry. In the lipid interference experiment, a moderate inaccuracy of optical and immunoplatelet counts was observed starting from a very high lipid value.

  2. Automated 3-D cell counting method for grading uveitis of rodent eye in vivo with optical coherence tomograph.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L; Wang, Ruikang K

    2018-05-24

    In preclinical vision research, cell grading in small animal models is essential for the quantitative evaluation of intraocular inflammation. Here, we present a new and practical optical coherence tomography (OCT) image analysis method for the automated detection and counting of aqueous cells in the anterior chamber (AC) of a rodent model of uveitis. Anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT) images are acquired with a 100kHz swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. The proposed method consists of two steps. In the first step, we first despeckle and binarize each OCT image. After removing AS structures in the binary image, we then apply area thresholding to isolate cell-like objects. Potential cell candidates are selected based on their best fit to roundness. The second step performs the cell counting within the whole AC, in which additional cell tracking analysis is conducted on the successive OCT images to eliminate redundancy in cell counting. Finally, 3-D cell grading using the proposed method is demonstrated in longitudinal OCT imaging of a mouse model of anterior uveitis in vivo. Rendering of anterior segment (orange) of mouse eye and automatically counted anterior chamber cells (green). Inset is a top view of the rendering, showing the cell distribution across the anterior chamber. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-Transplantation Natural Killer Cell Count: A Predictor of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Survival Outcomes After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hyewon; Han, Mi-Soon; Shim, Hyoeun; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Park, Boram; Kong, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Reconstitution of the immune system after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) plays an important role in post-transplant outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of the lymphocyte subset (LST) counts to transplant-related complications and survival outcomes after allo-HSCT has not been fully elucidated. A total of 70 patients who had undergone allo-HSCT from 2007 to 2013, with LST results both 7 days before conditioning and 30 or 90 days after allo-HSCT were included. The LST counts in the peripheral blood were determined using 6-color flow cytometry. Clinical information, including transplant-related events during the first 100 days after allo-HSCT, was reviewed, and any association between these events and LST was analyzed. At 30 days after allo-HSCT, the CD4 + T-cell (P = .009) and B-cell (P = .035) counts were lower and the natural killer (NK) cell count was greater (P < .001) than before conditioning. The CD8 + T-cell (P = .001) and NK cell (P < .001) counts were high 90 days after transplantation. The hazard ratios for a low NK cell count on days 30 and 90 for acute graft-versus-host disease were 6.22 and 14.67, respectively. Patients with low NK cell counts at 30 and 90 days after allo-HSCT had poorer overall survival (P = .043 and P = .028, respectively) and greater nonrelapse mortality (P = .036 and P = .033, respectively). A low NK cell count on day 30 was still prognostic for overall survival (P = .039) on multivariable analysis. NK cell counts after allo-HSCT, especially on day 30, were predictive of acute graft-versus-host disease, nonrelapse mortality, and survival. Serial lymphocyte subset analysis can be used to identify and treat patients at risk during the early period after allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low Circulating Natural Killer Cell Counts are Associated With Severe Disease in Patients With Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Ebbo, Mikael; Gérard, Laurence; Carpentier, Sabrina; Vély, Frédéric; Cypowyj, Sophie; Farnarier, Catherine; Vince, Nicolas; Malphettes, Marion; Fieschi, Claire; Oksenhendler, Eric; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Vivier, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells have been shown to exert antiviral and antitumoural activities. Nevertheless most available data are derived from mouse models and functions of these cells in human remain unclear. To evaluate the impact of low circulating NK cell counts and to provide some clues to the role of NK cells in natural conditions, we studied a large cohort of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) included in a multicenter cohort of patients with primary hypogammaglobulinaemia. Patients were classified into three groups on the basis of their NK cell counts: severe and mild NK cell lymphopenia (<50 and 50-99×10(6)/L respectively), and normal NK cell counts (>100×10(6)/L). Clinical events were analyzed and compared between these three groups of patients. During study period, 457 CVID patients were included: 99 (21.7%) with severe NK cell lymphopenia, 118 (25.8%) with mild NK cell lymphopenia and 240 (52.5%) with normal NK cell counts. Non-infectious complications (57% vs. 36% and 35%), and, particularly, granulomatous complications (25.3% vs. 13.6% and 8.8%), were more frequent in patients with severe NK cell lymphopenia than in other groups. Invasive infections (68.7% vs. 60.2% and 48.8%), including bacteraemia (22.2% vs. 5.9% and 8.3%) and infectious pneumonia (63.6% vs. 59.3% and 44.2%), were also more frequent in this population. However, no difference was observed for viral infections and neoplasms. Low circulating NK cell counts are associated with more severe phenotypes of CVID, which may indicate a protective role of these immune cells against severe bacterial infections and other complications and non-redundant immune functions when the adaptive immune response is not optimal. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells) and under five percent (viable cells). The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a Cell Factory. In a good

  6. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting.

    PubMed

    Gunetti, Monica; Castiglia, Sara; Rustichelli, Deborah; Mareschi, Katia; Sanavio, Fiorella; Muraro, Michela; Signorino, Elena; Castello, Laura; Ferrero, Ivana; Fagioli, Franca

    2012-05-31

    The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests' accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells) and under five percent (viable cells). The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a Cell Factory. In a good manufacturing practice setting the disposable

  7. Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, P S; Minior, V K; Divon, M Y

    1997-11-01

    The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile) who were delivered between October 1988 and June 1995 were reviewed for antepartum testing, delivery conditions, and neonatal outcome. We studied fetuses who had an umbilical artery systolic/diastolic ratio within 3 days of delivery and a complete blood cell count on the first day of life. Multiple gestations, anomalous fetuses, and infants of diabetic mothers were excluded. Statistical analysis included the Student t test, chi 2 analysis, analysis of variance, and simple and stepwise regression. Fifty-two infants met the inclusion criteria. Those with absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (n = 19) had significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts than did those with end-diastolic velocity present (n = 33) (nucleated red blood cells/100 nucleated cells +/- SD: 135.5 +/- 138 vs 17.4 +/- 23.7, p < 0.0001). These infants exhibited significantly longer time intervals for clearance of nucleated red blood cells from their circulation (p < 0.0001). They also had lower birth weights (p < 0.05), lower initial platelet count (p = 0.0006), lower arterial cord blood pH (p < 0.05), higher cord blood base deficit (p < 0.05), and an increased likelihood of cesarean section for "fetal distress" (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that absent or reversed end-diastolic velocity (p < 0.0001) and low birth weight (p < 0.0001) contributed to the elevation of the nucleated red blood cell count, whereas gestational age at delivery was not a significant contributor. We observed significantly greater nucleated red blood cell counts and lower platelet counts in small

  8. Cinnamyl Alcohol, the Bioactive Component of Chestnut Flower Absolute, Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells by Downregulating Adipogenic Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do-Yoon; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2017-01-01

    The extract of chestnut (Castanea crenata var. dulcis) flower (CCDF) has antioxidant and antimelanogenic properties, but its anti-obesity properties have not been previously examined. In this study, we tested the effect of CCDF absolute on adipocyte differentiation by using 3T3-L1 cells and determining the bioactive component of CCDF absolute in 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. CCDF absolute (0.1-100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL) did not change 3T3-L1 cell viability. At 50[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL and 100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL, the absolute significantly reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells that were induced by culture in medium containing 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine/dexamethasone/insulin (MDI). GC/MS analysis showed that CCDF absolute contains 10 compounds. Among these compounds, cinnamyl alcohol (3-phenyl-2-propene-1-ol) dose-dependently inhibited the increased accumulation of lipid droplets in MDI-contained medium-cultured 3T3-L1 cells at a concentration range of 0.1[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL to 10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL that did not cause cytotoxicity in 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibitory effect was significant at 5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL ([Formula: see text] of response in MDI alone-treated state, [Formula: see text]) and 10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL ([Formula: see text] of response in MDI alone-treated state, [Formula: see text]). Moreover, the enhanced expression of obesity-related proteins (PPAR[Formula: see text], C/EBP[Formula: see text], SREBP-1c, and FAS) in MDI medium-cultivated 3T3-L1 cells was significantly attenuated by the addition of cinnamyl alcohol at 5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL and 10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/mL. These findings demonstrate that cinnamyl alcohol suppresses 3T3-L1 cell differentiation by inhibiting anti-adipogenesis-related proteins, and it may be a main bioactive

  9. White blood cell counts mediate the effects of physical activity on prostate-specific antigen levels.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Richart, Sarah M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether white blood cell (WBC) level mediated the relationship between physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; 1,726 U.S. adult men (aged 40 years or older) provided complete data on the study variables. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for a 7-day period to measure their physical activity behavior, and PSA and WBC levels were obtained from a blood sample. After adjustments, results showed that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely associated with WBC count (b = - .03; 95% CI [ - 0.04, - 0.006; p = .01), and WBC count (b = .10; 95% CI [0.009, 0.18; p = .04) was positively associated with PSA. Both the Sobel (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 2.0; p = .03) and the Aroian (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 1.9; p = .03) tests demonstrated that WBC mediated the relationship between physical activity and PSA. Additionally, among 107 participants with prostate cancer, survivors engaging in more MVPA had lower levels of WBC (b = - .04; 95% CI [ - 0.09, - 0.0009; p = .04). Conclusion Physical activity may influence PSA levels through WBC modulation; however, future research is needed to determine the direction of causality. Additionally, prostate cancer survivors engaging in higher levels of MVPA had lower levels of WBC, underscoring the importance of promoting physical activity among prostate cancer survivors.

  10. Comparison of Mast Cells Count in Odontogenic Cysts Using Histochemical Staining.

    PubMed

    Rajabi-Moghaddam, Mahdieh; Abbaszadeh-Bidokhty, Hamid; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are among the most frequent destructive lesions of jaws which their pathogenesis and growth mechanism are not cleared. With respect to different roles of mast cells, they may play a role in the pathogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. The aim of present study was to evaluate mast cells in the most common odontogenic cyst. Thirty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks including 10 radicular cysts, 10 dentigerous cysts and 10 odontogenic keratocysts were used and 5 micron sections stained with toluidine blue and observed by light microscope under ×400 magnification to evaluate mast cells within these cysts. For each case, 5 high-power field areas, selected from hot-spot areas, were considered and each area divided into 3 zones: intra-epithelial zone, sub-epithelial zone and deep zone. Most of the studied cyst showed presence of mast cells. There was not any significant difference in mast cell count between studied cysts ( P -values > 0.05).With respect to intra-epithelial, sub-epithelial and deep zones, there was not any significant difference between three studied cysts. There was not any significant difference between sub-epithelial zone and deep zone within each of these cysts. There was only significant difference between intra-epithelial zone and sub-epithelial zone within dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts ( P -value < 0.05). Prevalence of mast cells in fibrous wall of odontogenic cysts suggests their activity in these cysts. Mast cells may not be directly involved in the pathogenesis of odontogenic keratocysts.

  11. Comparison of Mast Cells Count in Odontogenic Cysts Using Histochemical Staining

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi-Moghaddam, Mahdieh; Abbaszadeh-Bidokhty, Hamid; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Odontogenic cysts are among the most frequent destructive lesions of jaws which their pathogenesis and growth mechanism are not cleared. With respect to different roles of mast cells, they may play a role in the pathogenesis and growth of odontogenic cysts. The aim of present study was to evaluate mast cells in the most common odontogenic cyst. Methods: Thirty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks including 10 radicular cysts, 10 dentigerous cysts and 10 odontogenic keratocysts were used and 5 micron sections stained with toluidine blue and observed by light microscope under ×400 magnification to evaluate mast cells within these cysts. For each case, 5 high-power field areas, selected from hot-spot areas, were considered and each area divided into 3 zones: intra-epithelial zone, sub-epithelial zone and deep zone. Results: Most of the studied cyst showed presence of mast cells. There was not any significant difference in mast cell count between studied cysts ( P -values > 0.05).With respect to intra-epithelial, sub-epithelial and deep zones, there was not any significant difference between three studied cysts. There was not any significant difference between sub-epithelial zone and deep zone within each of these cysts. There was only significant difference between intra-epithelial zone and sub-epithelial zone within dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts ( P -value < 0.05). Conclusions: Prevalence of mast cells in fibrous wall of odontogenic cysts suggests their activity in these cysts. Mast cells may not be directly involved in the pathogenesis of odontogenic keratocysts. PMID:26351470

  12. Evaluation of mast cell counts and microvessel density in reactive lesions of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Moradzadeh Khiavi, Monir; Tahamtan, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable immunohistochemical assays to assess the definitive role of mast cells (MCs) and angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of oral reactive lesions are generally not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mast cell counts (MCC) and microvessel density (MVD) in oral reactive lesions and determine the correlation between MCC and MVD. Methods. Seventy-five cases of reactive lesions of the oral cavity, including pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral ossifying fibroma (15 for each category) were immunohisto-chemically stained with MC tryptase and CD31. Fifteen cases of normal gingival tissue were considered as the control group. The mean MCC and MVD in superficial and deep connective tissues were assessed and total MCC and MVD was computed for each lesion. Results . Statistically significant differences were observed in MCC and MVD between the study groups (P < 0.001). MC tryptase and CD31 expression increased in the superficial connective tissue of each lesion in comparison to the deep con-nective tissue. A significant negative correlation was not found between MCC and MVD in oral reactive lesions (P < 0.001, r = -0.458). Conclusion. Although MCs were present in the reactive lesions of the oral cavity, a direct correlation between MCC and MVD was not found in these lesions. Therefore, a significant interaction between MCs and endothelial cells and an active role for MCs in the growth of oral reactive lesions was not found in this study.

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi infectivity assessment in "in vitro" culture systems by automated cell counting.

    PubMed

    Liempi, Ana; Castillo, Christian; Cerda, Mauricio; Droguett, Daniel; Duaso, Juan; Barahona, Katherine; Hernández, Ariane; Díaz-Luján, Cintia; Fretes, Ricardo; Härtel, Steffen; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic, neglected tropical disease in Latin America that is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In vitro models constitute the first experimental approach to study the physiopathology of the disease and to assay potential new trypanocidal agents. Here, we report and describe clearly the use of commercial software (MATLAB(®)) to quantify T. cruzi amastigotes and infected mammalian cells (BeWo) and compared this analysis with the manual one. There was no statistically significant difference between the manual and the automatic quantification of the parasite; the two methods showed a correlation analysis r(2) value of 0.9159. The most significant advantage of the automatic quantification was the efficiency of the analysis. The drawback of this automated cell counting method was that some parasites were assigned to the wrong BeWo cell, however this data did not exceed 5% when adequate experimental conditions were chosen. We conclude that this quantification method constitutes an excellent tool for evaluating the parasite load in cells and therefore constitutes an easy and reliable ways to study parasite infectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. How to count cells: the advantages and disadvantages of the isotropic fractionator compared with stereology.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; von Bartheld, Christopher S; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H

    2015-04-01

    The number of cells comprising biological structures represents fundamental information in basic anatomy, development, aging, drug tests, pathology and genetic manipulations. Obtaining unbiased estimates of cell numbers, however, was until recently possible only through stereological techniques, which require specific training, equipment, histological processing and appropriate sampling strategies applied to structures with a homogeneous distribution of cell bodies. An alternative, the isotropic fractionator (IF), became available in 2005 as a fast and inexpensive method that requires little training, no specific software and only a few materials before it can be used to quantify total numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in a whole organ such as the brain or any dissectible regions thereof. This method entails transforming a highly anisotropic tissue into a homogeneous suspension of free-floating nuclei that can then be counted under the microscope or by flow cytometry and identified morphologically and immunocytochemically as neuronal or non-neuronal. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of each method and provide researchers with guidelines for choosing the best method for their particular needs. IF is as accurate as unbiased stereology and faster than stereological techniques, as it requires no elaborate histological processing or sampling paradigms, providing reliable estimates in a few days rather than many weeks. Tissue shrinkage is also not an issue, since the estimates provided are independent of tissue volume. The main disadvantage of IF, however, is that it necessarily destroys the tissue analyzed and thus provides no spatial information on the cellular composition of biological regions of interest.

  15. The contribution of mammary infections by coagulase-negative staphylococci to the herd bulk milk somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Rainard, P; Ducelliez, M; Poutrel, B

    1990-01-01

    Quarter foremilk samples were taken at 2-3 weekly intervals for several years in an experimental herd comprising about 45 cows. The samples were submitted to bacteriological analysis and somatic cell counting. The most prevalent quarter infections from 1982 to 1988 were by coagulase-negative staphylococci (15-20% of all the quarters sampled). Most of these (75.6%) persisted until drying-off. Dry cow therapy eliminated 86.5% of these infections. Comparison of udder quarters within cows, involving 775 samples from pairs of non-infected quarters and quarters infected by coagulase-negative staphylococci, yielded geometric means of somatic cell counts of 210,000 and 420,000 cells/ml, respectively. The correlation (r = 0.87) between the herd bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC) and its estimation from the quarter milk somatic cell count performed on the same day allowed us to evaluate the contribution of the different categories of quarters, according to their infection status, to the herd bulk milk SCC. Quarters infected by a major pathogen (8.5% of samples) gave rise to 46.6% of the total number of cells, while quarters infected by coagulase-negative staphylococci (17.8% of samples) gave rise to 18.1%. Although coagulase-negative staphylococci represented only a secondary source of somatic cells as compared to major pathogens, they were not a negligible source considering the threshold of 300,000 somatic cells advocated for herd milk of good quality.

  16. Association between somatic cell count after first parturition and cumulative milk yield in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Mc Coy, F; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

    2013-10-05

    The aim was to assess the association between the somatic cell count of parity 1 cows between 5 and 30 days in milk (SCC1), and subsequent cumulative milk yield over approximately two years for cows in English and Welsh dairy herds. The dataset included records from 43,461 cows in 2111 herds, from 2004 to 2006. Cumulative milk yield was the model outcome, and a random effect was included to account for variation between herds. The model fitted the data well and was used to make predictions of cumulative milk yield, based on SCC1. A unit increase in the natural logarithm of SCC1/1000 was associated with a median decrease in cumulative milk yield of 482 kg, over a median study period of 868 days.

  17. Each cell counts: Hematopoiesis and immunity research in the era of single cell genomics.

    PubMed

    Jaitin, Diego Adhemar; Keren-Shaul, Hadas; Elefant, Naama; Amit, Ido

    2015-02-01

    Hematopoiesis and immunity are mediated through complex interactions between multiple cell types and states. This complexity is currently addressed following a reductionist approach of characterizing cell types by a small number of cell surface molecular features and gross functions. While the introduction of global transcriptional profiling technologies enabled a more comprehensive view, heterogeneity within sampled populations remained unaddressed, obscuring the true picture of hematopoiesis and immune system function. A critical mass of technological advances in molecular biology and genomics has enabled genome-wide measurements of single cells - the fundamental unit of immunity. These new advances are expected to boost detection of less frequent cell types and fuzzy intermediate cell states, greatly expanding the resolution of current available classifications. This new era of single-cell genomics in immunology research holds great promise for further understanding of the mechanisms and circuits regulating hematopoiesis and immunity in both health and disease. In the near future, the accuracy of single-cell genomics will ultimately enable precise diagnostics and treatment of multiple hematopoietic and immune related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanical slowing-down of cytoplasmic diffusion allows in vivo counting of proteins in individual cells

    PubMed Central

    Okumus, Burak; Landgraf, Dirk; Lai, Ghee Chuan; Bakhsi, Somenath; Arias-Castro, Juan Carlos; Yildiz, Sadik; Huh, Dann; Fernandez-Lopez, Raul; Peterson, Celeste N.; Toprak, Erdal; El Karoui, Meriem; Paulsson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Many key regulatory proteins in bacteria are present in too low numbers to be detected with conventional methods, which poses a particular challenge for single-cell analyses because such proteins can contribute greatly to phenotypic heterogeneity. Here we develop a microfluidics-based platform that enables single-molecule counting of low-abundance proteins by mechanically slowing-down their diffusion within the cytoplasm of live Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. Our technique also allows for automated microscopy at high throughput with minimal perturbation to native physiology, as well as viable enrichment/retrieval. We illustrate the method by analysing the control of the master regulator of the E. coli stress response, RpoS, by its adapter protein, SprE (RssB). Quantification of SprE numbers shows that though SprE is necessary for RpoS degradation, it is expressed at levels as low as 3–4 molecules per average cell cycle, and fluctuations in SprE are approximately Poisson distributed during exponential phase with no sign of bursting. PMID:27189321

  19. Mechanical slowing-down of cytoplasmic diffusion allows in vivo counting of proteins in individual cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumus, Burak; Landgraf, Dirk; Lai, Ghee Chuan; Bakhsi, Somenath; Arias-Castro, Juan Carlos; Yildiz, Sadik; Huh, Dann; Fernandez-Lopez, Raul; Peterson, Celeste N.; Toprak, Erdal; El Karoui, Meriem; Paulsson, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Many key regulatory proteins in bacteria are present in too low numbers to be detected with conventional methods, which poses a particular challenge for single-cell analyses because such proteins can contribute greatly to phenotypic heterogeneity. Here we develop a microfluidics-based platform that enables single-molecule counting of low-abundance proteins by mechanically slowing-down their diffusion within the cytoplasm of live Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. Our technique also allows for automated microscopy at high throughput with minimal perturbation to native physiology, as well as viable enrichment/retrieval. We illustrate the method by analysing the control of the master regulator of the E. coli stress response, RpoS, by its adapter protein, SprE (RssB). Quantification of SprE numbers shows that though SprE is necessary for RpoS degradation, it is expressed at levels as low as 3-4 molecules per average cell cycle, and fluctuations in SprE are approximately Poisson distributed during exponential phase with no sign of bursting.

  20. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  1. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  2. Antiretroviral therapy suppressed participants with low CD4+ T-cell counts segregate according to opposite immunological phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Ouchi, Dan; Urrea, Victor; Carrillo, Jorge; Cabrera, Cecilia; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Puig, Jordi; Paredes, Roger; Negredo, Eugènia; Clotet, Bonaventura; Massanella, Marta; Blanco, Julià

    2016-01-01

    Background: The failure to increase CD4+ T-cell counts in some antiretroviral therapy suppressed participants (immunodiscordance) has been related to perturbed CD4+ T-cell homeostasis and impacts clinical evolution. Methods: We evaluated different definitions of immunodiscordance based on CD4+ T-cell counts (cutoff) or CD4+ T-cell increases from nadir value (ΔCD4) using supervised random forest classification of 74 immunological and clinical variables from 196 antiretroviral therapy suppressed individuals. Unsupervised clustering was performed using relevant variables identified in the supervised approach from 191 individuals. Results: Cutoff definition of CD4+ cell count 400 cells/μl performed better than any other definition in segregating immunoconcordant and immunodiscordant individuals (85% accuracy), using markers of activation, nadir and death of CD4+ T cells. Unsupervised clustering of relevant variables using this definition revealed large heterogeneity between immunodiscordant individuals and segregated participants into three distinct subgroups with distinct production, programmed cell-death protein-1 (PD-1) expression, activation and death of T cells. Surprisingly, a nonnegligible number of immunodiscordant participants (22%) showed high frequency of recent thymic emigrants and low CD4+ T-cell activation and death, very similar to immunoconcordant participants. Notably, human leukocyte antigen - antigen D related (HLA-DR) PD-1 and CD45RA expression in CD4+ T cells allowed reproducing subgroup segregation (81.4% accuracy). Despite sharp immunological differences, similar and persistently low CD4+ values were maintained in these participants over time. Conclusion: A cutoff value of CD4+ T-cell count 400 cells/μl classified better immunodiscordant and immunoconcordant individuals than any ΔCD4 classification. Immunodiscordance may present several, even opposite, immunological patterns that are identified by a simple immunological follow-up. Subgroup

  3. Trends in CD4 cell count response to first-line antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive patients from Asia, 2003-2013: TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database Low Intensity Transfer.

    PubMed

    De La Mata, Nicole L; Ly, Penh S; Ng, Oon T; Nguyen, Kinh V; Merati, Tuti P; Pham, Thuy T; Lee, Man P; Choi, Jun Y; Sohn, Annette H; Law, Matthew G; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran

    2017-11-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines have changed over the past decade, recommending earlier initiation and more tolerable regimens. The study objective was to examine the CD4 response to ART, depending on the year of ART initiation, in HIV-positive patients in the Asia-Pacific. We included HIV-positive adult patients who initiated ART between 2003 and 2013 in our regional cohort from eight urban referral centres in seven countries within Asia. We used mixed-effects linear regression models to evaluate differences in CD4 response by year of ART initiation during 36 months of follow-up, adjusted a priori for other covariates. Overall, 16,962 patients were included. Patients initiating in 2006-9 and 2010-13 had an estimated mean CD4 cell count increase of 8 and 15 cells/µl, respectively, at any given time during the 36-month follow-up, compared to those in 2003-5. The median CD4 cell count at ART initiation also increased from 96 cells/µl in 2003-5 to 173 cells/µl in 2010-13. Our results suggest that the CD4 response to ART is modestly higher for those initiating ART in more recent years. Moreover, fewer patients are presenting with lower absolute CD4 cell counts over time. This is likely to reduce their risk of opportunistic infections and future non-AIDS defining cancers.

  4. Estimating milk yield and value losses from increased somatic cell count on US dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Hadrich, J C; Wolf, C A; Lombard, J; Dolak, T M

    2018-04-01

    Milk loss due to increased somatic cell counts (SCC) results in economic losses for dairy producers. This research uses 10 mo of consecutive dairy herd improvement data from 2013 and 2014 to estimate milk yield loss using SCC as a proxy for clinical and subclinical mastitis. A fixed effects regression was used to examine factors that affected milk yield while controlling for herd-level management. Breed, milking frequency, days in milk, seasonality, SCC, cumulative months with SCC greater than 100,000 cells/mL, lactation, and herd size were variables included in the regression analysis. The cumulative months with SCC above a threshold was included as a proxy for chronic mastitis. Milk yield loss increased as the number of test days with SCC ≥100,000 cells/mL increased. Results from the regression were used to estimate a monetary value of milk loss related to SCC as a function of cow and operation related explanatory variables for a representative dairy cow. The largest losses occurred from increased cumulative test days with a SCC ≥100,000 cells/mL, with daily losses of $1.20/cow per day in the first month to $2.06/cow per day in mo 10. Results demonstrate the importance of including the duration of months above a threshold SCC when estimating milk yield losses. Cows with chronic mastitis, measured by increased consecutive test days with SCC ≥100,000 cells/mL, resulted in higher milk losses than cows with a new infection. This provides farm managers with a method to evaluate the trade-off between treatment and culling decisions as it relates to mastitis control and early detection. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. White blood cell count correlates with mood symptom severity and specific mood symptoms in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Ole; Sylvia, Louisa G; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael; Shelton, Richard C; McInnis, Melvin; Tohen, Mauricio; Kocsis, James H; Ketter, Terence A; Friedman, Edward S; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ostacher, Michael J; Iosifescu, Dan V; McElroy, Susan; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Immune alterations may play a role in bipolar disorder etiology; however, the relationship between overall immune system functioning and mood symptom severity is unknown. The two comparative effectiveness trials, the Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiatives in Comparative Effectiveness for Bipolar Disorder Study (Bipolar CHOICE) and the Lithium Treatment Moderate-Dose Use Study (LiTMUS), were similar trials among patients with bipolar disorder. At study entry, white blood cell count and bipolar mood symptom severity (via Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale and Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale) were assessed. We performed analysis of variance and linear regression analyses to investigate relationships between deviations from median white blood cell and multinomial regression analysis between higher and lower white blood cell levels. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Among 482 Bipolar CHOICE participants, for each 1.0 × 10 9 /L white blood cell deviation, the overall Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale severity increased significantly among men (coefficient = 2.13; 95% confidence interval = [0.46, -3.79]; p = 0.013), but not among women (coefficient = 0.87; 95% confidence interval = [-0.87, -2.61]; p = 0.33). Interaction analyses showed a trend toward greater Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale symptom severity among men (coefficient = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = [-0.81, -3.82]; p = 0.2). Among 283 LiTMUS participants, higher deviation from the median white blood cell showed a trend toward higher Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale scores among men (coefficient = 1.33; 95% confidence interval = [-0.22, -2.89]; p = 0.09), but not among women (coefficient = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = [-0.64, -1.32]; p = 0.50). When combining LiTMUS and Bipolar CHOICE, Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale scores

  6. Comparison of cell counting methods in rodent pulmonary toxicity studies: automated and manual protocols and considerations for experimental design

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Antonini, James M.; Meighan, Terence G.; Young, Shih-Houng; Eye, Tracy J.; Hammer, Mary Ann; Erdely, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity studies often use bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to investigate potential adverse lung responses to a particulate exposure. The BAL cellular fraction is counted, using automated (i.e. Coulter Counter®), flow cytometry or manual (i.e. hemocytometer) methods, to determine inflammatory cell influx. The goal of the study was to compare the different counting methods to determine which is optimal for examining BAL cell influx after exposure by inhalation or intratracheal instillation (ITI) to different particles with varying inherent pulmonary toxicities in both rat and mouse models. General findings indicate that total BAL cell counts using the automated and manual methods tended to agree after inhalation or ITI exposure to particle samples that are relatively nontoxic or at later time points after exposure to a pneumotoxic particle when the response resolves. However, when the initial lung inflammation and cytotoxicity was high after exposure to a pneumotoxic particle, significant differences were observed when comparing cell counts from the automated, flow cytometry and manual methods. When using total BAL cell count for differential calculations from the automated method, depending on the cell diameter size range cutoff, the data suggest that the number of lung polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) varies. Importantly, the automated counts, regardless of the size cutoff, still indicated a greater number of total lung PMN when compared with the manual method, which agreed more closely with flow cytometry. The results suggest that either the manual method or flow cytometry would be better suited for BAL studies where cytotoxicity is an unknown variable. PMID:27251196

  7. Systemic inflammation in 222.841 healthy employed smokers and nonsmokers: white blood cell count and relationship to spirometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking has been linked to low-grade systemic inflammation, a known risk factor for disease. This state is reflected in elevated white blood cell (WBC) count. Objective We analyzed the relationship between WBC count and smoking in healthy men and women across several age ranges who underwent preventive medical check-ups in the workplace. We also analysed the relationship between smoking and lung function. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study in 163 459 men and 59 382 women aged between 16 and 70 years. Data analysed were smoking status, WBC count, and spirometry readings. Results Total WBC showed higher counts in both male and female smokers, around 1000 to 1300 cell/ml (t test, P < 0.001). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was higher in nonsmokers for both sexes between 25 to 54 years (t test, P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance showed a multiple variable effect of age, sex, smoking status, body mass index on WBC count. The relationship between WBC blood count and smoking status was confirmed after the sample was stratified for these variables. Smokers with airway obstruction measured by FEV1% were found to have higher WBC counts, in comparison to smokers with a normal FEV1% among similar age and BMI groups. Conclusions Smoking increases WBC count and affects lung function. The effects are evident across a wide age range, underlining the importance of initiating preventive measures as soon as an individual begins to smoke. PMID:22613769

  8. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid white cell count: discriminatory or otherwise for enteroviral meningitis in infants and young children?

    PubMed

    Tan, Natalie Woon Hui; Lee, Elis Yuexian; Khoo, Gloria Mei Chin; Tee, Nancy Wen Sim; Krishnamoorthy, Subramania; Choong, Chew Thye

    2016-04-01

    Non-polio enteroviruses (EV) are the most common viruses causing aseptic meningitis in children. We aim to evaluate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics of neonates and children with EV meningitis with a view to determine whether it could be discriminatory or otherwise in making a positive diagnosis. We performed a 3-year (July 2008-July 2011) retrospective study of children ≤16 years, treated at a tertiary children's hospital, with positive CSF EV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and negative blood and CSF bacterial cultures. A total of 206 children were studied. The median CSF white cell count was 79 cells/mm(3) (range 0-4608 cells/mm(3)). CSF pleocytosis was observed in 99/150 (66%) aged ≤90 days, 3/4 (75%) aged 90 days-1 year, and 49/52 (94%) children ≥3 years. There was a huge variability in CSF pleocytosis in infants ≤90 days, where 34% of them had no pleocytosis, while in 66%, a wide range of pleocytosis that might even suggest bacterial meningitis was noted. CSF red cells were low, and protein or sugar values were not discriminatory. CSF pleocytosis in relation to increasing age was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). Early lumbar puncture within 48 h of symptoms and absence of CSF pleocytosis was also statistically significant (p = 0.039). CSF pleocytosis in EV meningitis is commoner in older children. As there was a huge variability in CSF pleocytosis in infants ≤90 days particularly, CSF analysis including EV PCR could avoid unnecessary antibiotic therapy.

  10. Normal T-cell activation in elite controllers with preserved CD4+ T-cell counts.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anju; Sterrett, Sarah; Erdmann, Nathan; Westfall, Andrew O; Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Overton, Edgar T; Goepfert, Paul A

    2015-11-01

    HIV elite controllers suppress HIV viremia without antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet previous studies demonstrated that elite controllers maintain an activated T-cell phenotype. Chronic immune activation has detrimental consequences and thus ART has been advocated for all elite controllers. However, elite controllers are not a clinically homogenous group. Since CD4% is among the best predictors of AIDS-related events, in the current study, we assessed whether this marker can be used to stratify elite controllers needing ART. Sixteen elite controllers were divided into two groups based on CD4% (EC > 40% and EC ≤40%), and T-cell subsets were analyzed for markers of memory/differentiation (CD45RA, CCR7, CD28), activation (CD38/HLA-DR), immunosenescence (CD57), costimulation (CD73, CD28) and exhaustion (PD-1, CD160, Tim-3). Monocyte subsets (CD14, CD16) were also analyzed and sCD14 levels were quantified using ELISA. In the EC group, expression of activation, exhaustion, and immunosensescence markers on T cells were significantly reduced compared with the EC group and similar to the seronegative controls. The EC group expressed higher levels of costimulatory molecules CD28 and CD73 and had lower levels of monocyte activation (HLA-DR expression) with a reduced frequency of inflammatory monocyte (CD14 CD16) subset. Furthermore, the EC group maintained a stable CD4% during a median follow-up of 6 years. Elite controllers with preserved CD4T cells (EC) have normal T-cell and monocyte phenotypes and therefore may have limited benefit from ART. CD4% can be an important marker for evaluating future studies aimed at determining the need for ART in this group of individuals.

  11. Correlation of enteric NADPH-d positive cell counts with the duration of incubation period in NADPH-d histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Cserni, Tamas; O' Donnel, Annemarie; Paran, Sri; Puri, Prem

    2009-03-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) staining can be used in the enteric nervous system to determine nitrergic neuronal counts, critical in motility disorders such as intestinal neuronal dysplasia and hypoganglionosis. The reported incubation periods of specimens with NADPH-d staining solution has varied from 2 to 24 h. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the incubation period on the overall NADPH-d positive cell counts in porcine rectal submucosal plexus. The submucosal plexus of rectal specimens from 12-week-old pigs (n = 5) were studied. Conventional frozen sections were used to identify nitrergic neurons while whole-mount preparations were used to quantify the effect of prolonged duration of incubation on positively identified ganglion cells with NADPH-d histochemistry. The same submucosal ganglia on the conventional sections, and a minimum of 12 ganglia per whole-mount preparation specimen were photographed sequentially at 2, 6, and 24 h and used to count the number of nitrergic cells per ganglion. The same staining solution was used throughout the experiment. Results were analysed using a one-way ANOVA test. Prolonged incubation with the staining solution revealed new NADPH-d positive cells in the ganglia on the conventional sections. The total number of neurons counted in the 12 adjacent ganglia in the whole-mount specimens was 180 +/- 55, the mean neuronal cell per ganglion was 15 +/- 8 after 2 h of incubation. This increased to 357 +/- 17, and to 29 +/- 12 after 6 h (p < 0.05). A further increase was observed of 515 +/- 19 and 43 +/- 17 after 24 h (p < 0.05). When the photomicrographs were retrospectively analysed, not even the outline of the neuronal cells that stained with prolonged incubation was evident at the earlier time points. NADPH-d positive cell counts increase in proportion to the duration of incubation in NADPH-d histochemistry. Comparative studies attempting to quantify nitrergic cell counts in

  12. Invited review: effect of udder health management practices on herd somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Dufour, S; Fréchette, A; Barkema, H W; Mussell, A; Scholl, D T

    2011-02-01

    A systematic review of the scientific literature on relationships between management practices used on dairy farms and herd somatic cell count (SCC) was undertaken to distinguish those management practices that have been consistently shown to be associated with herd SCC from those lacking evidence of association. Relevant literature was identified using a combination of database searches (PubMed, Medline, CAB, Agricola, and Web of Science) and iterative screening of references. To be included in the review, a manuscript had to be published after 1979 in French, English, or Dutch; study design had to be other than case report or case series; herds studied had to be composed of ≥ 40 milking cows producing on average ≥ 7,000kg of milk in 305 d; interventions studied had to be management practices applied at the herd level and used as udder health control strategies; and SCC had to be measured using electronic cell counting methods. The 36 manuscripts selected were mainly observational cross-sectional studies; 8 manuscripts dealt exclusively with automatic milking systems and 4 with management of calves and heifers and its effect on SCC in early lactation heifers. Most practices having consistent associations with SCC were related to milking procedures: wearing gloves during milking, using automatic take-offs, using postmilking teat dipping, milking problem cows last, yearly inspection of the milking system, and use of a technique to keep cows standing following milking; all were consistently associated with lower herd SCC. Other practices associated with lower SCC were the use of a freestall system, sand bedding, cleaning the calving pen after each calving, surveillance of dry-cow udders for mastitis, use of blanket dry-cow therapy, parenteral selenium supplementation, udder hair management, and frequent use of the California Mastitis Test. Regarding SCC of heifers, most of the consistent associations reported were related to interventions made during the

  13. Effect of mastitis treatment and somatic cell counts on milk yield in Danish organic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bennedsgaard, T W; Enevoldsen, C; Thamsborg, S M; Vaarst, M

    2003-10-01

    Production and disease data from 17,488 lactations in 48 Danish organic dairy herds from 1997 to 2001 were analyzed to obtain estimates on the effect of somatic cell counts (SCC) and mastitis treatment on milk production. A multilevel three-parameter piecewise random coefficients linear model with energy-corrected milk (ECM) as dependent variable and herd, lactation, and test days as levels, was used to model the lactation curve. Covariates related to production, SCC, veterinary treatments, and reproductive performance in the previous lactation as well as information on other diseases in the current lactation were included to describe the production capacity of the individual cow. The average daily milk production at herd level was 20.8, 24.2, and 25.8 kg of ECM/d in first, second, and third or later lactation. The estimates for production losses were on average 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 kg of ECM/d in first, second, and third or later lactation with each twofold increase in SCC between 100,000 and 1,500,000 cells/ml. The effect varied with the stage of lactation and was nonsignificant around 60 d postpartum and highest at the end of the lactation. The production losses in cows treated for mastitis varied with parity and stage of lactation and were modified by the SCC after treatment. For a cow in third lactation with a SCC below 100,000 cells/ ml before treatment at days in milk = 15, the predicted loss was 435 kg of ECM, including a loss of 135 kg of ECM because of higher SCC compared with the level before treatment. Most of the variation in production related to SCC and mastitis was at the lactation level, and no significant differences were found between herds grouped according to milk production level, SCC, or prevalence of mastitis treatment.

  14. Evaluation of nucleated red blood cell count by Sysmex XE-2100 in patients with thalassaemia or sickle cell anaemia and in neonates.

    PubMed

    Buoro, Sabrina; Vavassori, Mauro; Pipitone, Silvia; Benegiamo, Anna; Lochis, Eleonora; Fumagalli, Sabina; Falanga, Anna; Marchetti, Marina; Crippa, Alberto; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Current haematology analysers have variable sensitivity and accuracy for counting nucleated red blood cells in samples with low values and in all those conditions characterised by altered sensitivity of red blood cells to the lysing process, such as in beta-thalassaemia or sickle-cell diseases and in neonates. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the automated analyser XE-2100 at counting nucleated red blood cells in the above-mentioned three categories of subjects with potentially altered red blood cell lysis sensitivity and yet a need for accurate nucleated red blood cell counts. We measured nucleated red blood cell count by XE-2100 in peripheral blood samples of 187 subjects comprising 55 patients with beta-thalassaemia (40 major and 15 traits), 26 sickle-cell patients, 56 neonates and 50 normal subject. Results were compared with those obtained by optical microscopy. Agreement between average values of the two methods was estimated by means of Pearson's correlation and bias analysis, whereas diagnostic accuracy was estimated by analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. The comparison between the two methods showed a Pearson's correlation of 0.99 (95% CI; 0.98-0.99; p<0.001) and bias of -0.61 (95% CI, -1.5-0.3). The area under the curve of the nucleated red blood cell count in all samples was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00; p<0.001). Sub-analysis revealed an area under curve of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00; p<0.001) for patients with thalassaemia, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85-1.00; p<0.001) for patients with sickle cell anaemia, and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.0-1.0) for neonates. XE-2100 has excellent performance for nucleated red blood cell counting, especially in critical populations such as patients with haemoglobinopathies and neonates.

  15. Consequence of alternative standards for bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy herds in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comparison of dairy operations failing compliance with current US and European Union (EU) standards for bulk-tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) as well as BTSCC standards proposed by 3 national organizations were evaluated using 2 populations of US dairy herds: Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHI) ...

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections in relation to HIV/AIDS status, diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Shimelis; Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Assefa, Zelalem; Shimelis, Techalew

    2009-09-18

    HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasitic infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among people with and without HIV infection and its association with diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital focusing on HIV positive individuals, who gave blood for CD4 T-cell count at their first enrollment and clients tested HIV negative from November, 2008 to March, 2009. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhea status were obtained by interviewing 378 consecutive participants (214 HIV positive and 164 HIV negative). Stool samples were collected from all study subjects and examined for parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid fast stain techniques. The prevalence of any intestinal parasitic infection was significantly higher among HIV positive participants. Specifically, rate of infection with Cryptosporidium, I. belli, and S. stercoralis were higher, particularly in those with CD4 count less than 200 cells/microL. Diarrhea was more frequent also at the same lower CD4 T-cell counts. Immunodeficiency increased the risk of having opportunistic parasites and diarrhea. Therefore; raising patient immune status and screening at least for those treatable parasites is important.

  17. Increased circulating cell-derived microparticle count is associated with recurrent implantation failure after IVF and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zamora, M Angeles; Tàssies, Dolors; Reverter, Juan Carlos; Creus, Montserrat; Casals, Gemma; Cívico, Salvadora; Carmona, Francisco; Balasch, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) are small membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. Elevated cMP counts have been found in almost all thrombotic diseases and pregnancy wastage, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion and in a number of conditions associated with inflammation, cellular activation and angiogenesis. cMP count was investigated in patients experiencing unexplained recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The study group was composed of 30 women diagnosed with RIF (RIF group). The first control group (IVF group) (n = 30) comprised patients undergoing a first successful IVF cycle. The second control group (FER group) included 30 healthy women who had at least one child born at term and no history of infertility or obstetric complications. cMP count was significantly higher in the RIF group compared with the IVF and FER groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) (RIF group: 15.8 ± 6.2 nM phosphatidylserine equivalent [PS eq]; IVF group: 10.9 ± 5.3 nM PS eq; FER group: 9.6 ± 4.0 nM PS eq). No statistical difference was found in cMP count between the IVF and FER groups. Increased cMP count is, therefore, associated with RIF after IVF and embryo transfer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Association Between HIV-1 RNA Level and CD4 Cell Count Among Untreated HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Viviane D.; Fink, Valeria; Yip, Benita; Hogg, Robert S.; Harrigan, P. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the significance of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (or viral load alone) in predicting CD4 cell decline in untreated HIV-infected individuals. Methods. Data were obtained from the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. Participants included all residents who ever had a viral load determination in the province and who had never taken antiretroviral drugs (N = 890). We analyzed a total of 2074 viral load measurements and 2332 CD4 cell counts. Linear mixed-effects models were used to predict CD4 cell decline over time. Results. Longitudinal viral load was strongly associated with CD4 cell decline over time; an average of 1 log10 increase in viral load was associated with a 55-cell/mm3 decrease in CD4 cell count. Conclusions. Our results support the combined use of CD4 cell count and viral load as prognostic markers in HIV-infected individuals before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:19218172

  19. Further experience with the local lymph node assay using standard radioactive and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Kolle, Susanne N; Basketter, David; Schrage, Arnhild; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    In a previous study, the predictive capacity of a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA) based on cell counts, the LNCC, was demonstrated to be closely similar to that of the original assay. In addition, a range of substances, including some technical/commercial materials and a range of agrochemical formulations (n = 180) have also been assessed in both methods in parallel. The results in the LNCC and LLNA were generally consistent, with 86% yielding an identical classification outcome. Discordant results were associated with borderline data and were evenly distributed between the two methods. Potency information derived from each method also demonstrated good consistency (n = 101), with 93% of predictions being close. Skin irritation was observed only infrequently and was most commonly associated with positive results; it was not associated with the discordant results. Where different vehicles were used with the same test material, the effect on sensitizing activity was modest, consistent with historical data. Analysis of positive control data indicated that the LNCC and LLNA displayed similar levels of biological variation. When taken in combination with the previously published results on LLNA Performance Standard chemicals, it is concluded that the LNCC provides a viable non-radioactive alternative to the LLNA for the assessment of substances, including potency predictions, as well as for the evaluation of preparations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Automatic choroid cells segmentation and counting based on approximate convexity and concavity of chain code in fluorescence microscopic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weihua; Chen, Xinjian; Zhu, Weifang; Yang, Lei; Cao, Zhaoyuan; Chen, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a method based on the Freeman chain code to segment and count rhesus choroid-retinal vascular endothelial cells (RF/6A) automatically for fluorescence microscopy images. The proposed method consists of four main steps. First, a threshold filter and morphological transform were applied to reduce the noise. Second, the boundary information was used to generate the Freeman chain codes. Third, the concave points were found based on the relationship between the difference of the chain code and the curvature. Finally, cells segmentation and counting were completed based on the characteristics of the number of the concave points, the area and shape of the cells. The proposed method was tested on 100 fluorescence microscopic cell images, and the average true positive rate (TPR) is 98.13% and the average false positive rate (FPR) is 4.47%, respectively. The preliminary results showed the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. The relationship between dairy cow hygiene and somatic cell count in milk.

    PubMed

    Sant'anna, A C; Paranhos da Costa, M J R

    2011-08-01

    Corporal hygiene is an important indicator of welfare for dairy cows and is dependent on facilities, climate conditions, and the behavior of the animals. The objectives of this study were to describe how the hygiene conditions of dairy cows vary over time and to assess whether a relationship exists between hygiene and somatic cell count (SCC) in milk. Monthly hygiene evaluations were conducted on lactating cows in 2 dairy farms for 9 consecutive months, totaling 3,554 evaluations from 545 animals. Hygiene was measured using a 4-point scoring system (very clean, clean, dirty, and very dirty) for 4 areas of the animal's body (leg, flank, abdomen, and udder) and combining these scores to generate a composite cleanliness score. A total of 2,218 milk samples was analyzed from 404 cows to determine SCC and somatic cell linear scores (SCLS). Individual variation was observed in the hygiene of cows throughout the year, with the highest proportion of clean cows being observed in August and the lowest in January. In spite of this seasonal variation, approximately half (55.62%) of the cows displayed consistent cleanliness scores, with 45.86% of them remaining consistently clean (very clean or clean) and 9.76% remaining dirty (very dirty or dirty) over the course of the study. The very clean cows had the lowest SCLS, followed by the clean, dirty, and very dirty cows (no statistically significant differences were found between the latter 2 groups). The most critical months for cow hygiene were those with the greatest rainfall, when a reduction in the welfare of cows and higher SCC values were observed. The evaluation and control of dairy cow hygiene are useful in defining management strategies to reduce problems with milk and improve the welfare of the animals. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid Prediction of Hematologic Acute Radiation Syndrome in Radiation Injury Patients Using Peripheral Blood Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Port, M; Pieper, B; Knie, T; Dörr, H; Ganser, A; Graessle, D; Meineke, V; Abend, M

    2017-08-01

    Rapid clinical triage of radiation injury patients is essential for determining appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. We examined the utility of blood cell counts (BCCs) in the first three days postirradiation to predict clinical outcome, specifically for hematologic acute radiation syndrome (HARS). We analyzed BCC test samples from radiation accident victims (n = 135) along with their clinical outcome HARS severity scores (H1-4) using the System for Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories (SEARCH) database. Data from nonirradiated individuals (H0, n = 132) were collected from an outpatient facility. We created binary categories for severity scores, i.e., 1 (H0 vs. H1-4), 2 (H0-1 vs. H2-4) and 3 (H0-2 vs. H3-4), to assess the discrimination ability of BCCs using unconditional logistic regression analysis. The test sample contained 454 BCCs from 267 individuals. We validated the discrimination ability on a second independent group comprised of 275 BCCs from 252 individuals originating from SEARCH (HARS 1-4), an outpatient facility (H0) and hospitals (e.g., leukemia patients, H4). Individuals with a score of H0 were easily separated from exposed individuals based on developing lymphopenia and granulocytosis. The separation of H0 and H1-4 became more prominent with increasing hematologic severity scores and time. On day 1, lymphocyte counts were most predictive for discriminating binary categories, followed by granulocytes and thrombocytes. For days 2 and 3, an almost complete separation was achieved when BCCs from different days were combined, supporting the measurement of sequential BCC. We found an almost complete discrimination of H0 vs. irradiated individuals during model validation (negative predictive value, NPV > 94%) for all three days, while the correct prediction of exposed individuals increased from day 1 (positive predictive value, PPV 78-89%) to day 3 (PPV > 90%). The models were unable to provide

  3. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  4. The role of donor characteristics and post-granulocyte colony-stimulating factor white blood cell counts in predicting the adverse events and yields of stem cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Huey; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Chu, Sung-Chao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Chu-Yu; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Kao, Ruey-Ho; Li, Dian-Kun; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Wang, Tso-Fu

    2011-05-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is now widely used for stem cell mobilization. We evaluated the role of post-G-CSF white blood cell (WBC) counts and donor factors in predicting adverse events and yields associated with mobilization. WBC counts were determined at baseline, after the third and the fifth dose of G-CSF in 476 healthy donors. Donors with WBC ≥ 50 × 10(3)/μL post the third dose of G-CSF experienced more fatigue, myalgia/arthralgia, and chills, but final post-G-CSF CD34(+) cell counts were similar. Although the final CD34(+) cell count was higher in donors with WBC ≥ 50 × 10(3)/μL post the fifth G-CSF, the incidence of side effects was similar. Females more frequently experienced headache, nausea/anorexia, vomiting, fever, and lower final CD34(+) cell count than did males. Donors with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 showed higher incidences of sweat and insomnia as well as higher final CD34(+) cell counts. Donor receiving G-CSF ≥ 10 μg/kg tended to experience bone pain, headache and chills more frequently. Multivariate analysis indicated that female gender is an independent factor predictive of the occurrence of most side effects, except for ECOG > 1 and chills. Higher BMI was also an independent predictor for fatigue, myalgia/arthralgia, and sweat. Higher G-CSF dose was associated with bone pain, while the WBC count post the third G-CSF was associated with fatigue only. In addition, one donor in the study period did not complete the mobilization due to suspected anaphylactoid reaction. Observation for 1 h after the first injection of G-CSF is required to prevent complications from unpredictable side effects.

  5. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  6. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-06-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using sensor systems on measures of health and production in dairy herds. Data of 414 Dutch dairy farms with (n=152) and without (n=262) sensor systems were available. For these herds, information on milk production per cow, days to first service, first calving age, and somatic cell count (SCC) was provided for the years 2003 to 2013. Moreover, year of investment in sensor systems was available. For every farm year, we determined whether that year was before or after the year of investment in sensor systems on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS) or a conventional milking system (CMS), or whether it was a year on a farm that never invested in sensor systems. Separate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect of sensor systems for mastitis detection (color, SCC, electrical conductivity, and lactate dehydrogenase sensors), estrus detection for dairy cows, estrus detection for young stock, and other sensor systems (weighing platform, rumination time sensor, fat and protein sensor, temperature sensor, milk temperature sensor, urea sensor, β-hydroxybutyrate sensor, and other sensor systems). The AMS farms had a higher average SCC (by 12,000 cells/mL) after sensor investment, and CMS farms with a mastitis detection system had a lower average SCC (by 10,000 cells/mL) in the years after sensor investment. Having sensor systems was associated with a higher average production per cow on AMS farms, and with a lower average production per cow on CMS farms in the years after investment. The most likely reason for this lower milk production after investment was that on 96% of CMS farms, the sensor system investment occurred

  7. Decreased white blood cell counts in semiconductor manufacturing workers in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Hsieh, L; Chang, M; Hsu, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the systematic health effects on the liver, kidney, and haematological function tests of workers in semiconductors in Taiwan. Methods: 926 workers of a semiconductor plant in Taiwan in July 1995 were investigated. Complete blood tests including liver, kidney, and haematological functions were available from 227 workers. Results: There was a significantly lower mean (SD) white blood cell (WBC) count in male workers of photolithography (5870 (1190)/mm3, p=0.003) and implantation (6190 (1150)/mm3, p=0.018) than that of male control workers (7350 (1660)/mm3). There was a significantly higher prevalence of leukopenia in male photolithography workers (6 of 20; 30%) than in male control workers (1 of 18; 5.6%), the crude odds ratio (OR) was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1 to 55.6), and the multivariate adjusted OR was 8.1 (95% CI 0.83 to 78.3). The tests for serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), γ glutamyl transferase (RGT), and creatinine were not significant among male workers. Female workers in photolithography had abnormal SGPT and RGT of borderline significance, the multivariate adjusted ORs were 9.6 (95% CI 0.86 to 107) and 6.35 (95% CI 0.53 to 75.8), respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that leukopenia is a potential health effect in male fabrication workers of the semiconductor industry. The tasks of the process, maintenance, and equipment engineers which consisted mostly of men put them at risk for intermittent short term peak exposure to glycol ethers, ionising radiation, arsenic, or other toxins. The findings of this medical surveillance are significant; however, a further investigation of the aetiological factors and the subsequent health effects is necessary. PMID:11836468

  8. Quantification of Cells with Specific Phenotypes I: Determination of CD4+ Cell Count Per Microliter in Reconstituted Lyophilized Human PBMC Prelabeled with Anti-CD4 FITC Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Stebbings, Richard; Wang, Lili; Sutherland, Janet; Kammel, Martin; Gaigalas, Adolfas K; John, Manuela; Roemer, Bodo; Kuhne, Maren; Schneider, Rudolf J; Braun, Michael; Engel, Andrea; Dikshit, Dinesh K; Abbasi, Fatima; Marti, Gerald E; Paola Sassi, Maria; Revel, Laura; Kim, Sook-Kyung; Baradez, Marc-Olivier; Lekishvili, Tamara; Marshall, Damian; Whitby, Liam; Jing, Wang; Ost, Volker; Vonsky, Maxim; Neukammer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    A surface-labeled lyophilized lymphocyte (sLL) preparation has been developed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells prelabeled with a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. The sLL preparation is intended to be used as a reference material for CD4+ cell counting including the development of higher order reference measurement procedures and has been evaluated in the pilot study CCQM-P102. This study was conducted across 16 laboratories from eight countries to assess the ability of participants to quantify the CD4+ cell count of this reference material and to document cross-laboratory variability plus associated measurement uncertainties. Twelve different flow cytometer platforms were evaluated using a standard protocol that included calibration beads used to obtain quantitative measurements of CD4+ T cell counts. There was good overall cross-platform and counting method agreement with a grand mean of the laboratory calculated means of (301.7 ± 4.9) μL−1 CD4+ cells. Excluding outliers, greater than 90% of participant data agreed within ±15%. A major contribution to variation of sLL CD4+ cell counts was tube to tube variation of the calibration beads, amounting to an uncertainty of 3.6%. Variation due to preparative steps equated to an uncertainty of 2.6%. There was no reduction in variability when data files were centrally reanalyzed. Remaining variation was attributed to instrument specific differences. CD4+ cell counts obtained in CCQM-P102 are in excellent agreement and show the robustness of both the measurements and the data analysis and hence the suitability of sLL as a reference material for interlaboratory comparisons and external quality assessment. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25655255

  9. Near-Infrared Neodymium Tag for Quantifying Targeted Biomarker and Counting Its Host Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunlan; Lu, Shu; Yang, Limin; Chen, Peijie; Bai, Peiming; Wang, Qiuquan

    2017-09-05

    Quantitative information on a targeted analyte in a complex biological system is the most basic premise for understanding its involved mechanisms, and thus precise diagnosis of a disease if it is a so-called biomarker. Here, we designed and synthesized a neodymium (Nd)-cored tag [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-trisacetic acid (DOTA)-Nd complex together with a light-harvesting antenna aminofluorescein (AMF, λ ex/em = 494/520 nm), AMF-DOTA-Nd] with duplex signals, second near-infrared (NIR) window luminescence (λ em = 1065 nm, 2.5 μs), and stable isotopic mass ( 142 Nd). AMF-DOTA-Nd covalently linked with a urea-based peptidomimetic targeting group, 2-[3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-ureido]pentanedioic acid (DUPA)-8-Aoc-Phe-Phe-Cys (DUPAaFFC) (DUPAaFFC-AMF-DOTA-Nd), allowing us to detect and quantify prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and its splice variants (total PSMA, tPSMA), which was set as an example of targeted biomarkers in this study, using NIR and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) with the limit of detection (LOD) (3σ) of 0.3 ng/mL. When it was applied to the analysis of 80 blood samples from prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients as well as healthy volunteers, we found that 320 and 600 ng/mL tPSMA could be recommended as the threshold values to differentiate BPH from PCa and for the diagnosis of PCa. Moreover, PSMA-positive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were counted using ICPMS being from 134 to 773 CTCs in the PCa blood samples of the Gleason score from 6 to 9 when the cell membrane-spanning mPSMA was tagged. Such a methodology developed could be expected to be applicable to other clinic-meaningful biomolecules and their host CTCs in liquid biopsy, when other specific targeting groups are modified to the NIR Nd tag.

  10. Milk losses associated with somatic cell counts by parity and stage of lactation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliano L; Cue, Roger I; Botaro, Bruno G; Horst, José A; Valloto, Altair A; Santos, Marcos V

    2018-05-01

    The reduction of milk production caused by subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was evaluated through the regression of test-day milk yield on log-transformed somatic cell counts (LnSCC). Official test-day records (n = 1,688,054) of Holstein cows (n = 87,695) were obtained from 719 herds from January 2010 to December 2015. Editing was performed to ensure both reliability and consistency for the statistical analysis, and the final data set comprised 232,937 test-day records from 31,692 Holstein cows in 243 herds. A segmented regression was fitted to estimate the cutoff point in the LnSCC scale where milk yield started to be affected by mastitis. The statistical model used to explain daily milk yield included the effect of herd as a random effect and days in milk and LnSCC as fixed effects regressions, and analyses were performed by parity and stage of lactation. The cutoff point where milk yield starts to be affected by changes in LnSCC was estimated to be around 2.52 (the average of all estimates of approximately 12,400 cells/mL) for Holsteins cows from Brazilian herds. For first-lactation cows, milk losses per unit increase of LnSCC had estimates around 0.68 kg/d in the beginning of the lactation [5 to 19 d in milk (DIM)], 0.55 kg/d in mid-lactation (110 to 124 DIM), and 0.97 kg/d at the end of the lactation (289 to 304 DIM). For second-lactation cows, milk losses per unit increase of LnSCC had estimates around 1.47 kg/d in the beginning of the lactation (5 to 19 DIM), 1.09 kg/d in mid-lactation (110 to 124 DIM), and 2.45 kg/d at the end of the lactation (289 to 304 DIM). For third-lactation cows, milk losses per unit increase of LnSCC had estimates around 2.22 kg/d in the beginning of the lactation (5 to 19 DIM), 1.13 kg/d in mid-lactation (140 to 154 DIM), and 2.65 kg/d at the end of the lactation (289 to 304 DIM). Daily milk losses caused by increased LnSCC were dependent on parity and stage of lactation, and these factors should be considered when estimating

  11. Effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation in lactating dairy cows with elevated somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Ganda, E K; Bisinotto, R S; Vasquez, A K; Teixeira, A G V; Machado, V S; Foditsch, C; Bicalho, M; Lima, F S; Stephens, L; Gomes, M S; Dias, J M; Bicalho, R C

    2016-09-01

    Objectives of this clinical trial were to evaluate the effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation (ITMS) on somatic cell count (SCC), linear score (LS), milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, subclinical mastitis cure, and incidence of clinical mastitis in cows with elevated SCC. Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm in New York were evaluated for subclinical mastitis, defined as SCC ≥200×10(3) cells/mL on the test day preceding enrollment. Cows with a history of treatment for clinical mastitis in the current lactation and those pregnant for more than 150d were not eligible for enrollment. Cows fitting inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows assigned to ITMS (n=306) received 1 subcutaneous injection containing zinc (300mg), manganese (50mg), selenium (25mg), and copper (75mg) at enrollment (d 0). Control cows (CTRL; n=314) received 1 subcutaneous injection of sterile saline solution. Following treatment, visual assessment of milk was performed daily, and cows with abnormal milk (i.e., presence of flakes, clots, or serous milk) were diagnosed with clinical mastitis (CM). Chronic clinical mastitis was defined as cows with 3 or more cases of CM. Milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, SCC, and LS were evaluated once monthly. Additionally, randomly selected animals were sampled to test serum concentrations of selected minerals on d0 and 30 (n=30 cows/treatment). Treatment did not affect serum concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc on d30. Injectable supplementation with trace minerals did not improve overall cure of subclinical mastitis (CTRL=42.8 vs. ITMS=46.5%), although a tendency was observed in cows with 3 or more lactations (CTRL=27.1 vs. ITMS=40.0%). Supplementation did not reduce treatment incidence of CM (CTRL=48.2 vs. ITMS=41.7%); however, it tended to reduce the proportion of cows diagnosed with chronic CM (CTRL=16.9 vs. ITMS=12

  12. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (p<0.0001 for all). Both white blood cell counts and NLR can be used as a simple test in the diagnosis of testicular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase).

  13. Low CD4+ T cell count as a major atherosclerosis risk factor in HIV-infected women and men

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Robert C; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Gange, Stephen J; Benning, Lorie; Jacobson, Lisa P; Lazar, Jason; Anastos, Kathryn; Tien, Phyllis C; Sharrett, A Richey; Hodis, Howard N

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the association of HIV infection, HIV disease parameters (including CD4+ T-cell counts, HIV viral load, and AIDS) and antiretroviral medication use with subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis. Design Cross-sectional study nested within a prospective cohort study Methods Among participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (1,331 HIV-infected women, 534 HIV-uninfected women) and Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (600 HIV-infected men, 325 HIV-uninfected men), we measured subclinical carotid artery lesions and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) using B-mode ultrasound. We estimated adjusted mean CIMT differences and prevalence ratios (PRs) for carotid lesions associated with HIV-related disease and treatments, with multivariate adjustment to control for possible confounding variables. Results Among HIV-infected individuals, a low CD4+ T cell count was independently associated with an increased prevalence of carotid lesions. Compared to the reference group of HIV-uninfected individuals, the adjusted PR for lesions among HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm3 was 2.00 (95% confidence interval 1.22, 3.28) in women and 1.74 (95% confidence interval 1.04, 2.93) in men. No consistent association of antiretroviral medications with carotid atherosclerosis was observed, except for a borderline significant association between protease inhibitor use and carotid lesions in men (with no association among women). History of clinical AIDS and HIV viral load were not significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Conclusions Beyond traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, low CD4+ T-cell count is the most robust risk factor for increased subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in HIV-infected women and men. PMID:18670221

  14. Composition, proteolysis indices and coagulating properties of ewe milk as affected by bulk tank somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Martí-De Olives, Ana; Navarro-Ríos, María Jesús; Rubert-Alemán, Joaquín; Fernández, Nemesio; Molina, Maria Pilar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ovine bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) on composition, proteose-peptone (p-p) content and casein fractions as indicating parameters for proteolysis and coagulating properties of milk. A total of 97 samples of bulk tank milk from Manchega breed ewe flocks were grouped according to somatic cell count (SCC) into four classes: fewer than 500,000 cells/ml, from 500,000 to 10,00000 cells/ml, from 10,00000 to 15,00000 and more than 15,00000 cells/ml. The casein : protein ratio and lactose content decreased with BTSCC. Proteolysis increased with BTSCC, causing a drop in β-casein and an increase in the γ-caseins from a concentration of 500,000 cells/ml. Regarding coagulation behaviour, the rennet clotting time (RCT) and firming time (k20) rose from 10,00000-15,00000 cells/ml of milk. The results showed that the impairment of milk quality and milk ability to make cheese as affected by intramammary infection (IMI) can be inferred from the bulk tank milk of flocks with poor udder health.

  15. ELISPOTs Produced by CD8 and CD4 Cells Follow Log Normal Size Distribution Permitting Objective Counting

    PubMed Central

    Karulin, Alexey Y.; Karacsony, Kinga; Zhang, Wenji; Targoni, Oleg S.; Moldovan, Ioana; Dittrich, Marcus; Sundararaman, Srividya; Lehmann, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Each positive well in ELISPOT assays contains spots of variable sizes that can range from tens of micrometers up to a millimeter in diameter. Therefore, when it comes to counting these spots the decision on setting the lower and the upper spot size thresholds to discriminate between non-specific background noise, spots produced by individual T cells, and spots formed by T cell clusters is critical. If the spot sizes follow a known statistical distribution, precise predictions on minimal and maximal spot sizes, belonging to a given T cell population, can be made. We studied the size distributional properties of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-17 spots elicited in ELISPOT assays with PBMC from 172 healthy donors, upon stimulation with 32 individual viral peptides representing defined HLA Class I-restricted epitopes for CD8 cells, and with protein antigens of CMV and EBV activating CD4 cells. A total of 334 CD8 and 80 CD4 positive T cell responses were analyzed. In 99.7% of the test cases, spot size distributions followed Log Normal function. These data formally demonstrate that it is possible to establish objective, statistically validated parameters for counting T cell ELISPOTs. PMID:25612115

  16. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  17. Evaluation of White Blood Cell Count, Neutrophil Percentage, and Elevated Temperature as Predictors of Bloodstream Infection in Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Table 2). Three cultures were mixed with gram-positive and gram- negative bacteria, and 3 cultures produced yeasts (Can- dida albicans [n=2] and Candida ...that were gram positive, 3 that were mixed gram positive/gram nega- tive, and 3 yeasts . Although white blood cell count and neutrophil percentage at the...negative [but not mixed], or yeast ) because of small numbers. Statistical significance was set at P .01. RESULTS During the study period, 223 patients were

  18. Pharmacology of Thiopurine Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Complete Blood Cell Count Outcomes: A 5-Year Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Abraham J.; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Bouma, Gerd; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; de Boer, Nanne K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Thiopurines are the prerequisite for immunomodulation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy. When administered in high (oncological) dose, thiopurine metabolites act as purine antagonists, causing DNA-strand breakage and myelotoxicity. In lower IBD dosages, the mode of action is primarily restricted to anti-inflammatory effects. Then, myelosuppression and hepatotoxicity are the most common adverse events of thiopurines. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of thiopurine metabolites on hematologic and hepatic parameters and to determine which patient characteristics are related to generation of thiopurine metabolites. Methods: The authors scrutinized the therapeutic drug monitoring database of the VU University medical center and subsequently merged this database with the Clinical Laboratory database of our hospital covering the same time period (2010–2015). Results: The authors included 940 laboratory findings of 424 unique patients in this study. Concentrations of 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) correlated negatively with red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and neutrophil count in both azathioprine (AZA) and mercaptopurine users. There was a positive correlation with mean corpuscular volume. In patients using 6-thioguanine, 6-TGN concentrations correlated positively with white blood cell count. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between patient's age and 6-TGN concentrations in patients using AZA or 6-thioguanine, and we observed an inverse correlation between body mass index and 6-TGN concentrations in patients using AZA or mercaptopurine. No relations were observed with liver test abnormalities. Conclusions: Thiopurine derivative therapy influenced bone marrow production and the size of red blood cells. Age and body mass index were important pharmacokinetic factors in the generation of 6-TGN. PMID:28489727

  19. Evaluation of white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, and elevated temperature as predictors of bloodstream infection in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Hoffmaster, Roselle M; Schmit, David R; Hospenthal, Duane R; Ward, John A; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Wolf, Steven E

    2007-07-01

    To investigate whether specific values of or changes in temperature, white blood cell count, or neutrophil percentage were predictive of bloodstream infection in burn patients. Retrospective review of electronic records. Intensive care center at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research Burn Center. Burn patients with blood cultures obtained from 2001 to 2004. Temperature recorded at the time blood cultures were obtained; highest temperature in each 6-hour interval during the 24 hours prior to this; white blood cell count and neutrophil percentage at the time of obtaining the blood culture and during the 24 hours preceding the blood culture; demographic data; and total body surface area burned. A total of 1063 blood cultures were obtained from 223 patients. Seventy-three people had 140 blood cultures from which microorganisms were recovered. Organisms that were recovered from blood cultures included 80 that were gram negative, 54 that were gram positive, 3 that were mixed gram positive/gram negative, and 3 yeasts. Although white blood cell count and neutrophil percentage at the time of the culture were statistically different between patients with and patients without bloodstream infection, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed these values to be poor discriminators (receiver operating characteristic curve area = 0.624). Temperature or alterations in temperature in the preceding 24-hour period did not predict presence, absence, or type of bloodstream infection. Temperature, white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, or changes in these values were not clinically reliable in predicting bloodstream infection. Further work is needed to identify alternative clinical parameters, which should prompt blood culture evaluations in this population.

  20. Sertoli cell specific knockdown of RAR-related orphan receptor (ROR) alpha at puberty reduces sperm count in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Kamal; Sarkar, Rajesh K; Sen Sharma, Souvik; Jain, Ayushi; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2018-01-30

    Globally, there is an alarming decline in sperm count. Very often hormonal supplementation fails to restore normal sperm count. Sertoli cells (Sc) present within seminiferous tubules provide appropriate niche and factors required for the differentiation of germ cells (Gc) into mature sperm (spermatogenesis). Functionally compromised Sc may be one of the reasons for failure of hormones to facilitate normal spermatogenesis. Although role of secretory proteins and signaling molecules of Sc has been studied well, role of transcription factors regulating sperm count has not been addressed appropriately. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)-alpha is one of such transcription factors reported in testis but its role in testicular function is not yet known. In a separate study, we found abundant ROR-alpha binding sites on promoter regions of several genes upregulated in pubertal rat Sc as compared to infant Sc. Immunostaining studies also revealed presence of ROR alpha in nucleus of pubertal Sc. We generated a transgenic knockdown rat model expressing shRNA targeted to ROR-alpha under Sc specific promoter, which is transcriptionally active only at and after puberty. ROR-alpha knockdown animals were found to have abnormal association of Sc and Gc, including Gc sloughing and restricted release of sperm. The knockdown animals displayed compromised spermatogenesis leading to significant reduction in sperm count. This is the first report describing the Sc specific role of ROR-alpha in maintaining quantitatively normal sperm output. Identification of various such molecules can generate avenues to limit or reverse an alarmingly declining sperm count witnessed globally in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  2. Serum C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in morbidly obese surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Bin; Lee, Yi-Chih; Ser, Kong-Han; Chen, Jung-Chien; Chen, Shu Chung; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Lee, Wei-Jei

    2009-04-01

    Obesity has been widely recognized as a chronic inflammatory condition and associated with elevated inflammatory indicators including C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC). Recent studies have shown elevated CRP or WBC is a significant risk factor for cardiac events and stroke but the clinical significance of CRP and WBC has not been clearly studied in morbidly obese patients. This study is aimed at the clinical significance of WBC and CRP in morbidly obese patients and the change after bariatric surgery. The study was a prospectively controlled clinical study. From December 1, 2001 to January 31, 2006, of 640 (442 females and 198 males) consecutive morbid obese patients enrolled in a surgically supervised weight loss program with at least 1 year's follow-up were examined. Of the patients, 476 (74.4%) had elevated CRP and 100 (15.6%) had elevated WBC at preoperative study. CRP and WBC were significantly related and both increased with increasing body mass index (BMI). CRP is also increased with increasing waist, glucose level, hemoglobin, albumin, Ca, insulin, C-peptide, and metabolic syndrome while WBC is increased with metabolic syndrome but decreased with increasing age. Multivariate analysis confirmed fasting glucose level and hemoglobin are independent predictors of the elevation of CRP while age is the only independent predictor for elevated WBC. Both WBC and CRP levels decreased rapidly after obesity surgery. These improvements resulted in a 69.8% reduction of CRP and 26.4% reduction of WBC 1 year after surgery. Although individuals who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass lost significantly more weight (36.8 +/- 11.7 kg vs. 17.3 +/- 10.8 kg; p = 0.000) and achieved a lower BMI (27.8 +/- 4.6 vs. 35.0 +/- 5.5; p = 0.000) than individuals who underwent laparoscopic gastric banding, there was no difference in the resolution of elevated CRP 1 year after surgery (95.9% vs. 84.5%; p = 0.169) and WBC (99.4% vs. 98.3%; p = 0.323). Both baseline

  3. Relationships between milk culture results and composite milk somatic cell counts in Norwegian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Reksen, O; Sølverød, L; Østerås, O

    2008-08-01

    Associations between test-day composite milk somatic cell counts (CMSCC) and results from quarter milk cultures for various pathogens associated with mastitis, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), were investigated. S. aureus was dichotomized according to sparse (1,500 colony forming units/mL of milk) growth of the bacteria. Quarter milk samples were obtained on between 1 and 4 occasions from 2,714 cows in 354 Norwegian dairy herds, resulting in a total of 3,396 samples. Cows included in the study were randomly selected, without regard to current or previous udder health status. Measures of test-day CMSCC were obtained every second month, and related to 3528 microbiological diagnoses at the cow level. Mixed linear regression models incorporating a compound symmetry covariance structure accounting for repeated test-day CMSCC within cow, and a random effect variable on herd level, was used to quantify the relationship between a positive milk culture and the natural logarithm of test-day CMSCC (LnCMSCC). The material was stratified in time periods before 151 d in milk (DIM) and after 150 DIM. A positive diagnosis for any category of mastitis pathogen was significantly associated with elevated CMSCC. Pathogen positive cows sampled for microbiological diagnosis during the first 150 DIM had higher levels of CMSCC throughout lactation than cows with a positive diagnosis after 150 DIM. Streptococcus spp.-positive milk cultures were associated with steadily elevated values for CMSCC throughout lactation both when sampled before and after 150 DIM. Cows diagnosed with rich growth of S. aureus after 150 DIM experienced a characteristic and sharp increase in CMSCC, but this effect was not observed in cows with a positive diagnosis for rich growth of S. aureus during the first 150 DIM. A considerable increase in CMSCC in cows positive for CNS during the first part of the

  4. Interactions between cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on blood cells count in rats-Multiple factorial regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Curcic, Marijana; Buha, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Vesna; Bulat, Zorica; Đukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Antonijević, Evica; Vučinić, Slavica; Matović, Vesna; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess toxicity of Cd and BDE-209 mixture on haematological parameters in subacutely exposed rats and to determine the presence and type of interactions between these two chemicals using multiple factorial regression analysis. Furthermore, for the assessment of interaction type, an isobologram based methodology was applied and compared with multiple factorial regression analysis. Chemicals were given by oral gavage to the male Wistar rats weighing 200-240g for 28days. Animals were divided in 16 groups (8/group): control vehiculum group, three groups of rats were treated with 2.5, 7.5 or 15mg Cd/kg/day. These doses were chosen on the bases of literature data and reflect relatively high Cd environmental exposure, three groups of rats were treated with 1000, 2000 or 4000mg BDE-209/kg/bw/day, doses proved to induce toxic effects in rats. Furthermore, nine groups of animals were treated with different mixtures of Cd and BDE-209 containing doses of Cd and BDE-209 stated above. Blood samples were taken at the end of experiment and red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts were determined. For interaction assessment multiple factorial regression analysis and fitted isobologram approach were used. In this study, we focused on multiple factorial regression analysis as a method for interaction assessment. We also investigated the interactions between Cd and BDE-209 by the derived model for the description of the obtained fitted isobologram curves. Current study indicated that co-exposure to Cd and BDE-209 can result in significant decrease in RBC count, increase in WBC count and decrease in PLT count, when compared with controls. Multiple factorial regression analysis used for the assessment of interactions type between Cd and BDE-209 indicated synergism for the effect on RBC count and no interactions i.e. additivity for the effects on WBC and PLT counts. On the other hand, isobologram based approach showed slight antagonism

  5. Why translation counts for mitochondria - retrograde signalling links mitochondrial protein synthesis to mitochondrial biogenesis and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Brendan J; Richter, Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Organelle biosynthesis is a key requirement for cell growth and division. The regulation of mitochondrial biosynthesis exhibits additional layers of complexity compared with that of other organelles because they contain their own genome and dedicated ribosomes. Maintaining these components requires gene expression to be coordinated between the nucleo-cytoplasmic compartment and mitochondria in order to monitor organelle homeostasis and to integrate the responses to the physiological and developmental demands of the cell. Surprisingly, the parameters that are used to monitor or count mitochondrial abundance are not known, nor are the signalling pathways. Inhibiting the translation on mito-ribosomes genetically or with antibiotics can impair cell proliferation and has been attributed to defects in aerobic energy metabolism, even though proliferating cells rely primarily on glycolysis to fuel their metabolic demands. However, a recent study indicates that mitochondrial translational stress and the rescue mechanisms that relieve this stress cause the defect in cell proliferation and occur before any impairment of oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, the process of mitochondrial translation in itself appears to be an important checkpoint for the monitoring of mitochondrial homeostasis and might have a role in establishing mitochondrial abundance within a cell. This hypothesis article will explore the evidence supporting a role for mito-ribosomes and translation in a mitochondria-counting mechanism.

  6. Paradoxical drop in circulating neutrophil count following granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and stem cell factor administration in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brent C; Revenis, Amy M; Bonifacino, Aylin C; Sander, William E; Metzger, Mark E; Krouse, Allen E; Usherson, Tatiana N; Donahue, Robert E

    2007-06-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is frequently used therapeutically to treat chronic or transient neutropenia and to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells. Shortly following G-CSF administration, we observed a dramatic transient drop in circulating neutrophil number. This article characterizes this effect in a rhesus macaque animal model. Hematologic changes were monitored following subcutaneous (SQ) administration of G-CSF. G-CSF was administered as a single SQ dose at 10 microg/kg or 50 microg/kg. It was also administered (10 microg/kg) in combination with stem cell factor (SCF; 200 microg/kg) over 5 days. Flow cytometry was performed on serial blood samples to detect changes in cell surface adhesion protein expression. Neutrophil count dramatically declined 30 minutes after G-CSF administration. This decline was observed whether 10 microg/kg G-CSF was administered in combination with SCF over 5 days, or given as a single 10 microg/kg dose. At a single 50 microg/kg dose, the decline accelerated to 15 minutes. Neutrophil count returned to baseline after 120 minutes and rapidly increased thereafter. An increase in CD11a and CD49d expression coincided with the drop in neutrophil count. A transient paradoxical decline in neutrophil count was observed following administration of G-CSF either alone or in combination with SCF. This decline accelerated with the administration of a higher dose of G-CSF and was associated with an increase in CD11a and CD49d expression. It remains to be determined whether this decline in circulating neutrophils is associated with an increase in endothelial margination and/or entrance into extravascular compartments.

  7. The role of CD4 cell count as discriminatory measure to guide chemoprophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunocompromised patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Messiaen, Peter E; Cuyx, Senne; Dejagere, Tom; van der Hilst, Jeroen C

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, the incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has increased in immunocompromised patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is highly effective in preventing PJP in both HIV-positive and -seronegative patients. In HIV-positive patients, the risk of PJP is strongly correlated with decreased CD4 cell count. The role of CD4 cell count in the pathogenesis of PJP in non-HIV immunocompromised patients is less well studied. For most immunosuppressive conditions, no clear guidelines indicate whether to start TMP-SMX. We conducted a systematic literature review with the aim to provide a comprehensive overview on the role of CD4 cell counts in managing the risk of PJP in HIV-seronegative patients. Of the 63 individual studies retrieved, 14 studies report on CD4 cell counts in a variety of immunosuppressive conditions. CD4 cell count were <200/μL in 73.1% of the patients. CD4 cell count <200/μL is a sensitive biomarker to identify non-HIV immunocompromised patients who are at risk for PJP. Measuring CD4 cell counts could help clinicians identify patients who may benefit from TMP-SMX prophylaxis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Antiaging Effects of an Intensive Mind and Body Therapeutic Program through Enhancement of Telomerase Activity and Adult Stem Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Rao, Krishna S; Chakraharti, Swarup K; Dongare, Vaishali S; Chetana, K; Ramirez, Christina M; Koka, Prasad S; Deb, Kaushik D

    2015-01-01

    Key modalities of integrative medicine known to rejuvenate the mind and body are meditation, yoga, and controlled diet. It has been shown previously that intensive or prolonged mind and body therapies (MBT) may have beneficial effects on the well-being of healthy people and in patients. Telomerase activity and levels of peripheral blood adult pluripotent stem cells (PB-APSC) are reliable markers of long-term well-being that are known to decrease with age. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of our MBT program on telomerase activity and stem cells in blood collected from the participants. Here, we have investigated the effects of an intensive three weeks MBT retreat on telomerase activity and the peripheral blood stem cells in participants before and after the MBT. A total of 108 people were enrolled in the study; 38 men and 70 women (aged 18-90) randomly assigned for the study. Telomerase activity was greater in retreat participants at the end of the MBT retreat. About 45% of people showed more than one-fold increase of telomerase activity after our MBT program. Furthermore, about 27% of people showed more pronounced fold increase (2-fold) in telomerase activity after the MBT. In addition, a substantial percentage of people (about 90%) exhibited increased stem cell counts after the MBT. The data suggest increased telomerase activity and stem cells count in peripheral blood from MBT retreat participants that may lead to increased longevity and better quality of life at latter age.

  9. Choral Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrou, Angela Chan; Franke, Megan L.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The students in Ms. Moscoso's second-grade class gather on the rug after recess, ready for one of their favorite math warm-ups: Choral Counting. Counting is an important part of doing mathematics throughout the school; students count collections (Schwerdtfeger and Chan 2007) and solve problems using a variety of strategies, many of which are…

  10. Clinical significance of peripheral circulating tumor cell counts in colorectal polyps and non-metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengguang; Zhuang, Wenfang; Hu, Yuemei; Zhu, Leiming

    2018-01-22

    The presence of peripheral circulating tumor cells indicates the possible existence of a tumor in vivo; however, low numbers of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be detected in peripheral blood of healthy individuals as well as patients with benign tumors. It is not known whether peripheral CTC counts differ between patients with benign colorectal disease and those with colorectal cancer. Comparative analysis of preoperative peripheral circulating tumor cells counts was completed in patients with benign colorectal disease (colorectal polyps) and non-metastatic cancer of the colon and rectum. The results of this analysis showed that patients with colorectal cancer had higher CTC counts than patients with colorectal polyps (3.47 ± 0.32/3.2 ml vs 1.49 ± 0.2/3.2 ml, P < 0.001). Colorectal cancer patients with tumors of the sigmoid colon displayed the highest CTC counts (4.87 ± 0.95/3.2 ml), followed by those with tumors of the rectum (3.73 ± 0.54/3.2 ml), ascending colon (3.5 ± 0.63/3.2 ml), transverse colon (2.4 ± 0.68/3.2 ml), and descending colon (2.08 ± 0.46/3.2 ml). Colorectal polyp patients with polyps in the rectum showed the highest CTC counts (2.2 ± 0.77/3.2 ml), followed by those with polyps in the ascending colon (1.82 ± 0.54/3.2 ml), sigmoid colon (1.38 ± 0.25/3.2 ml), transverse colon (0.75 ± 0.25/3.2 ml), and descending colon (0.33 ± 0.21/3.2 ml). The differences in CTC counts suggest that anatomical location of colorectal tumors may affect blood vessel metastasis. Meanwhile, patients with moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors displayed higher peripheral blood CTC counts compared to those with well-differentiated tumors (P < 0.001). This result suggests that the type of tissue differentiation of colorectal tumors may act as another factor that affects blood vessel metastasis. Circulating tumor cells can be detected in the peripheral blood of colorectal

  11. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Ozcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-09-01

    The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Patients' demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow.

  12. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Özcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Methods: Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Results: Patients’ demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Conclusion: Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow. PMID:25225502

  13. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count <200*10 3 /µl and fibrinogen <350 mg/dl was associated with a sensitivity of 95.5% (89.7-98.5%) and a specificity of 18.3% (15.6-21.2%). In patients at low probability, white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count <200*10 3 /µl were found as independent predictors of AAS beyond established clinical risk markers. Within patients at low probability, the estimated risk of AAS based on the number of alterations amongst white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count <200*10 3 /µl was 2.7% (1.2-5.7%) with zero alterations, 11.3% (8.8-14.3%) with one alteration and 31.9% (24

  14. Analysis of the Spanish CCR5-∆32 inventory of cord blood units: lower cell counts in homozygous donors.

    PubMed

    Enrich, Emma; Vidal, Francisco; Sánchez-Gordo, Francisco; Gómez-Zumaquero, Juan M; Balas, Antonio; Rudilla, Francesc; Barea, Luisa; Castro, Ana; Larrea, Luis; Perez-Vaquero, Miguel A; Prat, Isidro; Querol, Sergio; Garrido, Gregorio; Matesanz, Rafael; Carreras, Enric; Duarte, Rafael F

    2018-02-06

    The possibility to use CCR5-∆32 umbilical cord blood to cure HIV infection in patients in need of a hematopoietic transplant has been suggested. The less stringent HLA compatibility needed in this type of transplant facilitates the search of a suitable donor having the CCR5-∆32 mutation. To achieve an inventory of CCR5-∆32 cord blood units, the 20,236 best cell quality units of the Spanish Registry were genotyped. Furthermore, their CD34 + and total nucleated cells counts, blood type, gender, HLA and donor's geographical and ancestral origin were analyzed. The results showed 130 (0.64%) units homozygous for the deletion, 2,646 (13.08%) heterozygous and 17,460 (86.28%) did not present the mutation. Interestingly, a significant lower amount of CD34 + cells was found in the CCR5-∆32 homozygous units. In addition, a significant association was found among donor's ancestral origin and the mutation, with a higher percentage of CCR5-∆32 units with a European ancestry. In summary, identification of a relatively high number of CCR5-∆32 units is feasible and will facilitate the development of clinical trials for HIV cure in patients requiring hematopoietic transplantation. Further studies are required to understand the significance of lower cell counts within the CCR5-∆32 homozygous group and its clinical impact.

  15. Elevated Steady State WBC and Platelet Counts Are Associated with Frequent Emergency Room Use in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Danda, Neeraja; Etzion, Zipora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell anemia has many sequelae that result in emergency department (ED) use, but a minority of patients with sickle cell disease are frequent utilizers and make up the majority of ED visits. If patients who are likely to be frequent ED can be identified in steady state, they can be treated with disease modifying agents in an attempt to reduce ED use frequency. We sought to identify steady state markers for frequent ED use. Methods We identified all patients with SS/Sβ0 seen at our facilities in 2012. Health care utilization over the entire year was calculated and ED visit numbers categorized as either 0–1, 2–5, or 6 or more visits a year. Steady state and acutely active laboratory parameters were collected and analyzed using analysis of variance models and odds ratios. Results 432 adult sickle cell patients were identified, ages 18–87, 54% female, and 38% had been prescribed hydroxyurea. Of the 432 patients,192 had 0–1 visits in the year, 144 had 2–5 visits in the year, and 96 had >6 visits for a total of 2259 visits. Those who had >6 visits accounted for 1750 (77%) of the total visits for the year. When steady state laboratory markers were examined, each additional 50x109/L platelets was associated with 22% greater risk (p < .001); each 1x109/L of WBC was associated with 11% greater risk (p = .003), and each 1g/dL Hb was associated with 23% lower risk (p = .007) of >6 ED visits/year. We did not observe a relationship between baseline HbF, LDH or reticulocyte count with >6 ED visits. Conclusion Patients with elevated white blood cell counts, elevated platelet counts, and low hemoglobin levels exhibited higher risk for frequent ED utilization and could be candidates for early and aggressive therapy with disease modifying agents. PMID:26248283

  16. CD4 Cell Count Threshold for Cryptococcal Antigen Screening of HIV-Infected Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Nathan; Shubber, Zara; Jarvis, Joseph N; Chiller, Tom; Greene, Greg; Migone, Chantal; Vitoria, Marco; Doherty, Meg; Meintjes, Graeme

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Current guidelines recommend screening all people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) who have a CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) to identify those patients who could benefit from preemptive fluconazole treatment prior to the onset of meningitis. We conducted a systematic review to assess the prevalence of CrAg positivity at different CD4 cell counts. Methods We searched 4 databases and abstracts from 3 conferences up to 1 September 2017 for studies reporting prevalence of CrAg positivity according to CD4 cell count strata. Prevalence estimates were pooled using random effects models. Results Sixty studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia was 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7%–7.3%; 54 studies) among patients with CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL and 2.0% (95% CI, 1.2%–2.7%; 21 studies) among patients with CD4 count 101–200 cells/µL. Twenty-one studies provided sufficient information to compare CrAg prevalence per strata; overall, 18.6% (95% CI, 15.4%–22.2%) of the CrAg-positive cases identified at ≤200 cells/µL (n = 11823) were identified among individuals with a CD4 count 101–200 cells/µL. CrAg prevalence was higher among inpatients (9.8% [95% CI, 4.0%–15.5%]) compared with outpatients (6.3% [95% CI, 5.3%–7.4%]). Conclusions The findings of this review support current recommendations to screen all PLHIV who have a CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL for CrAg and suggest that screening may be considered at CD4 cell count ≤200 cells/µL. PMID:29514236

  17. CD4 Cell Count Threshold for Cryptococcal Antigen Screening of HIV-Infected Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nathan; Shubber, Zara; Jarvis, Joseph N; Chiller, Tom; Greene, Greg; Migone, Chantal; Vitoria, Marco; Doherty, Meg; Meintjes, Graeme

    2018-03-04

    Current guidelines recommend screening all people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) who have a CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) to identify those patients who could benefit from preemptive fluconazole treatment prior to the onset of meningitis. We conducted a systematic review to assess the prevalence of CrAg positivity at different CD4 cell counts. We searched 4 databases and abstracts from 3 conferences up to 1 September 2017 for studies reporting prevalence of CrAg positivity according to CD4 cell count strata. Prevalence estimates were pooled using random effects models. Sixty studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia was 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7%-7.3%; 54 studies) among patients with CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL and 2.0% (95% CI, 1.2%-2.7%; 21 studies) among patients with CD4 count 101-200 cells/µL. Twenty-one studies provided sufficient information to compare CrAg prevalence per strata; overall, 18.6% (95% CI, 15.4%-22.2%) of the CrAg-positive cases identified at ≤200 cells/µL (n = 11823) were identified among individuals with a CD4 count 101-200 cells/µL. CrAg prevalence was higher among inpatients (9.8% [95% CI, 4.0%-15.5%]) compared with outpatients (6.3% [95% CI, 5.3%-7.4%]). The findings of this review support current recommendations to screen all PLHIV who have a CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL for CrAg and suggest that screening may be considered at CD4 cell count ≤200 cells/µL.

  18. Normal CD4 Count Range among Healthy Nigerian Population in Ilorin.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, J K; Fadeyi, A; Desalu, O O; Durotoye, I A; Fawibe, A E; Adeboye, M A N; Olawumi, H O; Babatunde, A S; Ernest, S K; Aderibigbe, S A; Saadu, R; Salami, A K; Aboyeji, A P

    For the establishment and monitoring of the immune status, CD4 count is critical. To determine the CD4 count range of apparently healthy Nigerians resident in Ilorin and compare with the national value. An automated blood analyzer was used to determine the full blood count and CD4 count. The percentage of CD4 count was derived by using other variables. Of the 1205 participants, the reference CD4 count (percentage of CD4) range for adult was 400 to 1288 cells/mm 3 (19%-48%) and for children was 582 to 3652 cells/mm 3 (17%-50%). CD4 count and percentage of CD4 were significantly ( P = .001) higher in females than in males, and the CD4 count declined significantly with increasing age ( r = -.174, P ≤ .0001). The percentage of CD4 count shows less variation with age ( r = -.051, P = .076). Adult residents of Ilorin had significantly lower absolute mean CD4 count (808 ± 260) than that of the national reference values of 847.0 ± 307.0 cells/mm 3 ( P = .001). We therefore advocate the use of CD4 count range derived in this study is lower than that of the national reference values.

  19. Performance Evaluation of High Fluorescence Lymphocyte Count: Comparability to Atypical Lymphocyte Count and Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Tantanate, Chaicharoen; Klinbua, Cherdsak

    2018-06-15

    To investigate the association between high-fluorescence lymphocyte cell (HFLC) and atypical lymphocyte (AL) counts, and to determine the clinical significance of HFLC. We compared automated HFLC and microscopic AL counts and analyzed the findings. Patient clinical data for each specimen were reviewed. A total of 320 blood specimens were included. The correlation between HFLC and microscopic AL counts was 0.865 and 0.893 for absolute and percentage counts, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of HFLC at the cutoff value of 0.1 × 109 per L for detection of AL were 0.8, 0.77, and 0.8, respectively. Studied patients were classified into 4 groups: infection, immunological disorders, malignant neoplasms, and others. Patients with infections had the highest HFLC. Most of those patients (67.7%) had dengue infection. HFLC counts were well-correlated with AL counts with the acceptable test characteristics. Applying HFLC flagging may alert laboratory staff to be aware of ALs.

  20. Isolation and evaluation of Candida species and their association with CD4+ T cells counts in HIV patients with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Awoyeni, Ayobami; Olaniran, Olarinde; Odetoyin, Babatunde; Hassan-Olajokun, Rachel; Olopade, Bolatito; Afolayan, David; Adekunle, Oluwakayode

    2017-06-01

    Gastrointestinal infection is one of the most common infections among HIV patients. Candida spp have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients, but little is known about this in Nigeria. We determined the prevalence of faecal candidiasis in HIV patients in relation to diarrhoea, CD4 counts, and other socio-demographic factors and the spectrum of Candida isolates involved. One hundred and fifty four HIV patients were investigated. Candida species were identified by standard techniques. Socio-demographic and clinical information was obtained from the patients using a structured questionnaire. The CD4 count was estimated using a single platform flow cytometer. Candida overgrowth was detected in 61 (39.5%) HIV patients, and diarrhoea was associated with candidiasis in the subjects (P=0.001). Candidiasis was commonly detected among subjects in the 29-39 years' age group. A CD4 count below 200 cells/mm 2 (62.3%) was a risk factor for acquiring candidiasis among HIV patients (P=0.001). Candida albicans (65.6%) was the most frequently recovered species followed by Candida krusei (16.4%) and Candida tropicalis (14.8%). Candidiasis is an important opportunistic infection in HIV-patients in Ile-Ife. There is need for regular checks for opportunistic infections, including candidiasis in HIV patients to monitor disease progression and prevent subsequent complications.

  1. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  2. Influence of somatic cell count and breed on capillary electrophoretic protein profiles of ewes' milk: a chemometric study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Nogales, J M; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Revilla, I

    2007-07-01

    Bulk tank ewe milk from the Assaf, Castellana, and Churra breeds categorized into 3 somatic cell count (SCC) groups (<500,000; 1,000,000 to 1,500,000; and >2,500,000 cells/mL) was used to investigate changes in chemical composition and capillary electrophoresis protein profiles. The results obtained indicated that breed affected fat, protein, and total solids levels, and differences were also observed for the following milk proteins: beta-, beta1-, beta2-, and alpha(s1)-III-casein, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin. High SCC affected fat and protein contents and bacterial counts. The level of beta1-, beta2-, and alpha(s1)-I-casein, and alpha-lactalbumin were significantly lower in milk with SCC scores >2,500,000 cells/mL. A preliminary study of the chemical, microbiological, and electrophoretic data was performed by cluster analysis and principal components analysis. Applying discriminant analysis, it was possible to group the milk samples according to breed and level of SCC, obtaining a prediction of 100 and 97% of the samples, respectively.

  3. Intestinal Parasitosis in Relation to Anti-Retroviral Therapy, CD4(+) T-cell Count and Diarrhea in HIV Patients.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Shehla; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Sinha, Sanjeev; Panda, Ashutosh; Singh, Yogita; Joseph, Anju; Deb, Manorama

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the major causes of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of many opportunistic infections, but parasite-related diarrhea still remains frequent and often underestimated especially in developing countries. The present hospital-based study was conducted to determine the spectrum of intestinal parasitosis in adult HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients with or without diarrhea with the levels of CD4(+) T-cell counts. A total of 400 individuals were enrolled and were screened for intestinal parasitosis. Of these study population, 200 were HIV seropositives, and the remaining 200 were HIV uninfected individuals with or without diarrhea. Intestinal parasites were identified by using microscopy as well as PCR assay. A total of 130 (32.5%) out of 400 patients were positive for any kinds of intestinal parasites. The cumulative number of parasite positive patients was 152 due to multiple infections. A significant association of Cryptosporidium (P<0.001) was detected among individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts less than 200 cells/μl.

  4. OpenCFU, a new free and open-source software to count cell colonies and other circular objects.

    PubMed

    Geissmann, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Counting circular objects such as cell colonies is an important source of information for biologists. Although this task is often time-consuming and subjective, it is still predominantly performed manually. The aim of the present work is to provide a new tool to enumerate circular objects from digital pictures and video streams. Here, I demonstrate that the created program, OpenCFU, is very robust, accurate and fast. In addition, it provides control over the processing parameters and is implemented in an intuitive and modern interface. OpenCFU is a cross-platform and open-source software freely available at http://opencfu.sourceforge.net.

  5. OpenCFU, a New Free and Open-Source Software to Count Cell Colonies and Other Circular Objects

    PubMed Central

    Geissmann, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Counting circular objects such as cell colonies is an important source of information for biologists. Although this task is often time-consuming and subjective, it is still predominantly performed manually. The aim of the present work is to provide a new tool to enumerate circular objects from digital pictures and video streams. Here, I demonstrate that the created program, OpenCFU, is very robust, accurate and fast. In addition, it provides control over the processing parameters and is implemented in an intuitive and modern interface. OpenCFU is a cross-platform and open-source software freely available at http://opencfu.sourceforge.net. PMID:23457446

  6. A comparative study on the blood and milk cell counts of healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitis Karan Fries cows

    PubMed Central

    Alhussien, Mohanned; Kaur, Mandheer; Manjari, Pasumarti; Kimothi, Shiv Prasad; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Dang, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to study the use of cell counts as an early indicator of mammary health. Materials and Methods: Milk and blood cell counts were estimated from 8 healthy, 8 subclinical (SCM), and 8 clinically mastitis (CM) groups of Karan Fries (KF) cows. Results: Total leucocyte counts and neutrophil percent in blood and milk somatic cells and milk neutrophil percent of healthy cows increased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM cows and CM cows. Viability of blood and milk neutrophils was more in healthy cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM and CM cows. Significant (p<0.05) decrease were also observed in both the blood and milk lymphocytes and monocytes of SCM and CM cows. Phagocytic activity (PA) of blood neutrophils also decreased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM cows. There was no difference between the PA of SCM and CM cows. Milk neutrophil percent was more in the SCM and clinically infected milk than in the blood of these cows. About 96-97% of the neutrophils had segmented nucleus in both healthy and subclinical milk, whereas, 2-3% were having band shaped or immature nuclei. There was a significant decrease in the segmented neutrophils, whereas, band neutrophils increase significantly to about 5% in the infected milk of mastitic cows. Viability of the milk neutrophils decreased more in case of subclinical and clinical milk as compared to that of blood. PA was found to be highest in the milk of healthy group of cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in subclinically infected cows. However, there was no difference between the PA of milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows. PA of milk was also found to be significantly lower in the milk of healthy cows when compared to that of blood neutrophils. Conclusion: This study indicated that percent neutrophils and their type in conjunction with milk somatic cell counts can be used as a more reliable indicator of mammary health in cows. PMID:27047156

  7. A Cell Number Counting Factor Regulates Akt/Protein Kinase B To Regulate Dictyostelium discoideum Group Size

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tong; Knecht, David; Tang, Lei; Hatton, R. Diane; Gomer, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about how individual cells can organize themselves to form structures of a given size. During development, Dictyostelium discoideum aggregates in dendritic streams and forms groups of ∼20,000 cells. D. discoideum regulates group size by secreting and simultaneously sensing a multiprotein complex called counting factor (CF). If there are too many cells in a stream, the associated high concentration of CF will decrease cell-cell adhesion and increase cell motility, causing aggregation streams to break up. The pulses of cyclic AMP (cAMP) that mediate aggregation cause a transient translocation of Akt/protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) to the leading edge of the plasma membrane and a concomitant activation of the kinase activity, which in turn stimulates motility. We found that countin− cells (which lack bioactive CF) and wild-type cells starved in the presence of anticountin antibodies (which block CF activity) showed a decreased level of cAMP-stimulated Akt/PKB membrane translocation and kinase activity compared to parental wild-type cells. Recombinant countin has the bioactivity of CF, and a 1-min treatment of cells with recombinant countin potentiated Akt/PKB translocation to membranes and Akt/PKB activity. Western blotting of total cell lysates indicated that countin does not affect the total level of Akt/PKB. Fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing an Akt/PKB pleckstrin homology domain-green fluorescent protein (PH-GFP) fusion protein indicated that recombinant countin and anti-countin antibodies do not obviously alter the distribution of Akt/PKB PH-GFP when it translocates to the membrane. Our data indicate that CF increases motility by potentiating the cAMP-stimulated activation and translocation of Akt/PKB. PMID:15470246

  8. Low CD1c + myeloid dendritic cell counts correlated with a high risk of rapid disease progression during early HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yingying; Geng, Wenqing; Fan, Xuejie; Cui, Hualu; Sun, Hong; Jiang, Yongjun; Wang, Yanan; Sun, Amy; Shang, Hong

    2015-08-19

    During early HIV-1 infection (EHI), the interaction between the immune response and the virus determines disease progression. Although CD1c + myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) can trigger the immune response, the relationship between CD1c + mDC alteration and disease progression has not yet been defined. EHI changes in CD1c + mDC counts, surface marker (CD40, CD86, CD83) expression, and IL-12 secretion were assessed by flow cytometry in 29 patients. When compared with the normal controls, patients with EHI displayed significantly lower CD1c + mDC counts and IL-12 secretion and increased surface markers. CD1c + mDC counts were positively correlated with CD4+ T cell counts and inversely associated with viral loads. IL-12 secretion was only positively associated with CD4+ T cell counts. Rapid progressors had lower counts, CD86 expression, and IL-12 secretion of CD1c + mDCs comparing with typical progressors. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models suggested patients with low CD1c + mDC counts (<10 cells/μL) had a 4-fold higher risk of rapid disease progression than those with high CD1c + mDC counts. However, no relationship was found between surface markers or IL-12 secretion and disease progression. During EHI, patients with low CD1c + mDC counts were more likely to experience rapid disease progression than those with high CD1c + mDC counts.

  9. The Search for True Numbers of Neurons and Glial Cells in the Human Brain: A Review of 150 Years of Cell Counting

    PubMed Central

    von Bartheld, Christopher S.; Bahney, Jami; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    For half a century, the human brain was believed to contain about 100 billion neurons and one trillion glial cells, with a glia:neuron ratio of 10:1. A new counting method, the isotropic fractionator, has challenged the notion that glia outnumber neurons and revived a question that was widely thought to have been resolved. The recently validated isotropic fractionator demonstrates a glia:neuron ratio of less than 1:1 and a total number of less than 100 billion glial cells in the human brain. A survey of original evidence shows that histological data always supported a 1:1 ratio of glia to neurons in the entire human brain, and a range of 40–130 billion glial cells. We review how the claim of one trillion glial cells originated, was perpetuated, and eventually refuted. We compile how numbers of neurons and glial cells in the adult human brain were reported and we examine the reasons for an erroneous consensus about the relative abundance of glial cells in human brains that persisted for half a century. Our review includes a brief history of cell counting in human brains, types of counting methods that were and are employed, ranges of previous estimates, and the current status of knowledge about the number of cells. We also discuss implications and consequences of the new insights into true numbers of glial cells in the human brain, and the promise and potential impact of the newly validated isotropic fractionator for reliable quantification of glia and neurons in neurological and psychiatric diseases. PMID:27187682

  10. The search for true numbers of neurons and glial cells in the human brain: A review of 150 years of cell counting.

    PubMed

    von Bartheld, Christopher S; Bahney, Jami; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2016-12-15

    For half a century, the human brain was believed to contain about 100 billion neurons and one trillion glial cells, with a glia:neuron ratio of 10:1. A new counting method, the isotropic fractionator, has challenged the notion that glia outnumber neurons and revived a question that was widely thought to have been resolved. The recently validated isotropic fractionator demonstrates a glia:neuron ratio of less than 1:1 and a total number of less than 100 billion glial cells in the human brain. A survey of original evidence shows that histological data always supported a 1:1 ratio of glia to neurons in the entire human brain, and a range of 40-130 billion glial cells. We review how the claim of one trillion glial cells originated, was perpetuated, and eventually refuted. We compile how numbers of neurons and glial cells in the adult human brain were reported and we examine the reasons for an erroneous consensus about the relative abundance of glial cells in human brains that persisted for half a century. Our review includes a brief history of cell counting in human brains, types of counting methods that were and are employed, ranges of previous estimates, and the current status of knowledge about the number of cells. We also discuss implications and consequences of the new insights into true numbers of glial cells in the human brain, and the promise and potential impact of the newly validated isotropic fractionator for reliable quantification of glia and neurons in neurological and psychiatric diseases. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3865-3895, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. DALMATIAN: An Algorithm for Automatic Cell Detection and Counting in 3D.

    PubMed

    Shuvaev, Sergey A; Lazutkin, Alexander A; Kedrov, Alexander V; Anokhin, Konstantin V; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Koulakov, Alexei A

    2017-01-01

    Current 3D imaging methods, including optical projection tomography, light-sheet microscopy, block-face imaging, and serial two photon tomography enable visualization of large samples of biological tissue. Large volumes of data obtained at high resolution require development of automatic image processing techniques, such as algorithms for automatic cell detection or, more generally, point-like object detection. Current approaches to automated cell detection suffer from difficulties originating from detection of particular cell types, cell populations of different brightness, non-uniformly stained, and overlapping cells. In this study, we present a set of algorithms for robust automatic cell detection in 3D. Our algorithms are suitable for, but not limited to, whole brain regions and individual brain sections. We used watershed procedure to split regional maxima representing overlapping cells. We developed a bootstrap Gaussian fit procedure to evaluate the statistical significance of detected cells. We compared cell detection quality of our algorithm and other software using 42 samples, representing 6 staining and imaging techniques. The results provided by our algorithm matched manual expert quantification with signal-to-noise dependent confidence, including samples with cells of different brightness, non-uniformly stained, and overlapping cells for whole brain regions and individual tissue sections. Our algorithm provided the best cell detection quality among tested free and commercial software.

  12. Revisiting the white blood cell count: immature granulocytes count as a diagnostic marker to discriminate between SIRS and sepsis--a prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Nierhaus, Axel; Klatte, Stefanie; Linssen, Jo; Eismann, Nina M; Wichmann, Dominic; Hedke, Jörg; Braune, Stephan A; Kluge, Stefan

    2013-02-12

    Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately differentiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from sepsis, is challenging yet early diagnosis is vital for early induction of an appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immature granulocyte (IG) count is a useful early diagnostic marker of sepsis compared to other markers. Therefore, a total of 70 consecutive surgical intensive care patients were assessed. IGs were measured from whole blood samples using an automated analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also determined. The observation period was a maximum of 21 days and ended with the patients' discharge from ICU or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine sensitivities and specificities for the parameters. We found that the IG count significantly discriminates between infected and non-infected patients (P < 0.0001) with a sensitivity of 89.2% and a specificity of 76.4%, particularly within the first 48 hours after SIRS onset. Regarding the discriminative power for infection, the IG count was more indicative than other clinical parameters such as CRP, LBP and IL-6, which had a sensitivity of less than 68%. Additionally, the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 26.7 was calculated for the IG count within the first 48 hours. During the course of the disease ROC curve analyses showed a superior positive predictive value of the IG count compared to the other measured parameters during the first five days following the fulfillment of SIRS criteria. However, the number of IGs was not correlated with ICU mortality. The total number of IG in peripheral blood from ICU patients is a good

  13. Evaluation of the performance of a point-of-care method for total and differential white blood cell count in clozapine users.

    PubMed

    Bui, H N; Bogers, J P A M; Cohen, D; Njo, T; Herruer, M H

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the performance of the HemoCue WBC DIFF, a point-of-care device for total and differential white cell count, primarily to test its suitability for the mandatory white blood cell monitoring in clozapine use. Leukocyte count and 5-part differentiation was performed by the point-of-care device and by routine laboratory method in venous EDTA-blood samples from 20 clozapine users, 20 neutropenic patients, and 20 healthy volunteers. From the volunteers, also a capillary sample was drawn. Intra-assay reproducibility and drop-to-drop variation were tested. The correlation between both methods in venous samples was r > 0.95 for leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. The correlation between point-of-care (capillary sample) and routine (venous sample) methods for these cells was 0.772; 0.817 and 0.798, respectively. Only for leukocyte and neutrophil counts, the intra-assay reproducibility was sufficient. The point-of-care device can be used to screen for leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Because of the relatively high measurement uncertainty and poor correlation with venous samples, we recommend to repeat the measurement with a venous sample if cell counts are in the lower reference range. In case of clozapine therapy, neutropenia can probably be excluded if high neutrophil counts are found and patients can continue their therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Counting cell number in situ by quantification of dimethyl sulphide in culture headspace.

    PubMed

    Chippendale, Thomas W E; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, David; El Haj, Alicia J

    2014-10-07

    A novel, non-invasive technique is reported for determining the numbers of cells in a culture by quantifying dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in the culture headspace as produced by the cellular enzymatic reduction of dissolved dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Measured DMS concentrations, as performed using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), in the headspace of 2D and 3D cultures of four cell lines, viz. HEK293 (kidney), MG63 (bone), hepG2 (liver) and CALU-1 (lung), linearly correlate with starting cell number. Clear differences in the rates of production of DMS by the four cell types in both the 2D and 3D situations are seen. This novel analytical technique for cell enumeration offers a significant contribution to quality assessment across cell-based research and industry, including analysis of large scale culture systems, and for routine cell biology research.

  15. Ageing and long-term CD4 cell count trends in HIV-positive patients with 5 years or more combination antiretroviral therapy experience.

    PubMed

    Wright, S T; Petoumenos, K; Boyd, M; Carr, A; Downing, S; O'Connor, C C; Grotowski, M; Law, M G

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the long-term changes in CD4 cell counts beyond 5 years of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). If natural ageing leads to a long-term decline in the immune system via low-grade chronic immune activation/inflammation, then one might expect to see a greater or earlier decline in CD4 counts in older HIV-positive patients with increasing duration of cART. Retrospective and prospective data were examined from long-term virologically stable HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database. We estimated mean CD4 cell count changes following the completion of 5 years of cART using linear mixed models. A total of 37 916 CD4 measurements were observed for 892 patients over a combined total of 9753 patient-years. Older patients (> 50 years old) at cART initiation had estimated mean (95% confidence interval) changes in CD4 counts by year-5 CD4 count strata (< 500, 500-750 and > 750 cells/μL) of 14 (7 to 21), 3 (-5 to 11) and -6 (-17 to 4) cells/μL/year. Of the CD4 cell count rates of change estimated, none were indicative of long-term declines in CD4 cell counts. Our results suggest that duration of cART and increasing age do not result in decreasing mean changes in CD4 cell counts for long-term virologically suppressed patients, indicating that the level of immune recovery achieved during the first 5 years of treatment is sustained through long-term cART. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  16. Ageing & long-term CD4 cell count trends in HIV-positive patients with 5 years or more combination antiretroviral therapy experience

    PubMed Central

    WRIGHT, ST; PETOUMENOS, K; BOYD, M; CARR, A; DOWNING, S; O’CONNOR, CC; GROTOWSKI, M; LAW, MG

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this analysis is to describe the long-term changes in CD4 cell counts beyond 5 years of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). If natural ageing leads to a long-term decline in the immune system via low-grade chronic immune activation/inflammation, then one might expect to see a greater or earlier decline in CD4 counts in older HIV-positive patients with increasing duration of cART. Methods Retrospective and prospective data were examined from long-term virologically stable HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database. We estimated mean CD4 cell counts changes following the completion of 5 years of cART using linear mixed models. Results A total of 37,916 CD4 measurements were observed for 892 patients over a combined total of 9,753 patient years. Older patients (>50 years) at cART initiation had estimated mean(95% confidence interval) change in CD4 counts by Year-5 CD4 count strata (<500, 501–750 and >750 cells/μL) of 14(7 to 21), 3(−5 to 11) and −6(−17 to 4) cells/μL/year. Of the CD4 cell count rates of change estimated, none were indicative of long-term declines in CD4 cell counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that duration of cART and increasing age does not result in decreasing mean changes in CD4 cell counts for long-term virologically suppressed patients. Indicating that level of immune recovery achieved during the first 5 years of treatment are sustained through long-term cART. PMID:23036045

  17. No neurocognitive advantage for immediate antiretroviral treatment in adults with greater than 500 CD4+ T-cell counts.

    PubMed

    Wright, Edwina J; Grund, Birgit; Robertson, Kevin R; Cysique, Lucette; Brew, Bruce J; Collins, Gary L; Poehlman-Roediger, Mollie; Vjecha, Michael J; Penalva de Oliveira, Augusto César; Standridge, Barbara; Carey, Cate; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Florence, Eric; Lundgren, Jens D; Arenas-Pinto, Alejandro; Mueller, Nicolas J; Winston, Alan; Nsubuga, Moses S; Lal, Luxshimi; Price, Richard W

    2018-05-15

    To compare the effect of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral treatment (ART) on neuropsychological test performance in treatment-naive HIV-positive adults with more than 500 CD4 cells/μl. Randomized trial. The START parent study randomized participants to commence immediate versus deferred ART until CD4 less than 350 cells/μl. The START Neurology substudy used eight neuropsychological tests, at baseline, months 4, 8, 12 and annually, to compare groups for changes in test performance. Test results were internally standardized to z-scores. The primary outcome was the average of the eight test z-scores (QNPZ-8). Mean changes in QNPZ-8 from baseline were compared by intent-to-treat using longitudinal mixed models. Changes from baseline to specific time points were compared using ANCOVA models. The 592 participants had a median age of 34 years; median baseline CD4 count was 629 cells/μl; the mean follow-up was 3.4 years. ART was used for 94 and 32% of accrued person-years in the immediate and deferred groups, respectively. There was no difference between the immediate and deferred ART groups in QNPZ-8 change through follow-up [-0.018 (95% CI -0.062 to 0.027, P = 0.44)], or at any visit. However, QNPZ-8 scores increased in both arms during the first year, by 0.22 and 0.24, respectively (P < 0.001 for increase from baseline). We observed substantial improvement in neurocognitive test performance during the first year in both study arms, underlining the importance of using a control group in studies assessing neurocognitive performance over time. Immediate ART neither benefitted nor harmed neurocognitive performance in individuals with CD4 cell counts above 500 cells/μl.

  18. Aptamer-Based Dual-Functional Probe for Rapid and Specific Counting and Imaging of MCF-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Yin, Xiao; Xu, Chi; Hu, Bin

    2018-02-06

    Development of multimodal detection technologies for accurate diagnosis of cancer at early stages is in great demand. In this work, we report a novel approach using an aptamer-based dual-functional probe for rapid, sensitive, and specific counting and visualization of MCF-7 cells by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorescence imaging. The probe consists of a recognition unit of aptamer to catch cancer cells specifically, a fluorescent dye (FAM) moiety for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based "off-on" fluorescence imaging as well as gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) tag for both ICP-MS quantification and fluorescence quenching. Due to the signal amplification effect and low spectral interference of Au NPs in ICP-MS, an excellent linearity and sensitivity were achieved. Accordingly, a limit of detection of 81 MCF-7 cells and a relative standard deviation of 5.6% (800 cells, n = 7) were obtained. The dynamic linear range was 2 × 10 2 to 1.2 × 10 4 cells, and the recoveries in human whole blood were in the range of 98-110%. Overall, the established method provides quantitative and visualized information on MCF-7 cells with a simple and rapid process and paves the way for a promising strategy for biomedical research and clinical diagnostics.

  19. Single-Cell-Based Platform for Copy Number Variation Profiling through Digital Counting of Amplified Genomic DNA Fragments.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Yu, Zhilong; Fu, Yusi; Pang, Yuhong; Huang, Yanyi

    2017-04-26

    We develop a novel single-cell-based platform through digital counting of amplified genomic DNA fragments, named multifraction amplification (mfA), to detect the copy number variations (CNVs) in a single cell. Amplification is required to acquire genomic information from a single cell, while introducing unavoidable bias. Unlike prevalent methods that directly infer CNV profiles from the pattern of sequencing depth, our mfA platform denatures and separates the DNA molecules from a single cell into multiple fractions of a reaction mix before amplification. By examining the sequencing result of each fraction for a specific fragment and applying a segment-merge maximum likelihood algorithm to the calculation of copy number, we digitize the sequencing-depth-based CNV identification and thus provide a method that is less sensitive to the amplification bias. In this paper, we demonstrate a mfA platform through multiple displacement amplification (MDA) chemistry. When performing the mfA platform, the noise of MDA is reduced; therefore, the resolution of single-cell CNV identification can be improved to 100 kb. We can also determine the genomic region free of allelic drop-out with mfA platform, which is impossible for conventional single-cell amplification methods.

  20. Non-calcified coronary plaque volume inversely related to CD4(+) T-cell count in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Horacio; Matta, Jatin R; Muldoon, Nancy; Masur, Henry; Hadigan, Colleen; Gharib, Ahmed M

    2012-01-01

    Non-calcified coronary artery plaque (NCAP) might be an important predictor of cardiovascular events; however, few studies have directly measured NCAP in HIV-infected individuals. We completed a prospective cross-sectional evaluation of NCAP and coronary calcium scores using computed tomography angiography in HIV-infected patients (n=26) without known coronary artery disease (CAD), but who had one or more CAD risk factor(s), and compared them with controls matched on age, race, sex, body mass index and Framingham Risk Score (n=26). There was no difference in coronary calcium scores (114 ± 218 versus 124 ± 298; P=0.89) or NCAP volume (65 ± 86 mm(3) versus 63 ± 82 mm(3); P=0.38) between HIV-infected patients and controls, respectively. Among HIV-infected patients, lower CD4(+) T-cell count was associated with increased NCAP volume (r=-0.52, P=0.006). The CD4(+) T-cell count remained a significant predictor of NCAP in a multivariate analysis that adjusted for age and duration of antiretroviral therapy. Plaque burden is similar between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals when matched on traditional CAD risk factors; however, immune function might mediate the development of atherosclerosis in HIV infection.

  1. Discontinuing Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia Prophylaxis in HIV-Infected Patients With a CD4 Cell Count <200 cells/mm3.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Vaninder K; Foisy, Michelle M; Hughes, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    To review the evidence for discontinuing primary and secondary Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3). We conducted a literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the International Aids Society Library (up to August 2015) using the following key search terms: Pneumocystis jirovecii, pneumonia, human immunodeficiency virus, primary prophylaxis, secondary prophylaxis, and discontinuation. All English-language studies that evaluated discontinuation of primary and/or secondary PJP prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) were included. Five studies were identified, which varied in design, sample size, outcomes, and duration of follow-up. Three studies examined discontinuation of primary and secondary PJP prophylaxis; 1 study evaluated discontinuing primary PJP prophylaxis; and 1 study evaluated stopping secondary PJP prophylaxis. Two out of the 5 studies pooled data for all opportunistic infections. Overall, there was a low incidence of PJP among HIV-infected patients who discontinued primary PJP prophylaxis and were well controlled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Discontinuation of primary PJP prophylaxis appears to be safe in patients on combination ART with a suppressed HIV viral load and a CD4 count >100 cells/mm(3). Additional data are needed to support the safety of discontinuing secondary PJP prophylaxis. Decisions to discontinue PJP prophylaxis in patients with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) should be done on an individual patient basis, taking into consideration clinical factors, including ongoing adherence to ART. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Total nucleated cell and leukocyte differential counts in canine pleural and peritoneal fluid and equine synovial fluid samples: comparison of automated and manual methods.

    PubMed

    Brudvig, Jean M; Swenson, Cheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Rapid and precise measurement of total and differential nucleated cell counts is a crucial diagnostic component of cavitary and synovial fluid analyses. The objectives of this study included (1) evaluation of reliability and precision of canine and equine fluid total nucleated cell count (TNCC) determined by the benchtop Abaxis VetScan HM5, in comparison with the automated reference instruments ADVIA 120 and the scil Vet abc, respectively, and (2) comparison of automated with manual canine differential nucleated cell counts. The TNCC and differential counts in canine pleural and peritoneal, and equine synovial fluids were determined on the Abaxis VetScan HM5 and compared with the ADVIA 120 and Vet abc analyzer, respectively. Statistical analyses included correlation, least squares fit linear regression, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman difference plots. In addition, precision of the total cell count generated by the VetScan HM5 was determined. Agreement was excellent without significant constant or proportional bias for canine cavitary fluid TNCC. Automated and manual differential counts had R(2)  < .5 for individual cell types (least squares fit linear regression). Equine synovial fluid TNCC agreed but with some bias due to the VetScan HM5 overestimating TNCC compared to the Vet abc. Intra-assay precision of the VetScan HM5 in 3 fluid samples was 2-31%. The Abaxis VetScan HM5 provided rapid, reliable TNCC for canine and equine fluid samples. The differential nucleated cell count should be verified microscopically as counts from the VetScan HM5 and also from the ADVIA 120 were often incorrect in canine fluid samples. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Designing primers and evaluation of the efficiency of propidium monoazide - Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for counting the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chieh-Hsien; Wu, Sih-Rong; Pang, Jen-Chieh; Ramireddy, Latha; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Ku; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of using propidium monoazide (PMA) real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to count the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius in probiotic products. Based on the internal transcription spacer and 23S rRNA genes, two primer sets specific for these two Lactobacillus species were designed. For a probiotic product, the total deMan Rogosa Sharpe plate count was 8.65±0.69 log CFU/g, while for qPCR, the cell counts of L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 8.39±0.14 log CFU/g and 8.57±0.24 log CFU/g, respectively. Under the same conditions, for its heat-killed product, qPCR counts for L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 6.70±0.16 log cells/g and 7.67±0.20 log cells/g, while PMA-qPCR counts were 5.33±0.18 log cells/g and 5.05±0.23 log cells/g, respectively. For cell dilutions with a viable cell count of 8.5 log CFU/mL for L. gasseri and L. salivarius, after heat killing, the PMA-qPCR count for both Lactobacillus species was near 5.5 log cells/mL. When the PMA-qPCR counts of these cell dilutions were compared before and after heat killing, although some DNA might be lost during the heat killing, significant qPCR signals from dead cells, i.e., about 4-5 log cells/mL, could not be reduced by PMA treatment. Increasing PMA concentrations from 100 μM to 200 μM or light exposure time from 5 minutes to 15 minutes had no or, if any, only minor effect on the reduction of qPCR signals from their dead cells. Thus, to differentiate viable lactic acid bacterial cells from dead cells using the PMA-qPCR method, the efficiency of PMA to reduce the qPCR signals from dead cells should be notable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Estimated Costs for Delivery of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy to Individuals with CD4+ T-Cell Counts >350 cells/uL in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vivek; Chang, Wei; Byonanebye, Dathan M.; Owaraganise, Asiphas; Twinomuhwezi, Ellon; Amanyire, Gideon; Black, Douglas; Marseille, Elliot; Kamya, Moses R.; Havlir, Diane V.; Kahn, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence favoring earlier HIV ART initiation at high CD4+ T-cell counts (CD4>350/uL) has grown, and guidelines now recommend earlier HIV treatment. However, the cost of providing ART to individuals with CD4>350 in Sub-Saharan Africa has not been well estimated. This remains a major barrier to optimal global cost projections for accelerating the scale-up of ART. Our objective was to compute costs of ART delivery to high CD4+count individuals in a typical rural Ugandan health center-based HIV clinic, and use these data to construct scenarios of efficient ART scale-up. Methods Within a clinical study evaluating streamlined ART delivery to 197 individuals with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/uL (EARLI Study: NCT01479634) in Mbarara, Uganda, we performed a micro-costing analysis of administrative records, ART prices, and time-and-motion analysis of staff work patterns. We computed observed per-person-per-year (ppy) costs, and constructed models estimating costs under several increasingly efficient ART scale-up scenarios using local salaries, lowest drug prices, optimized patient loads, and inclusion of viral load (VL) testing. Findings Among 197 individuals enrolled in the EARLI Study, median pre-ART CD4+ cell count was 569/uL (IQR 451–716). Observed ART delivery cost was $628 ppy at steady state. Models using local salaries and only core laboratory tests estimated costs of $529/$445 ppy (+/-VL testing, respectively). Models with lower salaries, lowest ART prices, and optimized healthcare worker schedules reduced costs by $100–200 ppy. Costs in a maximally efficient scale-up model were $320/$236 ppy (+/- VL testing). This included $39 for personnel, $106 for ART, $130/$46 for laboratory tests, and $46 for administrative/other costs. A key limitation of this study is its derivation and extrapolation of costs from one large rural treatment program of high CD4+ count individuals. Conclusions In a Ugandan HIV clinic, ART delivery costs—including VL testing

  5. Estimated Costs for Delivery of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy to Individuals with CD4+ T-Cell Counts >350 cells/uL in Rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vivek; Chang, Wei; Byonanebye, Dathan M; Owaraganise, Asiphas; Twinomuhwezi, Ellon; Amanyire, Gideon; Black, Douglas; Marseille, Elliot; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V; Kahn, James G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence favoring earlier HIV ART initiation at high CD4+ T-cell counts (CD4>350/uL) has grown, and guidelines now recommend earlier HIV treatment. However, the cost of providing ART to individuals with CD4>350 in Sub-Saharan Africa has not been well estimated. This remains a major barrier to optimal global cost projections for accelerating the scale-up of ART. Our objective was to compute costs of ART delivery to high CD4+count individuals in a typical rural Ugandan health center-based HIV clinic, and use these data to construct scenarios of efficient ART scale-up. Within a clinical study evaluating streamlined ART delivery to 197 individuals with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/uL (EARLI Study: NCT01479634) in Mbarara, Uganda, we performed a micro-costing analysis of administrative records, ART prices, and time-and-motion analysis of staff work patterns. We computed observed per-person-per-year (ppy) costs, and constructed models estimating costs under several increasingly efficient ART scale-up scenarios using local salaries, lowest drug prices, optimized patient loads, and inclusion of viral load (VL) testing. Among 197 individuals enrolled in the EARLI Study, median pre-ART CD4+ cell count was 569/uL (IQR 451-716). Observed ART delivery cost was $628 ppy at steady state. Models using local salaries and only core laboratory tests estimated costs of $529/$445 ppy (+/-VL testing, respectively). Models with lower salaries, lowest ART prices, and optimized healthcare worker schedules reduced costs by $100-200 ppy. Costs in a maximally efficient scale-up model were $320/$236 ppy (+/- VL testing). This included $39 for personnel, $106 for ART, $130/$46 for laboratory tests, and $46 for administrative/other costs. A key limitation of this study is its derivation and extrapolation of costs from one large rural treatment program of high CD4+ count individuals. In a Ugandan HIV clinic, ART delivery costs--including VL testing--for individuals with CD4>350 were similar to

  6. Increase in CD4+ T-Cell Count at the Time of HIV Diagnosis and Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation Among Persons With HIV in New York City.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Sarah L; Robertson, McKaylee M; Myers, Julie; Abraham, Bisrat; Nash, Denis

    2016-12-01

     Trends in CD4 + T-cell count at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation can be characterized using laboratory tests from surveillance.  We used CD4 + T-cell counts and viral loads from New York City for persons who received a diagnosis of HIV infection during 2006-2012.  From 2006 to 2012, the median CD4 + T-cell count increased from 325 to 379 cells/µL at diagnosis and from 178 to 360 cells/μL at ART initiation. CD4 + T-cell counts were consistently lower in women, blacks, Hispanics, persons who inject drugs, and heterosexuals.  Increases in CD4 + T-cell count at diagnosis and ART initiation suggest that the time from HIV infection to ART initiation has been reduced substantially in New York City. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A spore counting method and cell culture model for chlorine disinfection studies of Encephalitozoon syn. Septata intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Wolk, D M; Johnson, C H; Rice, E W; Marshall, M M; Grahn, K F; Plummer, C B; Sterling, C R

    2000-04-01

    The microsporidia have recently been recognized as a group of pathogens that have potential for waterborne transmission; however, little is known about the effects of routine disinfection on microsporidian spore viability. In this study, in vitro growth of Encephalitozoon syn. Septata intestinalis, a microsporidium found in the human gut, was used as a model to assess the effect of chlorine on the infectivity and viability of microsporidian spores. Spore inoculum concentrations were determined by using spectrophotometric measurements (percent transmittance at 625 nm) and by traditional hemacytometer counting. To determine quantitative dose-response data for spore infectivity, we optimized a rabbit kidney cell culture system in 24-well plates, which facilitated calculation of a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) and a minimal infective dose (MID) for E. intestinalis. The TCID(50) is a quantitative measure of infectivity and growth and is the number of organisms that must be present to infect 50% of the cell culture wells tested. The MID is as a measure of a system's permissiveness to infection and a measure of spore infectivity. A standardized MID and a standardized TCID(50) have not been reported previously for any microsporidian species. Both types of doses are reported in this paper, and the values were used to evaluate the effects of chlorine disinfection on the in vitro growth of microsporidia. Spores were treated with chlorine at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/liter. The exposure times ranged from 0 to 80 min at 25 degrees C and pH 7. MID data for E. intestinalis were compared before and after chlorine disinfection. A 3-log reduction (99.9% inhibition) in the E. intestinalis MID was observed at a chlorine concentration of 2 mg/liter after a minimum exposure time of 16 min. The log(10) reduction results based on percent transmittance-derived spore counts were equivalent to the results based on hemacytometer-derived spore counts. Our data

  8. A Spore Counting Method and Cell Culture Model for Chlorine Disinfection Studies of Encephalitozoon syn. Septata intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Wolk, D. M.; Johnson, C. H.; Rice, E. W.; Marshall, M. M.; Grahn, K. F.; Plummer, C. B.; Sterling, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    The microsporidia have recently been recognized as a group of pathogens that have potential for waterborne transmission; however, little is known about the effects of routine disinfection on microsporidian spore viability. In this study, in vitro growth of Encephalitozoon syn. Septata intestinalis, a microsporidium found in the human gut, was used as a model to assess the effect of chlorine on the infectivity and viability of microsporidian spores. Spore inoculum concentrations were determined by using spectrophotometric measurements (percent transmittance at 625 nm) and by traditional hemacytometer counting. To determine quantitative dose-response data for spore infectivity, we optimized a rabbit kidney cell culture system in 24-well plates, which facilitated calculation of a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) and a minimal infective dose (MID) for E. intestinalis. The TCID50 is a quantitative measure of infectivity and growth and is the number of organisms that must be present to infect 50% of the cell culture wells tested. The MID is as a measure of a system's permissiveness to infection and a measure of spore infectivity. A standardized MID and a standardized TCID50 have not been reported previously for any microsporidian species. Both types of doses are reported in this paper, and the values were used to evaluate the effects of chlorine disinfection on the in vitro growth of microsporidia. Spores were treated with chlorine at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg/liter. The exposure times ranged from 0 to 80 min at 25°C and pH 7. MID data for E. intestinalis were compared before and after chlorine disinfection. A 3-log reduction (99.9% inhibition) in the E. intestinalis MID was observed at a chlorine concentration of 2 mg/liter after a minimum exposure time of 16 min. The log10 reduction results based on percent transmittance-derived spore counts were equivalent to the results based on hemacytometer-derived spore counts. Our data suggest that

  9. Immunosuppressive Effects of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Result in Absolute Lymphopenia and a Relative Increase of T Regulatory Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Yannick D.; Golshayan, Déla; Ehirchiou, Driss; Wyss, Jean Christophe; Giovannoni, Laurianne; Meier, Raphael; Serre-Beinier, Véronique; Puga Yung, Gisella; Morel, Philippe; Bühler, Leo H.; Seebach, Jörg D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Streptozotocin (STZ) is the most widely used diabetogenic agent in animal models of islet transplantation. However, the immunomodifying effects of STZ and the ensuing hyperglycemia on lymphocyte subsets, particularly on T regulatory cells (Tregs), remain poorly understood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study evaluated how STZ-induced diabetes affects adaptive immunity and the consequences thereof on allograft rejection in murine models of islet and skin transplantation. The respective toxicity of STZ and hyperglycemia on lymphocyte subsets was tested in vitro. The effect of hyperglycemia was assessed independently of STZ in vivo by the removal of transplanted syngeneic islets, using an insulin pump, and with rat insulin promoter diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice. RESULTS Early lymphopenia in both blood and spleen was demonstrated after STZ administration. Direct toxicity of STZ on lymphocytes, particularly on CD8+ cells and B cells, was shown in vitro. Hyperglycemia also correlated with blood and spleen lymphopenia in vivo but was not lymphotoxic in vitro. Independently of hyperglycemia, STZ led to a relative increase of Tregs in vivo, with the latter retaining their suppressive capacity in vitro. The higher frequency of Tregs was associated with Treg proliferation in the blood, but not in the spleen, and higher blood levels of transforming growth factor-β. Finally, STZ administration delayed islet and skin allograft rejection compared with naive mice. CONCLUSIONS These data highlight the direct and indirect immunosuppressive effects of STZ and acute hyperglycemia, respectively. Thus, these results have important implications for the future development of tolerance-based protocols and their translation from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:21752956

  10. Lower omental t-regulatory cell count is associated with higher fasting glucose and lower β-cell function in adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Lam, Jonathan; Alderete, Tanya L; Allayee, Hooman; Akbari, Omid; Katkhouda, Namir; Goran, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    T-lymphocytes are potential initiators and regulators of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, but there is limited human data on omental AT. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T cells, particularly Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, in human subcutaneous (subQ) and omental AT and type 2 diabetes risk. SubQ and deep subQ (DsubQ) abdominal and omental AT biopsies were collected from 44 patients (body mass index, BMI ≥25) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Flow cytometry was used to quantify CD4+ T cell (T effector and Treg) and macrophages (M1 and M2), and systemic inflammation was measured in fasting blood. Tregs were significantly lower in omental versus subQ and DsubQ AT, and M1 cell counts were significantly higher in the omental and DsubQ depot relative to the subQ. Only omental AT Tregs were negatively associated with fasting glucose and MCP-1 and positively associated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-β. M1 and M2 cell counts across multiple depots had significant relationships with HOMA-insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin, and HOMA-β. All relationships were consistent across ethnicities. Tregs were significantly lower in omental versus both subQ adipose depots. Fewer omental Tregs may have metabolic implications based on depot-specific relationships with higher fasting glucose and lower β-cell function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  11. The automated counting of beating rates in individual cultured heart cells.

    PubMed

    Collins, G A; Dower, R; Walker, M J

    1981-12-01

    The effect of drugs on the beating rate of cultured heart cells can be monitored in a number of ways. The simultaneous automated measurement of beating rates of a number of cells allows drug effects to be rapidly quantified. A photoresistive detector placed on a television image of a cell, when coupled to operational amplifiers, gives binary signals that can be processed by a microprocessor. On this basis, we have devised a system that is capable of simultaneously monitoring the individual beating of six single cultured heart cells. A microprocessor automatically processes data obtained under different experimental conditions and records it in suitable descriptive formats such as dose-response curves and double reciprocal plots.

  12. CD4+ cell count recovery in naïve patients initiating cART, who achieved and maintained plasma HIV-RNA suppression.

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Dominique; Lacombe, Jean-Marc; Ghosn, Jade; Delaugerre, Constance; Pialoux, Gilles; Cuzin, Lise; Launay, Odile; Ménard, Amélie; de Truchis, Pierre; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Weiss, Laurence; Delfraissy, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    A key objective of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is to reach and maintain high CD4 cell counts to provide long-term protection against AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and malignancies, as well as other comorbidities. However, a high proportion of patients present late for care. Our objective was to assess CD4 cell count recovery up to seven years in naïve patients initiating cART with at least three drugs in usual clinical care. From the French Hospital Database on HIV, we selected naïve individuals initiating cART from 2000 with at least two years of follow-up. Participants were further required to have achieved viral load suppression by six months after initiating cART and were censored in case of virological failure. We calculated the proportion of patients (Kaplan-Meier estimates) who achieved CD4 recovery to >500/mm(3) according to baseline CD4 cell count. A total of 15,025 patients were analyzed with a median follow-up on ART of 65.5 months (IQR: 42.3-96.0). At cART initiation, the median age was 38.6 years (IQR: 32.2-46.0), 9734 (64.8%) were men, median CD4 cell count was 239 (IQR: 130-336) and 2668 (17.8%) had a prior AIDS event. RESULTS are presented in the Table 1. This study shows that CD4 cell counts continue to increase seven years after cART initiation, whatever the baseline CD4 cell count. Failing to achieve CD4 recovery with continuous viral load suppression is rare for naïve patients initiating cART in routine clinical practice, but takes substantially longer in patients who initiate antiretroviral therapy at low CD4 cell counts.

  13. Fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are major risk factors for ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart disease studies.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, J W; Baker, I A; Sweetnam, P M; Bainton, D; O'Brien, J R; Whitehead, P J; Elwood, P C

    1991-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that hemostatic factors and white blood cell count are predictive of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The relations of fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count to the incidence of IHD in the Caerphilly and Speedwell prospective studies are described. The two studies have a common core protocol and are based on a combined cohort of 4,860 middle-aged men from the general population. The first follow-up was at a nearly constant interval of 5.1 years in Caerphilly and 3.2 years in Speedwell; 251 major IHD events had occurred. Age-adjusted relative odds of IHD for men in the top 20% of the distribution compared with the bottom 20% were 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-6.5) for fibrinogen, 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-7.4) for viscosity, and 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.9) for white blood cell count. Associations with IHD were similar in men who had never smoked, exsmokers, and current smokers, and the results suggest that at least part of the effect of smoking on IHD is mediated through fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count. Multivariate analysis shows that white blood cell count is an independent risk factor for IHD as is either fibrinogen or viscosity, or possibly both. Jointly, these three variables significantly improve the fit of a logistic regression model containing all the main conventional risk factors. Further, a model including age, smoking habits, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count predicts IHD as well as one in which the three hemostatic/rheological variables are replaced by total cholesterol, diastolic pressure, and body mass index. Jointly, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are important risk factors for IHD.

  14. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pu eff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  15. Effect of antiaggregants on the in vitro viability, cell count and stability of abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Bouwman, Mai-Louise; Young, Tim; Mérien, Fabrice; Alfaro, Andrea C

    2018-07-01

    The ability to successfully prepare and preserve haemocyte cells for microscopy and flow cytometry is critical for the investigation of animal immune systems. In this study, we observed the total cell count, in vitro viability and stability of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes with different antiaggregants and handling protocols. Haemocyte stability was evaluated by direct observation of haemocytes under the microscope and calculating the aggregation index. Haemocyte counts and viability were measured via flow cytometry and tested for the effect of different antiaggregants (Alsever's solution at three concentrations, and specialised blood collection tubes containing lithium heparin and K 2 EDTA) at different temperatures and storage times. Results showed that Alsever's solution is an effective antiaggregant at haemolymph:antiaggregant dilution ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. Lithium heparin was ineffective as an antiaggregant, whereas K 2 EDTA was similarly as effective as Alsever's solution. The influence of different mixing techniques (vortex, pipetting and flipping) were subsequently tested using the K 2 EDTA Microtainer ® tubes, revealing that proper mixing should be performed immediately. High cell viability can be achieved by mixing samples by either 10 s of vortexing (1000 rpm), 10 times pipetting or 20 times flipping. The in vitro storage of abalone haemocytes in AS and K 2 EDTA as antiaggregants at ambient room temperature was highly effective for up to 24 h (75-85% viability; 0.05-0.15 aggregation index) and is recommended for haemocyte studies in H. iris. Utilization of K 2 EDTA Microtainer ® tubes were advantageous since they are more cost effective compared to Alsever's solution, and samples can be prepared more efficiently. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of Baseline CD4+ T Cell Counts and ART Requirement in Newly Diagnosed HIV Seropositive Individuals in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Bhattar, Sonali; Mehra, Bhanu; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti

    2016-11-01

    Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has changed the outlook of Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients worldwide. To analyse the trends in baseline CD4+ T cell counts and ART requirements in newly diagnosed HIV seropositive individuals in a Tertiary care hospital of Northern India. Out of 1263 HIV seropositive clients identified from January 2012 to June 2014, the baseline CD4+ T cell counts of only those 470 clients were analysed, who registered at the linked ART centre. The mean baseline CD4+ count of the study group was 249.77±216.0cells/mm 3 and that of male and female were 300.31±240.47cells/mm 3 and 232.38±204.25cells/mm 3 respectively. A total of 259 of 334 (77.54%) HIV reactive males, 83 of 130 (63.85%) HIV reactive females and overall 348 of 470 (74.04%) required antiretroviral treatment on enrolment. In the present study, about three-fourth of newly diagnosed HIV positive Indian patients required initiation of ART at registration. The relatively low baseline CD4+ T cell counts in this population highlights the need for timely baseline CD4+ counts testing of HIV positive patients and the urgency of initiating treatment in HIV reactive individuals in Indian health care settings.

  17. Age and CD4 count at initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children: effects on long-term T-cell reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joanna; Walker, A Sarah; Castro, Hannah; De Rossi, Anita; Gibb, Diana M; Giaquinto, Carlo; Klein, Nigel; Callard, Robin

    2012-02-15

    Effective therapies and reduced AIDS-related morbidity and mortality have shifted the focus in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from minimizing short-term disease progression to maintaining optimal long-term health. We describe the effects of children's age and pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) CD4 count on long-term CD4 T-cell reconstitution. CD4 counts in perinatally HIV-infected, therapy-naive children in the Paediatric European Network for the Treatment of AIDS 5 trial were monitored following initiation of ART for a median 5.7 years. In a substudy, naive and memory CD4 counts were recorded. Age-standardized measurements were analyzed using monophasic, asymptotic nonlinear mixed-effects models. One hundred twenty-seven children were studied. Older children had lower age-adjusted CD4 counts in the long term and at treatment initiation (P < .001). At all ages, lower counts before treatment were associated with impaired recovery (P < .001). Age-adjusted naive CD4 counts increased on a timescale comparable to overall CD4 T-cell reconstitution, whereas age-adjusted memory CD4 counts increased less, albeit on a faster timescale. It appears the immature immune system can recover well from HIV infection via the naive pool. However, this potential is progressively damaged with age and/or duration of infection. Current guidelines may therefore not optimize long-term immunological health.

  18. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R 2 = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

  19. Fluorescence photon migration techniques for the on-farm measurement of somatic cell count in fresh cow's milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Geoffrey; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Claycomb, Rod W.

    2005-04-01

    Currently, the state of the art of mastitis detection in dairy cows is the laboratory-based measurement of somatic cell count (SCC), which is time consuming and expensive. Alternative, rapid, and reliable on-farm measurement methods are required for effective farm management. We have investigated whether fluorescence lifetime measurements can determine SCC in fresh, unprocessed milk. The method is based on the change in fluorescence lifetime of ethidium bromide when it binds to DNA from the somatic cells. Milk samples were obtained from a Fullwood Merlin Automated Milking System and analysed within a twenty-four hour period, over which the SCC does not change appreciably. For reference, the milk samples were also sent to a testing laboratory where the SCC was determined by traditional methods. The results show that we can quantify SCC using the fluorescence photon migration method from a lower bound of 4x105 cells mL-1 to an upper bound of 1 x 107 cells mL-1. The upper bound is due to the reference method used while the cause of the lower boundary is unknown, yet.

  20. Impact on life expectancy of HIV-1 positive individuals of CD4+ cell count and viral load response to antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T.; Gompels, Mark; Delpech, Valerie; Porter, Kholoud; Orkin, Chloe; Kegg, Stephen; Hay, Phillip; Johnson, Margaret; Palfreeman, Adrian; Gilson, Richard; Chadwick, David; Martin, Fabiola; Hill, Teresa; Walsh, John; Post, Frank; Fisher, Martin; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Jose, Sophie; Leen, Clifford; Nelson, Mark; Anderson, Jane; Sabin, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate life expectancies of HIV-positive patients conditional on response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: Patients aged more than 20 years who started ART during 2000–2010 (excluding IDU) in HIV clinics contributing to the UK CHIC Study were followed for mortality until 2012. We determined the latest CD4+ cell count and viral load before ART and in each of years 1–5 of ART. For each duration of ART, life tables based on estimated mortality rates by sex, age, latest CD4+ cell count and viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/ml), were used to estimate expected age at death for ages 20–85 years. Results: Of 21 388 patients who started ART, 961 (4.5%) died during 110 697 person-years. At start of ART, expected age at death [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 35-year-old men with CD4+ cell count less than 200, 200–349, at least 350 cells/μl was 71 (68–73), 78 (74–82) and 77 (72–81) years, respectively, compared with 78 years for men in the general UK population. Thirty-five-year-old men who increased their CD4+ cell count in the first year of ART from less than 200 to 200–349 or at least 350 cells/μl and achieved viral suppression gained 7 and 10 years, respectively. After 5 years on ART, expected age at death of 35-year-old men varied from 54 (48–61) (CD4+ cell count <200 cells/μl and no viral suppression) to 80 (76–83) years (CD4+ cell count ≥350 cells/μl and viral suppression). Conclusion: Successfully treated HIV-positive individuals have a normal life expectancy. Patients who started ART with a low CD4+ cell count significantly improve their life expectancy if they have a good CD4+ cell count response and undetectable viral load. PMID:24556869

  1. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  2. Validation of an automated counting procedure for phthalate-induced testicular multinucleated germ cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    In utero exposure to certain phthalate esters results in testicular toxicity, characterized at the tissue level by induction of multinucleated germ cells (MNGs) in rat, mouse, and human fetal testis. Phthalate exposures also result in a decrease in testicular testosterone in rats...

  3. Responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy and clinical events in patients with a low CD4 cell count: late presenters vs. late starters.

    PubMed

    Waters, L; Fisher, M; Anderson, J; Wood, C; Delpech, V; Hill, T; Walsh, J; Orkin, C; Bansi, L; Gompels, M; Phillips, A; Johnson, M; Gilson, R; Easterbrook, P; Leen, C; Porter, K; Gazzard, B; Sabin, C

    2011-05-01

    We investigated whether adverse responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) associated with late HIV presentation are secondary to low CD4 cell count per se or other confounding factors. A longitudinal analysis of the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) Study of individuals starting HAART in 1998-2007 was carried out, comparing late presenters (presenting/starting HAART at a CD4 count <200 cells/μL) with late starters (presenting at a CD4 count>350 cells/μL; starting HAART at a CD4 count<200 cells/μL), using 'ideal starters' (presenting at a CD4 count>350 cells/μL; starting HAART at a CD4 count of 200-350 cells/μL) as a comparator. Virological, immunological and clinical (new AIDS event/death) outcomes at 48 and 96 weeks were analysed, with the analysis being limited to those remaining on HAART for>3 months. A total of 4978 of 9095 individuals starting first-line HAART with HIV RNA>500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL were included in the analysis: 2741 late presenters, 947 late starters and 1290 ideal starters. Late presenters were more commonly female, heterosexual and Black African. Most started nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); 48-week virological suppression was similar in late presenters and starters (and marginally lower than in ideal starters); by week 96 differences were reduced and nonsignificant. The median CD4 cell count increase in late presenters was significantly lower than that in late starters (weeks 48 and 96). During year 1, new clinical events were more frequent for late presenters [odds ratio (OR) 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-3.51; P=0.01]; by year 2, event rates were similar in all groups. Amongst patients who initiate, and remain on, HAART, late presentation is associated with lower rates of virological suppression, blunted CD4 cell count increases and more clinical events compared with late starters in year 1, but similar clinical and immunological outcomes by year 2 to those of both late and ideal

  4. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of cigarette smoke on counts of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils on the nasal mucosa in young patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Montaño-Velázquez, Bertha Beatriz; Flores-Rojas, Eulalia Beatriz; García-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Jurado-Hernandez, Silvio; Venancio Hernández, Marco Antonio; Alanis Flores, Angélica Kathya; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine

    In teenagers with perennial allergic rhinitis, exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke increases the count of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa; the recruitment of eosinophils arises from the combined action of a number of cellular and molecular signals, including eotaxin. To assess the effect of exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke on the count of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils on the nasal mucosa of children and teenagers with perennial allergic rhinitis. In a cross-sectional study, forty-four patients were evaluated (aged 7-19 years old): 22 with and 22 with no exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke. After replying to 2 validated questionnaires, on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and on the severity of nasal symptoms, nasal mucosal samples were obtained by scraping the middle one-third of the inferior turbinates. Then counts of immunoreactive cells to eotaxin-1 and eosinophils were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Patients with exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke showed higher cell counts of both eotaxin-1 and eosinophils than patients with no exposure to the smoke, with no correlation between the two variables. However, both counts, of eotaxin-1 and eosinophils, were related to the cotinine/creatinine ratio. Exposure to tobacco cigarette smoke can increase eotaxin-1 and the count of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa of young patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. A cohort study found that white blood cell count and endocrine markers predicted preterm birth in symptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M Karen; Challis, John R G; DaSilva, Orlando; Bocking, Alan D

    2005-03-01

    This cohort study investigated potential clinical and biochemical predictors of subsequent preterm birth in women presenting with threatened preterm labor. Subjects were 218 pregnant women admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of threatened preterm labor at 22-36 weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancy, fetal anomalies, diabetes mellitus, abruptio placenta, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, cervical dilatation > 4 cm, and clinical signs of infection. Analyses used logistic regression. The presence of ruptured membranes was the best predictor of birth within 48 hours. Other important predictors were maternal white blood cell count at 22-27 weeks gestation and maternal adrenocorticotropin and corticotropin-releasing hormone concentrations at 28-36 weeks gestation. Subclinical infection may be an important etiologic factor in preterm births of gestational age < 28 weeks. For those at > or = 28 weeks gestation, the findings support the etiologic role of activation of the fetal and/or maternal hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis leading to preterm birth.

  7. Estimating the impact of somatic cell count on the value of milk utilising parameters obtained from the published literature.

    PubMed

    Geary, Una; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; O'Brien, Bernadette; Garrick, Dorian J; Shalloo, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    The impact of mastitis on milk value per litre independent of the effect of mastitis on milk volume, was quantified for Ireland using a meta-analysis and a processing sector model. Changes in raw milk composition, cheese processing and composition associated with increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were incorporated into the model. Processing costs and market values were representative of current industry values. It was assumed that as BMSCC increased (i) milk fat and milk protein increased and milk lactose decreased, (ii) fat and protein recoveries decreased, (iii) cheese protein decreased and cheese moisture increased. Five BMSCC categories were examined from ⩽100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml. The analysis showed that as BMSCC increased the production quantities reduced. An increase in BMSCC from 100 000 to >400 000 cells/ml saw a reduction in net revenue of 3·2% per annum (€51·3 million) which corresponded to a reduction in the value of raw milk of €0·0096 cents/l.

  8. A question of separation: disentangling tracer bias and gravitational non-linearity with counts-in-cells statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, C.; Feix, M.; Codis, S.; Pichon, C.; Bernardeau, F.; L'Huillier, B.; Kim, J.; Hong, S. E.; Laigle, C.; Park, C.; Shin, J.; Pogosyan, D.

    2018-02-01

    Starting from a very accurate model for density-in-cells statistics of dark matter based on large deviation theory, a bias model for the tracer density in spheres is formulated. It adopts a mean bias relation based on a quadratic bias model to relate the log-densities of dark matter to those of mass-weighted dark haloes in real and redshift space. The validity of the parametrized bias model is established using a parametrization-independent extraction of the bias function. This average bias model is then combined with the dark matter PDF, neglecting any scatter around it: it nevertheless yields an excellent model for densities-in-cells statistics of mass tracers that is parametrized in terms of the underlying dark matter variance and three bias parameters. The procedure is validated on measurements of both the one- and two-point statistics of subhalo densities in the state-of-the-art Horizon Run 4 simulation showing excellent agreement for measured dark matter variance and bias parameters. Finally, it is demonstrated that this formalism allows for a joint estimation of the non-linear dark matter variance and the bias parameters using solely the statistics of subhaloes. Having verified that galaxy counts in hydrodynamical simulations sampled on a scale of 10 Mpc h-1 closely resemble those of subhaloes, this work provides important steps towards making theoretical predictions for density-in-cells statistics applicable to upcoming galaxy surveys like Euclid or WFIRST.

  9. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count.

    PubMed

    Kul'chyns'kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey's immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG ("NeuroCom Standard", KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV ("Cardiolab+VSR", KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems.

  10. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Kul’chyns’kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey’s immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. Methods In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG (“NeuroCom Standard”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV (“Cardiolab+VSR”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Results Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Conclusion Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:28730179

  11. Effect of intramammary injection of rboGM-CSF on milk levels of chemiluminescence activity, somatic cell count, and Staphylococcus aureus count in Holstein cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The effect of intramammary injection of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rboGM-CSF, 400 μg/10 mL) on quarter milk levels of chemiluminescence (CL) activity, and somatic cell count (SCC) and shedding pattern of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Ten Holstein cows, naturally infected with S. aureus were used, with either early-stage or late-stage subclinical mastitis. Injection of rboGM-CSF caused a remarkable increase in milk CL activity with a peak at 6 h after the cytokine injection in the early- and late-stage groups. In the early-stage group, milk SCC stayed around preinjection level at 6 h, rose significantly on days 1 and 2, and was followed by a smooth and significant decline to an under preinjection level (below 200 000 cells/mL) on day 7 postinjection. Alternatively, in the late-stage group, milk SCC rose significantly at 6 h after the cytokine injection and maintained high levels thereafter. The milk S. aureus count decreased drastically by the cytokine injection in the early-stage group. The bacterial count was moderately decreased in the late-stage group, but increased back to preinoculation levels on day 7 after the cytokine injection. The results suggest that the rboGM-CSF has a potential as a therapeutic agent for S. aureus infection causing subclinical mastitis of dairy cows, if the cytokine is applied at the initial stage of infection. PMID:15352542

  12. Temporal trends in postseroconversion CD4 cell count and HIV load: the Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe Collaboration, 1985-2002.

    PubMed

    Dorrucci, Maria; Rezza, Giovanni; Porter, Kholoud; Phillips, Andrew

    2007-02-15

    To determine whether early postseroconversion CD4 cell counts and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) loads have changed over time. Our analysis was based on 22 cohorts of people with known dates of seroconversion from Europe, Australia, and Canada (Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe Collaboration). We focused on individuals seroconverting between 1985 and 2002 who had the first CD4 cell count (n=3687) or HIV load (n=1584) measured within 2 years of seroconversion and before antiretroviral use. Linear regression models were used to assess time trends in postseroconversion CD4 cell count and HIV load. Trends in time to key thresholds were also assessed, using survival analysis. The overall median initial CD4 cell count was 570 cells/ microL (interquartile range [IQR], 413-780 cells/ microL). The median initial HIV load was 35,542 copies/mL (IQR, 7600-153,050 copies/mL; on log(10) scale, 3.9-5.2 log(10) copies/mL). The postseroconversion CD4 cell count changed by an average of -6.33 cells/ microL/year (95% confidence interval [CI], -8.47 to -4.20 cells/ microL/year; P<.001), whereas an increase was observed in log(10) HIV load (+0.044 log(10) copies/mL/year; 95% CI, +0.034 to +0.053 log(10) copies/mL/year). These trends remained after adjusting for potential confounders. The probability of progressing to a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/ microL by 24 months from seroconversion increased from 0.66 (95% CI, 0.63-0.69) for individuals who seroconverted before 1991 to 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75-0.84) for those who seroconverted during 1999-2002. These data suggest that, in Europe, there has been a trend of decrease in the early CD4 cell count and of increase in the early HIV load. Additional research will be necessary to determine whether similar trends exist in other geographical areas.

  13. Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with white blood cell count and red cell distribution width: A sex-stratified analysis in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Mojtaba; Tayefi, Maryam; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Ghaneifar, Zahra; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Avan, Amir; Rahmani, Farzad; Khorasanchi, Zahra; Azarpajouh, Mahmoud Reza; Safarian, Hamideh; Moohebati, Mohsen; Heidari-Bakavoli, Alireza; Esmaeili, Habibolah; Nematy, Mohsen; Safarian, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Ferns, Gordon A; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-10-01

    Depression and anxiety are two common mood disorders that are both linked to systemic inflammation. Increased white blood cell (WBC) count and red cell distribution width (RDW) are associated with negative clinical outcomes in a wide variety of pathological conditions. WBC is a non-specific inflammatory marker and RDW is also strongly related to other inflammatory markers. Therefore, we proposed that there might be an association between these hematological inflammatory markers and depression/anxiety symptoms. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between depression/anxiety symptoms and hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW in a large population-based study. Symptoms of depression and anxiety and a complete blood count (CBC) were measured in 9274 participants (40% males and 60% females) aged 35-65 years, enrolled in a population-based cohort (MASHAD) study in north-eastern Iran. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. The mean WBC count increased with increasing severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety among men. Male participants with severe depression had significantly higher values of RDW (p<0.001); however, this relationship was less marked among women (p=0.004). In addition, men (but not women) with severe anxiety symptoms had significantly higher values of RDW (p<0.001). Moreover, there was a negative association between red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and symptoms of depression/anxiety. Our results suggest that higher depression and anxiety scores are associated with an enhanced inflammatory state, as assessed by higher hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of high CD4 cell counts on death and attrition among HIV patients receiving antiretroviral treatment: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenzhu; Pan, Stephen W; Ruan, Yuhua; Liu, Xuanhua; Su, Jinming; Zhu, Qiuying; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Yi; Lan, Guanghua; Xing, Hui; Liao, Lingjie; Feng, Yi; Shao, Yiming

    2017-06-09

    Current WHO guidelines recommend initiating ART regardless of CD4+ cell count. In response, we conducted an observational cohort study to assess the effects of pre-ART CD4+ cell count levels on death, attrition, and death or attrition in HIV treated patients. This large HIV treatment cohort study (n = 49,155) from 2010 to 2015 was conducted in Guangxi, China. We used a Cox regression model to analyze associations between pre-ART CD4+ cell counts and death, attrition, and death or attrition. The average mortality and ART attrition rates among all treated patients were 2.63 deaths and 5.32 attritions per 100 person-years, respectively. Compared to HIV patients with <350 CD4+ cells/mm 3 at ART initiation, HIV patients with >500 CD4+ cells/mm 3 at ART initiation had a significantly lower mortality rate (Adjusted hazard ratio: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.40-0.79), but significantly higher ART attrition rate (AHR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.33). Results from this study suggest that HIV patients with high CD4+ cell counts at the time of ART initiation may be at greater risk of treatment attrition. To further reduce ART attrition, it is imperative that patient education and healthcare provider training on ART adherence be enhanced and account for CD4 levels at ART initiation.

  15. Incorporating Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio in Place of Neutrophil Count and Platelet Count Improves Prognostic Accuracy of the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model

    PubMed Central

    Chrom, Pawel; Stec, Rafal; Bodnar, Lubomir; Szczylik, Cezary

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The study investigated whether a replacement of neutrophil count and platelet count by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) within the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model would improve its prognostic accuracy. Materials and Methods This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The IMDC and modified-IMDC models were compared using: concordance index (CI), bias-corrected concordance index (BCCI), calibration plots, the Grønnesby and Borgan test, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), generalized R2, Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI), and continuous Net Reclassification Index (cNRI) for individual risk factors and the three risk groups. Results Three hundred and twenty-one patients were eligible for analyses. The modified-IMDC model with NLR value of 3.6 and PLR value of 157 was selected for comparison with the IMDC model. Both models were well calibrated. All other measures favoured the modified-IMDC model over the IMDC model (CI, 0.706 vs. 0.677; BCCI, 0.699 vs. 0.671; BIC, 2,176.2 vs. 2,190.7; generalized R2, 0.238 vs. 0.202; IDI, 0.044; cNRI, 0.279 for individual risk factors; and CI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BCCI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BIC, 2,183.2 vs. 2,198.1; generalized R2, 0.163 vs. 0.123; IDI, 0.045; cNRI, 0.165 for the three risk groups). Conclusion Incorporation of NLR and PLR in place of neutrophil count and platelet count improved prognostic accuracy of the IMDC model. These findings require external validation before introducing into clinical practice. PMID:28253564

  16. Incorporating Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio in Place of Neutrophil Count and Platelet Count Improves Prognostic Accuracy of the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model.

    PubMed

    Chrom, Pawel; Stec, Rafal; Bodnar, Lubomir; Szczylik, Cezary

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated whether a replacement of neutrophil count and platelet count by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) within the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model would improve its prognostic accuracy. This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The IMDC and modified-IMDC models were compared using: concordance index (CI), bias-corrected concordance index (BCCI), calibration plots, the Grønnesby and Borgan test, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), generalized R 2 , Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI), and continuous Net Reclassification Index (cNRI) for individual risk factors and the three risk groups. Three hundred and twenty-one patients were eligible for analyses. The modified-IMDC model with NLR value of 3.6 and PLR value of 157 was selected for comparison with the IMDC model. Both models were well calibrated. All other measures favoured the modified-IMDC model over the IMDC model (CI, 0.706 vs. 0.677; BCCI, 0.699 vs. 0.671; BIC, 2,176.2 vs. 2,190.7; generalized R 2 , 0.238 vs. 0.202; IDI, 0.044; cNRI, 0.279 for individual risk factors; and CI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BCCI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BIC, 2,183.2 vs. 2,198.1; generalized R 2 , 0.163 vs. 0.123; IDI, 0.045; cNRI, 0.165 for the three risk groups). Incorporation of NLR and PLR in place of neutrophil count and platelet count improved prognostic accuracy of the IMDC model. These findings require external validation before introducing into clinical practice.

  17. The combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio is a predictive factor in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ji-Feng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2014-10-01

    The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were investigated and compared. This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (> 10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (< 35 g/l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. The COP-NLR was calculated as follows: patients with elevated platelet count (> 300 × 10(9)/l) and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (> 3) were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P < .001). The 5-year CSS in patients with COP-NLR0, 1, and 2 was 51.8%, 27.0%, and 11.6%, respectively (P < .001). Multivariate analysis showed that both GPS (P = .003) and COP-NLR (P = .003) were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR) between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367). COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS.

  18. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network

    PubMed Central

    McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C.; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Crawford, Dana C.; Crane, Paul K.; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B.; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B.; Carlson, Chris S.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e–55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy−/−). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn’s disease. PMID:22037903

  19. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (p<0.05), cell infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion scores (p<0.05) compared to the olive oil treated group. Pannus formation scores showed that curcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone.

  20. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count

    PubMed Central

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (p<0.05), cell infiltration, bone and cartilage erosion scores (p<0.05) compared to the olive oil treated group. Pannus formation scores showed that curcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone. PMID:27366139

  1. The influence of dual infection with herpes and influenza viruses on the differential blood cell count of mice.

    PubMed

    Ančicová, L; Dugovičová, V; Briestenská, K; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E; Mistríková, J

    Based on our previous results, which confirmed the role of latent gammaherpesvirus infection in alteration of immune homeostasis, we studied the influence of simultaneous infection with gammaherpes and influenza viruses on selected parameters of innate immunity, particularly on the subpopulations of peripheral blood cell leukocytes. The aim was to analyze changes of differential blood cell count of BALB/c mice persistently infected with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and subsequently co-infected with influenza A virus (IAV), in comparison to mice infected with MHV-68 or with IAV only. Our results showed that ongoing gammaherpesvirus latency in mice caused a decreased number of leukocytes after acute infection with IAV in comparison to a single acute IAV infection. However, increased proportion of neutrophils was measured in peripheral blood of IAV- infected and co-infected mice. Dual infection had no effect on the proportion of monocytes or basophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes. The number of atypical lymphocytes, usually accompanying the persistent infection with MHV-68, decreased in co-infected mice as a consequence of the acute infection with IAV. Persistent infection with gammaherpesvirus may thus modulate the host immune response to influenza A virus and the acute IAV infection can influence the immune homeostasis established by latent MHV-68 infection.

  2. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise alleviates inflammation and improves endothelial progenitor cell count and bone density in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min-Tser; Liu, Wen-Chih; Lin, Fu-Huang; Huang, Ching-Feng; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Liu, Chuan-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Hua; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and mineral bone disease are critical factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Physical exercise alleviates inflammation and increases bone density. Here, we investigated the effects of intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise on HD patients. Forty end-stage renal disease patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The patients in the exercise group performed a cycling program consisting of a 5-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of cycling at the desired workload, and a 5-minute cool down during 3 HD sessions per week for 3 months. Biochemical markers, inflammatory cytokines, nutritional status, the serum endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) count, bone mineral density, and functional capacity were analyzed. After 3 months of exercise, the patients in the exercise group showed significant improvements in serum albumin levels, the body mass index, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the number of cells positive for CD133, CD34, and kinase insert domain-conjugating receptor. Compared with the exercise group, the patients in the control group showed a loss of bone density at the femoral neck and no increases in EPCs. The patients in the exercise group also had a significantly greater 6-minute walk distance after completing the exercise program. Furthermore, the number of EPCs significantly correlated with the 6-minute walk distance both before and after the 3-month program. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise programs can effectively alleviate inflammation and improve nutrition, bone mineral density, and exercise tolerance in HD patients.

  3. [Relationship between CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count and the prognosis (including the healing of the incision wound) of HIV/AIDS patients who had undergone surgical operation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Di; Zhao, Hongxin; Gao, Guiju; Wei, Kai; Zhang, Li; Han, Ning; Xiao, Jiang; Li, Xin; Wang, Fang; Liang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Liang

    2014-12-01

    To explore the relationship between CD4(+) T lymphocyte cell count and prognosis as well as healing of the surgical incision in HIV/AIDS patients who had received operation. Data were collected and analysed retrospectively from 234 HIV/AIDS patients hospitalized at the Beijing Ditan hospital who underwent operation between January 2008 and December 2012. Following factors were taken into consideration that including:age, gender, time and where that anti-HIV(+) was diagnosed, CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell count at the time of operation, part of the body that being operated, typology of incision, different levels of healing on the surgical incision, infection at the incision site, post-operative complications and the prognosis, etc. Wilcoxon rank sum test, χ(2) test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman rank correlation were used for statistical analysis to compare the different levels on healing of the incision in relation to the different CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell counts. Rates of level A healing under different CD4(+)T cell counts were also compared. 1) Among the 234 patients including 125 males and 109 females, the average age was 36.17±11.56 years old. Time after discovery of anti-HIV(+)was between 0 and 204 months. The medium CD4(+)T cell count was 388.5 cell/µl; 23.93% of the patients having CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell counts as <200 cell/µl. 2) 7.26% of the operations were emergent. There were 23 different organs affected at the time of operation, due to 48 different kinds of illness. 21.37% of the operations belonged to class I incision, 49.57% was class II incision and 29.06% was class III incision. 86.32% of the incisions resulted in level A healing, 12.51% resulted in level B and 1.71% in level C. 4.27% of the patients developed post-operative complications. Differences between level A healing and level B or C healing in terms of CD4(+)T lymphocyte cell count were not significant (P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference on the CD4(+) T

  4. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  5. Who Counts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brass, Jory

    2017-01-01

    This article recovers a 1972 essay from James Moffett entitled "Who Counts?" that the National Council of Teachers of English commissioned at the onset of US standards and accountability reforms. The essay historicises NCTE's positions on teacher accountability by comparing its recent positions on teacher evaluation and the Common Core…

  6. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  7. Validation of World Health Organisation HIV/AIDS clinical staging in predicting initiation of antiretroviral therapy and clinical predictors of low CD4 cell count in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Baveewo, Steven; Ssali, Francis; Karamagi, Charles; Kalyango, Joan N; Hahn, Judith A; Ekoru, Kenneth; Mugyenyi, Peter; Katabira, Elly

    2011-05-12

    The WHO clinical guidelines for HIV/AIDS are widely used in resource limited settings to represent the gold standard of CD4 counts for antiviral therapy initiation. The utility of the WHO-defined stage 1 and 2 clinical factors used in WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging in predicting low CD4 cell count has not been established in Uganda. Although the WHO staging has shown low sensitivity for predicting CD4<200 cells/mm(3), it has not been evaluated at for CD4 cut-offs of <250 cells/mm(3) or <350 cells/mm(3). To validate the World Health Organisation HIV/AIDS clinical staging in predicting initiation of antiretroviral therapy in a low-resource setting and to determine the clinical predictors of low CD4 cell count in Uganda. Data was collected on 395 participants from the Joint Clinical Research Centre, of whom 242 (61.3%) were classified as in stages 1 and 2 and 262 (68%) were females. Participants had a mean age of 36.8 years (SD 8.5). We found a significant inverse correlation between the CD4 lymphocyte count and WHO clinical stages. The sensitivity the WHO clinical staging at CD4 cell count of 250 cells/mm(3) and 350 cells/mm(3) was 53.5% and 49.1% respectively. Angular cheilitis, papular pruritic eruptions and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections were found to be significant predictors of low CD4 cell count among participants in WHO stage 1 and 2. The WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging guidelines have a low sensitivity and about half of the participants in stages 1 and 2 would be eligible for ART initiation if they had been tested for CD4 count. Angular cheilitis and papular pruritic eruptions and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections may be used, in addition to the WHO staging, to improve sensitivity in the interim, as access to CD4 machines increases in Uganda.

  8. Effect of Nadir CD4+ T Cell Count on Clinical Measures of Periodontal Disease in HIV+ Adults before and during Immune Reconstitution on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Lance T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Babineau, Denise C.; Wang, Xuelei; Toossi, Zahra; Weinberg, Aaron; Rodriguez, Benigno

    2013-01-01

    Background The contribution of HIV-infection to periodontal disease (PD) is poorly understood.  We proposed that immunological markers would be associated with improved clinical measures of PD. Methods We performed a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected adults who had started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) <2 years. PD was characterized clinically as the percent of teeth with ≥1 site with periodontal probing depth (PPD) ≥5.0mm, recession (REC) >0mm, clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥4.0mm, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at ≥4 sites/tooth and microbiologically as specific periodontopathogen concentration. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between immune function and PD. Results Forty (40) subjects with median 2.7 months on HAART and median nadir CD4+ T-cell count of 212 cells/μl completed a median 3 visits. Over 24 months, CD4+ T-cell count increased by a mean 173 cells/µl (p<0.001) and HIV RNA decreased by 0.5 log10 copies/ml (p<0.001); concurrently, PPD, CAL and BOP decreased by a mean 11.7%, 12.1%, and 14.7% respectively (all p<0.001). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with worse baseline REC (-6.72%; p=0.04) and CAL (9.06%; p<0.001). Further, lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with a greater relative longitudinal improvement in PPD in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p=0.027), and BOP in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola (p=0.001 and p=0.006 respectively). Longitudinal changes from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count and level of HIV RNA were not independently associated with longitudinal changes in any clinical markers of PD. Conclusion Degree of immunosuppression was associated with baseline gingival recession. After HAART initiation, measures of active PD improved most in those with lower nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and higher baseline levels of specific periodontopathogens. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count

  9. Host virus and pneumococcus-specific immune responses in high-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: implications for disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Ignacio; Muñoz-Criado, Santiago; Rodríguez-Caballero, Arancha; Nieto, Wendy G.; Romero, Alfonso; Fernández-Navarro, Paulino; Alcoceba, Miguel; Contreras, Teresa; González, Marcos; Orfao, Alberto; Almeida, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) display a high incidence of infections due to an associated immunodeficiency that includes hypogammaglobulinemia. A higher risk of infections has also been recently reported for high-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, while no information is available in low-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. Here, we evaluated the status of the humoral immune system in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n=58), as well as in low- (n=71) and high- (n=29) count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis versus healthy donors (n=91). Total free plasma immunoglobulin titers and specific levels of antibodies against cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza and S.pneumoniae were measured by nephelometry and ELISA-based techniques, respectively. Overall, our results show that both CLL and high-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis patients, but not low-count monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis subjects, present with relatively high levels of antibodies specific for the latent viruses investigated, associated with progressively lower levels of S.pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulins. These findings probably reflect asymptomatic chronic reactivation of humoral immune responses against host viruses associated with expanded virus-specific antibody levels and progressively decreased protection against other micro-organisms, denoting a severe humoral immunodeficiency state not reflected by the overall plasma immunoglobulin levels. Alternatively, these results could reflect a potential role of ubiquitous viruses in the pathogenesis of the disease. Further analyses are necessary to establish the relevance of such asymptomatic humoral immune responses against host viruses in the expansion of the tumor B-cell clone and progression from monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis to CLL. PMID:28385786

  10. Short-Chain PEG Mixed-Monolayer Protected Gold Clusters Increase Clearance and Red Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Carrie A.; Agrawal, Amanda C.; Balinski, Andrzej; Harkness, Kellen M.; Cliffel, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles have great potential as novel building blocks for the design of new drugs and therapeutics based on the easy ability to multifunctionalize them for biological targeting and drug activity. In order to create nanoparticles that are biocompatible in vivo, poly-ethylene glycol functional groups have been added to many previous multifunctionalized particles to eliminate non-specific binding. Recently, monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles with mercaptoglycine functionalities were shown to elicit deleterious effects on the kidney in vivo that were eliminated by incorporating a long-chain, mercapto-undecyl-tetraethylene glycol, at very high loadings into a mixed monolayer. These long-chain PEGs induced an immune response to the particle presumably generating an anti-PEG antibody as seen in other long-chain PEG-ylated nanoparticles in vivo. In the present work, we explore the in vivo effects of high and low percent ratios of a shorter chain, mercapto-tetraethylene glycol, within the monolayer using simple place-exchange reactions. The shorter chain PEG MPCs were expected to have better water solubility due to elimination of the alkyl chain, no toxicity, and long-term circulation in vivo. Shorter chain lengths at lower concentrations should not trigger the immune system into creating an anti-PEG antibody. We found that a 10% molar exchange of this short chain PEG within the monolayer met three of the desired goals: high water solubility, no toxicity, and no immune response as measured by white blood cell counts, but none of the short chain PEG mixed monolayer compositions enabled the nanoparticles to have a long circulation time within the blood as compared to mercapto-undecyl-ethylene glycol, which had a residence time of 4 weeks. We also compared the effects of a hydroxyl versus a carboxylic acid terminal functional group on the end of the PEG thiol on both clearance and immune response. The results indicate that short-chain length

  11. Biomarkers of Progression after HIV Acute/Early Infection: Nothing Compares to CD4+ T-cell Count?

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Yanina; Hormanstorfer, Macarena; Coloccini, Romina; Salido, Jimena; Trifone, César; Ruiz, María Julia; Falivene, Juliana; Caruso, María Paula; Figueroa, María Inés; Salomón, Horacio; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Pando, María de los Ángeles; Gherardi, María Magdalena; Rabinovich, Roberto Daniel; Sued, Omar

    2018-01-01

    Progression of HIV infection is variable among individuals, and definition disease progression biomarkers is still needed. Here, we aimed to categorize the predictive potential of several variables using feature selection methods and decision trees. A total of seventy-five treatment-naïve subjects were enrolled during acute/early HIV infection. CD4+ T-cell counts (CD4TC) and viral load (VL) levels were determined at enrollment and for one year. Immune activation, HIV-specific immune response, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) genotypes, and plasma levels of 39 cytokines were determined. Data were analyzed by machine learning and non-parametric methods. Variable hierarchization was performed by Weka correlation-based feature selection and J48 decision tree. Plasma interleukin (IL)-10, interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, soluble IL-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels correlated directly with baseline VL, whereas IL-2, TNF-α, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β correlated directly with CD4+ T-cell activation (p < 0.05). However, none of these cytokines had good predictive values to distinguish “progressors” from “non-progressors”. Similarly, immune activation, HIV-specific immune responses and HLA/CCR5 genotypes had low discrimination power. Baseline CD4TC was the most potent discerning variable with a cut-off of 438 cells/μL (accuracy = 0.93, κ-Cohen = 0.85). Limited discerning power of the other factors might be related to frequency, variability and/or sampling time. Future studies based on decision trees to identify biomarkers of post-treatment control are warrantied. PMID:29342870

  12. Propidium iodide (PI) stains Nissl bodies and may serve as a quick marker for total neuronal cell count.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfei; Li, Chunman; Wu, Haihui; Feng, Xianling; Su, Qingning; Li, Shihe; Zhang, Lihong; Yew, David Tai Wai; Cho, Eric Yu Pang; Sha, Ou

    2015-03-01

    Propidium iodide (PI) reacts with both DNA and RNA and is a commonly used fluorescent reagent for nucleic acid staining. The aim of the study was to compare the cellular staining patterns of PI with that of Nissl staining in rat nervous tissues and to report a modified staining method that selectively labels Nissl bodies in neurons. Cryosections and paraffin sections of different tissues of normal Sprague-Dawley rats, including trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, liver, and small intestine, were stained by either PI or the hematoxylin and eosin method. Some sections were treated with RNase or DNase before the above staining, and some were double stained with PI and a Nissl stain. The sections were observed by light, fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Results showed strong PI signals detected as patterns of granules in the neuronal cytoplasm of all nervous tissues, whereas the staining of neuronal nuclei was weaker. In contrast, nuclei of neuroglial cells were strongly stained by PI, while the cytoplasm was not obviously stained. Pretreatment of the neural tissue with RNase abolished the PI signals. Furthermore, the PI positive granules in neuronal cytoplasm co-localized with Nissl bodies stained by the fluorescent Nissl stain. When the tissue was pretreated with DNase, PI only stained the cytoplasmic granules of neurons, but not that of glial cells. Our results show that PI stains Nissl bodies and may serve as an economical and convenient neuron marker for neuronal cell counting when specific neural markers such as antibodies are not readily available. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. CD4+ Cell Count and HIV Load as Predictors of Size of Anal Warts Over Time in HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Hung N.; Amirian, E. Susan; Chan, Wenyaw; Beasley, R. Palmer; Piller, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the associations between CD4+ cell counts, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load, and human papillomavirus “low-risk” types in noncancerous clinical outcomes. This study examined whether CD4+ count and HIV load predict the size of the largest anal warts in 976 HIV-infected women in an ongoing cohort. Methods. A linear mixed model was used to determine the association between size of anal wart and CD4+ count and HIV load. Results. The incidence of anal warts was 4.15 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.83–4.77) and 1.30 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 1.00–1.58) in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, respectively. There appeared to be an inverse association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count at baseline; however, this was not statistically significant. There was no association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time. Conclusions. There was no evidence for an association between size of the largest anal warts and CD4+ count or HIV load over time. Further exploration on the role of immune response on the development of anal warts is warranted in a larger study. PMID:22246682

  14. Prevalence and Comparing of Some Microbiological Properties, Somatic Cell Count and Antibiotic Residue of Organic and Conventional Raw Milk Produced in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Şengül, Mustafa; Erkaya, Tuba; Aksakal, Vecihi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of production systems and milk collection periods on the somatic cell count (SCC), some microbiological properties, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), coliform, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), yeast and mould) and antibiotic residue of milk; in Turkey. Milk samples were collected from 9 conventional farms and 9 organic farms during one year time, at six different months (December 2013 to October 2014), and all farms were selected from the same geographical locations. All organically managed farms had organic production certificates given by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. The count of TAMB, coliform, and coagulase positive S. aureus were affected by production systems at the level of p<0.01; yeast and mold, and somatic cell count (SCC) were affected at the level of p<0.05. But, differences according to months were statistically significant only on TAMB (p<0.01) and coliform (p<0.05) counts. The general means of TAMB, coliform and yeast and mould counts of the organic milk (OM) were significantly lower (p<0.05), while the general means of SCC and coagulase positive S. aureus count of the OM was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to conventional milk (CM). Antibiotic residue was determined in one of the CM sample and in two of the OM samples. Our study is the first research that compared conventional and organic milk in Turkey. This study indicated that the microbiological quality of OM was the higher in terms of TAMB, coliform and yeast and mould, whereas was the lower in relation to SCC and coagulase positive S. aureus counts. But, the quality of both milk types should be improved. PMID:28515650

  15. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer in assessment of the white blood cell count differential in pediatric specimens.

    PubMed

    Becker, P-H; Fenneteau, O; Da Costa, L

    2016-02-01

    The automated XN-1000 hematology analyzer enables to perform a blood cell count and a leukocyte differential. When abnormal cells were detected, a flag was generated by the analyzer and a manual microscopic examination of the corresponding blood film was performed. We compared the white blood cell differentials provided by the automated hematology analyzer XN-1000 in a pediatric population (n = 765) with those obtained through microscopic examination by cytologists and those obtained using a previous version of this analyzer, the XE-2100. Leukocytes count as well as flags sensitivity and specificity was analyzed. The leukocytes count provided by the analyzer is in good accordance with the differential obtained by manual count in children older than 3 months. The sensitivity for blast detection is 99% and the detection of reactive cells is 63%. The flag specificity remains low (<35%) for blood samples collected from infants between 8 days and 2 years of age, but increases up to 67% thereafter. The results obtained with the XN-1000 analyzer show an improvement in comparison with those obtained with the XE-2100 analyzer. The automated WBC differential provided by the XN-1000 analyzer in the pediatric setting is accurate, but a meticulous microscopic examination of blood smears remains necessary for infants up to 3 months of age to validate the analyzer flags. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nomograms Predicting Platinum Sensitivity, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival Using Pretreatment Complete Blood Cell Counts in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paik, E Sun; Sohn, Insuk; Baek, Sun-Young; Shim, Minhee; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Lee, Yoo-Young; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of pre-treatment complete blood cell count (CBC), including white blood cell (WBC) differential, in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 757 patients with EOC whose primary treatment consisted of surgical debulking and chemotherapy at Samsung Medical Center from 2002 to 2012. We subsequently created nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS as prediction models for prognostic variables including age, stage, grade, cancer antigen 125 level, residual disease after PDS, and pre-treatment WBC differential counts. The models were then validated by 10-fold cross-validation (CV). Results In addition to stage and residual disease after PDS, which are known predictors, lymphocyte and monocyte count were found to be significant prognostic factors for platinum-sensitivity, platelet count for PFS, and neutrophil count for OS on multivariate analysis. The area under the curves of platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS calculated by the 10-fold CV procedure were 0.7405, 0.8159, and 0.815, respectively. Conclusion Prognostic factors including pre-treatment CBC were used to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS of patients with EOC. These nomograms can be used to better estimate individual outcomes. PMID:27669704

  17. Nomograms Predicting Platinum Sensitivity, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival Using Pretreatment Complete Blood Cell Counts in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Paik, E Sun; Sohn, Insuk; Baek, Sun-Young; Shim, Minhee; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Lee, Yoo-Young; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of pre-treatment complete blood cell count (CBC), including white blood cell (WBC) differential, in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 757 patients with EOC whose primary treatment consisted of surgical debulking and chemotherapy at Samsung Medical Center from 2002 to 2012. We subsequently created nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS as prediction models for prognostic variables including age, stage, grade, cancer antigen 125 level, residual disease after PDS, and pre-treatment WBC differential counts. The models were then validated by 10-fold cross-validation (CV). In addition to stage and residual disease after PDS, which are known predictors, lymphocyte and monocyte count were found to be significant prognostic factors for platinum-sensitivity, platelet count for PFS, and neutrophil count for OS on multivariate analysis. The area under the curves of platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS calculated by the 10-fold CV procedure were 0.7405, 0.8159, and 0.815, respectively. Prognostic factors including pre-treatment CBC were used to develop nomograms for platinum sensitivity, 3-year PFS, and 5-year OS of patients with EOC. These nomograms can be used to better estimate individual outcomes.

  18. Trends in baseline CD4 cell counts and risk factors for late antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive patients in Shanghai, a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Shen, Jiayin; Chen, Panpan; Lu, Hongzhou

    2017-04-19

    There are few studies focus on the factors underlying the late initiation of ART in China. We analyzed the trends in the median CD4 cell counts among different patient groups over time and the risk factors for the late initiation of ART in Shanghai, China. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was made in the Department of Infectious Disease of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center which is a designated diagnosis and treatment center for HIV-positive patients in Shanghai during the period of January 1st, 2008--June 30th, 2014. Late ART initiation was defined as a CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm 3 or having a clinical AIDS diagnosis prior to ART initiation. Trends in the median CD4 cell count at ART initiation and the proportion of late ART initiation by year were evaluated using Spearman's correlations and Chi-squared methods, respectively. We used a logistic regression model to analyze the risk factors for late ART initiation. The related factors collected in the multivariate model were the patient's age, gender, infection routes and marital status. A total of 3796 patients were analyzed in this study, with a median baseline CD4 cell count of 205 cells/mm 3 [interquartile range: 75-287]. The median CD4 cell counts of patients initiating ART late increased from 76 cells/mm 3 in 2008 to 103 cells/mm 3 in 2014 (p < 0.001), and the proportion of late ART initiation decreased from 80% to 45% (p < 0.001). The risk factors for late ART initiation were male gender, heterosexual transmission and older age (>30 years) (p < 0.001). Notable improvements were made in the median CD4 cell count at ART initiation and the proportion of late ART initiation from 2008 to 2014. However, persons with high risk of HIV exposure who are male, older even heterosexual orientation should be given more opportunities to receive frequently screening, earlier diagnoses and timely treatment.

  19. The association between white blood cell count and acute myocardial infarction in-hospital mortality: findings from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Mary; Welch, Robert D; Parsons, Lori; Ndumele, Chiadi E; Chen, Edmond; Zalenski, Robert; Barron, Hal V

    2004-10-01

    Although cross-sectional and prospective studies have shown that the white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with long-term mortality for patients with ischemic heart disease, the role of the WBC count as an independent predictor of short-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been examined as extensively. The objective of this study was to determine whether the WBC count is associated with in-hospital mortality for patients with ischemic heart disease after controlling for potential confounders. From July 31, 2000, to July 31, 2001, the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 4 enrolled 186,727 AMI patients. A total of 115,273 patients were included in the analysis. WBC counts were subdivided into intervals of 1,000/mL, and in-hospital mortality rates were determined for each interval. The distribution revealed a J-shaped curve. Patients with WBC counts >5,000/mL were subdivided into quartiles, whereas patients with WBC counts <5,000/mL were assigned to a separate category labeled "subquartile" and were analyzed separately. A linear increase in in-hospital mortality by WBC count quartile was found. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for the fourth versus the first quartile showed strong associations with in-hospital mortality among the entire population and by gender: 4.09 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 3.83 to 4.73) for all patients, 4.31 (95% CI = 3.93 to 4.73) for men, and 3.65 (95% CI = 3.32 to 4.01) for women. Following adjustment for covariates, the magnitude of the ORs attenuated, but the ORs remained highly significant (OR, 2.71 [95% CI = 2.53 to 2.90] for all patients; OR, 2.87 [95% CI = 2.59 to 3.19] for men; OR, 2.61 [95% CI = 2.36 to 2.99] for women). Reperfused patients had consistently lower in-hospital mortality rates for all patients and by gender (p < 0.0001). The WBC count is an independent predictor of in-hospital AMI mortality and may be useful in assessing the prognosis of AMI in conjunction with other

  20. Spatial patterns of recorded mastitis incidence and somatic cell counts in Swedish dairy cows: implications for surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Cecilia; Stevenson, Mark; Emanuelson, Ulf; Egenvall, Agneta; Lindberg, Ann

    2011-11-01

    Clinical mastitis (CM) is the most common veterinary treated disease in Swedish dairy cattle. To investigate if the distribution of veterinary registered cases of CM in Sweden follows that of the spatial distribution of cows with high somatic cell counts (SCCs), the spatial distribution of CM odds was estimated from available records and compared with udder health measures based on measurements of SCC derived from official milk recording. The study revealed areas with significantly lower odds for CM but with a high proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggesting an under-reporting of CM. We also found areas of significantly higher odds for CM despite a low proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggestive of over-treatment of mastitis. The results should enable targeted studies of reasons for discrepancies, e.g. farmers' and veterinarians' attitudes to mastitis treatment and disease recording in areas with a deficit or excess of registered CM cases. High quality disease records for dairy cattle are of interest not only for the dairy management but also for disease surveillance, monitoring of use of antibiotics and food safety purposes.

  1. Effects of milking frequency in automatic milking systems on salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A, somatic cell count and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, S; Wechsler, B; Hauser, R; Gygax, L

    2016-03-01

    In barns with an automatic milking system (AMS), both the milking frequency and the number of nighttime milkings vary between cows. A low milking frequency might indicate problems in gaining access to the milking unit. Also, nighttime lighting in the waiting area of the AMS and in the milking unit increases exposure to light at night and could suppress nocturnal melatonin synthesis. These effects could result in increased stress, suppressed immune response, and poor udder health. A total of 125 cows (14-16/farm) on 8 farms with AMS were selected based on their average milking frequency. Eight to 10 saliva samples per cow were taken over the course of 4 days, and cortisol, IgA and melatonin concentrations were determined. Somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined in milk samples. Milking frequency had no significant relationship with mean cortisol and IgA levels, but a higher milking frequency tended to be associated with lower SCC levels. Nocturnal melatonin levels tended to be negatively associated with the number of nighttime milkings. In conclusion, no indication of increased stress or reduced immune defense was found in relation to milking frequency on farms with an AMS.

  2. CSF cell count

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the cerebrospinal fluid. Some causes include: Abscess Encephalitis Hemorrhage Meningitis Multiple sclerosis Other infections Stroke Tumor ... D.A.M. Editorial team. Cancer Read more Encephalitis Read more Infectious Diseases Read more A.D. ...

  3. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB) Testing Activated Clotting Time Acute Viral Hepatitis Panel Adenosine Deaminase Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) ... Guillain-Barré Syndrome Hashimoto Thyroiditis Heart Attack and Acute Coronary Syndrome Heart Disease Hemochromatosis Hemoglobin Abnormalities Hepatitis ...

  4. White blood cell count may identify abnormal cardiometabolic phenotype and preclinical organ damage in overweight/obese children.

    PubMed

    Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Invitti, C; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Baroni, M G; Moio, N; Pellegrin, M C; Tomat, M; Licenziati, M R; Manco, M; Maffeis, C; Valerio, G

    2016-06-01

    Subclinical inflammation is a central component of cardiometabolic disease risk in obese subjects. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the white blood cell count (WBCc) may help to identify an abnormal cardiometabolic phenotype in overweight (Ow) or obese (Ob) children. A cross-sectional sample of 2835 Ow/Ob children and adolescents (age 6-18 years) was recruited from 10 Italian centers for the care of obesity. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were assessed in the overall sample. Waist to height ratio (WhtR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipids, 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), left ventricular (LV) geometry and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were assessed in 2128, 2300, 1834, 535 and 315 children, respectively. Insulin resistance and whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) were analyzed using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda's test. Groups divided in quartiles of WBCc significantly differed for body mass index, WhtR, 2hPG, HOMA-IR, WBISI, lipids, ALT, cIMT, LV mass and relative wall thickness. Children with high WBCc (≥8700 cell/mm(3)) showed a 1.3-2.5 fold increased probability of having high normal 2hPG, high ALT, high cIMT, or LV remodeling/concentric LV hypertrophy, after adjustment for age, gender, pubertal status, BMI and centers. This study shows that WBCc is associated with early derangements of glucose metabolism and preclinical signs of liver, vascular and cardiac damage. The WBCc may be an effective and low-cost tool for identifying Ow and Ob children at the greatest risk of potential complications. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends in and correlates of CD4+ cell count at antiretroviral therapy initiation after changes in national ART guidelines in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Mutimura, Eugene; Addison, Diane; Anastos, Kathryn; Hoover, Donald; Dusingize, Jean Claude; Karenzie, Ben; Izimukwiye, Isabelle; Mutesa, Leo; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Nashi, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Background Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the advanced stages of HIV infection remains a major challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to better understand barriers and enablers to timely ART initiation in Rwanda where ART coverage is high and national ART eligibility guidelines first expanded in 2007–2008. Methods Using data on 6326 patients (≥15 years) at five Rwandan clinics, we assessed trends and correlates of CD4+ cell count at ART initiation and the proportion initiating ART with advanced HIV disease (CD4+ <200 cells/µl or WHO stage IV). Results Out of 6326 patients, 4486 enrolling in HIV care initiated ART with median CD4+ cell count of 211 cells/µl [interquartile range: 131–300]. Median CD4+ cell counts at ART initiation increased from 183 cells/µl in 2007 to 293 cells/µl in 2011–2012, and the proportion with advanced HIV disease decreased from 66.2 to 29.4%. Factors associated with a higher odds of advanced HIV disease at ART initiation were male sex [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3–2.1] and older age (AOR46–55+ vs. <25 = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2–4.3). Among those initiating ART more than 1 year after enrollment in care, those who had a gap in care of 12 or more months prior to ART initiation had higher odds of advanced HIV disease (AOR = 5.2; 95% CI: 1.2–21.1). Conclusion Marked improvements in the median CD4+ cell count at ART initiation and proportion initiating ART with advanced HIV disease were observed following the expansion of ART eligibility criteria in Rwanda. However, sex disparities in late treatment initiation persisted through 2011–2012, and appeared to be driven by later diagnosis and/or delayed linkage to care among men. PMID:25562492

  6. Do C-reactive protein level, white blood cell count, and pain location guide the selection of patients for computed tomography imaging in non-traumatic acute abdomen?

    PubMed

    Ozan, E; Atac, G K; Evrin, T; Alisar, K; Sonmez, L O; Alhan, A

    2017-02-01

    The value of abdominal computed tomography in non-traumatic abdominal pain has been well established. On the other hand, to manage computed tomography, appropriateness has become more of an issue as a result of the concomitant increase in patient radiation exposure with increased computed tomography use. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and pain location may guide the selection of patients for computed tomography in non-traumatic acute abdomen. Patients presenting with acute abdomen to the emergency department over a 12-month period and who subsequently underwent computed tomography were retrospectively reviewed. Those with serum C-reactive protein and white blood cell count measured on admission or within 24 h of the computed tomography were selected. Computed tomography examinations were retrospectively reviewed, and final diagnoses were designated either positive or negative for pathology relating to presentation with acute abdomen. White blood cell counts, C-reactive protein levels, and pain locations were analyzed to determine whether they increased or decreased the likelihood of producing a diagnostic computed tomography. The likelihood ratio for computed tomography positivity with a C-reactive protein level above 5 mg/L was 1.71, while this increased to 7.71 in patients with combined elevated C-reactive protein level and white blood cell count and right lower quadrant pain. Combined elevated C-reactive protein level and white blood cell count in patients with right lower quadrant pain may represent a potential factor that could guide the decision to perform computed tomography in non-traumatic acute abdomen.

  7. Exploring the characteristics and dynamics of Ontario dairy herds experiencing increases in bulk milk somatic cell count during the summer.

    PubMed

    Shock, D A; LeBlanc, S J; Leslie, K E; Hand, K; Godkin, M A; Coe, J B; Kelton, D F

    2015-06-01

    Regionally aggregated bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) data from around the world shows a repeatable cyclicity, with the highest levels experienced during warm, humid seasons. No studies have evaluated this seasonal phenomenon at the herd level. The objectives of this study were to define summer seasonality in BMSCC on an individual herd basis, and subsequently to describe the characteristics and dynamics of herds with increased BMSCC in the summer. The data used for this analysis were from all dairy farms in Ontario, Canada, between January 2000 and December 2011 (n≈4,000 to 6,000 herds/yr). Bulk milk data were obtained from the milk marketing board and consisted of bulk milk production, components (fat, protein, lactose, other solids), and quality (BMSCC, bacterial count, inhibitor presence, freezing point), total milk quota of the farm, and milk quota and incentive fill percentage. A time-series linear mixed model, with random slopes and intercepts, was constructed using sine and cosine terms as predictors to describe seasonality, with herd as a random effect. For each herd, seasonality was described with reference to 1 cosine function of variable amplitude and phase shift. The predicted months of maximal and minimal BMSCC were then calculated. Herds were assigned as low, medium, and high summer increase (LSI, MSI, and HSI, respectively) based on percentiles of amplitude in BMSCC change for each of the 4 seasons. Using these seasonality classifications, 2 transitional repeated measures logistic regression models were built to assess the characteristics of MSI and HSI herds, using LSI herds as controls. Based on the analyses performed, a history of summer BMSCC increases increased the odds of experiencing a subsequent increase. As herd size decreased, the odds of experiencing HSI to MSI in BMSCC increased. Herds with more variability in daily BMSCC were at higher odds of experiencing MSI and HSI in BMSCC, as were herds with lower annual mean BMSCC. Finally

  8. dropEst: pipeline for accurate estimation of molecular counts in droplet-based single-cell RNA-seq experiments.

    PubMed

    Petukhov, Viktor; Guo, Jimin; Baryawno, Ninib; Severe, Nicolas; Scadden, David T; Samsonova, Maria G; Kharchenko, Peter V

    2018-06-19

    Recent single-cell RNA-seq protocols based on droplet microfluidics use massively multiplexed barcoding to enable simultaneous measurements of transcriptomes for thousands of individual cells. The increasing complexity of such data creates challenges for subsequent computational processing and troubleshooting of these experiments, with few software options currently available. Here, we describe a flexible pipeline for processing droplet-based transcriptome data that implements barcode corrections, classification of cell quality, and diagnostic information about the droplet libraries. We introduce advanced methods for correcting composition bias and sequencing errors affecting cellular and molecular barcodes to provide more accurate estimates of molecular counts in individual cells.

  9. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  10. Normal Distribution of CD8+ T-Cell-Derived ELISPOT Counts within Replicates Justifies the Reliance on Parametric Statistics for Identifying Positive Responses.

    PubMed

    Karulin, Alexey Y; Caspell, Richard; Dittrich, Marcus; Lehmann, Paul V

    2015-03-02

    Accurate assessment of positive ELISPOT responses for low frequencies of antigen-specific T-cells is controversial. In particular, it is still unknown whether ELISPOT counts within replicate wells follow a theoretical distribution function, and thus whether high power parametric statistics can be used to discriminate between positive and negative wells. We studied experimental distributions of spot counts for up to 120 replicate wells of IFN-γ production by CD8+ T-cell responding to EBV LMP2A (426 - 434) peptide in human PBMC. The cells were tested in serial dilutions covering a wide range of average spot counts per condition, from just a few to hundreds of spots per well. Statistical analysis of the data using diagnostic Q-Q plots and the Shapiro-Wilk normality test showed that in the entire dynamic range of ELISPOT spot counts within replicate wells followed a normal distribution. This result implies that the Student t-Test and ANOVA are suited to identify positive responses. We also show experimentally that borderline responses can be reliably detected by involving more replicate wells, plating higher numbers of PBMC, addition of IL-7, or a combination of these. Furthermore, we have experimentally verified that the number of replicates needed for detection of weak responses can be calculated using parametric statistics.

  11. A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, William R; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Graham, Susan; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Dixon, Meredith; Hsiang, Mina; Peter, Trevor; Zavahir, Shabnam; Thior, Ibou; Romanovicz, Dwight; Bernard, Bruce; Goodey, Adrian P; Walker, Bruce D; McDevitt, John T

    2005-07-01

    More than 35 million people in developing countries are living with HIV infection. An enormous global effort is now underway to bring antiretroviral treatment to at least 3 million of those infected. While drug prices have dropped considerably, the cost and technical complexity of laboratory tests essential for the management of HIV disease, such as CD4 cell counts, remain prohibitive. New, simple, and affordable methods for measuring CD4 cells that can be implemented in resource-scarce settings are urgently needed. Here we describe the development of a prototype for a simple, rapid, and affordable method for counting CD4 lymphocytes. Microliter volumes of blood without further sample preparation are stained with fluorescent antibodies, captured on a membrane within a miniaturized flow cell and imaged through microscope optics with the type of charge-coupled device developed for digital camera technology. An associated computer algorithm converts the raw digital image into absolute CD4 counts and CD4 percentages in real time. The accuracy of this prototype system was validated through testing in the United States and Botswana, and showed close agreement with standard flow cytometry (r = 0.95) over a range of absolute CD4 counts, and the ability to discriminate clinically relevant CD4 count thresholds with high sensitivity and specificity. Advances in the adaptation of new technologies to biomedical detection systems, such as the one described here, promise to make complex diagnostics for HIV and other infectious diseases a practical global reality.

  12. C-Reactive Protein and White Blood Cell Count as Triage Test Between Urgent and Nonurgent Conditions in 2961 Patients With Acute Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Sarah L.; Atema, Jasper J.; Stoker, Jaap; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R.; Laurell, Helena; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to discriminate between urgent and nonurgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department, thereby guiding the selection of patients for immediate diagnostic imaging. Data from 3 large published prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain were combined in an individual patient data meta-analysis. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. Parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for clinically applicable cutoff values of CRP levels and WBC count, and for combinations. A total of 2961 patients were included of which 1352 patients (45.6%) had an urgent final diagnosis. The median WBC count and CRP levels were significantly higher in the urgent group than in the nonurgent group (12.8 ×109/L; interquartile range [IQR] 9.9–16) versus (9.3 ×109/L; IQR 7.2–12.1) and (46 mg/L; IQR 12–100 versus 10 mg/L; IQR 7–26) (P < 0.001). The highest positive predictive value (PPV) (85.5%) and lowest false positives (14.5%) were reached when cutoff values of CRP level >50 mg/L and WBC count >15 ×109/L were combined; however, 85.3% of urgent cases was missed. A high CRP level (>50 mg/L) combined with a high WBC count (>15 ×109/L) leads to the highest PPV. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of patients (8.7%). Overall, CRP levels and WBC count are insufficient markers to be used as a triage test in the selection for diagnostic imaging, even with a longer duration of complaints (>48 hours). PMID:25738473

  13. Relationship between high white blood cell count and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean children and adolescents: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, J-M; Lee, D-C; Lee, Y-J

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that insulin resistance is associated with inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and insulin resistance, as measured by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a general pediatric population. This study aimed to examine the association between WBC count and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. In total, 2761 participants (1479 boys and 1282 girls) aged 10-18 years were selected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than the 90th percentile. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for insulin resistance were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The mean values of most cardiometabolic variables tended to increase proportionally with WBC count quartiles. The prevalence of insulin resistance significantly increased in accordance with WBC count quartiles in both boys and girls. Compared to individuals in the lowest WBC count quartile, the odds ratio for insulin resistance for individuals in the highest quartile was 2.84 in boys and 3.20 in girls, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference. A higher WBC count was positively associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in Korean children and adolescents. This study suggests that WBC count could facilitate the identification of children and adolescents with insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Farm business and operator variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count from dairy herds in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Karen L; Lambert, Dayton M; Schexnayder, Susan; Krawczel, Peter; Fly, Mark; Garkovich, Lorraine; Oliver, Steve

    2017-11-01

    Mastitis is a worldwide problem in dairy cows and results in reduced milk production, the culling of cows, and other economic losses. Bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC) over 200,000 cells/mL often indicates underlying subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. Several preventative measures that can be implemented to help improve the incidence of mastitis exist, but surveys find these practices not fully adopted by producers. The goal of this research was to analyze the farm and operator characteristics associated with BTSCC in dairy herds by analyzing a survey of dairy producers in the southeastern United States. We examined this region because it has experienced a decline in the number of dairy farms, dairy cows, and milk production over the past 2 decades. The southeast region is also associated with higher BTSCC levels than the national average. Dairy farms in Georgia, Mississippi, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia were surveyed. Producers were asked questions about the BTSCC at which they take action to address BTSCC, the information sources they use to learn about and manage BTSCC, farm structure and management characteristics, and attitudinal variables associated with profitability, managerial control, and planning horizon. Least squares regression was used to determine how these factors were associated with BTSCC levels across the 7-state region. Concern over mastitis, financial consequences of mastitis, and increased previous-year BTSCC were associated with higher current BTSCC levels. Obtaining information about mastitis from veterinarians and extension personnel, taking action against mastitis at a BTSCC less than 300,000 cells/mL, and perceived ability to control processes and mastitis incidence were associated with reduced BTSCC. We found average BTSCC was lower in North Carolina and Virginia. These results suggest that proactive producers (i.e., those that perceive they can control BTSCC and seek information from reliable

  15. Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Schewe, R L; Kayitsinga, J; Contreras, G A; Odom, C; Coats, W A; Durst, P; Hovingh, E P; Martinez, R O; Mobley, R; Moore, S; Erskine, R J

    2015-11-01

    The ability to reduce somatic cell counts (SCC) and improve milk quality depends on the effective and consistent application of established mastitis control practices. The US dairy industry continues to rely more on nonfamily labor to perform critical tasks to maintain milk quality. Thus, it is important to understand dairy producer attitudes and beliefs relative to management practices, as well as employee performance, to advance milk quality within the changing structure of the dairy industry. To assess the adoption rate of mastitis control practices in United States dairy herds, as well as assess social variables, including attitudes toward employees relative to mastitis control, a survey was sent to 1,700 dairy farms in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Florida in January and February of 2013. The survey included questions related to 7 major areas: sociodemographics and farm characteristics, milking proficiency, milking systems, cow environment, infected cow monitoring and treatment, farm labor, and attitudes toward mastitis and related antimicrobial use. The overall response rate was 41% (21% in Florida, 39% in Michigan, and 45% in Pennsylvania). Herd size ranged from 9 to 5,800 cows. Self-reported 3-mo geometric mean bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) for all states was 194,000 cells/mL. Multivariate analysis determined that proven mastitis control practices such as the use of internal teat sealants and blanket dry cow therapy, and not using water during udder preparation before milking, were associated with lower BTSCC. Additionally, farmer and manager beliefs and attitudes, including the perception of mastitis problems and the threshold of concern if BTSCC is above 300,000 cells/mL, were associated with BTSCC. Ensuring strict compliance with milking protocols, giving employees a financial or other penalty if BTSCC increased, and a perceived importance of reducing labor costs were negatively associated with BTSCC in farms with nonfamily employees. These findings highlight the

  16. Determinants of CD4 cell count change and time-to default from HAART; a comparison of separate and joint models.

    PubMed

    Tegegne, Awoke Seyoum; Ndlovu, Principal; Zewotir, Temesgen

    2018-04-27

    HIV has the most serious effects in Sub-Saharan African countries as compared to countries in other parts of the world. As part of these countries, Ethiopia has been affected significantly by the disease, and the burden of the disease has become worst in the Amhara Region, one of the eleven regions of the country. Being a defaulter or dropout of HIV patients from the treatment plays a significant role in treatment failure. The current research was conducted with the objective of comparing the performance of the joint and the separate modelling approaches in determining important factors that affect HIV patients' longitudinal CD4 cell count change and time to default from treatment. Longitudinal data was obtained from the records of 792 HIV adult patients at Felege-Hiwot Teaching and Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Two alternative approaches, namely separate and joint modeling data analyses, were conducted in the current study. Joint modeling was conducted for an analysis of the change of CD4 cell count and the time to default in the treatment. In the joint model, a generalized linear mixed effects model and Weibul survival sub-models were combined together for the repetitive measures of the CD4 cell count change and the number of follow-ups in which patients wait in the treatment. Finally, the two models were linked through their shared unobserved random effects using a shared parameter model. Both separate and joint modeling approach revealed a consistent result. However, the joint modeling approach was more parsimonious and fitted the given data well as compared to the separate one. Age, baseline CD4 cell count, marital status, sex, ownership of cell phone, adherence to HAART, disclosure of the disease and the number of follow-ups were important predictors for both the fluctuation of CD4 cell count and the time-to default from treatment. The inclusion of patient-specific variations in the analyses of the two outcomes improved the model significantly. Certain

  17. [Clinical significance of peak body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein level in febrile episodes among geriatric inpatients].

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, H; Nabeshima, A; Yamaga, S; Yamaji, K; Kakuda, K; Ueno, K; Hayashi, J; Shirai, T; Hara, H; Kashiwagi, S

    1997-06-01

    To investigate the clinical implication of peak body temperature, peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC) count, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level in febrile symptoms among geriatric hospitalized patients, they were analyzed in 968 febrile episodes obtained from 433 hospitalized patients in the referred hospital. Episodes of one day duration were most frequent (41.6%). WBC count was elevated over 8000/microliters in 475 episodes (49.1%) and CRP exceeded 1.0 mg/dl in 770 episodes (79.5%). Frequency of WBC elevation decreased and frequency of CRP elevation increased according to the time course. The mean value of CRP increased significantly according to the time course. The frequency of WBC count increase and CRP elevation and their averages correlated to the peak body temperature. The peak body temperature displayed the most striking correlation to the length of febrile episodes among three clinical indicators, peak body temperature, WBC count, and CRP level. These results indicate that the elevation of WBC count and/or CRP level is frequent in geriatric patients with febrile symptoms. Peak body temperature may serve as a clinical indicator of the severy of the febrile disease occurring in geriatric patients.

  18. Absolute quantification of microbial taxon abundances.

    PubMed

    Props, Ruben; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rubbens, Peter; De Vrieze, Jo; Hernandez Sanabria, Emma; Waegeman, Willem; Monsieurs, Pieter; Hammes, Frederik; Boon, Nico

    2017-02-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing has become a well-established approach for microbial community profiling. Correlating shifts in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa with environmental gradients is the goal of many microbiome surveys. As the abundances generated by this technology are semi-quantitative by definition, the observed dynamics may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon densities. We combined the sequencing approach (16S rRNA gene) with robust single-cell enumeration technologies (flow cytometry) to quantify the absolute taxon abundances. A detailed longitudinal analysis of the absolute abundances resulted in distinct abundance profiles that were less ambiguous and expressed in units that can be directly compared across studies. We further provide evidence that the enrichment of taxa (increase in relative abundance) does not necessarily relate to the outgrowth of taxa (increase in absolute abundance). Our results highlight that both relative and absolute abundances should be considered for a comprehensive biological interpretation of microbiome surveys.

  19. Guidelines for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia cannot rely solely on CD4-cell count in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Baulier, Gildas; Issa, Nahema; Gabriel, Frederic; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Camou, Fabrice; Duffau, Pierre

    2018-02-26

    Guidelines for preventing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in HIV patients are based on CD4 below 200/mm3. Such cut-off value is suggested to guide prophylaxis in non-HIV conditions (NHIV) especially in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (AD). We aimed to determine if CD4 could be used to guide PCP prophylaxis in AD. CD4 and lymphocyte-count were retrospectively studied in patients diagnosed with PCP between January 2013 and February 2016. 129 patients were included. The median CD4-count was 302/mm3 in AD, which was significantly higher than in HIV patients (19/mm3; p<0.0001). Fifty percent (n=10) of AD patients had CD4 counts greater than 300/mm3. Prophylaxis for PCP cannot rely solely on CD4-count in NHIV patients especially in AD.

  20. Distribution of non-aureus staphylococci species in udder quarters with low and high somatic cell count, and clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Condas, Larissa A Z; De Buck, Jeroen; Nobrega, Diego B; Carson, Domonique A; Roy, Jean-Philippe; Keefe, Greg P; DeVries, Trevor J; Middleton, John R; Dufour, Simon; Barkema, Herman W

    2017-07-01

    The effect of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) in bovine mammary health is controversial. Overall, NAS intramammary infections (IMI) increase somatic cell count (SCC), with an effect categorized as mild, mostly causing subclinical or mild to moderate clinical mastitis. However, based on recent studies, specific NAS may affect the udder more severely. Some of these apparent discrepancies could be attributed to the large number of species that compose the NAS group. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the SCC of quarters infected by individual NAS species compared with NAS as a group, culture-negative, and major pathogen-infected quarters; (2) the distribution of NAS species isolated from quarters with low SCC (<200,000 cells/mL) and high SCC (≥200,000 cells/mL), and clinical mastitis; and (3) the prevalence of NAS species across quarters with low and high SCC. A total of 5,507 NAS isolates, 3,561 from low SCC quarters, 1,873 from high SCC quarters, and 73 from clinical mastitis cases, were obtained from the National Cohort of Dairy Farms of the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Of quarters with low SCC, high SCC, or clinical mastitis, 7.6, 18.5, and 4.3% were NAS positive, respectively. The effect of NAS IMI on SCC was estimated using mixed-effect linear regression; prevalence of NAS IMI was estimated using Bayesian analyses. Mean SCC of NAS-positive quarters was 70,000 cells/mL, which was higher than culture-negative quarters (32,000 cells/mL) and lower than major pathogen-positive quarters (129,000 to 183,000 cells/mL). Compared with other NAS species, SCC was highest in quarters positive for Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Staphylococcus hyicus, Staphylococcus agnetis, or Staphylococcus simulans. In NAS-positive quarters, Staphylococcus xylosus (12.6%), Staphylococcus cohnii (3.1%), and Staphylococcus equorum (0.6%) were more frequently isolated from quarters with low SCC than other NAS species, whereas Staphylococcus

  1. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  2. The effect of estrus synchronization treatments on somatic cell count of transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes' milk.

    PubMed

    Talafha, A Q; Lafi, S Q; Ababneh, M M

    2009-02-01

    Fifty-three transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes, randomly assigned to three groups: fluorogestone acetate (FGA, n = 18), FGA-Prostaglandin (FGA-PGF, n = 18) and control (n = 17), were used to examine the effect of estrus synchronization protocols and steroid hormones concentrations on milk somatic cell count (SCC). Intravaginal FGA sponge was inserted for 13 days and 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin was administered for ewes of FGA and FGA-PGF groups at the time of sponge removal (day 0). In addition, 10 mg was administered to ewes of FGA-PGF group on day 0. Blood and milk samples were collected from all ewes on days -13, -6, 0, 1, 2, 7 and 14. Estradiol had significant positive correlation with the SCC during the periods of sponge insertion (P = 0.015, r = 0.235) and within two days (P = 0.063 r = 0.23) after sponge removal with no correlation with SCC of both udder halves during the luteal phase. Progesterone concentrations, on the other hand, had a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001; r = 0.420) with the SCC of both udder halves during the luteal phase of the experiment, but not during the periods of sponge insertion and expected estrus. SCC returned under the influence of endogenous progesterone on days 7 and 14 to pre-synchronization values. In conclusion, sheep milk SCC is affected significantly with induction of estrus and steroid hormones concentrations. However, peak SCC recorded during estrus was far below the upper limit of the current standard for normal milk. With the current standards for SCC of 1,000,000/ml as legal limit for abnormal milk control programs in sheep, estrus synchronization programs and the estrus status should not be considered when bulk-tank milk SCC is being investigated, but should be considered during the process of setting new standards.

  3. High reticulocyte count is an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Silva, Célia Maria; Giovani, Poliana; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2011-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is an important way of detecting risk of ischemic stroke in children with sickle cell anemia. A random sample of 262 FS-hemoglobin children from a newborn screening inception cohort in Brazil (1998-2005) was followed up to May 2009. Pulsed TCD followed STOP protocol. Children with mean blood flow velocity < 170 cm/sec in cerebral arteries were classified as low risk; between 170 and 184, low conditional risk; between 185 and 199, high conditional risk; and ≥ 200, high risk. Median age, 6.2 years (2-11.2 years); 147 female; 13 children (5%) had ischemic stroke prior to TCD; 186/249 (74.7%) were classified as low risk; 19 (7.6%) as low conditional; 7 (2.8%) as high conditional; and 8 (3.2%) as high risk; inadequate tests, 11.6%. The probability of ischemic stroke at 10 years was 8.3% (SEM 2.3%); of stroke or high-risk TCD 15.6% (3.5%). Children with stroke or altered TCD (conditional and high risk) were compared to children with normal examinations. They were younger (P = 0.03), with lower hemoglobin (P = 0.003), higher leukocytosis (P = 0.015), and higher reticulocytosis (P < 0.001). Episodes per year of acute chest syndrome were also higher in that group, but not significantly (P = 0.09). Reticulocytosis remained the only significant variable upon multivariate analysis (P = 0.004). Basilar and middle cerebral artery velocities were significantly correlated (R = 0.55; P < 0.001). Probability of stroke was similar to international reports; of belonging to high-risk group, lower. High-reticulocyte count was the most important factor associated with cerebrovascular disease. Basilar artery velocity > 130 cm/sec seems to be an indirect sign of an underlying cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of a Method for Estimating Retinal Ganglion Cell Counts Using Visual Fields and Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Ali S.; Hood, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the accuracy and generalizability of a published model that derives estimates of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) counts and relates structural and functional changes due to glaucoma. Methods. Both the Harwerth et al. nonlinear model (H-NLM) and the Hood and Kardon linear model (HK-LM) were applied to an independent dataset of frequency-domain optical coherence tomography and visual fields, consisting of 48 eyes of 48 healthy controls, 100 eyes of 77 glaucoma patients and suspects, and 18 eyes of 14 nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) patients with severe vision loss. Using the coefficient of determination R2, the models were compared while keeping constant the topographic maps, specifically a map by Garway-Heath et al. and a separate map by Harwerth et al., which relate sensitivity test stimulus locations to corresponding regions around the optic disc. Additionally, simulations were used to evaluate the assumptions of the H-NLM. Results. Although the predictions of the HK-LM with the anatomically-derived Garway-Heath et al. map were reasonably good (R2 = 0.31–0.64), the predictions of the H-NLM were poor (R2 < 0) regardless of the map used. Furthermore, simulations of the H-NLM yielded results that differed substantially from RGC estimates based on histology from human subjects. Finally, the value-added of factors increasing the relative complexity of the H-NLM, such as assumptions regarding age- and stage-dependent corrections to structural measures, was unclear. Conclusions. Several of the assumptions underlying the H-NLM should be revisited. Studies and models relying on the RGC estimates of the H-NLM should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25604684

  5. Effects of milk somatic cell counts on some physicochemical and functional characteristics of skim and whole milk powders.

    PubMed

    Sert, Durmuş; Mercan, Emin; Aydemir, Serdar; Civelek, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of milk somatic cell count (SCC) levels on spray-dried milk powders. For this reason, 3 cow milks with different SCC (<300,000, 300,000-700,000, >700,000 SCC/mL) were processed into skim (SMP) and whole milk powder (WMP). The effect of SCC on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of the milk powders and textural properties of set-type yogurts produced from reconstituted milk powders with different SCC was evaluated. A crucial difference was noted between milk powders depending on different SCC. Protein values and ash content of powder samples decreased correlatively with increasing SCC. The hydroxymethylfurfural content of SMP was higher than WMP. We noted an increase in hydroxymethylfurfural content of both SMP and WMP depending on elevated SCC. Solubility index of SMP and WMP was 1.280 to 1.632 and 0.940 to 1.208mL, respectively; with increasing SCC, solubility index was affected adversely. The highest foam stability was determined in SMP containing >700,000 SCC. Bulk density of SMP and WMP was between 0.682 and 0.708 and 0.660 to 0.685g/cm(3), respectively. An increase was observed in scorched particle of both SMP and WMP depending on increasing SCC. We found significant differences in particle size distribution of milk powders produced from milk with SCC at different levels. Although WMP had more uniform and big particle structure, SMP had more specific area. A negative correlation was noted between yogurt texture and SCC. Results indicate that milk SCC has negative influences on milk powder quality. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in intestinal microbiota in HIV-1-infected subjects following cART initiation: influence of CD4+ T cell count.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yongjia; Zhang, Fengdi; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiangrong; Yang, Junyang; Tang, Qi; Xun, Jingna; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Zhenyan; Song, Wei; Tang, Yang; Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2018-06-22

    The roles of immunodeficiency and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in shaping the gut microbiota in HIV-1-infected subjects (HISs) have not been described thoroughly by time-series investigations. In this study, 36 antiretroviral-naïve HISs were enrolled to prospectively assess alterations in the fecal microbiota and plasma markers of microbial translocation and inflammation with cART. At baseline, the species α-diversity of the fecal microbiota was significantly lower in HISs with a CD4 + T cell count <300/mm 3 than in HISs with a CD4 + T cell count >300/mm 3 (Shannon index: Median 2.557 vs. 2.981, P = 0.006; Simpson index: Median 0.168 vs. 0.096, P = 0.004). Additionally, the baseline α-diversity indices correlated with CD4 + T cell counts (Shannon index: r = 0.474, P = 0.004; Simpson index: r = -0.467, P = 0.004) and the specific plasma biomarkers for microbial translocation and inflammation. After cART introduction, the species α-diversity of fecal microbiota in HISs with CD4 + T cell counts <300/mm 3 was significantly restored (Shannon index: Median 2.557 vs. 2.791, P = 0.007; Simpson index: Median 0.168 vs. 0.112, P = 0.004), while the variances were insignificant among HISs with CD4+ T cell counts >300/mm 3 (Shannon index: Median 2.981 vs. 2.934, P = 0.179; Simpson index: Median 0.096 vs. 0.119, P = 0.082). Meanwhile, with cART introduction, alterations in the gut microbial composition were more significant in the subgroup with CD4 + T cell counts >300/mm 3 , corresponding to increases in the specific plasma inflammatory markers. These findings implicated the interactive roles of immunodeficiency and cART for affecting gut microbiota in HIV-1-infected individuals, providing new insights into intestinal microbiome dysbiosis related to HIV-1 infection.

  7. Natural killer-cell counts are associated with molecular relapse-free survival after imatinib discontinuation in chronic myeloid leukemia: the IMMUNOSTIM study.

    PubMed

    Rea, Delphine; Henry, Guylaine; Khaznadar, Zena; Etienne, Gabriel; Guilhot, François; Nicolini, Franck; Guilhot, Joelle; Rousselot, Philippe; Huguet, Françoise; Legros, Laurence; Gardembas, Martine; Dubruille, Viviane; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Charbonnier, Aude; Maloisel, Frédéric; Ianotto, Jean-Christophe; Villemagne, Bruno; Mahon, François-Xavier; Moins-Teisserenc, Hélène; Dulphy, Nicolas; Toubert, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Despite persistence of leukemic stem cells, patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who achieve and maintain deep molecular responses may successfully stop the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. However, questions remain unanswered regarding the biological basis of molecular relapse after imatinib cessation. In IMMUNOSTIM, we monitored 51 patients from the French Stop IMatinib trial for peripheral blood T cells and natural killer cells. Molecular relapse-free survival at 24 months was 45.1% (95% CI: 31.44%-58.75%). At the time of imatinib discontinuation, non-relapsing patients had significantly higher numbers of natural killer cells of the cytotoxic CD56 dim subset than had relapsing patients, while CD56 bright natural killer cells, T cells and their subsets did not differ significantly. Furthermore, the CD56 dim natural killer-cell count was an independent prognostic factor of molecular-relapse free survival in a multivariate analysis. However, expression of natural killer-cell activating receptors, BCR-ABL1 + leukemia cell line K562-specific degranulation and cytokine-induced interferon-gamma secretion were decreased in non-relapsing and relapsing patients as compared with healthy individuals. After imatinib cessation, the natural killer-cell count increased significantly and stayed higher in non-relapsing patients than in relapsing patients, while receptor expression and functional properties remained unchanged. Altogether, our results suggest that natural killer cells may play a role in controlling leukemia-initiating cells at the origin of relapse after imatinib cessation, provided that these cells are numerous enough to compensate for their functional defects. Further research will decipher mechanisms underlying functional differences between natural killer cells from patients and healthy individuals and evaluate the potential interest of immunostimulatory approaches in tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation strategies. (ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier NCT

  8. Repeatability of paired counts.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Neal; Bethony, Jeff; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Rodrigues, Laura C; Hotez, Peter; Brooker, Simon

    2007-08-30

    The Bland and Altman technique is widely used to assess the variation between replicates of a method of clinical measurement. It yields the repeatability, i.e. the value within which 95 per cent of repeat measurements lie. The valid use of the technique requires that the variance is constant over the data range. This is not usually the case for counts of items such as CD4 cells or parasites, nor is the log transformation applicable to zero counts. We investigate the properties of generalized differences based on Box-Cox transformations. For an example, in a data set of hookworm eggs counted by the Kato-Katz method, the square root transformation is found to stabilize the variance. We show how to back-transform the repeatability on the square root scale to the repeatability of the counts themselves, as an increasing function of the square mean root egg count, i.e. the square of the average of square roots. As well as being more easily interpretable, the back-transformed results highlight the dependence of the repeatability on the sample volume used.

  9. Bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count might be a significant predictor for the treatment outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Sun; Gang, Ga Won; Lee, Se Ryun; Sung, Hwa Jung; Park, Young; Kim, Dae Sik; Choi, Chul Won; Kim, Byung Soo

    2015-10-01

    Developing a parameter to predict bone marrow invasion by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is an important unmet medical need for treatment decisions. This study aimed to confirm the validity of the hypothesis that bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level might be correlated with the risk of bone marrow involvement and the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Forty-nine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone regimen were enrolled. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The validity of bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level and bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count for predicting treatment response and survival after initial rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone combined chemotherapy was assessed. Bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count was significantly associated with old age (≥ 65 years), poor performance score (≥ 2), high International prognosis index (≥ 3) and bone marrow invasion. The patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) showed a significantly lower complete response rate than the others. On Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels (≥ 655 pg/ml) or high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) demonstrated a significantly shorter overall survival and progression-free survival than the others. In the patients without bone marrow involvement, bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count had a significant relationship with overall survival and progression-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that the patients without

  10. Long-term patterns in CD4 response are determined by an interaction between baseline CD4 cell count, viral load, and time: The Asia Pacific HIV Observational Database (APHOD).

    PubMed

    Egger, Sam; Petoumenos, Kathy; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Hoy, Jennifer; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Chuah, John; Falster, Kathleen; Zhou, Jialun; Law, Matthew G

    2009-04-15

    Random effects models were used to explore how the shape of CD4 cell count responses after commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) develop over time and, in particular, the role of baseline and follow-up covariates. Patients in Asia Pacific HIV Observational Database who first commenced cART after January 1, 1997, and who had a baseline CD4 cell count and viral load measure and at least 1 follow-up measure between 6 and 24 months, were included. CD4 cell counts were determined at every 6-month period after the commencement of cART for up to 6 years. A total of 1638 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria with a median follow-up time of 58 months. Lower post-cART mean CD4 cell counts were found to be associated with increasing age (P < 0.001), pre-cART hepatitis C coinfection (P = 0.038), prior AIDS (P = 0.019), baseline viral load < or equal to 100,000 copies per milliliter (P < 0.001), and the Asia Pacific region compared with Australia (P = 0.005). A highly significant 3-way interaction between the effects of time, baseline CD4 cell count, and post-cART viral burden (P < 0.0001) was demonstrated. Higher long-term mean CD4 cell counts were associated with lower baseline CD4 cell count and consistently undetectable viral loads. Among patients with consistently detectable viral load, CD4 cell counts seemed to converge for all baseline CD4 levels. Our analysis suggest that the long-term shape of post-cART CD4 cell count changes depends only on a 3-way interaction between baseline CD4 cell count, viral load response, and time.

  11. A new prognostic score for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP: the prognostic role of blood monocyte and lymphocyte counts is absent.

    PubMed

    Procházka, Vít; Pytlík, Robert; Janíková, Andrea; Belada, David; Sálek, David; Papajík, Tomáš; Campr, Vít; Fürst, Tomáš; Furstova, Jana; Trněný, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) have been documented as independent predictors of survival in patients with newly diagnosed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). Analysis of the prognostic impact of ALC and AMC in the context of International Prognostic Index (IPI) and other significant variables in elderly population treated in the R-CHOP regime has not been carried out yet. In this retrospective study, a cohort of 443 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients with age ≥ 60 was analyzed. All patients were treated with the R-CHOP therapy. An extensive statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors of 3-year overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, only three predictors proved significant: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG), age and bulky disease presence. These predictors were dichotomized (ECOG ≥ 1, age ≥ 70, bulk ≥ 7.5) to create a novel four-level score. This score predicted 3-year OS of 94.0%, 77.4%, 62.7% and 35.4% in the low-, low-intermediate, high-intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively (P<0.001). Further, a three-level score was tested which stratifies the population better (3-year OS: 91.9%, 67.2%, 36.2% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively) but is more difficult to interpret. Both the 3- and 4-level scores were compared to standard scoring systems and, in our population, were shown to be superior in terms of patients risk stratification with respect to 3-year OS prediction. The results were successfully validated on an independent cohort of 162 patients of similar group characteristics. The prognostic role of baseline ALC, AMC or their ratio (LMR) was not confirmed in the multivariate context in elderly population with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. The newly proposed age-specific index stratifies the elderly population into risk groups more precisely than the conventional IPI and its existing variants.

  12. Implementation and Operational Research: CD4 Count Monitoring Frequency and Risk of CD4 Count Dropping Below 200 Cells Per Cubic Millimeter Among Stable HIV-Infected Patients in New York City, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Xia, Qiang; Torian, Lucia V; Irvine, Mary; Harriman, Graham; Sepkowitz, Kent A; Shepard, Colin W

    2016-03-01

    The evidence has begun to mount for diminishing the frequency of CD4 count testing. To determine whether these observations were applicable to an urban US population, we used New York City (NYC) surveillance data to explore CD4 testing among stable patients in NYC, 2007-2013. We constructed a population-based retrospective open cohort analysis of NYC HIV surveillance data. HIV+ patients aged ≥ 13 years with stable viral suppression (≥ 1 viral load the previous year; all <400 copies per milliliter) and immune status (≥ 1 CD4 the previous year; all ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter) entered the cohort the following year beginning January 1, 2007. Each subsequent year, eligible patients not previously included entered the cohort on January 1. Outcomes were annual frequency of CD4 monitoring and probability of maintaining CD4 ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter. A multivariable Cox model identified factors associated with maintaining CD4 ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter. During 1.9 years of observation (median), 62,039 patients entered the cohort. The mean annual number of CD4 measurements among stable patients was 2.8 and varied little by year or characteristic. Two years after entering, 93.4% and 97.8% of those with initial CD4 350-499 and CD4 ≥ 500 cells per cubic millimeter, respectively, maintained CD4 ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter. Compared to those with initial CD4 ≥ 500 cells per cubic millimeter, those with CD4 200-349 cells per cubic millimeter and CD4 350-499 cells per cubic millimeter were more likely to have a CD4 <200 cells per cubic millimeter, controlling for sex, race, age, HIV risk group, and diagnosis year. In a population-based US cohort with well-controlled HIV, the probability of maintaining CD4 ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter for ≥ 2 years was >90% among those with initial CD4 ≥ 350 cells per cubic millimeter, suggesting that limited CD4 monitoring in these patients is appropriate.

  13. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 10(6) cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 10(3) cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 10(3) cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or probiotic plus honey on hematologic and

  14. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or

  15. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  16. Categorical counting.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

    2010-09-01

    Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphometric study of the fibrosis and mast cell count in the circular colon musculature of chronic Chagas patients with and without megacolon.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Simone Wanderley; Rua, Adilha Misson de Oliveira; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Cançado, Cristiane Gobbo; Chica, Javier Em lio Lazo; Lopes, Edison Reis; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2003-01-01

    A morphometric study of the circular colon musculature was performed, in which the mast cell count was determined and the connective fibrous tissue in this layer was measured. The objective was to gain better understanding of Chagas megacolon morphology and contribute towards the knowledge of fibrosis pathogenesis in Chagas megas. An evaluation was made of 15 distal sigmoid rings from Chagas patients with megacolon (MCC), 15 without megacolon (CSMC) and 15 non-Chagas patients (NC). The rings were fixed in formol, embedded in paraffin, and 7mm thick sections were cut and stained using Azan-Heidenhain and Giemsa. The mast cell count and fibrosis were greater in the MCC group than in the CSMC and NC groups (p< 0,05; Kruskal-Wallis test) and there was no significant difference between the latter two. The fibrosis and increased mast cell count in the colon musculature of the MCC group possibly indicates that there is a relationship between mastocytosis and fibrosis, as has already been demonstrated in other pathologies.

  18. Study of the association of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity with bulk tank milk somatic cell count in dairy herds using Generalized additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Testa, Francesco; Marano, Giuseppe; Ambrogi, Federico; Boracchi, Patrizia; Casula, Antonio; Biganzoli, Elia; Moroni, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Elevated bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) has a negative impact on milk production, milk quality, and animal health. Seasonal increases in herd level somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly associated with elevated environmental temperature and humidity. The Temperature Humidity Index (THI) has been developed to measure general environmental stress in dairy cattle; however, additional work is needed to determine a specific effect of the heat stress index on herd-level SCC. Generalized Additive Model methods were used for a flexible exploration of the relationships between daily temperature, relative humidity, and bulk milk somatic cell count. The data consist of BMSCC and meteorological recordings collected between March 2009 and October 2011 of 10 dairy farms. The results indicate that, an average increase of 0.16% of BMSCC is expected for an increase of 1°C degree of temperature. A complex relationship was found for relative humidity. For example, increase of 0.099%, 0.037% and 0.020% are expected in correspondence to an increase of relative humidity from 50% to 51%, 80% to 81%; and 90% to 91%, respectively. Using this model, it will be possible to provide evidence-based advice to dairy farmers for the use of THI control charts created on the basis of our statistical model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Higher Correlation of HCV Core Antigen with CD4+ T Cell Counts Compared with HCV RNA in HCV/HIV-1 Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weidong; Xi, Yuanlin; Cao, Guanghua; Zhi, Yuhong; Wang, Shuiwang; Xu, Chunhui; Wei, Lai; Lu, Fengmin; Zhuang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Development of HCV infection is typically followed by chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in most patients, while spontaneous HCV viral clearance (SVC) occurs in only a minority of subjects. Compared with the widespread application of HCV RNA testing by quantitative RT-PCR technique, HCV core antigen detection may be an alternative indicator in the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infections and in monitoring the status of infectious individuals. However, the correlation and differences between these two indicators in HCV infection need more investigation, especially in patients coinfected by HIV-1. In this study, a total of 354 anti-HCV and/or anti-HIV serum positive residents from a village of central China were enrolled. Besides HCV-related hepatopathic variables including clinical status, ALT, AST, anti-HCV Abs, as well as the altered CD4+/CD8+ T cell counts, HCV core antigen and HCV viral load were also measured. The concentration of serum HCV core antigen was highly correlated with level of HCV RNA in CHC patients with or without HIV-1 coinfection. Of note, HCV core antigen concentration was negatively correlated with CD4+ T cell count, while no correlation was found between HCV RNA level and CD4+ T cell count. Our findings suggested that quantitative detection of plasma HCV core antigen may be an alternative indicator of HCV RNA qPCR assay when evaluating the association between HCV replication and host immune status in HCV/HIV-1 coinfected patients. PMID:21858166

  20. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Different screening tests and milk somatic cell count for the prevalence of subclinical bovine mastitis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Nazmul; Das, Ziban Chandra; Talukder, Anup Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Shah; Rahman, Abu Nasar Md Aminoor

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cows with subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an important tool for sustainable dairying and implementing effective mastitis control strategies. A total of 892 quarters milk samples from 228 lactating cows were screened by California mastitis test (CMT), White side test (WST), Surf field mastitis test (SFMT), and somatic cell count (SCC) to study the prevalence of bovine SCM in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Out of 228 cows, 148 (64.9%), 138 (60.5%), 132 (57.9%), and 164 (71.9%) were found positive for SCM by CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC, respectively. The prevalence of bovine SCM was diagnosed 45.7, 40.2, 36.6, and 29.6% in Chittagong, Sirajgonj, Mymensingh, and Gazipur districts, respectively, based on a combination of all tests. The overall quarter-wise prevalence of SCM was 45.7, 43.5, 41.2, and 55.0% for CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC. Single quarters and left front quarters were more prone to SCM (P < 0.05). Friesian crossbred cows (56.4%), BCS 2.0-2.5 (55.4%), and parity 4-6 (52.4%), the late lactation stage (5-8 months; 64.7%) and high yielding cows (16-20 L/day; 65.3%) were more susceptible to SCM (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of the CMT, WST, SFMT, and SCC was 65.8, 57.9, 51.0, and 82.5%; specificity 76.2, 72.4, 69.5, and 89.4%; percentage accuracy 70.0, 64.8, 59.9, and 85.2%; positive predictive value 75.2, 69.8, 64.9, and 92.7%, respectively. The categories of CMT reactions were strongly correlated with SCC (P < 0.05). Kappa value of SCC was higher than that of other tests (SCC>CMT>WST>SFMT). Thus, CMT was concluded to be the most accurate (r = 0.782) field diagnostic test after laboratory test like SCC (r = 0.924). However, the use of any single test may not be reliable in diagnosing SCM, while the result of CMT supported by SCC might be used effectively to pinpoint diagnosis of SCM in dairy animals than alone.

  2. Effect of disinfecting teats post-milking or pre- and post-milking on intramammary infection and somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J H; Lacy-Hulbert, S J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of (a) post-milking teat disinfection compared with no disinfection and (b) pre- and post-milking teat disinfection compared with post-milking disinfection alone, on the incidence of new intramammary infection (IMI), somatic cell count (SCC) and teat skin abnormalities in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, dairy cows in five dairy herds were randomly allocated to a post-milking teat disinfection group (n=230), that was sprayed with an iodine-based disinfectant (TeatguardPlus) for a complete lactation, or to a non-disinfected group (n=239). In Experiment 2, cows were randomly allocated to post-milking teat disinfection (n=239) or both pre- and post-milking teat disinfection (n=235), using a chloramine-T-based disinfectant (Teatsweet) for both treatments, from calving to 118-127 days in milk. The incidence of new IMI was determined by aseptic sampling of all quarters at calving, during lactation, and at trial end or at drying-off, with clinical mastitis cases sampled on detection. SCC and teat skin abnormalities were measured at 2-monthly intervals during lactation. In both experiments, disinfectant was applied by spray application. Cows that received post-milking teat disinfection had a lower incidence of new IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Corynebacterium spp and coagulase negative staphylococci, had lower bulk milk SCC during lactation, and had fewer teat skin abnormalities compared with the non-disinfected cows (p < 0.05). Pre-milking teat disinfection, in addition to post-milking teat disinfection, did not reduce the incidence of new IMI for any pathogens and did not reduce SCC (p> 0.05). Post-milking teat disinfection applied as a spray is a key component in mastitis control in New Zealand. There was no benefit from the addition of pre-milking disinfection. This study confirms previous findings of the effectiveness of post-milking teat disinfection in reducing the incidence of IMI caused by the common mastitis

  3. Variation in blood serum proteins and association with somatic cell count in dairy cattle from multi-breed herds.

    PubMed

    Bobbo, T; Fiore, E; Gianesella, M; Morgante, M; Gallo, L; Ruegg, P L; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-12-01

    Blood serum proteins are significant indicators of animal health. Nevertheless, several factors should be considered to appropriately interpret their concentrations in blood. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effect of herd productivity, breed, age and stage of lactation on serum proteins and (2) to investigate association between serum proteins and somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy cattle. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1508 cows of six different breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, Jersey, Simmental, Rendena and Alpine Grey) that were housed in 41 multi-breed herds. Milk samples were analyzed for composition and SCC, while blood samples were analyzed for serum proteins (i.e. total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin-to-globulin ratio (A : G)). Herds were classified as low or high production, according to the cow's average daily milk energy yield adjusted for breed, days in milk (DIM) and parity. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model that included the fixed effects of DIM, parity, SCS, breed, herd productivity and the random effect of the Herd-test date within productivity level. Cows in high producing herds (characterized also by greater use of concentrates in the diet) had greater serum albumin concentrations. Breed differences were reported for all traits, highlighting a possible genetic mechanism. The specialized breed Jersey and the two dual-purpose local breeds (Alpine Grey and Rendena) had the lowest globulin concentration and greatest A : G. Changes in serum proteins were observed through lactation. Total protein reached the highest concentration during the 4th month of lactation. Blood albumin increased with DIM following a quadratic pattern, while globulin decreased linearly. As a consequence, A : G increased linearly during lactation. Older cows had greater total protein and globulin concentrations, while albumin concentration seemed to be not particularly affected by age. A linear relationship

  4. Bulk tank somatic cell counts analyzed by statistical process control tools to identify and monitor subclinical mastitis incidence.

    PubMed

    Lukas, J M; Hawkins, D M; Kinsel, M L; Reneau, J K

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between monthly Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates and daily bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) summarized by statistical process control tools. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates along with daily or every other day bulk tank SCC data were collected for 12 mo of 2003 from 275 Upper Midwest dairy herds. Herds were divided into 5 herd production categories. A linear score [LNS = ln(BTSCC/100,000)/0.693147 + 3] was calculated for each individual bulk tank SCC. For both the raw SCC and the transformed data, the mean and sigma were calculated using the statistical quality control individual measurement and moving range chart procedure of Statistical Analysis System. One hundred eighty-three herds of the 275 herds from the study data set were then randomly selected and the raw (method 1) and transformed (method 2) bulk tank SCC mean and sigma were used to develop models for predicting subclinical mastitis and new infection rate estimates. Herd production category was also included in all models as 5 dummy variables. Models were validated by calculating estimates of subclinical mastitis and new infection rates for the remaining 92 herds and plotting them against observed values of each of the dependents. Only herd production category and bulk tank SCC mean were significant and remained in the final models. High R2 values (0.83 and 0.81 for methods 1 and 2, respectively) indicated a strong correlation between the bulk tank SCC and herd's subclinical mastitis prevalence. The standard errors of the estimate were 4.02 and 4.28% for methods 1 and 2, respectively, and decreased with increasing herd production. As a case study, Shewhart Individual Measurement Charts were plotted from the bulk tank SCC to identify shifts in mastitis incidence. Four of 5 charts examined signaled a change in bulk tank SCC before

  5. CD4 cell count response to first-line combination ART in HIV-2+ patients compared with HIV-1+ patients: a multinational, multicohort European study.

    PubMed

    Wittkop, Linda; Arsandaux, Julie; Trevino, Ana; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Anderson, Jane; van Sighem, Ard; Böni, Jürg; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise; Soriano, Vicente; Boufassa, Faroudy; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Calmy, Alexandra; Dabis, François; Jarrin, Inma; Dorrucci, Maria; Duque, Vitor; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Zangerle, Robert; Ferrer, Elena; Porter, Kholoud; Judd, Ali; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Lambotte, Olivier; Shepherd, Leah; Leport, Catherine; Morrison, Charles; Mussini, Cristina; Obel, Niels; Ruelle, Jean; Schwarze-Zander, Carolyne; Sonnerborg, Anders; Teira, Ramon; Torti, Carlo; Valadas, Emilia; Colin, Celine; Friis-Møller, Nina; Costagliola, Dominique; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Chene, Geneviève; Matheron, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    CD4 cell recovery following first-line combination ART (cART) is poorer in HIV-2+ than in HIV-1+ patients. Only large comparisons may allow adjustments for demographic and pretreatment plasma viral load (pVL). ART-naive HIV+ adults from two European multicohort collaborations, COHERE (HIV-1 alone) and ACHIeV2e (HIV-2 alone), were included, if they started first-line cART (without NNRTIs or fusion inhibitors) between 1997 and 2011. Patients without at least one CD4 cell count before start of cART, without a pretreatment pVL and with missing a priori-defined covariables were excluded. Evolution of CD4 cell count was studied using adjusted linear mixed models. We included 185 HIV-2+ and 30321 HIV-1+ patients with median age of 46 years (IQR 36-52) and 37 years (IQR 31-44), respectively. Median observed pretreatment CD4 cell counts/mm3 were 203 (95% CI 100-290) in HIV-2+ patients and 223 (95% CI 100-353) in HIV-1+ patients. Mean observed CD4 cell count changes from start of cART to 12 months were +105 (95% CI 77-134) in HIV-2+ patients and +202 (95% CI 199-205) in HIV-1+ patients, an observed difference of 97 cells/mm3 in 1 year. In adjusted analysis, the mean CD4 cell increase was overall 25 CD4 cells/mm3/year lower (95% CI 5-44; P = 0.0127) in HIV-2+ patients compared with HIV-1+ patients. A poorer CD4 cell increase during first-line cART was observed in HIV-2+ patients, even after adjusting for pretreatment pVL and other potential confounders. Our results underline the need to identify more potent therapeutic regimens or strategies against HIV-2. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Keto analogues and amino acids supplementation induces a decrease of white blood cell counts and a reduction of muscle damage during intense exercise under thermoneutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Lima, R C P; Camerino, S R A S; França, T C L; Rodrigues, D S A; Gouveia, M G S; Ximenes-da-Silva, A; Bassini, A; Prado, E S; Cameron, L C

    2017-04-19

    This study evaluated the acute effect of keto analogue and amino acid (AA-KAAA) supplementation on both white blood cell counts and the established biomarkers of muscle damage during exercise under thermoneutral conditions. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for two days and were divided into two equal groups: a group taking AA-KAAA (KA) or a control group (PL). The athletes performed a two hour cycling session followed by a maximum incremental test until voluntary exhaustion (VExh). Blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise for further hematological and biochemical analyses. Exercise-induced ammonemia increased in the PL group at VExh (75%) but remained unchanged in the KA group. Both groups exhibited a significant increase in leukocyte and neutrophil counts of ∼85% (∼13 × 10 9 L -1 ), but the shape of the lymphocytes and the eosinophil counts suggest that AA-KAAA supplementation helps prevent lymphocytosis. AA-KAAA supplementation induced a decrease in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels at VExh while showing a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase at 120 min. We found that AA-KAAA supplementation decreases both the lymphocyte count response in blood and the established biomarkers of muscle damage after intense exercise under a low heat stress environment.

  7. Nanomolar detection of hypochlorite by a rhodamine-based chiral hydrazide in absolute aqueous media: application in tap water analysis with live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Shyamaprosad; Das, Avijit Kumar; Manna, Abhishek; Maity, Anup Kumar; Saha, Partha; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A

    2014-07-01

    By employing the oxidation property of hypochlorite (OCl(-)), a novel rhodamine-based hydrazide of the chiral acid ((S)-(-)-2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid) (RHHP) was designed and synthesized for detection of OCl(-) absolutely in aqueous medium at nanomolar level. The structure of the chiral sensor was also proved by the X-ray crystallography. The bioactivity and the application of the probe for detection of OCl(-) in natural water system have been demonstrated. A plausible mechanism for oxidation of the sensor followed by hydrolysis is also proposed. The sensibility of the receptor toward OCl(-) was studied in absolute aqueous media, and the detection limit of hypochlorite-mediated oxidation to the receptor in nanomolar level makes this platform (RHHP) an ultrasensitive and unique system for OCl(-) oxidation.

  8. [Corrected count].

    PubMed

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected.

  9. Proliferative Activity of Mammary Carcinoma Cells by AgNOR Count in C3H mice Receiving Ethanol Extract of Sponge Haliclona sp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijabat, Lanceria; Susilaningsih, Neni; Trianto, Agus; Murwani, Retno

    2018-02-01

    Quantification of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNORs) was considered as one of markers of proliferative activity of cancer cells. Sponge Haliclona sp extract contains anticancer bioactive compounds and our previous study showed that the extract was able to improve histological grade of induced mammary adenocarcinoma in mice. The following research was conducted to study the extract administration on the proliferative activity of the carcinoma cells represented by AgNOR count in mice. This experimental study applied post test only control group design. Twenty C3H mice were divided into four groups namely C (control), H1, H2 and H3. Each group was given 0, 0.15, 1.5, and 15 mg Haliclona sp extract respectively. After three weeks of extract administration, mice were inoculated with breast cancer cells from donor mice. The extract administration were continued for another three weeks. AgNOR count was performed on tumor sections and expressed as mean of AgNOR (mAgNOR) and percentage of AgNOR (pAgNOR). Means of mAgNOR in C, H1, H2 and H3 were 4.070, 3.195, 3.450, and 3.190 respectively. Means of pAgNOR in C, H1, H2 and H3 were 34,40, 25,40, 38,40 and 19,80 respectively. The lowest means of mAgNOR and pAgNOR which is an indication of lower proliferative activity of the cancer cells was found in H3. However no significant difference can be found among treatment groups (p>0.05). Using AgNOR count, the ethanol extract of Haliclona sp could not show significant reduction in proliferation of mammary carcinoma cells of C3H mice. This finding support the view that AgNOR alone could not be used to determine pathology of cancer cells.

  10. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome.

  11. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments inmore » Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.« less

  12. Short preheating at 41°C leads to a red blood cells count comparable to that in RET channel of Sysmex analysers in samples showing cold agglutination.

    PubMed

    La Gioia, Antonio; Fumi, Maurizio; Fiorini, Fabiana; Pezzati, Paola; Balboni, Fiamma; Bombara, Maria; Marini, Alessandra; Pancione, Ylenia; Solarino, Leonardo; Marchese, Elisa; Sale, Silvia; Rocco, Vincenzo; Fiorini, Marcello

    2018-03-13

    The presence of cold agglutinin in blood samples can cause a spontaneous agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) when low temperature occurs. This phenomenon causes a spurious lowering of RBC count on the automated haematological analysers that are detected by incongruous values (≥370 g/L) of the mean cellular haemoglobi concentration (MCHC). A preheating at 37°C can remove the RBC agglutination generally resulting in a reliable count. It has been reported that the same result can be reached by using the optical reticulocyte (RET) channel of Sysmex analysers where the RBC count is not influenced by the presence of cold agglutinin. This study aims to evaluate these data in a larger population, with regard to environmental conditions on Sysmex analysers. We have also evaluated the influence of different thermal pretreatments on the RBC count. This study was performed on 96 remnants of peripheral blood samples (48 with MCHC in normal range and 48 with MCHC > 370 g/L) which have been analysed in different preanalytical conditions on the Sysmex analysers. A preheating of samples at 41°C for 1 min leads to a reversibility of the cold agglutination comparable to the one observed in the RET channel and yields better results compared with 37°C for 2 hours. None of described procedures assure the complete cold agglutination reversibility in every case. Consequently, since the haematological analysers not yet provide reliable parameters to confirm the complete resolution of agglutination, further verification of RBC count accuracy needs to be performed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Plasma n-6 Fatty Acid Levels Are Associated With CD4 Cell Counts, Hospitalization, and Mortality in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Kabagambe, Edmond K; Ezeamama, Amara E; Guwatudde, David; Campos, Hannia; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-12-15

    Fatty acids, including n-6 series, modulate immune function, but their effect on CD4 cell counts, death, or hospitalization in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy is unknown. In a randomized trial for effects of multivitamins in HIV-infected patients in Uganda, we used gas chromatography to measure plasma n-6 fatty acids at baseline; determined CD4 counts at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months; and recorded hospitalization or death events. The associations of fatty acids with CD4 counts and events were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and Cox regression, respectively. Among 297 patients with fatty acids measurements, 16 patients died and 69 were hospitalized within 18 months. Except for linoleic acid, n-6 fatty acids levels were positively associated with CD4 counts at baseline but not during follow-up. In models that included all 5 major n-6 fatty acids, age; sex; body mass index; anemia status; use of antiretroviral therapy, multivitamin supplements, and alcohol; and the risk of death or hospitalization decreased significantly with an increase in linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid levels, whereas associations for dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and aolrenic acid were null. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) per 1 SD increase in linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid were 0.73 (0.56-0.94) and 0.51 (0.36-0.72), respectively. Gamma-linolenic acid remained significant (hazard ratio = 0.51; 95% confidence interval: 0.35 to 0.68) after further adjustment for other plasma fatty acids. Lower levels of gamma-linolenic acid are associated with lower CD4 counts and an increased risk of death or hospitalization. These results suggest a potential for using n-6 fatty acids to improve outcomes from antiretroviral therapy.

  14. Adrenal and white cell count responses to chronic stress in gestating and postpartum females of the viviparous skink Egernia whitii (Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Cartledge, Victoria A; Gartrell, Brett; Jones, Susan M

    2005-05-01

    This study investigates the relationships between plasma corticosterone concentrations and white cell counts in captive females of the viviparous lizard Egernia whitii during two phases of the reproductive cycle. Gestating and postpartum females were captured in the field and held in the laboratory for 4 weeks. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone concentrations and white blood cell counts were examined in blood samples taken at capture and after 24 h, 1 week, and 4 weeks in captivity. At 24 h after capture, plasma corticosterone concentrations in both groups had increased significantly compared with initial values but then returned to initial concentrations after 1 week in captivity and remained low in the 4 week samples. Plasma progesterone concentrations remained elevated in the gestating females until the week 4 sample, just prior to parturition. The hormone data suggest that capture and captivity did not represent a significant long-term stressor to these animals. The increase in plasma corticosterone concentration was associated with heterophilia in the differential leucocyte count in both groups of females. Lymphocyte numbers decreased only in gestating females, suggesting that reproductive status may influence the interaction between adrenal activity and immune function.

  15. Circulating Tumor Cell Count Correlates with Colorectal Neoplasm Progression and Is a Prognostic Marker for Distant Metastasis in Non-Metastatic Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Shao, Hung-Jen; Wu, Jen-Chia; Lai-Ming, Jr.; Lu, Si-Hong; Hung, Tsung-Fu; Chiu, Yen-Chi; You, Jeng-Fu; Hsieh, Pao-Shiu; Yeh, Chien-Yuh; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Chiang, Sum-Fu; Lin, Geng-Ping; Tang, Reiping; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-01

    Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been proven as a prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer (m-CRC) patients. However, the currently available techniques for capturing and enumerating CTCs lack of required sensitivity to be applicable as a prognostic marker for non-metastatic patients as CTCs are even more rare. We have developed a microfluidic device utilizing antibody-conjugated non-fouling coating to eliminate nonspecific binding and to promote the multivalent binding of target cells. We then established the correlation of CTC counts and neoplasm progression through applying this platform to capture and enumerate CTCs in 2 mL of peripheral blood from healthy (n = 27), benign (n = 21), non-metastatic (n = 95), and m-CRC (n = 15) patients. The results showed that the CTC counts progressed from 0, 1, 5, to 36. Importantly, after 2-year follow-up on the non-metastatic CRC patients, we found that those who had ≥5 CTCs were 8 times more likely to develop distant metastasis within one year after curable surgery than those who had <5. In conclusion, by employing a sensitive device, CTC counts show good correlation with colorectal neoplasm, thus CTC may be as a simple, independent prognostic marker for the non-metastatic CRC patients who are at high risk of early recurrence.

  16. Basal CD34+ Cell Count Predicts Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Healthy Donors after Administration of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A Longitudinal, Prospective, Observational, Single-Center, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Martino, Massimo; Gori, Mercedes; Pitino, Annalisa; Gentile, Massimo; Dattola, Antonia; Pontari, Antonella; Vigna, Ernesto; Moscato, Tiziana; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Barilla', Santina; Tripepi, Giovanni; Morabito, Fortunato

    2017-07-01

    A longitudinal, prospective, observational, single-center, cohort study on healthy donors (HDs) was designed to identify predictors of CD34 + cells on day 5 with emphasis on the predictive value of the basal CD34 + cell count. As potential predictors of mobilization, age, sex, body weight, height, blood volume as well as white blood cell count, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells, platelet count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were considered. Two different evaluations of CD34 + cell counts were determined for each donor: baseline (before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] administration) and in PB after G-CSF administration on the morning of the fifth day (day 5). A total of 128 consecutive HDs (66 males) with a median age of 43 years were enrolled. CD34 + levels on day 5 displayed a non-normal distribution, with a median value of 75.5 cells/µL. To account for the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, a quantile regression analysis to predict CD34 + on day 5 using the baseline value of CD34 + as the key predictor was performed. On crude analysis, a baseline value of CD34 + ranging from .5 cells/µL to 1 cells/µL predicts a median value of 50 cells/µL on day 5; a value of 2 cells/µL predicts a median value of 70.7 cells/µL; a value of 3 cells/µL to 4 cells/µL predicts a median value of 91.3 cells/µL, and a value ≥ 5 predicts a median value of 112 cells/µL. In conclusion, the baseline PB CD34 + cell count correlates with the effectiveness of allogeneic PB stem cell mobilization and could be useful to plan the collection. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    PubMed

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts

  18. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    PubMed

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  19. CD20 positivity and white blood cell count predict treatment outcomes in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients ineligible for pediatric-inspired chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, Yusuke; Ohwada, Chikako; Sakaida, Emiko; Onoda, Masahiro; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Fukazawa, Motoharu; Cho, Ryuko; Sugawara, Takeaki; Kawaguchi, Takeharu; Hara, Satoru; Yokota, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The efficacy of conventional chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been controversial as post-remission therapies for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. We retrospectively analyzed 96 adolescent and adult cases of Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia to evaluate whether allo-HSCT should be performed after first complete remission (1CR). In total, 34 patients received chemotherapy followed by allo-HSCT (HSCT group) and 62 received chemotherapy alone (chemotherapy group). No significant differences in the event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival were observed between the two groups. In the chemotherapy group, use of pediatric regimens was significantly associated with favorable EFS, while high white blood cell (WBC) count and CD20 positivity were associated with poor outcome. In patients who received pediatric regimens, subsequent allo-HSCT did not influence EFS. In patients who received conventional chemotherapy (adult regimen), subsequent allo-HSCT did not improve EFS. High WBC count and CD20 positivity were also significantly associated with poor EFS in patients who received adult regimens. Patients with low WBC count and absence of CD20 who received adult regimens did not benefit from allo-HSCT. Allo-HSCT may not be required in the pediatric regimen-eligible patients; however, pediatric regimen-ineligible patients with either CD20 positivity or high WBC count should receive allo-HSCT after achieving 1CR. This study was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as #C000016287. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. A compact 7-cell Si-drift detector module for high-count rate X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, K; Reckleben, C; Diehl, I; Klär, H

    2008-05-01

    A new Si-drift detector module for fast X-ray spectroscopy experiments was developed and realized. The Peltier-cooled module comprises a sensor with 7 × 7-mm 2 active area, an integrated circuit for amplification, shaping and detection, storage, and derandomized readout of signal pulses in parallel, and amplifiers for line driving. The compactness and hexagonal shape of the module with a wrench size of 16mm allow very short distances to the specimen and multi-module arrangements. The power dissipation is 186mW. At a shaper peaking time of 190 ns and an integration time of 450 ns an electronic rms noise of ~11 electrons was achieved. When operated at 7 °C, FWHM line widths around 260 and 460 eV (Cu-K α ) were obtained at low rates and at sum-count rates of 1.7 MHz, respectively. The peak shift is below 1% for a broad range of count rates. At 1.7-MHz sum-count rate the throughput loss amounts to 30%.

  1. Maternal CD4+ cell count decline after interruption of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Ekouevi, Didier; Abrams, Elaine J; Schlesinger, Malka; Myer, Landon; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Carter, Rosalind J

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated maternal CD4+ cell count (CD4+) decline after PMTCT prophylaxis in a multi-country HIV care program. Analysis was restricted to antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-infected pregnant women with CD4+ ≥250 cells/mm(3) at enrollment. Single-dose nevirapine (sd-NVP) or short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis (sc-ARVp) with zidovudine (AZT) or AZT + lamivudine (3TC) was initiated in 11 programs while 2 programs offered triple-drug antiretroviral prophylaxis (tARVp) (AZT+3TC+ NVP or nelfinavir). All regimens were stopped at delivery. CD4+ decline was defined as proportion of women who declined to CD4+ <350 cells/mm(3) or <200 cells/mm(3) at 24 months. Weibull regression was used for multivariable analysis. A total of 1,393 women with enrollment CD4+ ≥250 cells/mm(3) initiated tARVp (172; 12%) or sc-ARVp (532; 38%) during pregnancy or received intrapartum sd-NVP (689; 50%). At enrollment, maternal median age was 27 years (interquartile range (IQR) 23-30), median CD4+ was 469 cells/mm(3) (IQR: 363-613). At 24 months post-delivery, the cumulative probability of CD4+ decline to <200 cells/mm(3) was 12% (95% CI: 10-14). Among a subgroup of 903 women with CD4+ ≥400 cells at enrollment, the 24 month cumulative probability of decline to CD4+ <350 cells/mm(3) was 28%; (95% CI: 25-32). Lower antepartum CD4+ was associated with higher probability of CD4+ decline to <350 cells/mm(3): 46% (CD4+400-499 cells/mm(3)) vs. 19% (CD4+ ≥500 cells/mm(3)). After adjusting for age, enrollment CD4+ and WHO stage, women who received tARVp or sd-NVP were twice as likely to experience CD4+ decline to <350 cells/mm(3) within 24 months than women receiving sc-ARVp (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5-3.2, p<0.0001). Decline in CD4+ cell count to ART eligibility thresholds by 24 months postpartum was common among women receiving PMTCT prophylaxis during pregnancy and/or delivery.

  2. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

  3. Alternative fluorescent labeling strategies for characterizing gram-positive pathogenic bacteria: Flow cytometry supported counting, sorting, and proteome analysis of Staphylococcus aureus retrieved from infected host cells.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Petra; Surmann, Kristin; Salazar, Manuela Gesell; Normann, Nicole; Völker, Uwe; Schmidt, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that is able to cause a broad range of infectious diseases in humans. Furthermore, S. aureus is able to survive inside nonprofessional phagocytic host cell which serve as a niche for the pathogen to hide from the immune system and antibiotics therapies. Modern OMICs technologies provide valuable tools to investigate host-pathogen interactions upon internalization. However, these experiments are often hampered by limited capabilities to retrieve bacteria from such an experimental setting. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a labeling strategy allowing fast detection and quantitation of S. aureus in cell lysates or infected cell lines by flow cytometry for subsequent proteome analyses. Therefore, S. aureus cells were labeled with the DNA stain SYTO ® 9, or Vancomycin BODIPY ® FL (VMB), a glycopeptide antibiotic binding to most Gram-positive bacteria which was conjugated to a fluorescent dye. Staining of S. aureus HG001 with SYTO 9 allowed counting of bacteria from pure cultures but not in cell lysates from infection experiments. In contrast, with VMB it was feasible to stain bacteria from pure cultures as well as from samples of infection experiments. VMB can also be applied for histocytochemistry analysis of formaldehyde fixed cell layers grown on coverslips. Proteome analyses of S. aureus labeled with VMB revealed that the labeling procedure provoked only minor changes on proteome level and allowed cell sorting and analysis of S. aureus from infection settings with sensitivity similar to continuous gfp expression. Furthermore, VMB labeling allowed precise counting of internalized bacteria and can be employed for downstream analyses, e.g., proteomics, of strains not easily amendable to genetic manipulation such as clinical isolates. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Analysis of HIV disease burden by calculating the percentages of patients with CD4 counts <100 cells/µL across 52 districts reveals hot spots for intensified commitment to programmatic support.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Lindi Marie; Cassim, Naseem; Glencross, Deborah Kim

    2017-05-24

    South Africa (SA)'s Comprehensive HIV and AIDS Care, Management and Treatment (CCMT) programme has reduced new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths. In spite of progress made, 11.2% of South Africans (4.02 million) were living with HIV in 2015. The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) in SA performs CD4 testing in support of the CCMT programme and collates data through the NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse. The objective of this study was to assess the distribution of CD4 counts <100 cells/µL (defining severely immunosuppressed HIV-positive patients) and >500 cells/µL (as an HIV-positive 'wellness' indicator). CD4 data were extracted for the financial years 2010/11 and 2014/15, according to the district where the test was ordered, for predefined CD4 ranges. National and provincial averages of CD4 counts <100 and >500 cells/µL were calculated. Data were analysed using Stata 12 and mapping was done with ArcGIS software, reporting percentages of CD4 counts <100 and >500 cells/µL by district. The national average percentage of patients with CD4 counts <100 cells/µL showed a marked decrease (by 22%) over the 5-year study period, with a concurrent increase in CD4 counts >500 cells/µL (by 57%). District-by-district analysis showed that in 2010/11, 44/52 districts had >10% of CD4 samples with counts <100 cells/µL, decreasing to only 17/52 districts by 2014/15. Overall, districts in the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal had the lowest percentages of CD4 counts <100 cells/µL, as well as the highest percentages of counts >500 cells/µL. In contrast, in 2014/15, the highest percentages of CD4 counts <100 cells/µL were noted in the West Rand (Gauteng), Vhembe (Limpopo) and Nelson Mandela Bay (Eastern Cape) districts, where the lowest percentages of counts >500 cells/µL were also noted. The percentages of CD4 counts <100 cells/µL highlighted here reveal districts with positive change suggestive of programmatic improvements

  5. Hierarchy Low CD4+/CD8+ T-Cell Counts and IFN-γ Responses in HIV-1+ Individuals Correlate with Active TB and/or M.tb Co-Infection.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lingyun; Zhang, Xinyun; Gao, Yan; Xu, Yunya; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Shenglei; Weng, Xinhua; Shen, Hongbo; Chen, Zheng W; Jiang, Weimin; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Detailed studies of correlation between HIV-M.tb co-infection and hierarchy declines of CD8+/CD4+ T-cell counts and IFN-γ responses have not been done. We conducted case-control studies to address this issue. 164 HIV-1-infected individuals comprised of HIV-1+ATB, HIV-1+LTB and HIV-1+TB- groups were evaluated. Immune phenotyping and complete blood count (CBC) were employed to measure CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts; T.SPOT.TB and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS