Science.gov

Sample records for absolute deviation mad

  1. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  2. Constrained Least Absolute Deviation Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that least absolute deviation (LAD) criterion or L1-norm used for estimation of parameters is characterized by robustness, i.e., the estimated parameters are totally resistant (insensitive) to large changes in the sampled data. This is an extremely useful feature, especially, when the sampled data are known to be contaminated by occasionally occurring outliers or by spiky noise. In our previous works, we have proposed the least absolute deviation neural network (LADNN) to solve unconstrained LAD problems. The theoretical proofs and numerical simulations have shown that the LADNN is Lyapunov-stable and it can globally converge to the exact solution to a given unconstrained LAD problem. We have also demonstrated its excellent application value in time-delay estimation. More generally, a practical LAD application problem may contain some linear constraints, such as a set of equalities and/or inequalities, which is called constrained LAD problem, whereas the unconstrained LAD can be considered as a special form of the constrained LAD. In this paper, we present a new neural network called constrained least absolute deviation neural network (CLADNN) to solve general constrained LAD problems. Theoretical proofs and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed CLADNN is Lyapunov stable and globally converges to the exact solution to a given constrained LAD problem, independent of initial values. The numerical simulations have also illustrated that the proposed CLADNN can be used to robustly estimate parameters for nonlinear curve fitting, which is extensively used in signal and image processing. PMID:18269958

  3. Application of Mean of Absolute Deviation Method for the Selection of Best Nonlinear Component Based on Video Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anees, Amir; Khan, Waqar Ahmad; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work is to make use of the mean of absolute deviation (MAD) method for the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard. In this paper, we use the MAD technique to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. In particular, MAD is applied to advanced encryption standard (AES), affine power affine (APA), Gray, Lui J., Residue Prime, S8 AES, SKIPJACK, and Xyi substitution boxes.

  4. Weighted Wilcoxon-type Smoothly Clipped Absolute Deviation Method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Summary Shrinkage-type variable selection procedures have recently seen increasing applications in biomedical research. However, their performance can be adversely influenced by outliers in either the response or the covariate space. This paper proposes a weighted Wilcoxon-type smoothly clipped absolute deviation (WW-SCAD) method, which deals with robust variable selection and robust estimation simultaneously. The new procedure can be conveniently implemented with the statistical software R. We establish that the WW-SCAD correctly identifies the set of zero coefficients with probability approaching one and estimates the nonzero coefficients with the rate n−1/2. Moreover, with appropriately chosen weights the WW-SCAD is robust with respect to outliers in both the x and y directions. The important special case with constant weights yields an oracle-type estimator with high efficiency at the presence of heavier-tailed random errors. The robustness of the WW-SCAD is partly justified by its asymptotic performance under local shrinking contamination. We propose a BIC-type tuning parameter selector for the WW-SCAD. The performance of the WW-SCAD is demonstrated via simulations and by an application to a study that investigates the effects of personal characteristics and dietary factors on plasma beta-carotene level. PMID:18647294

  5. Intensity Thresholds on Raw Acceleration Data: Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) and Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD) Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bakrania, Kishan; Yates, Thomas; Rowlands, Alex V.; Esliger, Dale W.; Bunnewell, Sarah; Sanders, James; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh; Edwardson, Charlotte L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To develop and internally-validate Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) and Mean Amplitude Deviation (MAD) thresholds for separating sedentary behaviours from common light-intensity physical activities using raw acceleration data collected from both hip- and wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometers; and (2) to compare and evaluate the performances between the ENMO and MAD metrics. Methods Thirty-three adults [mean age (standard deviation (SD)) = 27.4 (5.9) years; mean BMI (SD) = 23.9 (3.7) kg/m2; 20 females (60.6%)] wore four accelerometers; an ActiGraph GT3X+ and a GENEActiv on the right hip; and an ActiGraph GT3X+ and a GENEActiv on the non-dominant wrist. Under laboratory-conditions, participants performed 16 different activities (11 sedentary behaviours and 5 light-intensity physical activities) for 5 minutes each. ENMO and MAD were computed from the raw acceleration data, and logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analyses were implemented to derive thresholds for activity discrimination. Areas under ROC curves (AUROC) were calculated to summarise performances and thresholds were assessed via executing leave-one-out-cross-validations. Results For both hip and wrist monitor placements, in comparison to the ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors, the ENMO and MAD values derived from the GENEActiv devices were observed to be slightly higher, particularly for the lower-intensity activities. Monitor-specific hip and wrist ENMO and MAD thresholds showed excellent ability for separating sedentary behaviours from motion-based light-intensity physical activities (in general, AUROCs >0.95), with validation indicating robustness. However, poor classification was experienced when attempting to isolate standing still from sedentary behaviours (in general, AUROCs <0.65). The ENMO and MAD metrics tended to perform similarly across activities and accelerometer brands. Conclusions Researchers can utilise these robust monitor-specific hip and wrist ENMO and MAD

  6. Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.

    2006-01-01

    The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. A Method for Selecting between Fisher's Linear Classification Functions and Least Absolute Deviation in Predictive Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshbane, Alice; Morris, John D.

    A method for comparing the cross-validated classification accuracy of Fisher's linear classification functions (FLCFs) and the least absolute deviation is presented under varying data conditions for the two-group classification problem. With this method, separate-group as well as total-sample proportions of current classifications can be compared…

  8. Reducing the Standard Deviation in Multiple-Assay Experiments Where the Variation Matters but the Absolute Value Does Not

    PubMed Central

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A.

    2013-01-01

    When the value of a quantity for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems’ averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty. PMID:24205158

  9. MAD for visual tracker fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Krah, Sebastian B.; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Existing tracking methods vary strongly in their approach and therefore have different strengths and weaknesses. For example, a single tracking algorithm may be good at handling variations in illumination, but does not cope well with deformation. Hence, their failures can occur on entirely different time intervals on the same sequence. One possible solution for overcoming limitations of a single tracker and for benefitting from individual strengths, is to run a set of tracking algorithms in parallel and fuse their outputs. But in general, tracking algorithms are not designed to receive feedback from a higher level fusion strategy or require a high degree of integration between individual levels. Towards this end, we introduce a fusion strategy serving the purpose of online single object tracking, for which no knowledge about individual tracker characteristics is needed. The key idea is to combine several independent and heterogeneous tracking approaches and to robustly identify an outlier subset based on the "Median Absolute Deviations" (MAD) measure. The MAD fusion strategy is very generic and only requires frame-based object bounding boxes as input. Thus, it can work with arbitrary tracking algorithms. Furthermore, the MAD fusion strategy can also be applied for combining several instances of the same tracker to form a more robust ensemble for tracking an object. The evaluation is done on public available datasets. With a set of heterogeneous, commonly used trackers we show that the proposed MAD fusion strategy improves the tracking results in comparison to a classical combination of parallel trackers and that the tracker ensemble helps to deal with the initialization uncertainty of a single tracker.

  10. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad Cow Disease? A A A You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? ...

  11. [Madness in Foucault: art and madness, madness and unreason].

    PubMed

    Providello, Guilherme Gonzaga Duarte; Yasui, Silvio

    2013-10-01

    After presenting the ideas on madness and its interface with art as expressed in the writings of Michel Foucault, Peter Pál Pelbart, and Gilles Deleuze, the article explores how these authors question the relationship between art and madness. It begins with the notion that madness does not tell the truth about art, and vice versa, but that there are links between both that must be delved into if we are to engage in deeper reflection on the topic. The text problematizes the statement that madness is the absence of an oeuvre and examines how this impacts the possibility of achieving an artistic oeuvre. It further problematizes the idea of madness as excluded language, that is, the idea that madness implies not only the exclusion of the body but also the disqualification of discourse.

  12. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Video: Am I Normal? ( ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad ...

  13. Mads.jl

    SciTech Connect

    Vesselinov, Velimir; O'Malley, Daniel; Lin, Youzuo; Vesselinova, Neda

    2016-07-01

    Mads.jl (Model analysis and decision support in Julia) is a code that streamlines the process of using data and models for analysis and decision support. It is based on another open-source code developed at LANL and written in C/C++ (MADS; http://mads.lanl.gov; LA-CC-11- 035). Mads.jl can work with external models of arbitrary complexity as well as built-in models of flow and transport in porous media. It enables a number of data- and model-based analyses including model calibration, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty quantification, and decision analysis. The code also can use a series of alternative adaptive computational techniques for Bayesian sampling, Monte Carlo, and Bayesian Information-Gap Decision Theory. The code is implemented in the Julia programming language, and has high-performance (parallel) and memory management capabilities. The code uses a series of third party modules developed by others. The code development will also include contributions to the existing third party modules written in Julia; this contributions will be important for the efficient implementation of the algorithm used by Mads.jl. The code also uses a series of LANL developed modules that are developed by Dan O'Malley; these modules will be also a part of the Mads.jl release. Mads.jl will be released under GPL V3 license. The code will be distributed as a Git repo at gitlab.com and github.com. Mads.jl manual and documentation will be posted at madsjulia.lanl.gov.

  14. MADS Users' Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    MADS (Minimization Assistant for Dynamical Systems) is a trajectory optimization code in which a user-specified performance measure is directly minimized, subject to constraints placed on a low-order discretization of user-supplied plant ordinary differential equations. This document describes the mathematical formulation of the set of trajectory optimization problems for which MADS is suitable, and describes the user interface. Usage examples are provided.

  15. MAD phasing with krypton.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Ellis, P; Kresge, N; Soltis, S M

    2001-02-01

    Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of Kr-edge MAD on frozen crystals as a routine method for structure determination are reported. Approximately 50% of protein crystals can be successfully derivatized by pressurization with the noble gases xenon or krypton. While Xe has produced many useful derivatives for MIR phasing over the last several years, the Xe edges (K edge = 34.6 keV, L(I) = 5.5 keV) are not easily accessible for MAD studies. As the Kr K edge (14.3 keV) is accessible on most MAD beamlines, Kr derivatization provides the additional opportunity to conduct a MAD experiment and obtain phases using only a single crystal. This paper describes the phasing of two proteins using Kr MAD: the 17 kDa Fe protein myoglobin (Mb) from sperm whale (Physeter catodon) and an 18 kDa protein (SP18) from green abalone (Haliotis fulgens). Three-wavelength data were collected at SSRL beamline 9-2 from crystals of Mb and SP18 incubated in 2.76 MPa of Kr gas for 2 min, depressurized and then flash-frozen in a stream of nitrogen gas at 100 K. MAD phases were calculated using the program SHARP and the resulting density improved with wARP. The final maps for both Mb and SP18 were of excellent quality.

  16. MAD - Monitoring ALICE Dataflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Grigoras, C.; Wegrzynek, A.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Following a successful Run 1, which ended in February 2013, the ALICE data acquisition (DAQ) entered a consolidation phase to prepare for Run 2 which will start in the beginning of 2015. A new software tool has been developed by the data acquisition project to improve the monitoring of the experiment's dataflow, from the data readout in the DAQ farm up to its shipment to CERN's main computer centre. This software, called ALICE MAD (Monitoring ALICE Dataflow), uses the MonALISA framework as core module to gather, process, aggregate and distribute monitoring values from the different processes running in the distributed DAQ farm. Data are not only pulled from the data sources to MAD but can also be pushed by dedicated data collectors or the data source processes. A large set of monitored metrics (from the backpressure status on the readout links to event counters in each of the DAQ nodes and aggregated data rates for the whole data acquisition) is needed to provide a comprehensive view of the DAQ status. MAD also injects alarms in the Orthos alarm system whenever abnormal conditions are detected. The MAD web-based GUI uses WebSockets to provide dynamic and on-time status displays for the ALICE shift crew. Designed as a widget-based system, MAD supports an easy integration of new visualization blocks and also customization of the information displayed to the shift crew based on the ALICE activities.

  17. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  18. [Madness in the German cinema (1913-1933].

    PubMed

    Aulas, J J

    1980-01-01

    During these twenty years, from 1913 to 1933, of the history of the German cinema, the cinematographic representation of madness varies according to the fluctuations of the social and economical background. The political and ideological chaos of the immediate post-war years was symbolized in the allegorical imagery of unreason in the expressionist cinema. The same equivalence, the same symbolization can be found in the cinema of the thirties when the crash of Wall-Street foretells a crisis like the former. On the contrary in the course of the so-called "relative stabilization" (1924-1929) the meaning of the representation of madness is totally different from the representation of the previous period. At this period of economical restoration, madness which could henceforth be cured on the psychoanalyst's couch (acc. G. W. Pabst's film: "Geheimnisse einer Seele") became the symbol of the absolute power rediscovered by Germany.

  19. [Travelers, mad, wandering].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "wandering" through the use of some phenomena enrolled at the dawn of modernity such as the Rousseau dromomanie's philosopher and writer, the origin of the first mad traveler (Albert Dadas), epidemics of mad travelers Europe and romantic tourism (with renewed acquires significance in the "beat generation" of the twentieth century). These historical facts are "mounting" as play contemporary manifestations such as loss, disorientation, to lose one's way, and wandering without reducing them only to clinical psychosis. Readings of classic psychiatrists such as Régis, Foville, Sérieux and Capgras, Tissié, go hand in hand with the current readings of the philosopher Ian Hacking and critics of pop culture as S. Reynolds and D. Diederichsen, illustrating how the travel's phenomenon can make different subjective configurations depending on historical times. In conclusion it is noted that not only psychosis exposes the wandering soul of suffering but there are also subject positions (as will be exemplified in a clinical case) and go no further nesting wandering into human existence.

  20. Screening Madness in American Culture.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    This two-step argument first establishes that the majority of recent American films dealing with mental illness draw on a traditional iconography of madness as it has been established over the centuries in Western culture. In this vocabulary of images, the mad are typically seen as wise fools, as dangerous villains or as gifted geniuses. The author then argues that some of these new films add a fourth category in which the mad are defined as normal and the person with autism as the embodiment of this normalcy. A close examination of the films then suggests that high functioning autism has become the embodiment of America's current cultural condition.

  1. Spindle assembly checkpoint robustness requires Tpr-mediated regulation of Mad1/Mad2 proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Nina; Ferrás, Cristina; Kern, David M.; Logarinho, Elsa; Cheeseman, Iain M.

    2013-01-01

    Tpr is a conserved nuclear pore complex (NPC) protein implicated in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that Tpr is required for normal SAC response by stabilizing Mad1 and Mad2 before mitosis. Tpr coimmunoprecipitated with Mad1 and Mad2 (hereafter designated as Tpr/Mad1/Mad2 or TM2 complex) during interphase and mitosis, and is required for Mad1–c-Mad2 recruitment to NPCs. Interestingly, Tpr was normally undetectable at kinetochores and dispensable for Mad1, but not for Mad2, kinetochore localization, which suggests that SAC robustness depends on Mad2 levels at kinetochores. Protein half-life measurements demonstrate that Tpr stabilizes Mad1 and Mad2, ensuring normal Mad1–c-Mad2 production in an mRNA- and kinetochore-independent manner. Overexpression of GFP-Mad2 restored normal SAC response and Mad2 kinetochore levels in Tpr-depleted cells. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that Tpr might spatially regulate SAC proteostasis through the SUMO-isopeptidases SENP1 and SENP2 at NPCs. Thus, Tpr is a kinetochore-independent, rate-limiting factor required to mount and sustain a robust SAC response. PMID:24344181

  2. MADS about MOSS

    PubMed Central

    Singer, SD

    2009-01-01

    Classic MIKC-type MADS-box genes (MIKCc) play diverse and crucial roles in angiosperm development, the most studied and best understood of which is the specification of floral organ identities. To shed light on how the flower evolved, phylogenetic and functional analyses of genes involved in its ontogeny, such as the MIKCc genes, must be undertaken in as broad a selection as possible of plants with disparate ancestries. Since little is known about the functions of these genes in non-seed plants, we investigated the developmental roles of a subset of the MIKCc genes present in the moss, Physcomitrella patens, which is positioned informatively near the base of the land plant evolutionary tree. We observed that transgenic lines possessing an antisense copy of a MIKCc gene characteristically displayed knocked-down expression of the corresponding native MIKCc gene as well as multiple diverse phenotypic alterations to the haploid gametophytic and diploid sporophytic generations of the life cycle.1 In this addendum, we re-examine our findings in the light of recent pertinent literature and provide additional data concerning the effects of simultaneously knocking out multiple MIKCc genes in this moss. PMID:19649183

  3. Relationship with BSE (Mad Cow Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links Prion Diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Chronic Wasting Disease ( ... Related Links Prion Diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Chronic Wasting Disease ( ...

  4. ["Imperial madness" - truth or legend?].

    PubMed

    V Zerssen, D

    2011-03-01

    The notion of "imperial madness" was coined in the historical literature and belles-lettres of the 19th century. Around that time up to the first quarter of the 20th century, it was adopted by a few German psychiatrists. Two of them viewed "imperial madness" as ordinary forms of insanity which became excessive only due to reactions of the social environment. Another one, however, classified it as one of "mental borderland states" in between insanity and normality, although he conceived the final stage of the disorder as a paranoid one. In agreement with the historians he postulated that "imperial madness" resulted from unlimited power of predisposed rulers. In recent times the whole concept of "imperial madness" was referred to the realm of legends by historians of antiquity and other historically interested authors. Yet the existence of the phenomenon cannot be denied. Despite its rarity it has played and is still playing an important role with often catastrophic consequences in various cultures all over the world. Therefore, psychiatrists and other physicians as well as clinical psychologists should be acquainted with it. From a modern point of view, it is not a paranoid disorder but rather a syndrome of addiction-like behavioural excesses representing an intensification of a Hybris syndrome as described by Anglo-Saxon psychiatrists. According to the present authors' view, it should be classified nosologically as a chronic adjustment disorder. In this case, the underlying stresses need to be extended to situations of temptation (here: the temptation to abuse almost unlimited power).

  5. Abject Magic: Reasoning Madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" Trilogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Troy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the representation of magic and madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" trilogy (2005-2007). Throughout the series, magic is constructed as an abject and disabling force that threatens to disable magic-wielders, either through madness or death. Despite being represented as a ubiquitous force, the…

  6. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  7. The madness of Gerard de Nerval.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Allan

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the madness of Gerard de Nerval, the nineteenth-century French writer. It looks at his account of mental disturbance, how he responded to the psychiatric profession and how he reacted to being diagnosed as insane. It considers his autobiographical novella of madness, Aurelia, which he began at the suggestion of his alienist, Dr Emile Blanche, and while he was still an asylum inmate. Nerval's story raises important questions about the nature of madness. Is it, as he contended, a mystical experience revealing truths about spiritual worlds inaccessible to the 'sane'? Does psychiatry fail to understand it and inappropriately reduce it to the categories of scientific reason? Or are such notions of the spiritual value of madness guilty of the charge that they romanticise insanity? Do they make extravagant claims for an experience that is often disturbing and debilitating? What is the relationship between madness and recovery? Should an individual try to forget their experience of mental disturbance once they recover, or should they examine what the event reveals about themselves? Can the language of madness be decoded to unveil profound truths as Carl Jung and R.D. Laing have suggested, or is it, as the psychiatrist German Berrios maintains, merely a series of 'empty speech acts', signifying nothing? And finally, how does one avoid writing about madness, and instead write madness?

  8. [Women and madness in the Eneid].

    PubMed

    Totola, Giorgia

    2012-01-01

    The article presents female cases of madness in Latin Vergilian Literature, comparing the Greek Dyonisian divine possession of the Maenads and Bacchae with the madness of Dido and Amata. Transcultural psychiatry is here proposed as a useful tool for reading the descriptions of the Aeneid - to try to understand every kind of world where barriers disappear between visible and invisible.

  9. Elizabethan madness: on London's stage.

    PubMed

    Dalby, J T

    1997-12-01

    During the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) a renaissance of both literary and political history occurred. The stage was transformed from primitive echoes of the morality plays to a vibrant and diverse exploration of human endeavor and man's place in the universe. The titanic literary figure of Shakespeare today veils a group of friends and challengers whose pens strove for the same goal. The depiction of madness was ubiquitous during plays of this time and reflection on the views of this group of men gives us a more reliable insight into mental illness then and today.

  10. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  11. Madness Decolonized?: Madness as Transnational Identity in Gail Hornstein's Agnes's Jacket.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gavin

    2017-02-13

    The US psychologist Gail Hornstein's monograph, Agnes's Jacket: A Psychologist's Search for the Meanings of Madness (2009), is an important intervention in the identity politics of the mad movement. Hornstein offers a resignified vision of mad identity that embroiders the central trope of an "anti-colonial" struggle to reclaim the experiential world "colonized" by psychiatry. A series of literal and figurative appeals makes recourse to the inner world and (corresponding) cultural world of the mad as well as to the ethno-symbolic cultural materials of dormant nationhood. This rhetoric is augmented by a model in which the mad comprise a diaspora without an origin, coalescing into a single transnational community. The mad are also depicted as persons displaced from their metaphorical homeland, the "inner" world "colonized" by the psychiatric regime. There are a number of difficulties with Hornstein's rhetoric, however. Her "ethnicity-and-rights" response to the oppression of the mad is symptomatic of Western parochialism, while her proposed transmutation of putative psychopathology from limit upon identity to parameter of successful identity is open to contestation. Moreover, unless one accepts Hornstein's porous vision of mad identity, her self-ascribed insider status in relation to the mad community may present a problematic "re-colonization" of mad experience.

  12. Mad2 phosphorylation regulates its association with Mad1 and the APC/C

    PubMed Central

    Wassmann, Katja; Liberal, Vasco; Benezra, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Improper attachment of the mitotic spindle to the kinetochores of paired sister chromatids in mitosis is monitored by a checkpoint that leads to an arrest in early metaphase. This arrest requires the inhibitory association of Mad2 with the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). It is not known how the association of Mad2 with the kinetochore and the APC/C is regulated in mitosis. Here, we demonstrate that human Mad2 is modified through phosphorylation on multiple serine residues in vivo in a cell cycle dependent manner and that only unphosphorylated Mad2 interacts with Mad1 or the APC/C in vivo. A Mad2 mutant containing serine to aspartic acid mutations mimicking the C-terminal phosphorylation events fails to interact with Mad1 or the APC/C and acts as a dominant-negative antagonist of wild-type Mad2. These data suggest that the phosphorylation state of Mad2 regulates its checkpoint activity by modulating its association with Mad1 and the APC/C. PMID:12574116

  13. Absolute Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartig, George

    1990-12-01

    The absolute sensitivity of the FOS will be determined in SV by observing 2 stars at 3 epochs, first in 3 apertures (1.0", 0.5", and 0.3" circular) and then in 1 aperture (1.0" circular). In cycle 1, one star, BD+28D4211 will be observed in the 1.0" aperture to establish the stability of the sensitivity and flat field characteristics and improve the accuracy obtained in SV. This star will also be observed through the paired apertures since these are not calibrated in SV. The stars will be observed in most detector/grating combinations. The data will be averaged to form the inverse sensitivity functions required by RSDP.

  14. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  15. Closed MAD2 (C-MAD2) is selectively incorporated into the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC)

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Aaron R; Tipton, Michael; Yen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The mitotic checkpoint is a specialized signal transduction pathway that monitors kinetochore-microtubule attachment to achieve faithful chromosome segregation. MAD2 is an evolutionarily conserved mitotic checkpoint protein that exists in open (O) and closed (C) conformations. The increase of intracellular C-MAD2 level during mitosis, through O→C-MAD2 conversion as catalyzed by unattached kinetochores, is a critical signaling event for the mitotic checkpoint. However, it remains controversial whether MAD2 is an integral component of the effector of the mitotic checkpoint—the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). We show here that endogenous human MCC is assembled by first forming a BUBR1:BUB3:CDC20 complex in G2 and then selectively incorporating C-MAD2 during mitosis. Nevertheless, MCC can be induced to form in G1/S cells by expressing a C-conformation locked MAD2 mutant, indicating intracellular level of C-MAD2 as a major limiting factor for MCC assembly. In addition, a recombinant MCC containing C-MAD2 exhibits effective inhibitory activity toward APC/C isolated from mitotic HeLa cells, while a recombinant BUBR1:BUB3:CDC20 ternary complex is ineffective at comparable concentrations despite association with APC/C. These results help establish a direct connection between a major signal transducer (C-MAD2) and the potent effector (MCC) of the mitotic checkpoint, and provide novel insights into protein-protein interactions during assembly of a functional MCC. PMID:22037211

  16. Mad honey intoxication mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dur, Ali; Sonmez, Ertan; Civelek, Cemil; AhmetTurkdogan, Kenan; AkifVatankulu, Mehmet; Sogut, Ozgur

    2014-09-01

    Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations.

  17. Kernel MAD Algorithm for Relative Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Tang, Ping; Hu, Changmiao

    2016-06-01

    The multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA). The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1) data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  18. Mad2 and Mad3 Cooperate to Arrest Budding Yeast in Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Derek T. C.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The spindle checkpoint ensures accurate chromosome transmission by delaying chromosome segregation until all chromosomes are correctly aligned on the mitotic spindle. The checkpoint is activated by kinetochores that are not attached to microtubules or are attached but not under tension and arrests cells at metaphase by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and its co-activator Cdc20. Despite numerous studies, we still do not understand how the checkpoint proteins coordinate with each other to inhibit APCCdc20 activity. Results To ask how the checkpoint components induce metaphase arrest, we constructed fusions of checkpoint proteins and expressed them in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to mimic possible protein interactions during checkpoint activation. We found that expression of a Mad2-Mad3 protein fusion or non-covalently linked Mad2 and Mad3, but not the overexpression of the two separate proteins, induces metaphase arrest that is independent of functional kinetochores or other checkpoint proteins. We further showed that artificially tethering Mad2 to Cdc20 also arrests cells in metaphase independently of other checkpoint components. Conclusion Our results suggest that Mad3 is required for the stable binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 in vivo, which is sufficient to inhibit APC activity and is the most downstream event in spindle checkpoint activation. PMID:22209528

  19. [In search of puerperal madness in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Vaschetto, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify cases and scientific works about "puerperal madness" between 1850 and 1940 in Buenos Aires. The gradual installation of the device of maternities in the Argentina, and especially in the city of Buenos Aires, was not exempt from difficulties, in the medical boarding of the pregnant woman and parturient as well as in the cultural conception of the mothers. This fact presupposes an increase of the phenomenon called "puerperal madness" in the moment where the displacement of the act of giving birth in the house to the hospital takes place. Certainly, the clinical fact of the "puerperal madness" exceeds to the historical social context, and in this way appear all the psychopathologies related to the pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperal fevers. We also must take in account the influence of the medical speech about the feminine body and his translation to a scientific and institutional speech never before experienced in Argentina.

  20. Inhibition of cell proliferation by the Mad1 transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, M F; Ashmun, R A; Sherr, C J; Eisenman, R N; Ayer, D E

    1996-01-01

    Mad1 is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that is induced upon differentiation of a number of distinct cell types. Mad1 dimerizes with Max and recognizes the same DNA sequences as do Myc:Max dimers. However, Mad1 and Myc appear to have opposing functions. Myc:Max heterodimers activate transcription while Mad:Max heterodimers repress transcription from the same promoter. In addition Mad1 has been shown to block the oncogenic activity of Myc. Here we show that ectopic expression of Mad1 inhibits the proliferative response of 3T3 cells to signaling through the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor. The ability of over-expressed Myc and cyclin D1 to complement the mutant CSF-1 receptor Y809F (containing a Y-to-F mutation at position 809) is also inhibited by Mad1. Cell cycle analysis of proliferating 3T3 cells transfected with Mad1 demonstrates a significant decrease in the fraction of cells in the S and G2/M phases and a concomitant increase in the fraction of G1 phase cells, indicating that Mad1 negatively influences cell cycle progression from the G1 to the S phase. Mutations in Mad1 which inhibit its activity as a transcription repressor also result in loss of Mad1 cell cycle inhibitory activity. Thus, the ability of Mad1 to inhibit cell cycle progression is tightly coupled to its function as a transcriptional repressor. PMID:8649388

  1. Caudal septal deviation.

    PubMed

    Haack, Jason; Papel, Ira D

    2009-06-01

    The nasal septum is a structure poorly understood and appreciated by the lay public and the nonotolaryngologist--head and neck surgeon alike. Deviation of the caudal portion of the nasal septum may result in nasal obstruction, a crooked nose, and columellar irregularities. The correction of a severely deviated caudal septum is one of the most difficult challenges of the otolaryngologist and facial plastic surgeon. A variety of options are available for correction of mild, to the most severe, deflections. This condition, as with all challenges in medicine, should not be a one size fits all or one surgery fits all situation. The skilled surgeon should understand the multiple options available for surgical correction and tailor fit the procedure to the deformity.

  2. Analyzing Vehicle Operator Deviations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    related to vehicle operator deviations ( VODs ). VODs occur when a vehicle enters the airport movement area without ATC approval. We developed a VOD ...prediction model to help understand the human factors causes associated with different types of VODs . We then examined the validity of the model, using...the data that we needed was missing due to incomplete reporting of the human factors associated with a given VOD . To aid in the development of a

  3. Two ancient classes of MIKC-type MADS-box genes are present in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Henschel, Katrin; Kofuji, Rumiko; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Saedler, Heinz; Münster, Thomas; Theissen, Günter

    2002-06-01

    Characterization of seven MADS-box genes, termed PPM1-PPM4 and PpMADS1-PpMADS3, from the moss model species Physcomitrella patens is reported. Phylogeny reconstructions and comparison of exon-intron structures revealed that the genes described here represent two different classes of homologous, yet distinct, MIKC-type MADS-box genes, termed MIKC(c)-type genes-"(c)" stands for "classic"-(PPM1, PPM2, PpMADS1) and MIKC(*)-type genes (PPM3, PPM4, PpMADS2, PpMADS3). The two gene classes deviate from each other in a characteristic way, especially in a sequence stretch termed intervening region. MIKC(c)-type genes are abundantly present in all land plants which have been investigated in this respect, and give rise to well-known gene types such as floral meristem and organ identity genes. In contrast, LAMB1 from the clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum was identified as the only other MIKC(*)-type gene published so far. Our findings strongly suggest that the most recent common ancestor of mosses and vascular plants contained at least one MIKC(c)-type and one MIKC(*)-type gene. Our studies thus reveal an ancient duplication of an MIKC-type gene that occurred before the separation of the lineages that led to extant mosses and vascular plants more than about 450 MYA. The identification of bona fide K-domains in both MIKC(*)-type and MIKC(c)-type proteins suggests that the K-domain is more ancient than is suggested by a recent alternative hypothesis. MIKC(*)-type genes may have escaped identification in ferns and seed plants so far. It seems more likely, however, that they represent a class of genes which has been lost in the lineage which led to extant ferns and seed plants. The high number of P. patens MADS-box genes and the presence of a K-box in the coding region and of some potential binding sites for MADS-domain proteins and other transcription factors in the putative promoter regions of these genes suggest that MADS-box genes in mosses are involved in complex gene regulatory

  4. Reduced Mad2 expression keeps relaxed kinetochores from arresting budding yeast in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Erin L.; Dorer, Russell K.; Murray, Andrew W.; Schuyler, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome segregation depends on the spindle checkpoint, which delays anaphase until all chromosomes have bound microtubules and have been placed under tension. The Mad1–Mad2 complex is an essential component of the checkpoint. We studied the consequences of removing one copy of MAD2 in diploid cells of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared to MAD2/MAD2 cells, MAD2/mad2Δ heterozygotes show increased chromosome loss and have different responses to two insults that activate the spindle checkpoint: MAD2/mad2Δ cells respond normally to antimicrotubule drugs but cannot respond to chromosomes that lack tension between sister chromatids. In MAD2/mad2Δ cells with normal sister chromatid cohesion, removing one copy of MAD1 restores the checkpoint and returns chromosome loss to wild-type levels. We conclude that cells need the normal Mad2:Mad1 ratio to respond to chromosomes that are not under tension. PMID:21593209

  5. In planta localisation patterns of MADS domain proteins during floral development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Urbanus, Susan L; de Folter, Stefan; Shchennikova, Anna V; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Immink, Richard GH; Angenent, Gerco C

    2009-01-01

    Background MADS domain transcription factors play important roles in various developmental processes in flowering plants. Members of this family play a prominent role in the transition to flowering and the specification of floral organ identity. Several studies reported mRNA expression patterns of the genes encoding these MADS domain proteins, however, these studies do not provide the necessary information on the temporal and spatial localisation of the proteins. We have made GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) translational fusions with the four MADS domain proteins SEPALLATA3, AGAMOUS, FRUITFULL and APETALA1 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and analysed the protein localisation patterns in living plant tissues by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results We unravelled the protein localisation patterns of the four MADS domain proteins at a cellular and subcellular level in inflorescence and floral meristems, during development of the early flower bud stages, and during further differentiation of the floral organs. The protein localisation patterns revealed a few deviations from known mRNA expression patterns, suggesting a non-cell autonomous action of these factors or alternative control mechanisms. In addition, we observed a change in the subcellular localisation of SEPALLATA3 from a predominantly nuclear localisation to a more cytoplasmic localisation, occurring specifically during petal and stamen development. Furthermore, we show that the down-regulation of the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL in ovular tissues is preceded by the occurrence of both AGAMOUS and SEPALLATA3 proteins, supporting the hypothesis that both proteins together suppress WUSCHEL expression in the ovule. Conclusion This approach provides a highly detailed in situ map of MADS domain protein presence during early and later stages of floral development. The subcellular localisation of the transcription factors in the cytoplasm, as observed at certain stages during

  6. America's Descent into Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes America's descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…

  7. Phosphorylation of Mad controls competition between wingless and BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Eivers, Edward; Demagny, Hadrien; Choi, Renee H; De Robertis, Edward M

    2011-10-11

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnts are growth factors that provide essential patterning signals for cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism by which the phosphorylation state of the Drosophila transcription factor Mad determines its ability to transduce either BMP or Wingless (Wg) signals. Previously, Mad was thought to function in gene transcription only when phosphorylated by BMP receptors. We found that the unphosphorylated form of Mad was required for canonical Wg signaling by interacting with the Pangolin-Armadillo transcriptional complex. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminus of Mad by BMP receptor directed Mad toward BMP signaling, thereby preventing Mad from functioning in the Wg pathway. The results show that Mad has distinct signal transduction roles in the BMP and Wnt pathways depending on its phosphorylation state.

  8. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  9. MADS goes genomic in conifers: towards determining the ancestral set of MADS-box genes in seed plants

    PubMed Central

    Gramzow, Lydia; Weilandt, Lisa; Theißen, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims MADS-box genes comprise a gene family coding for transcription factors. This gene family expanded greatly during land plant evolution such that the number of MADS-box genes ranges from one or two in green algae to around 100 in angiosperms. Given the crucial functions of MADS-box genes for nearly all aspects of plant development, the expansion of this gene family probably contributed to the increasing complexity of plants. However, the expansion of MADS-box genes during one important step of land plant evolution, namely the origin of seed plants, remains poorly understood due to the previous lack of whole-genome data for gymnosperms. Methods The newly available genome sequences of Picea abies, Picea glauca and Pinus taeda were used to identify the complete set of MADS-box genes in these conifers. In addition, MADS-box genes were identified in the growing number of transcriptomes available for gymnosperms. With these datasets, phylogenies were constructed to determine the ancestral set of MADS-box genes of seed plants and to infer the ancestral functions of these genes. Key Results Type I MADS-box genes are under-represented in gymnosperms and only a minimum of two Type I MADS-box genes have been present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of seed plants. In contrast, a large number of Type II MADS-box genes were found in gymnosperms. The MRCA of extant seed plants probably possessed at least 11–14 Type II MADS-box genes. In gymnosperms two duplications of Type II MADS-box genes were found, such that the MRCA of extant gymnosperms had at least 14–16 Type II MADS-box genes. Conclusions The implied ancestral set of MADS-box genes for seed plants shows simplicity for Type I MADS-box genes and remarkable complexity for Type II MADS-box genes in terms of phylogeny and putative functions. The analysis of transcriptome data reveals that gymnosperm MADS-box genes are expressed in a great variety of tissues, indicating diverse roles of MADS

  10. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of e...

  11. MADS-box transcription factor OsMADS25 regulates root development through affection of nitrate accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunyan; Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Aidong; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Huang, Linli; Ali, Imran; Liu, Yu; Forde, Brian G; Gan, Yinbo

    2015-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are vital regulators participating in plant growth and development process and the functions of most of them are still unknown. ANR1 was reported to play a key role in controlling lateral root development through nitrate signal in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 is one of five ANR1-like genes in Oryza Sativa and belongs to the ANR1 clade. Here we have investigated the role of OsMADS25 in the plant's responses to external nitrate in Oryza Sativa. Our results showed that OsMADS25 protein was found in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of OsMADS25 significantly promoted lateral and primary root growth as well as shoot growth in a nitrate-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 overexpression in transgenic rice resulted in significantly increased primary root length, lateral root number, lateral root length and shoot fresh weight in the presence of nitrate. Down-regulation of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice exhibited significantly reduced shoot and root growth in the presence of nitrate. Furthermore, over-expression of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice promoted nitrate accumulation and significantly increased the expressions of nitrate transporter genes at high rates of nitrate supply while down-regulation of OsMADS25 produced the opposite effect. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsMADS25 is a positive regulator control lateral and primary root development in rice.

  12. A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Mingku; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    MADS-box genes encode a highly conserved gene family of transcriptional factors that regulate numerous developmental processes in plants. In this study, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box gene, SlMADS1, was cloned and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that SlMADS1 was highly expressed in sepals and fruits; its expression level was increased with the development of sepals, while the transcript of SlMADS1 decreased significantly in accordance with fruit ripening. To further explore the function of SlMADS1, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlMADS1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter ripening time of fruit was observed in SlMADS1-silenced tomatoes. The accumulation of carotenoid and the expression of PHYTOENE SYNTHETASE1 were enhanced in RNAi fruits. Besides, ethylene biosynthetic genes, including 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE1A, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE6, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE1, and 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE3, and the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and E8, which were involved in fruit ripening, were also up-regulated in silenced plants. SlMADS1 RNAi fruits showed approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in ethylene production compared with the wild type. Furthermore, SlMADS1-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the wild type. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a clear interaction between SlMADS1 and SlMADS-RIN. These results suggest that SlMADS1 plays an important role in fruit ripening as a repressive modulator.

  13. A lex-based mad parser and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg Krivosheev et al.

    2001-07-03

    An embeddable and portable Lex-based MAD language parser has been developed. The parser consists of a front-end which reads a MAD file and keeps beam elements, beam line data and algebraic expressions in tree-like structures, and a back-end, which processes the front-end data to generate an input file or data structures compatible with user applications. Three working programs are described, namely, a MAD to C++ converter, a dynamic C++ object factory and a MAD-MARS beam line builder. Design and implementation issues are discussed.

  14. RZZ and Mad1 dynamics in Drosophila mitosis.

    PubMed

    Défachelles, Lénaïg; Raich, Natacha; Terracol, Régine; Baudin, Xavier; Williams, Byron; Goldberg, Michael; Karess, Roger E

    2015-06-01

    The presence or absence of Mad1 at kinetochores is a major determinant of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity, the surveillance mechanism that delays anaphase onset if one or more kinetochores remain unattached to spindle fibers. Among the factors regulating the levels of Mad1 at kinetochores is the Rod, Zw10, and Zwilch (RZZ) complex, which is required for Mad1 recruitment through a mechanism that remains unknown. The relative dynamics and interactions of Mad1 and RZZ at kinetochores have not been extensively investigated, although Mad1 has been reported to be stably recruited to unattached kinetochores. In this study, we directly compare Mad1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) turnover dynamics on unattached Drosophila kinetochores with that of RZZ, tagged either with GFP-Rod or GFP-Zw10. We find that nearly 40 % of kinetochore-bound Mad1 has a significant dynamic component, turning over with a half-life of 12 s. RZZ in contrast is essentially stable on unattached kinetochores. In addition, we report that a fraction of RZZ and Mad1 can co-immunoprecipitate, indicating that the genetically determined recruitment hierarchy (in which Mad1 depends on RZZ) may reflect a physical association of the two complexes.

  15. Absolutely classical spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "absolutely classical" spin states, in analogy to absolutely separable states of bipartite quantum systems. Absolutely classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of absolutely classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of absolutely separable states.

  16. [Lateral mandibular deviations].

    PubMed

    Gotte, P

    1980-01-01

    The mandibular laterodeviation is one of the most evident malformations of the face, because it alters the lower third of the face. Etiologically it can be classified into: Static laterodeviations caused by teeth; Static laterodeviations caused by skeleton change: by monolateral hypertrophy (condyle, condyle and neck of the condyle, half mandible hypertrophy); by monolateral hypertrophy (congenital pathological); Dinamic laterodeviations functional. The midline displacement with posterior monolateral cross bite is caused by width discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arch resulting in a lateral shifting of the mandible. This laterodeviation is also called "laterale forced bite" or "articular cross bite". Articular cross bite is generally corrected by orthodontics during the interceptive period when the growth of the jaws is still present. In the author's opinion the orthognathic surgery is absolutely necessary for adult dental laterodeviation already stabilized. The skeletal laterodeviation must always be treated by orthognathic surgery. It is the author's practice to use the sagittal bilateral osteotomy at the angle and ramus level whose lines of osteotomy at the angle are different from one another depending on the displacement and rotation which one must do to the mandible to get contact surfaces which are larger enough to ensure proper union because the two mandibular halves have different lengths and different angles. This kind of operation normalizes the occlusion and is sometime sufficient to harmonize the oval of the lower third of the face. In the anterior part of the chin is still laterodeviated one continues with a wedge shaped osteotomy at the tip of the chin in order to reposition the tip to the midline and with an additional osteotomy at the hypertrophied angle level. If laterodeviation is joined by other bone malformations in can be considered a symptom which is more or less marked. In this case, therefore, laterodeviation is a part of a

  17. Structure of an intermediate conformer of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Mayuko; Özkan, Engin; Sun, Hongbin; Yu, Hongtao; Luo, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint senses unattached kinetochores during prometaphase and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), thus ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) is an unusual protein with multiple folded states. Mad2 adopts the closed conformation (C-Mad2) in a Mad1–Mad2 core complex. In mitosis, kinetochore-bound Mad1–C-Mad2 recruits latent, open Mad2 (O-Mad2) from the cytosol and converts it to an intermediate conformer (I-Mad2), which can then bind and inhibit the APC/C activator cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) as C-Mad2. Here, we report the crystal structure and NMR analysis of I-Mad2 bound to C-Mad2. Although I-Mad2 retains the O-Mad2 fold in crystal and in solution, its core structural elements undergo discernible rigid-body movements and more closely resemble C-Mad2. Residues exhibiting methyl chemical shift changes in I-Mad2 form a contiguous, interior network that connects its C-Mad2–binding site to the conformationally malleable C-terminal region. Mutations of residues at the I-Mad2–C-Mad2 interface hinder I-Mad2 formation and impede the structural transition of Mad2. Our study provides insight into the conformational activation of Mad2 and establishes the basis of allosteric communication between two distal sites in Mad2. PMID:26305957

  18. Structure of an intermediate conformer of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Mayuko; Özkan, Engin; Sun, Hongbin; Yu, Hongtao; Luo, Xuelian

    2015-08-24

    The spindle checkpoint senses unattached kinetochores during prometaphase and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), thus ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) is an unusual protein with multiple folded states. Mad2 adopts the closed conformation (C-Mad2) in a Mad1–Mad2 core complex. In mitosis, kinetochore-bound Mad1–C-Mad2 recruits latent, open Mad2 (O-Mad2) from the cytosol and converts it to an intermediate conformer (I-Mad2), which can then bind and inhibit the APC/C activator cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) as C-Mad2. In this paper, we report the crystal structure and NMR analysis of I-Mad2 bound to C-Mad2. Although I-Mad2 retains the O-Mad2 fold in crystal and in solution, its core structural elements undergo discernible rigid-body movements and more closely resemble C-Mad2. Residues exhibiting methyl chemical shift changes in I-Mad2 form a contiguous, interior network that connects its C-Mad2–binding site to the conformationally malleable C-terminal region. Mutations of residues at the I-Mad2–C-Mad2 interface hinder I-Mad2 formation and impede the structural transition of Mad2. Finally, our study provides insight into the conformational activation of Mad2 and establishes the basis of allosteric communication between two distal sites in Mad2.

  19. Structure of an intermediate conformer of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2

    DOE PAGES

    Hara, Mayuko; Özkan, Engin; Sun, Hongbin; ...

    2015-08-24

    The spindle checkpoint senses unattached kinetochores during prometaphase and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), thus ensuring accurate chromosome segregation. The checkpoint protein mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) is an unusual protein with multiple folded states. Mad2 adopts the closed conformation (C-Mad2) in a Mad1–Mad2 core complex. In mitosis, kinetochore-bound Mad1–C-Mad2 recruits latent, open Mad2 (O-Mad2) from the cytosol and converts it to an intermediate conformer (I-Mad2), which can then bind and inhibit the APC/C activator cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) as C-Mad2. In this paper, we report the crystal structure and NMR analysis of I-Mad2 bound to C-Mad2.more » Although I-Mad2 retains the O-Mad2 fold in crystal and in solution, its core structural elements undergo discernible rigid-body movements and more closely resemble C-Mad2. Residues exhibiting methyl chemical shift changes in I-Mad2 form a contiguous, interior network that connects its C-Mad2–binding site to the conformationally malleable C-terminal region. Mutations of residues at the I-Mad2–C-Mad2 interface hinder I-Mad2 formation and impede the structural transition of Mad2. Finally, our study provides insight into the conformational activation of Mad2 and establishes the basis of allosteric communication between two distal sites in Mad2.« less

  20. HbMADS4, a MADS-box Transcription Factor from Hevea brasiliensis, Negatively Regulates HbSRPP

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Liang; Wei, Li-Ran; Guo, Dong; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In plants MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in growth and development. However, no plant MADS-box gene has been identified to have a function related to secondary metabolites regulation. Here, a MADS-box TF gene, designated as HbMADS4, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis by the yeast one-hybrid experiment to screen the latex cDNA library using the promoter of the gene encoding H. brasiliensis small rubber particle protein (HbSRPP) as bait. HbMADS4 was 984-bp containing 633-bp open reading frame encoding a deduced protein of 230 amino acid residues with a typical conserved MADS-box motif at the N terminus. HbMADS4 was preferentially expressed in the latex, but little expression was detected in the leaves, flowers, and roots. Its expression was inducible by methyl jasmonate and ethylene. Furthermore, transient over-expression and over-expression of HbMADS4 in transgenic tobacco plants significantly suppressed the activity of the HbSRP promoter. Altogether, it is proposed that HbMADS4 is a negative regulator of HbSRPP which participates in the biosynthesis of natural rubber. PMID:27895659

  1. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Interdisciplinary Critical Inquiry: Teaching about the Social Construction of Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor-Greene, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Theories and treatments of mental illness reflect the social, philosophical, and historical context in which they developed. This article describes ways to invite students to grapple with complex questions about "madness" from an interdisciplinary perspective. Looking at the construct of madness through multiple lenses (e.g., literature,…

  4. Web life: The Evil Mad Scientist Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    What is it? Have you ever tried to electrocute a hot dog? Wondered how to make a robot out of a toothbrush, watch battery and phone-pager motor? Seen a cantaloupe melon and thought, "Hmm, I could make this look like the Death Star from the original Star Wars films"? If you have not, but you would like to - preferably as soon as you can find a pager motor - then this is the site for you. The Evil Mad Scientist Project (EMSP) blog is packed full of ideas for unusual, silly and frequently physics-related creations that bring science out of the laboratory and into kitchens, backyards and tool sheds.

  5. Intra-op measurement of the mechanical axis deviation: an evaluation study on 19 human cadaver legs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lejing; Fallavollita, Pascal; Brand, Alexander; Erat, Okan; Weidert, Simon; Thaller, Peter-Helmut; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of the lower limb in high tibial osteotomy (HTO) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) must be determined intraoperatively. One way to do so is to deform the mechanical axis deviation (MAD), for which a tolerance measurement of 10 mm is widely accepted. Many techniques are proposed in clinical practice such as visual inspection, cable method, grid with lead impregnated reference lines, or more recently, navigation systems. Each has their disadvantages including reliability of the MAD measurement, excess radiation, prolonged operation time, complicated setup and high cost. To alleviate such shortcomings, we propose a novel clinical protocol that allows quick and accurate intraoperative calculation of MAD. This is achieved by an X-ray stitching method requiring only three X-ray images placed into a panoramic image frame during the entire procedure. The method has been systematically analyzed in a simulation framework in order to investigate its accuracy and robustness. Furthermore, we validated our protocol via a preclinical study comprising 19 human cadaver legs. Four surgeons determined MAD measurements using our X-ray panorama and compared these values to a gold-standard CT-based technique. The maximum average MAD error was 3.5mm which shows great potential for the technique.

  6. MAD2γ, a novel MAD2 isoform, reduces mitotic arrest and is associated with resistance in testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Ramírez-Otero, Miguel; Díaz-Chávez, José; Cáceres-Gutiérrez, Rodrigo; Justo-Garrido, Monserrat; Andonegui, Marco A.; Mendoza, Julia; Downie-Ruíz, Ángela; Cortés-González, Carlo; Reynoso, Nancy; Castro-Hernández, Clementina; Domínguez-Gómez, Guadalupe; Santibáñez, Miguel; Fabián-Morales, Eunice; Pruefer, Franz; Luna-Maldonado, Fernando; González-Barrios, Rodrigo; Herrera, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Prolonged mitotic arrest in response to anti-cancer chemotherapeutics, such as DNA-damaging agents, induces apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe, and senescence. Disruptions in mitotic checkpoints contribute resistance to DNA-damaging agents in cancer. MAD2 has been associated with checkpoint failure and chemotherapy response. In this study, a novel splice variant of MAD2, designated MAD2γ, was identified, and its association with the DNA damage response was investigated. Methods: Endogenous expression of MAD2γ and full-length MAD2 (MAD2α) was measured using RT-PCR in cancer cell lines, normal foreskin fibroblasts, and tumor samples collected from patients with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). A plasmid expressing MAD2γ was transfected into HCT116 cells, and its intracellular localization and checkpoint function were evaluated according to immunofluorescence and mitotic index. Results: MAD2γ was expressed in several cancer cell lines and non-cancerous fibroblasts. Ectopically expressed MAD2γ localized to the nucleus and reduced the mitotic index, suggesting checkpoint impairment. In patients with TGCTs, the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, was associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Likewise, cisplatin induced the overexpression of endogenous MAD2γ, but not MAD2α, in HCT116 cells. Conclusions: Overexpression of MAD2γ may play a role in checkpoint disruption and is associated with resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in TGCTs. PMID:27315568

  7. Mad3 and Mad4: novel Max-interacting transcriptional repressors that suppress c-myc dependent transformation and are expressed during neural and epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Hurlin, P J; Quéva, C; Koskinen, P J; Steingrímsson, E; Ayer, D E; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Eisenman, R N

    1995-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) protein Max associates with members of the Myc family, as well as with the related proteins Mad (Mad1) and Mxi1. Whereas both Myc:Max and Mad:Max heterodimers bind related E-box sequences, Myc:Max activates transcription and promotes proliferation while Mad:Max represses transcription and suppresses Myc dependent transformation. Here we report the identification and characterization of two novel Mad1- and Mxi1-related proteins, Mad3 and Mad4. Mad3 and Mad4 interact with both Max and mSin3 and repress transcription from a promoter containing CACGTG binding sites. Using a rat embryo fibroblast transformation assay, we show that both Mad3 and Mad4 inhibit c-Myc dependent cell transformation. An examination of the expression patterns of all mad genes during murine embryogenesis reveals that mad1, mad3 and mad4 are expressed primarily in growth-arrested differentiating cells. mxi1 is also expressed in differentiating cells, but is co-expressed with either c-myc, N-myc, or both in proliferating cells of the developing central nervous system and the epidermis. In the developing central nervous system and epidermis, downregulation of myc genes occurs concomitant with upregulation of mad family genes. These expression patterns, together with the demonstrated ability of Mad family proteins to interfere with the proliferation promoting activities of Myc, suggest that the regulated expression of Myc and Mad family proteins function in a concerted fashion to regulate cell growth in differentiating tissues. Images PMID:8521822

  8. Sustained Mps1 activity is required in mitosis to recruit O-Mad2 to the Mad1–C-Mad2 core complex

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Laura; Tighe, Anthony; Santaguida, Stefano; White, Anne M.; Jones, Clifford D.; Musacchio, Andrea; Green, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Mps1 is an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint. In this study, we describe a novel Mps1 inhibitor, AZ3146, and use it to probe the role of Mps1’s catalytic activity during mitosis. When Mps1 is inhibited before mitotic entry, subsequent recruitment of Mad1 and Mad2 to kinetochores is abolished. However, if Mps1 is inhibited after mitotic entry, the Mad1–C-Mad2 core complex remains kinetochore bound, but O-Mad2 is not recruited to the core. Although inhibiting Mps1 also interferes with chromosome alignment, we see no obvious effect on aurora B activity. In contrast, kinetochore recruitment of centromere protein E (CENP-E), a kinesin-related motor protein, is severely impaired. Strikingly, inhibition of Mps1 significantly increases its own abundance at kinetochores. Furthermore, we show that Mps1 can dimerize and transphosphorylate in cells. We propose a model whereby Mps1 transphosphorylation results in its release from kinetochores, thus facilitating recruitment of O-Mad2 and CENP-E and thereby simultaneously promoting checkpoint signaling and chromosome congression. PMID:20624899

  9. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine(23) and arginine(24)) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins.

  10. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine23 and arginine24) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins. PMID:25096923

  11. 'The verses of madness': schizophrenia and poetry.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Ahmed Khaldoon; Holloway, David; Agius, Mark; Zaman, Rashid

    2012-12-20

    In the early 19th century, Lombroso introduced the concept of hereditary taint to describe the coexistence of 'madness' and creativity. In a recent investigation, Rust et al reported a study designed to test the traditionally assumed relationship between creativity and schizophrenia. They uncovered an association between creative originality and the positive cognitive aspects of schizotypal thinking. Poetry is not only the 'product' of psychopathology but it can also be utilised as a form of therapy: "My name is David Holloway, I am a 33 year old poet/blogger with paranoid schizophrenia. A poet called Charles Bukowski has described poetry as the 'ultimate psychiatrist', and I am a firm believer in this. The strongest part of my personality is my belief in the power of love. My recovery has relied heavily on medication, diet and exercise. However it is the power of poetry that has been my true inspiration."

  12. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that ...

  13. An unusual presentation of mad honey poisoning: acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Akinci, Sinan; Arslan, Uğur; Karakurt, Kamber; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-09-26

    An unusual type of food poisoning is commonly seen in the Black Sea coast of Turkey due to grayanotoxin containing toxic honey so called "mad honey" ingestion. In cases of toxication bradycardia and rhythm disturbances are commonly observed. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was admitted to the hospital because of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries after "mad honey" ingestion.

  14. Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-06

    foreign markets that banned U.S. beef when a cow in Washington state tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease) in...1 For additional details and background see CRS Report RS22345, BSE (“Mad Cow Disease:): A Brief Overview, and CRS Report RL32199, Bovine Spongiform ...rejection of three shipments of U.S. beef because of the presence of bone fragments. CRS-4 8 See also CRS Report RL32932, Bovine Spongiform

  15. Absolute and relative blindsight.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, absolute blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or absolute blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and absolute blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight.

  16. Women's madness J Ussher Women's madness Harvester Wheatsheaf 342pp £13.50 0-7450-0832-1.

    PubMed

    1993-03-10

    Women's Madness: Misogyny or Mental Illness? is an extremely interesting book that examines the experiences of women with depression and the way that society deals with women's mental distress. It looks at two opposing viewpoints.

  17. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  18. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  19. Large deviations in Taylor dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlen, Marcel; Engel, Andreas; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We establish a link between the phenomenon of Taylor dispersion and the theory of empirical distributions. Using this connection, we derive, upon applying the theory of large deviations, an alternative and much more precise description of the long-time regime for Taylor dispersion.

  20. The design of the MAD Design Program

    SciTech Connect

    Niederer, J.

    1992-12-31

    The study of long term stability in particle accelerators has long been served by a group of widely circulated computer programs. The progress in these programs has mirrored the growth and versatility in accelerator size, complexity, and purpose, as well as evolving technologies in computing software and hardware. A number of large accelerator projects during the last decade were designed with the aid of physics programs either written for, or tailored for the project at hand, each invariably benefiting from contributions of previous workers. This paper outlines the recent history of of expample of an accelerator lattice model tool kit, the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) Program, which has tried to knit together this collective wisdom of the accelerator community, The ideas behind the software design of the program itself are traced here; the accelerator physics contents and origins are thoroughly documented elsewhere. These informal notes have a Brookhaven flavor, in part because of early BNL efforts to generalize the ways that technical problems are organized and presented to computers. Some recent BNL applications not covered in the extensive CERN documentation are also included.

  1. The design of the MAD Design Program

    SciTech Connect

    Niederer, J.

    1992-01-01

    The study of long term stability in particle accelerators has long been served by a group of widely circulated computer programs. The progress in these programs has mirrored the growth and versatility in accelerator size, complexity, and purpose, as well as evolving technologies in computing software and hardware. A number of large accelerator projects during the last decade were designed with the aid of physics programs either written for, or tailored for the project at hand, each invariably benefiting from contributions of previous workers. This paper outlines the recent history of of expample of an accelerator lattice model tool kit, the Methodical Accelerator Design (MAD) Program, which has tried to knit together this collective wisdom of the accelerator community, The ideas behind the software design of the program itself are traced here; the accelerator physics contents and origins are thoroughly documented elsewhere. These informal notes have a Brookhaven flavor, in part because of early BNL efforts to generalize the ways that technical problems are organized and presented to computers. Some recent BNL applications not covered in the extensive CERN documentation are also included.

  2. Simulation of MAD Cow Disease Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdoń-Maksymowicz, M. S.; Maksymowicz, A. Z.; Gołdasz, J.

    Computer simulation of dynamic of BSE disease is presented. Both vertical (to baby) and horizontal (to neighbor) mechanisms of the disease spread are considered. The game takes place on a two-dimensional square lattice Nx×Ny = 1000×1000 with initial population randomly distributed on the net. The disease may be introduced either with the initial population or by a spontaneous development of BSE in an item, at a small frequency. Main results show a critical probability of the BSE transmission above which the disease is present in the population. This value is vulnerable to possible spatial clustering of the population and it also depends on the mechanism responsible for the disease onset, evolution and propagation. A threshold birth rate below which the population is extinct is seen. Above this threshold the population is disease free at equilibrium until another birth rate value is reached when the disease is present in population. For typical model parameters used for the simulation, which may correspond to the mad cow disease, we are close to the BSE-free case.

  3. Mad about Physics: Braintwisters, Paradoxes, and Curiosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jargodzki, Christopher; Potter, Franklin

    2000-11-01

    Why is there eight times more ice in Antarctica than in the Arctic? Why can you warm your hands by blowing gently, and cool your hands by blowing hard? Why would a pitcher scuff a baseball?Which weighs more-a pound of feathers or a pound of iron? Let science experts Christopher Jargodzki and Franklin Potter guide you through the curiosities of physics and you'll find the answers to these and hundreds of other quirky conundrums. You'll discover why sounds carry well over water (especially in the summer), how a mouse can be levitated in a magnetic field, why backspin is so important when shooting a basketball, and whether women are indeed as strong as men. With nearly 400 questions and answers on everything from race cars to jumping fleas to vanishing elephants, Mad about Physics presents a comprehensive collection of braintwisters and paradoxes that will challenge and entertain even the brainiest of science lovers. Whether you're a physicist by trade or just want to give your brain a power workout, this collection of intriguing and unusual physics challenges will send you on a highly entertaining ride that reveals the relevance of physics in our everyday lives.

  4. Management of paretic vertical deviations.

    PubMed

    Archer, Steven M

    2011-01-01

    Paretic vertical deviations are characterized by complex patterns of incomitance that make them some of the most challenging strabismus problems to treat. Optimum results are obtained by performing surgery on those muscles, selected from among the eight cyclovertical muscles in the two eyes, that minimize the incomitance. In superior oblique paresis the additional factors of torticollis and torsion need to be addressed and aberrant regeneration can alter the surgical plan in third nerve paresis.

  5. Large Deviations for Random Trees

    PubMed Central

    Heitsch, Christine

    2010-01-01

    We consider large random trees under Gibbs distributions and prove a Large Deviation Principle (LDP) for the distribution of degrees of vertices of the tree. The LDP rate function is given explicitly. An immediate consequence is a Law of Large Numbers for the distribution of vertex degrees in a large random tree. Our motivation for this study comes from the analysis of RNA secondary structures. PMID:20216937

  6. MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met interaction with smoking increase the risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Rong; Chen, Xiaohua; Chen, Xueqin; Zhu, Beibei; Lou, Jiao; Li, Jiaoyuan; Shen, Na; Yang, Yang; Gong, Yajie; Zhu, Ying; Yuan, Jing; Xia, Xiaoping; Miao, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) has been established as an important mechanism of driving aneuploidy, which occurs at a high frequency in the colorectal tumorigenesis. Two important components of SAC are MAD1L1 and MAD2L1, which function together in an interactive manner to initiate the checkpoint signal. We hypothesize that genetic variants in the binding domains of MAD1L1 and MAD2L1 may modulate protein structures and eventually contribute to CRC susceptibility. A case-control study including 710 CRC cases and 735 controls was performed to examine MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met’s conferring susceptibility to CRC. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays were applied to assess the effect of two functional variants on chromosomal instability (CIN). Significant associations with CRC risk were observed for MAD1L1 Arg558His (OR = 1.38,95% CI: 1.09–1.75) and MAD2L1 Leu84Met in a dominant model (OR = 1.48,95% CI: 1.09–2.01). Moreover, significant multiplicative gene-smoking interactions were found in MAD1L1 Arg558His (P = 0.019) and MAD2L184 Leu/Met (P = 0.016) to enhance CRC risk. Additionally, the frequencies of lymphocytic micro-nucleated binucleated cells for MAD1L1 Arg558His polymorphism were significantly different in the exposed group (P = 0.013), but not in the control group. The study emphasized that MAD1L1 Arg558His and MAD2L1 Leu84Met can significantly interact with smoking to enhance CRC risk, and the genetic effects of MAD1L1Arg558His on CIN need to be further clarified in follow-up studies. PMID:26183163

  7. Functional Characterization of OsMADS18, a Member of the AP1/SQUA Subfamily of MADS Box Genes1[w

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Fabio; Pařenicová, Lucie; Falasca, Giuseppina; Pelucchi, Nilla; Masiero, Simona; Ciannamea, Stefano; Lopez-Dee, Zenaida; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Colombo, Lucia; Kater, Martin M.

    2004-01-01

    MADS box transcription factors controlling flower development have been isolated and studied in a wide variety of organisms. These studies have shown that homologous MADS box genes from different species often have similar functions. OsMADS18 from rice (Oryza sativa) belongs to the phylogenetically defined AP1/SQUA group. The MADS box genes of this group have functions in plant development, like controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, determination of floral organ identity, and regulation of fruit maturation. In this paper we report the functional analysis of OsMADS18. This rice MADS box gene is widely expressed in rice with its transcripts accumulated to higher levels in meristems. Overexpression of OsMADS18 in rice induced early flowering, and detailed histological analysis revealed that the formation of axillary shoot meristems was accelerated. Silencing of OsMADS18 using an RNA interference approach did not result in any visible phenotypic alteration, indicating that OsMADS18 is probably redundant with other MADS box transcription factors. Surprisingly, overexpression of OsMADS18 in Arabidopsis caused a phenotype closely resembling the ap1 mutant. We show that the ap1 phenotype is not caused by down-regulation of AP1 expression. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that some of the natural partners of AP1 interact with OsMADS18, suggesting that the OsMADS18 overexpression phenotype in Arabidopsis is likely to be due to the subtraction of AP1 partners from active transcription complexes. Thus, when compared to AP1, OsMADS18 during evolution seems to have conserved the mechanistic properties of protein-protein interactions, although it cannot complement the AP1 function. PMID:15299121

  8. The interaction of banana MADS-box protein MuMADS1 and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E-MuUBA in post-harvest banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Cai-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Jia-Shui; Yang, Zi-Xian; Xu, Bi-Yu; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in banana was reported, which will help us to understand the mechanism of the MADS-box gene in regulating banana fruit development and ripening. The ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene fragment MuUBA was obtained from banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by the yeast two-hybrid method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and 2-day post-harvest banana fruit cDNA library as prey. MuMADS1 interacted with MuUBA. The interaction of MuMADS1 and MuUBA in vivo was further proved by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in the ovule 4 stage, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests a simultaneously differential expression action exists for both MuMADS1 and MuUBA in different tissues and developmental fruits. MuMADS1 and MuUBA expression was highly stimulated by exogenous ethylene and suppressed by 1-methylcyclopropene. These results indicated that MuMADS1 and MuUBA were co-regulated by ethylene and might play an important role in post-harvest banana fruit ripening.

  9. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-05-09

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2's control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention.

  10. A new MADS-box gene (IbMADS10) from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is involved in the accumulation of anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Lalusin, Antonio G; Nishita, Koichi; Kim, Sung-Hyung; Ohta, Masaru; Fujimura, Tatsuhito

    2006-01-01

    A new MADS-box gene designated as IbMADS10 was cloned and its expression was characterized from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Beniazuma. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene indicated high homology with members of the MADS-box family of transcription factors. IbMADS10 shares high amino acid sequence similarity with the DEFH28 of Antirrhinum majus (64%) and with BpMADS4 of Betula pendula (61%) of the SQUA subfamily. Southern blot analysis revealed that the IbMADS10 is present in one or low copy number in the sweet potato genome. The gene is specifically expressed in the pigmented tissues such as in the flower bud, in the pink and in red roots, and hence, it was speculated that the IbMADS10 gene might be correlated with anthocyanin biosynthesis in sweet potato. RNA blot expression of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes encoding for CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS and UFTG carried out in the tissues where the IbMADS10 gene was expressed revealed similar transcript levels in all tissues where the IbMADS10 gene is highly expressed, indicating that the IbMADS10 gene is highly correlated with the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Another important aspect is the pigmented phenotypes of transgenic calli that ectopically express the IbMADS10 gene, thereby supporting its involvement in the developmental regulation of pigment formation. Tissue printing result further strengthens the hypothesis that the IbMADS10 gene is indeed involved in anthocyanin pigmentation in sweet potato. As the purpose of the IbMADS10 gene is pigmentation, its function, therefore, resembles that of the transparent testa (tt) genes of Arabidopsis.

  11. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  12. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  13. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  14. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  15. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at...

  16. Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Zhang, Rong-Zhi; Guo, Juan-Juan; Liu, Dan-Mei; Li, Ai-Li; Fan, Ren-Chun; Mao, Long; Zhang, Xiang-Qi

    2014-01-01

    MADS-box genes are important transcription factors for plant development, especially floral organogenesis. Brachypodium distachyon is a model for biofuel plants and temperate grasses such as wheat and barley, but a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Brachypodium is still missing. We report here a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brachypodium distachyon. We identified 57 MADS-box genes and classified them into 32 MIKC(c)-type, 7 MIKC*-type, 9 Mα, 7 Mβ and 2 Mγ MADS-box genes according to their phylogenetic relationships to the Arabidopsis and rice MADS-box genes. Detailed gene structure and motif distribution were then studied. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that Brachypodium MADS-box genes distributed evenly across five chromosomes. In addition, five pairs of type II MADS-box genes were found on synteny blocks derived from whole genome duplication blocks. We then performed a systematic expression analysis of Brachypodium MADS-box genes in various tissues, particular floral organs. Further detection under salt, drought, and low-temperature conditions showed that some MADS-box genes may also be involved in abiotic stress responses, including type I genes. Comparative studies of MADS-box genes among Brachypodium, rice and Arabidopsis showed that Brachypodium had fewer gene duplication events. Taken together, this work provides useful data for further functional studies of MADS-box genes in Brachypodium distachyon.

  17. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  18. John Locke on madness: redressing the intellectualist bias.

    PubMed

    Charland, Louis C

    2014-06-01

    Locke is famous for defining madness as an intellectual disorder in the realm of ideas. Numerous commentators take this to be his main and only contribution to the history of psychiatry. However, a detailed exegetical review of all the relevant textual evidence suggests that this intellectualist interpretation of Locke's account of madness is both misleading and incomplete. Affective states of various sorts play an important role in that account and are in fact primordial in the determination of human conduct generally. Locke's legacy in this domain must therefore be revised and the intellectualist bias that dominates discussions of his views must be redressed.

  19. [The representation of madness in William Shakespeare's characters].

    PubMed

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina; Friedmann, Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Shakespeare is one of the great creators of human characters of the 16(th) century. Like for many of his contemporaries madness was a central topic of his work. The first part of this paper discusses the sociocultural environment and the semantic field of madness in the Elizabethan age, which forms the background for Shakespeare's characters. In the second part we try to analyze the clinical pictures of the fictive characters of Othello, Hamlet, Lear and Macbeth. While we find melancholy, delusions and hallucinations, other diseases such as schizophrenia are missing entirely. Schizophrenia only appears in the literature more than two hundred years later, in the beginning of modern age.

  20. MADNESS: A Multiresolution, Adaptive Numerical Environment for Scientific Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Robert J.; Beylkin, Gregory; Bischoff, Florian A.; Calvin, Justus A.; Fann, George I.; Fosso-Tande, Jacob; Galindo, Diego; Hammond, Jeff R.; Hartman-Baker, Rebecca; Hill, Judith C.; Jia, Jun; Kottmann, Jakob S.; Yvonne Ou, M-J.; Pei, Junchen; Ratcliff, Laura E.; Reuter, Matthew G.; Richie-Halford, Adam C.; Romero, Nichols A.; Sekino, Hideo; Shelton, William A.; Sundahl, Bryan E.; Thornton, W. Scott; Valeev, Edward F.; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro; Vence, Nicholas; Yanai, Takeshi; Yokoi, Yukina

    2016-01-01

    MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation) is a high-level software environment for solving integral and differential equations in many dimensions that uses adaptive and fast harmonic analysis methods with guaranteed precision based on multiresolution analysis and separated representations. Underpinning the numerical capabilities is a powerful petascale parallel programming environment that aims to increase both programmer productivity and code scalability. This paper describes the features and capabilities of MADNESS and briefly discusses some current applications in chemistry and several areas of physics.

  1. MADNESS: A Multiresolution, Adaptive Numerical Environment for Scientific Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Robert J.; Beylkin, Gregory; Bischoff, Florian A.; Calvin, Justus A.; Fann, George I.; Fosso-Tande, Jacob; Galindo, Diego; Hammond, Jeff R.; Hartman-Baker, Rebecca; Hill, Judith C.; Jia, Jun; Kottmann, Jakob S.; Yvonne Ou, M-J.; Pei, Junchen; Ratcliff, Laura E.; Reuter, Matthew G.; Richie-Halford, Adam C.; Romero, Nichols A.; Sekino, Hideo; Shelton, William A.; Sundahl, Bryan E.; Thornton, W. Scott; Valeev, Edward F.; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro; Vence, Nicholas; Yanai, Takeshi; Yokoi, Yukina

    2016-01-01

    We present MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation) that is a high-level software environment for solving integral and differential equations in many dimensions that uses adaptive and fast harmonic analysis methods with guaranteed precision that are based on multiresolution analysis and separated representations. Underpinning the numerical capabilities is a powerful petascale parallel programming environment that aims to increase both programmer productivity and code scalability. This paper describes the features and capabilities of MADNESS and briefly discusses some current applications in chemistry and several areas of physics.

  2. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  3. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  4. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  5. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  6. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  7. 48 CFR 3401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 3401.404 Section 3401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.404 Class deviations. A class deviation from...

  8. Molecular cloning, identification, and chromosomal localization of two MADS box genes in peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai

    2008-06-01

    MADS box proteins play an important role in floral development. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Prunus species, cDNAs for two MADS box genes, PpMADS1 and PpMADS10, were cloned using degenerate primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE based on the sequence database of P. persica and P. dulcis. The full length of PpMADS1 cDNA is 1,071 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 717 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 238 amino acid residues. The full length of PpMADS10 cDNA is 937 bp containing an ORF of 633 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 210 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PpMADS1 and PpMADS10 were highly homologous to genes AP1 and PI in Arabidopsis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMADS1 belongs to the euAP1 clade of class A, and PpMADS10 is a member of GLO/PI clade of class B. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpMADS1 was expressed in sepal, petal, carpel, and fruit, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1; PpMADS10 was expressed in petal and stamen, which shared the same expression pattern as PI. Using selective mapping strategy, PpMADS1 was assigned onto the Bin1:50 on the G1 linkage group between the markers MCO44 and TSA2, and PpMADS10 onto the Bin1:73 on the same linkage group between the markers Lap-1 and FGA8. Our results provided the basis for further dissection of the two MADS box gene function.

  9. Transcriptome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in the orchid Erycina pusilla.

    PubMed

    Lin, Choun-Sea; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Chang, Wan-Jung; Chou, Ming-Lun; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chen, Jeremy J W; Ko, Swee-Suak; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-01-01

    Orchids exhibit a range of unique flower shapes and are a valuable ornamental crop. MADS-box transcription factors are key regulatory components in flower initiation and development. Changing the flower shape and flowering time can increase the value of the orchid in the ornamental horticulture industry. In this study, 28 MADS-box genes were identified from the transcriptome database of the model orchid Erycina pusilla. The full-length genomic sequences of these MADS-box genes were obtained from BAC clones. Of these, 27 were MIKC-type EpMADS (two truncated forms) and one was a type I EpMADS. Eleven EpMADS genes contained introns longer than 10 kb. Phylogenetic analysis classified the 24 MIKC(c) genes into nine subfamilies. Three specific protein motifs, AG, FUL and SVP, were identified and used to classify three subfamilies. The expression profile of each EpMADS gene correlated with its putative function. The phylogenetic analysis was highly correlated with the protein domain identification and gene expression results. Spatial expression of EpMADS6, EpMADS12 and EpMADS15 was strongly detected in the inflorescence meristem, floral bud and seed via in situ hybridization. The subcellular localization of the 28 EpMADS proteins was also investigated. Although EpMADS27 lacks a complete MADS-box domain, EpMADS27-YFP was localized in the nucleus. This characterization of the orchid MADS-box family genes provides useful information for both orchid breeding and studies of flowering and evolution.

  10. Absolute-structure reports.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2013-08-01

    All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of absolute structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the absolute structure.

  11. Accurate absolute GPS positioning through satellite clock error estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.-C.; Kwon, J. H.; Jekeli, C.

    2001-05-01

    An algorithm for very accurate absolute positioning through Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite clock estimation has been developed. Using International GPS Service (IGS) precise orbits and measurements, GPS clock errors were estimated at 30-s intervals. Compared to values determined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the agreement was at the level of about 0.1 ns (3 cm). The clock error estimates were then applied to an absolute positioning algorithm in both static and kinematic modes. For the static case, an IGS station was selected and the coordinates were estimated every 30 s. The estimated absolute position coordinates and the known values had a mean difference of up to 18 cm with standard deviation less than 2 cm. For the kinematic case, data obtained every second from a GPS buoy were tested and the result from the absolute positioning was compared to a differential GPS (DGPS) solution. The mean differences between the coordinates estimated by the two methods are less than 40 cm and the standard deviations are less than 25 cm. It was verified that this poorer standard deviation on 1-s position results is due to the clock error interpolation from 30-s estimates with Selective Availability (SA). After SA was turned off, higher-rate clock error estimates (such as 1 s) could be obtained by a simple interpolation with negligible corruption. Therefore, the proposed absolute positioning technique can be used to within a few centimeters' precision at any rate by estimating 30-s satellite clock errors and interpolating them.

  12. Evaluating least absolute deviation regression as an inverse model in groundwater flow calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, John Matthew

    Though information regarding children's mental health is increasing, and we know that approximately 20% of children meet criteria for a mental disorder, little is known about the characteristics of the child client population at community mental health clinics. This study is an exploratory analysis of the demographic and treatment characteristics of the child client population at a psychology training clinic/community mental health center. Demographic and treatment information is presented and compared across various service categories as well as diagnostic categories. Comparisons between those served during the first six years and those served during the second six years of the study period are also made. Results are discussed in terms of generalizability of results as well as available information from the literature.

  13. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interation with ethylene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MADS-box genes (MaMADS1-6), potential components of the developmental control of ripening have been cloned from Grand Nain banana cultivar. Similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is very low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns...

  14. TrMADS3, a new MADS-box gene, from a perennial species Taihangia rupestris (Rosaceae) is upregulated by cold and experiences seasonal fluctuation in expression level.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoqiu; Xiao, Qiying; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Feng; Xu, Qijiang; Chong, Kang; Meng, Zheng

    2008-06-01

    In many temperate perennial plants, floral transition is initiated in the first growth season but the development of flower is arrested during the winter to ensure production of mature flowers in the next spring. The molecular mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood with few well-characterized regulatory genes. Here, a MADS-box gene, named as TrMADS3, was isolated from the overwintering inflorescences of Taihangia rupestris, a temperate perennial in the rose family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TrMADS3 is more closely related to the homologs of the FLOWERING LOCUS C lineage than to any of the other MIKC-type MADS-box lineages known from Arabidopsis. The TrMADS3 transcripts are extensively distributed in inflorescences, roots, and leaves during the winter. In controlled conditions, the TrMADS3 expression level is upregulated by a chilling exposure for 1 to 2 weeks and remains high for a longer period of time in warm conditions after cold treatment. In situ hybridization reveals that TrMADS3 is predominantly expressed in the vegetative and reproductive meristems. Ectopic expression of TrMADS3 in Arabidopsis promotes seed germination on the media containing relatively high NaCl or mannitol concentrations. These data indicate that TrMADS3 in a perennial species might have its role in both vegetative and reproductive meristems in response to cold.

  15. Banana Ovate Family Protein MaOFP1 and MADS-Box Protein MuMADS1 Antagonistically Regulated Banana Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Miao, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianbin; Jia, Caihong; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    The ovate family protein named MaOFP1 was identified in banana (Musa acuminata L.AAA) fruit by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) method using the banana MADS-box gene MuMADS1 as bait and a 2 day postharvest (DPH) banana fruit cDNA library as prey. The interaction between MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 was further confirmed by Y2H and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) methods, which showed that the MuMADS1 K domain interacted with MaOFP1. Real-time quantitative PCR evaluation of MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression patterns in banana showed that they are highly expressed in 0 DPH fruit, but present in low levels in the stem, which suggests that simultaneous but different expression patterns exist for both MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 in different tissues and developing fruits. Meanwhile, MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated and greatly suppressed, respectively, by exogenous ethylene. In contrast, MaOFP1 expression was highly stimulated while MuMADS1 was greatly suppressed by the ethylene competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). These results indicate that MuMADS1 and MaOFP1 are antagonistically regulated by ethylene and might play important roles in postharvest banana fruit ripening. PMID:25886169

  16. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in apple.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi; Dong, Qinglong; Ji, Zhirui; Chi, Fumei; Cong, Peihua; Zhou, Zongshan

    2015-01-25

    The MADS-box gene family is one of the most widely studied families in plants and has diverse developmental roles in flower pattern formation, gametophyte cell division and fruit differentiation. Although the genome-wide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding MADS-box genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 146 MADS-box genes were identified in the apple genome and were phylogenetically clustered into six subgroups (MIKC(c), MIKC*, Mα, Mβ, Mγ and Mδ) with the MADS-box genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The predicted apple MADS-box genes were distributed across all 17 chromosomes at different densities. Additionally, the MADS-box domain, exon length, gene structure and motif compositions of the apple MADS-box genes were analysed. Moreover, the expression of all of the apple MADS-box genes was analysed in the root, stem, leaf, flower tissues and five stages of fruit development. All of the apple MADS-box genes, with the exception of some genes in each group, were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, which indicates that the MADS-box genes are involved in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the apple. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the apple MADS-box gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification, cloning and putative functions of this family.

  17. Reviewing the Link between Creativity and Madness: A Postmodern Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    Researchers on creativity and psychology have long been fascinated with the high incidence of psychotic behavior amongst geniuses and individuals of exceptional creativity. The aims of this paper are first, to review the existing findings for a better insight into the socio-contextual factors underpinning the mad genius conundrum, and secondly, to…

  18. March Money Madness: The Coaches vs. the Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    College basketball's March Madness has come at a time when one prominent coach's salary has been held up for inspection. Apparently, the fact that the $1.6-million annual income of the University of Connecticut's Jim Calhoun makes him the highest-paid public employee in his state has rankled some people. Or are they more upset that he was caught…

  19. Cassandra in the Classroom: Teaching and Moral Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2017-01-01

    Moral madness is a symptom of the moral violence experienced by teachers who are expected to exercise responsibility for their students and their work, but whose moral voice is misrecognized as self-interest and whose moral agency is suppressed. I conduct a feminist ethical analysis of the figure of Cassandra to examine the ways in which teachers…

  20. Globalizing Education, Educating the Local: How Method Made Us Mad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Carney, Stephen; Ambrosius, Ulla; Lauder, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the authors' review of "Globalizing education, educating the local: how method made us mad," by Ian Stronach. In the opening chapter of their highly influential 1997 book "Education Research Undone: The Postmodern Embrace," Ian Stronach and Maggie MacLure draw upon the work of Derrida to argue for…

  1. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  2. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  3. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in sesame.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-09-10

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant growth and development. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an oil crop that contributes to the daily oil and protein requirements of almost half of the world's population; therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family is needed. Fifty-seven MADS-box genes were identified from 14 linkage groups of the sesame genome. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana, Utricularia gibba and Solanum lycopersicum MADS-box genes was performed. Sesame MADS-box genes were clustered into four groups: 28 MIKC(c)-type, 5 MIKC(⁎)-type, 14 Mα-type and 10 Mγ-type. Gene structure analysis revealed from 1 to 22 exons of sesame MADS-box genes. The number of exons in type II MADS-box genes greatly exceeded the number in type I genes. Motif distribution analysis of sesame MADS-box genes also indicated that type II MADS-box genes contained more motifs than type I genes. These results suggested that type II sesame MADS-box genes had more complex structures. By analyzing expression profiles of MADS-box genes in seven sesame transcriptomes, we determined that MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes played significant roles in sesame flower and seed development. Although most MADS-box genes in the same clade showed similar expression features, some gene functions were diversified from the orthologous Arabidopsis genes. This research will contribute to uncovering the role of MADS-box genes in sesame development.

  4. Interactions of OsMADS1 with Floral Homeotic Genes in Rice Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Yang, Xuelian; Ping, Baozhe; Li, Anxue; Jia, Ru; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    During reproductive development, rice plants develop unique flower organs which determine the final grain yield. OsMADS1, one of SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes, has been unraveled to play critical roles in rice floral organ identity specification and floral meristem determinacy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying interactions of OsMADS1 with other floral homeotic genes in regulating flower development remains largely elusive. In this work, we studied the genetic interactions of OsMADS1 with B-, C-, and D-class genes along with physical interactions among their proteins. We show that the physical and genetic interactions between OsMADS1 and OsMADS3 are essential for floral meristem activity maintenance and organ identity specification; while OsMADS1 physically and genetically interacts with OsMADS58 in regulating floral meristem determinacy and suppressing spikelet meristem reversion. We provided important genetic evidence to support the neofunctionalization of two rice C-class genes (OsMADS3 and OsMADS58) during flower development. Gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR analyses further revealed that OsMADS1 affects the expression of many genes involved in floral identity and hormone signaling, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR assay further demonstrated that OsMADS17 is a direct target gene of OsMADS1. Taken together, these results reveal that OsMADS1 has diversified regulatory functions in specifying rice floral organ and meristem identity, probably through its genetic and physical interactions with different floral homeotic regulators.

  5. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  6. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  7. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  8. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  9. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  10. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  12. 14 CFR § 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. § 1260.7 Section § 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.7 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 1260.7 Section 1260.7 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 1260.7 Deviations. (a) A deviation is required for any of the following: (1) When a...

  14. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case deviations from this part may be authorized in writing by...

  15. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  16. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  17. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  18. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  19. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...

  20. 10 CFR 602.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 602.4 Section 602.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.4 Deviations. (a) Single-case deviations from this part may be authorized in writing by...

  1. 10 CFR 961.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 961.4 Section 961.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.4 Deviations. Requests for authority to deviate from this part shall be submitted in writing...

  2. 48 CFR 2801.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2801.404 Section 2801.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE General DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.404 Class deviations....

  3. 48 CFR 2901.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 2901.404 Section 2901.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and DOLAR 2901.404 Class deviations. (a) The...

  4. ZmMADS47 Regulates Zein Gene Transcription through Interaction with Opaque2

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Zhenyi; Qi, Weiwei; Wang, Qian; Feng, Ya’nan; Yang, Qing; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Shanshan; Tang, Yuanping; Song, Rentao

    2016-01-01

    Zeins, the predominent storage proteins in maize endosperm, are encoded by multiple genes and gene families. However, only a few transcriptional factors for zein gene regulation have been functionally characterized. In this study, a MADS-box protein, namely ZmMADS47, was identified as an Opaque2 (O2) interacting protein via yeast two-hybrid screening. The N-terminal portion of ZmMADS47 contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS), and its C-terminal portion contains a transcriptional activation domain (AD). Interestingly, the transcriptional activation activity is blocked in its full length form, suggesting conformational regulation of the AD. Molecular and RNA-seq analyses of ZmMADS47 RNAi lines revealed down regulation of α-zein and 50-kD γ-zein genes. ZmMADS47 binds the CATGT motif in promoters of these zein genes, but ZmMADS47 alone is not able to transactivate the promoters. However, when both O2 and ZmMADS47 are present, the transactivation of these promoters was greatly enhanced. This enhancement was dependent on the AD function of ZmMADS47 and the interaction between ZmMADS47 and O2, but it was independent from the AD function of O2. Therefore, it appears interaction with O2 activates ZmMADS47 on zein gene promoters. PMID:27077660

  5. Control of the spindle checkpoint by lateral kinetochore attachment and limited Mad1 recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Krefman, Nathaniel I.; Drubin, David G.; Barnes, Georjana

    2015-01-01

    We observed the dynamic recruitment of spindle checkpoint proteins Mad1 and Bub1 to detached kinetochores in budding yeast using real-time live-cell imaging and quantified recruitment in fixed cells. After induced de novo kinetochore assembly at one pair of sister centromeres, Mad1 appeared after the kinetochore protein Mtw1. Detached kinetochores were not associated with the nuclear envelope, so Mad1 does not anchor them to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Disrupting Mad1's NPC localization increased Mad1 recruitment to detached sister kinetochores. Conversely, increasing the number of detached kinetochores reduced the amount of Mad1 per detached kinetochore. Bub1 also relocalized completely from the spindle to detached sister centromeres after kinetochore assembly. After their capture by microtubules, Mad1 and Bub1 progressively disappeared from kinetochores. Sister chromatids that arrested with a lateral attachment to one microtubule exhibited half the Mad1 of fully detached sisters. We propose that detached kinetochores compete with alternate binding sites in the nucleus to recruit Mad1 and Bub1 from available pools that are small enough to be fully depleted by just one pair of detached kinetochores and that lateral attachment licenses Mad1 removal from kinetochores after a kinetic delay. PMID:26023090

  6. Involvement of a banana MADS-box transcription factor gene in ethylene-induced fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Xu, Biyu; Hu, Lifang; Li, Meiying; Su, Wei; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jinghao; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of MADS-box genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group cv. Brazilian) fruit development and postharvest ripening, we isolated from banana fruit a MADS-box gene designated MuMADS1. Amino acid alignment indicated MuMADS1 belongs to the AGAMOUS subfamily, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this gene is most similar to class D MADS-box genes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that MuMADS1 is expressed in the stamen and pistil of male and female flowers and in the rhizome, the vegetative reproductive organ of the banana plant. In preharvest banana fruit, MuMADS1 is likely expressed throughout banana fruit development. In postharvest banana ripening, MuMADS1 is associated with ethylene biosynthesis. Expression patterns of MuMADS1 during postharvest ripening as determined by real-time RT-PCR suggest that differential expression of MuMADS1 may not only be induced by ethylene biosynthesis associated with postharvest banana ripening, but also may be induced by exogenous ethylene.

  7. Visualization of Myc/Max/Mad family dimers and the competition for dimerization in living cells.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, Asya V; Hu, Chang-Deng; Kerppola, Tom K

    2004-05-01

    Myc and Mad family proteins play opposing roles in the control of cell growth and proliferation. We have visualized the subcellular locations of complexes formed by Myc/Max/Mad family proteins using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. Max was recruited to different subnuclear locations by interactions with Myc versus Mad family members. Complexes formed by Max with Mxi1, Mad3, or Mad4 were enriched in nuclear foci, whereas complexes formed with Myc were more uniformly distributed in the nucleoplasm. Mad4 was localized to the cytoplasm when it was expressed separately, and Mad4 was recruited to the nucleus through dimerization with Max. The cytoplasmic localization of Mad4 was determined by a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal located near the amino terminus. We compared the relative efficiencies of complex formation among Myc, Max, and Mad family proteins in living cells using multicolor BiFC analysis. Max formed heterodimers with the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZIP) domain of Myc (bMyc) more efficiently than it formed homodimers. Replacement of two amino acid residues in the leucine zipper of Max reversed the relative efficiencies of homo- and heterodimerization in cells. Surprisingly, Mad3 formed complexes with Max less efficiently than bMyc, whereas Mad4 formed complexes with Max more efficiently than bMyc. The distinct subcellular locations and the differences between the efficiencies of dimerization with Max indicate that Mad3 and Mad4 are likely to modulate transcription activation by Myc at least in part through distinct mechanisms.

  8. Visualization of Myc/Max/Mad Family Dimers and the Competition for Dimerization in Living Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Asya V.; Hu, Chang-Deng; Kerppola, Tom K.

    2004-01-01

    Myc and Mad family proteins play opposing roles in the control of cell growth and proliferation. We have visualized the subcellular locations of complexes formed by Myc/Max/Mad family proteins using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. Max was recruited to different subnuclear locations by interactions with Myc versus Mad family members. Complexes formed by Max with Mxi1, Mad3, or Mad4 were enriched in nuclear foci, whereas complexes formed with Myc were more uniformly distributed in the nucleoplasm. Mad4 was localized to the cytoplasm when it was expressed separately, and Mad4 was recruited to the nucleus through dimerization with Max. The cytoplasmic localization of Mad4 was determined by a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal located near the amino terminus. We compared the relative efficiencies of complex formation among Myc, Max, and Mad family proteins in living cells using multicolor BiFC analysis. Max formed heterodimers with the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZIP) domain of Myc (bMyc) more efficiently than it formed homodimers. Replacement of two amino acid residues in the leucine zipper of Max reversed the relative efficiencies of homo- and heterodimerization in cells. Surprisingly, Mad3 formed complexes with Max less efficiently than bMyc, whereas Mad4 formed complexes with Max more efficiently than bMyc. The distinct subcellular locations and the differences between the efficiencies of dimerization with Max indicate that Mad3 and Mad4 are likely to modulate transcription activation by Myc at least in part through distinct mechanisms. PMID:15121849

  9. Interventions for dissociated vertical deviation

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Sarah R; Wang, Xue; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “strabismus” describes misalignment of the eyes. One or both eyes may deviate inward, outward, upward, or downward. Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is a well-recognized type of upward drifting of one or both eyes, which can occur in children or adults. DVD often develops in the context of infantile- or childhood-onset horizontal strabismus, either esotropia (inward-turning) or exotropia (outward-turning). For some individuals, DVD remains controlled and can only be detected during clinical testing. For others, DVD becomes spontaneously “manifest” and the eye drifts up of its own accord. Spontaneously manifest DVD can be difficult to control and often causes psychosocial concerns. Traditionally, DVD has been thought to be asymptomatic, although some individuals have double vision. More recently it has been suggested that individuals with DVD may also suffer from eyestrain. Treatment for DVD may be sought either due to psychosocial concerns or because of these symptoms. The standard treatment for DVD is a surgical procedure; non-surgical treatments are offered less commonly. Although there are many studies evaluating different management options for the correction of DVD, a lack of clarity remains regarding which treatments are most effective. Objectives The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness and safety of various surgical and non-surgical interventions in randomized controlled trials of participants with DVD. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2015, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2015), PubMed (1948 to August 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to August 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 3

  10. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  11. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency) by removing the source spectrum (moment-rate spectrum) from

  12. Histone modification and signalling cascade of the dormancy-associated MADS-box gene, PpMADS13-1, in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) during endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    Dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes play an important role in endodormancy phase transition. We investigated histone modification in the DAM homolog (PpMADS13-1) from Japanese pear, via chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR, to understand the mechanism behind the reduced expression of the PpMADS13-1 gene towards endodormancy release. Our results indicated that the reduction in the active histone mark by trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at lysine 4 contributed to the reduction of PpMADS13-1 expression towards endodormancy release. In contrast, the inactive histone mark by trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at lysine 27 in PpMADS13-1 locus was quite low, and these levels were more similar to a negative control [normal mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG)] than to a positive control (AGAMOUS) in endodormancy phase transition. The loss of histone variant H2A.Z also coincided with the down-regulation of PpMADS13-1. Subsequently, we investigated the PpMADS13-1 signalling cascade and found that PpCBF2, a pear C-repeated binding factor, regulated PpMADS13-1 expression via interaction of PpCBF2 with the 5'-upstream region of PpMADS13-1 by transient reporter assay. Furthermore, transient reporter assay confirmed no interaction between the PpMADS13-1 protein and the pear FLOWERING LOCUS T genes. Taken together, our results enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying endodormancy phase transition in Japanese pear.

  13. Distinct responses to reduplicated chromosomes require distinct Mad2 responses

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Benjamin M; Fox, Donald T

    2016-01-01

    Duplicating chromosomes once each cell cycle produces sister chromatid pairs, which separate accurately at anaphase. In contrast, reduplicating chromosomes without separation frequently produces polytene chromosomes, a barrier to accurate mitosis. Chromosome reduplication occurs in many contexts, including: polytene tissue development, polytene tumors, and following treatment with mitosis-blocking chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms responding to or resolving polyteny during mitosis are poorly understood. Here, using Drosophila, we uncover two distinct reduplicated chromosome responses. First, when reduplicated polytene chromosomes persist into metaphase, an anaphase delay prevents tissue malformation and apoptosis. Second, reduplicated polytene chromosomes can also separate prior to metaphase through a spindle-independent mechanism termed Separation-Into-Recent-Sisters (SIRS). Both reduplication responses require the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. While Mad2 delays anaphase separation of metaphase polytene chromosomes, Mad2’s control of overall mitotic timing ensures efficient SIRS. Our results pinpoint mechanisms enabling continued proliferation after genome reduplication, a finding with implications for cancer progression and prevention. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.001 PMID:27159240

  14. The petunia MADS box gene FBP11 determines ovule identity.

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, L; Franken, J; Koetje, E; van Went, J; Dons, H J; Angenent, G C; van Tunen, A J

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the wealth of information relating to genes regulating floral meristem and floral organ identity, only limited data are available concerning genes that are involved in determining and regulating the identity and development of an ovule. We have recently isolated the floral binding protein 11 (FBP11) MADS box gene from petunia and found that it is expressed exclusively in ovule primordia and subsequently in the ovules, suggesting a role for this gene in ovule formation. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a recombinant gene in which the full-size FBP11 cDNA was placed under the control of a strong cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Transgenic petunia plants expressing this chimeric gene have ovulelike structures on the adaxial side of the sepals and the abaxial side of the petals. Detailed morphological studies showed that these ovulelike structures are true ovules. RNA gel blot analysis was performed to investigate ectopic FBP11 expression in relation to the expression of the closely related FBP7 gene and the putative petunia class C-type homeotic genes FBP6 and pMADS3. Our results indicate that FBP11 represents an ovule identity gene. A new model describing the mode of action of FBP11 as an additional class D MADS box gene is presented. PMID:8535139

  15. Effects of Mad Honey on Some Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Huseyin; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine grayanotoxin (GTX-III) toxin level in mad honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and examine the dynamic changes of certain biochemical parameters in blood serum of rats that consumed mad honey. For the experimental animal study, 20 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 5 groups of 4 rats each, with one group being the control group (Group 1) and the others being the experimental groups (Groups 2-5). Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were, respectively, given mad honey extract at doses of 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mg/g body weight/day via oral gavage for 8 days. According to results, the quantity of GTX-III found in the honey sample as 39.949 ± 0.020 μg GTX-III/g honey, and the biochemical analysis of the tested parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase muscle and brain) showed a significant elevation with increasing concentration of honey. In conclusion, the use of increasing concentrations of Rhododendron honey was seen as a source of enzymatic symptoms.

  16. Regulation of AURORA B function by mitotic checkpoint protein MAD2.

    PubMed

    Shandilya, Jayasha; Medler, Kathryn F; Roberts, Stefan G E

    2016-08-17

    Cell cycle checkpoint signaling stringently regulates chromosome segregation during cell division. MAD2 is one of the key components of the spindle and mitotic checkpoint complex that regulates the fidelity of cell division along with MAD1, CDC20, BUBR1, BUB3 and MAD3. MAD2 ablation leads to erroneous attachment of kinetochore-spindle fibers and defective chromosome separation. A potential role for MAD2 in the regulation of events beyond the spindle and mitotic checkpoints is not clear. Together with active spindle assembly checkpoint signaling, AURORA B kinase activity is essential for chromosome condensation as cells enter mitosis. AURORA B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10 and serine 28 to facilitate the formation of condensed metaphase chromosomes. In the absence of functional AURORA B cells escape mitosis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes. In this study we report that silencing of MAD2 results in a drastic reduction of metaphase-specific histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 and serine 28. We demonstrate that this is due to mislocalization of AURORA B in the absence of MAD2. Conversely, overexpression of MAD2 concentrated the localization of AURORA B at the metaphase plate and caused hyper-phosphorylation of histone H3. We find that MAD1 plays a minor role in influencing the MAD2-dependent regulation of AURORA B suggesting that the effects of MAD2 on AURORA B are independent of the spindle checkpoint complex. Our findings reveal that, in addition to its role in checkpoint signaling, MAD2 ensures chromosome stability through the regulation of AURORA B.

  17. The regulation of MADS-box gene expression during ripening of banana and their regulatory interaction with ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Elitzur, Tomer; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.; Friedman, Haya

    2010-01-01

    Six MaMADS-box genes have been cloned from the banana fruit cultivar Grand Nain. The similarity of these genes to tomato LeRIN is low and neither MaMADS2 nor MaMADS1 complement the tomato rin mutation. Nevertheless, the expression patterns, specifically in fruit and the induction during ripening and in response to ethylene and 1-MCP, suggest that some of these genes may participate in ripening. MaMADS1, 2, and 3, are highly expressed in fruit only, while the others are expressed in fruit as well as in other organs. Moreover, the suites of MaMADS-box genes and their temporal expression differ in peel and pulp during ripening. In the pulp, the increase in MaMADS2, 3, 4, and 5 expression preceded an increase in ethylene production, but coincides with the CO2 peak. However, MaMADS1 expression in pulp coincided with ethylene production, but a massive increase in its expression occurred late during ripening, together with a second wave in the expression of MaMADS2, 3, and 4. In the peel, on the other hand, an increase in expression of MaMADS1, 3, and to a lesser degree also of MaMADS4 and 2 coincided with an increase in ethylene production. Except MaMADS3, which was induced by ethylene in pulp and peel, only MaMADS4, and 5 in pulp and MaMADS1 in peel were induced by ethylene. 1-MCP applied at the onset of the increase in ethylene production, increased the levels of MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 in pulp, while it decreased MaMADS1, 3, 4, and 5 in peel, suggesting that MaMADS4 and MaMADS1 are negatively controlled by ethylene at the onset of ethylene production only in pulp. Only MaMADS2 is neither induced by ethylene nor by 1-MCP, and it is expressed mainly in pulp. Our results suggest that two independent ripening programs are employed in pulp and peel which involve the activation of mainly MaMADS2, 4, and 5 and later on also MaMADS1 in pulp, and mainly MaMADS1, and 3 in peel. Hence, our results are consistent with MaMADS2, a SEP3 homologue, acting in the pulp upstream of the

  18. The nucleoporin Nup153 affects spindle checkpoint activity due to an association with Mad1

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The nucleoporin Nup153 is known to play pivotal roles in nuclear import and export in interphase cells and as the cell transitions into mitosis, Nup153 is involved in nuclear envelope breakdown. In this study, we demonstrate that the interaction of Nup153 with the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad1 is important in the regulation of the spindle checkpoint. Overexpression of human Nup153 in HeLa cells leads to the appearance of multinucleated cells and induces the formation of multipolar spindles. Importantly, it causes inactivation of the spindle checkpoint due to hypophosphorylation of Mad1. Depletion of Nup153 using RNA interference results in the decline of Mad1 at nuclear pores during interphase and more significantly causes a delayed dissociation of Mad1 from kinetochores in metaphase and an increase in the number of unresolved midbodies. In the absence of Nup153 the spindle checkpoint remains active. In vitro studies indicate direct binding of Mad1 to the N-terminal domain of Nup153. Importantly, Nup153 binding to Mad1 affects Mad1's phosphorylation status, but not its ability to interact with Mad2. Our data suggest that Nup153 levels regulate the localization of Mad1 during the metaphase/anaphase transition thereby affecting its phoshorylation status and in turn spindle checkpoint activity and mitotic exit. PMID:21327106

  19. The vocabulary of madness from Homer to Hippocrates. Part 1: the verbal group of mualphaiotanuomicronmualphaiota.

    PubMed

    Perdicoyianni-Paléologou, Hélène

    2009-09-01

    In Part 1 of this two-part paper, I examine the evolution of the concept of madness expressed by the various forms--verbal and nominal, simple and compound--of the verbal group of mualphaiotanuomicronmualphaiota in the archaic and classical periods. I point out how the divine madness is contrasted to pathological madness considered as a psychic and mental disease and foreseeable by doctors as well as curable by medications. This new procedure highlights rational knowledge of the Greeks about the cause and the medical care of madness.

  20. Expression and genomic structure of the dormancy-associated MADS box genes MADS13 in Japanese pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) that differ in their chilling requirement for endodormancy release.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Saito, Toshihiro; Ubi, Banjamin Ewa; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-06-01

    We isolated three dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes (MADS13-1, MADS13-2 and MADS13-3) and showed regulated expression concomitant with endodormancy establishment and release in the leaf buds of Japanese pear 'Kosui'. Comparative analysis between 'Kosui' and Taiwanese pear TP-85-119 ('Hengshanli'), a less dormant pear cultivar, showed reduction of MADS13-1 expression level in 'Hengshanli' earlier than in 'Kosui' towards endodormancy release, suggesting the possible relationship between chilling requirement and MADS13-1 expression. Application of hydrogen cyanamide accelerated endodormancy release with a reduction in MADS13 expression, whereas heat treatment in autumn inhibited endodormancy establishment without induction of MADS13 expression, indicating a close relationship between the MADS13 expression pattern and endodormancy phase transitions. Moreover, both the cis-acting regulatory elements and the methylation status in the 5' upstream region of the MADS13-1 gene were not largely different between 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli'. Genomic structures of MADS13-1 from 'Kosui' and 'Hengshanli' revealed a 3218 bp insertion in the first intron of 'Hengshanli' that might be ascribed to the lower expression of MADS13-1tw; however, this insertion was also found in pear genotypes with a high chilling requirement. These results indicated that the low expression of MADS13-1 in 'Hengshanli' towards endodormancy release could not be explained by the identified cis-acting regulatory elements, the methylation status of the putative promoter or by intron insertion.

  1. Kinetics of myc-max-mad gene expression during hepatocyte proliferation in vivo: Differential regulation of mad family and stress-mediated induction of c-myc.

    PubMed

    Mauleon, Itsaso; Lombard, Marie-Noëlle; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cañelles, Matilde; Leon, Javier

    2004-02-01

    Mad proteins (Mad1, Mxi1, Mad3, Mad4, Mnt/Rox) are biochemical and biological antagonists of c-Myc oncoprotein. Mad-Max dimers repress the transcription of the same target genes activated by Myc-Max dimers. Despite the critical role of Max and Mad proteins as modulators of c-Myc functions, there are no comparative data on their regulation in vivo. We carried out a systematic analysis of c-myc, max, and mad family expression in a model of synchronized cell proliferation in vivo in adult tissues, that is, rat hepatocytes after partial hepatectomy. We confirmed the previously reported early peak of c-myc expression after hepatectomy but we show that it did not correlate with hepatocyte proliferation as it also occurred in sham-operated animals as a result of surgical stresses. A second peak of c-myc expression was observed later, at the time of the wave of DNA synthesis. No such expression was detected in sham-operated rat quiescent hepatocytes. max expression increased around 4-16 h after hepatectomy, before the peaks of c-myc and DNA synthesis. mxi1 and mad4 were slightly downregulated during liver regeneration. mnt/rox expression did not change. These expression patterns suggest a role of Myc-Max for efficient mitogenic response of hepatocytes. We also analyzed the effects of Myc and Max ectopic expression on the clonogenic growth of the rat hepatoma cells. Expression of c-Myc and Max increased clonogenic growth, whereas the reduction of c-Myc levels by an antisense vector decreased growth. The results suggest nonredundant roles for mad genes in hepatocyte proliferation and point to c-Myc as a putative target for anticancer therapy of liver cancer.

  2. 10 CFR 609.18 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 609.18 Section 609.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS LOAN GUARANTEES FOR PROJECTS THAT EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.18 Deviations. To the extent that such requirements are not specified by the Act or...

  3. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  4. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  5. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  6. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  7. 34 CFR 74.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations. 74.4 Section 74.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.4 Deviations. The Secretary,...

  8. Alternating Skew Deviation from Traumatic Intracranial Hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Moster, Stephen J.; Moster, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A 56-year-old woman developed progressive headache, mental status changes, and diplopia after trauma. She was diagnosed with alternating skew deviation caused by intracranial hypotension. This is the first case of alternating skew deviation reported from intracranial hypotension and perhaps a differential pressure between intracranial and intraspinal spaces plays a role in the development of these findings. PMID:27928294

  9. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  10. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  11. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  12. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  13. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  14. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  15. 22 CFR 518.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Deviations. 518.4 Section 518.4 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 518.4 Deviations....

  16. 22 CFR 145.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 145.4 Section 145.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 145.4 Deviations. The Office of Management...

  17. 48 CFR 1480.403 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authorize a deviation for an IA acquisition: For a proposed contract action . . . The following official may authorize a deviation . . . Exceeding $25,000 but not exceeding $550,000 The CCO (or the IA Procurement Chief, absent a CCO). Exceeding $550,000 but not exceeding $11.5 million IA Competition...

  18. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  19. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  20. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  1. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  2. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  3. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  4. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  5. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  6. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  7. 48 CFR 2001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class deviations. 2001.404 Section 2001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.404...

  8. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  9. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  10. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  11. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  12. 20 CFR 435.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...

  13. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  14. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  15. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  16. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  17. 10 CFR 800.204 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 800.204 Section 800.204 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loans § 800.204 Deviations. (a) To the extent consistent with the Act, relevant...

  18. 48 CFR 1401.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 1401.404 Section 1401.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.404 Class...

  19. 48 CFR 3001.404 - Class deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 3001.404 Section 3001.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and...

  20. Three MADS-box genes similar to APETALA1 and FRUITFULL from silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Turunen, Marja-Leena; Tikka, Liisa; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2001-05-01

    Despite intensive research on genetic regulation of flower development there are still only a few studies on the early phases of this process in perennial plants like trees. The aim of this study has been to identify genes that regulate early stages of inflorescence development in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and to follow the expression of these genes during development of the unisexual birch inflorescences. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of 3 cDNAs representing MADS-box genes designated BpMADS3, BpMADS4 and BpMADS5, all belonging to the AP1/SQUA group of plant MADS-box genes. According to RNA blot analysis, all 3 genes are active during the development of both male and female inflorescences. However, differences in patterns of expression suggest that they play different roles. BpMADS3 is most similar in sequence to AP1 and SQUA, but it seems to have the highest expression at late developmental stages. BpMADS4 is most similar in sequence to the Arabidopsis gene FRUITFULL, but is expressed, in addition to developing inflorescences, in shoots and roots. BpMADS5 is also similar to FRUITFULL; its expression seems to be inflorescence-specific and continues during fruit development. Ectopic expression of either BpMADS3, BpMADS4 or BpMADS5 with the CaMV 35S promoter in tobacco results in extremely early flowering. All of these birch genes seem to act early during the transition to reproductive phase and might be involved in the determination of the identity of the inflorescence or flower meristem. They could apparently be used to accelerate flowering in various plant species.

  1. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  2. Computational identification and analysis of MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Madhurjya; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Tanoy

    2015-01-01

    MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity.

  3. Computational identification and analysis of MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Madhurjya; Borchetia, Sangeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Tanoy

    2015-01-01

    MADS (Minichromosome Maintenance1 Agamous Deficiens Serum response factor) box genes encode transcription factors and they play a key role in growth and development of flowering plants. There are two types of MADS box genes- Type I (serum response factor (SRF)-like) and Type II (myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2)-like). Type II MADS box genes have a conserved MIKC domain (MADS DNA-binding domain, intervening domain, keratin-like domain, and c-terminal domain) and these were extensively studied in plants. Compared to other plants very little is known about MADS box genes in Camellia sinensis. The present study aims at identifying and analyzing the MADS-box genes present in Camellia sinensis. A comparative bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of the Camellia sinensis sequences along with Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box sequences available in the public domain databases led to the identification of 16 genes which were orthologous to Type II MADS box gene family members. The protein sequences were classified into distinct clades which are associated with the conserved function of flower and seed development. The identified genes may be used for gene expression and gene manipulation studies to elucidate their role in the development and flowering of tea which may pave the way to improve the crop productivity. PMID:25914445

  4. MADS-box genes in maize: Frequent targets of selection during domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are key regulators of plant inflorescence and flower development. We examined DNA sequence variation in 32 maize MADS-box genes and 32 random loci from the maize genome and investigated their involvement in maize domestication and improvement. Using n...

  5. A pavement Moisture Accelerated Distress (MAD) identification system, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, S. H.; Darter, M. I.; Dempsey, B. J.

    1981-09-01

    A users manual is designed which provides the engineer with a rational method of examining a pavement and determining rehabilitation needs that are related to the causes of the existing distress, particularly moisture related distress. The key elements in this procedure are the MAD Index developed in Volume 1, the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and the Moisture Distress Index (MDI). Step by step procedures are presented for calculating each parameter. Complete distress identification manuals are included for asphalt surfaced highways and jointed reinforced concrete highways with pictures and descriptions of all major distress types. Descriptions of the role moisture plays in the development of each distress type are included.

  6. Does UV CETI Suffer from the Mad Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analyzed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the (EUV) Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in metals in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere.

  7. Stable folding intermediates prevent fast interconversion between the closed and open states of Mad2 through its denatured state.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Lianghui; Wu, Chunfei; Jiang, Xiaoyong; Ge, Baosheng; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Different states of metamorphic proteins can interconvert under physiological conditions to realize corresponding functions. The mechanism behind the conversion is critical for understanding how these proteins work. We report a combined thermodynamic and kinetic study on the folding/unfolding process of the open and closed conformers of mitotic arrest deficient protein 2 (Mad2), a metamorphic protein. It has been observed that open Mad2 (O-Mad2) can convert to closed Mad2 (C-Mad2). Our results show that O-Mad2 and C-Mad2 have similar thermodynamic stability, which explains the presence of metamorphosis. The folding/unfolding kinetics suggest that the conversion between O-Mad2 and C-Mad2 would be much faster than that reported previously if this conversion goes through the denatured state (U) directly, i.e. through an O-Mad2-denatured state (U)-C-Mad2 (O-U-C) pathway. This inconsistency implies that there exist stable intermediates in between the native and denatured states of Mad2, which would either slow down the O-U-C interconversion or prevent it going through the denatured state.

  8. Expression of the mad gene during cell differentiation in vivo and its inhibition of cell growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Mad is a basic region helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor which can dimerize with the Max protein and antagonize transcriptional activation by the Myc-Max transcription factor heterodimer. While the expression of Myc is necessary for cell proliferation, the expression of Mad is induced upon differentiation of at least some leukemia cell lines. Here, the expression of the mad gene has been explored in developing mouse tissues. During organogenesis in mouse embryos mad mRNA was predominantly expressed in the liver and in the mantle layer of the developing brain. At later stages mad expression was detected in neuroretina, epidermis, and whisker follicles, and in adult mice mad was expressed at variable levels in most organs analyzed. Interestingly, in the skin mad was highly expressed in the differentiating epidermal keratinocytes, but not in the underlying proliferating basal keratinocyte layer. Also, in the gut mad mRNA was abundant in the intestinal villi, where cells cease proliferation and differentiate, but not in the crypts, where the intestinal epithelial cells proliferate. In the testis, mad expression was associated with the completion of meiosis and early development of haploid cells. In cell culture, Mad inhibited colony formation of a mouse keratinocyte cell line and rat embryo fibroblast transformation by Myc and Ras. The pattern of mad expression in tissues and its ability to inhibit cell growth in vitro suggests that Mad can cause the cessation of cell proliferation associated with cell differentiation in vivo. PMID:7896882

  9. The emerging importance of type I MADS box transcription factors for plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Simona; Colombo, Lucia; Grini, Paul E; Schnittger, Arp; Kater, Martin M

    2011-03-01

    Based on their evolutionary origin, MADS box transcription factor genes have been divided into two classes, namely, type I and II. The plant-specific type II MIKC MADS box genes have been most intensively studied and shown to be key regulators of developmental processes, such as meristem identity, flowering time, and fruit and seed development. By contrast, very little is known about type I MADS domain transcription factors, and they have not attracted interest for a long time. A number of recent studies have now indicated a key regulatory role for type I MADS box factors in plant reproduction, in particular in specifying female gametophyte, embryo, and endosperm development. These analyses have also suggested that type I MADS box factors are decisive for setting reproductive boundaries between species.

  10. The inhibition of mating in Phycomyces blakesleeanus by light is dependent on the MadA-MadB complex that acts in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Viplendra P S; Idnurm, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Light is an environmental signal that influences reproduction in the Mucoromycotina fungi, as it does in many other species of fungi. Mating in Phycomyces blakesleeanus is inhibited by light, but the molecular mechanisms for this inhibition are uncharacterized. In this analysis, the role of the light-sensing MadA-MadB complex in mating was tested. The MadA-MadB complex is homologous to the Neurospora crassa White Collar complex. Three genes required for cell type determination in the sex locus or pheromone biosynthesis are transcriptionally-regulated by light and are controlled by MadA and MadB. This regulation acts through the plus partner, indicating that the inhibitory effect of light on mating is executed through only one of the two sexes. These results are an example whereby the mating types of fungi have acquired sex-specific properties beyond their role in conferring cell-type identity, and provide insight into how sex-determining chromosomal regions can expand the traits they control.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    PubMed

    Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an ancient and well-studied transcription factor family that functions in almost every developmental process in plants. There are a number of reports about the MADS-box family in different plant species, but systematic analysis of the MADS-box transcription factor family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) is still lacking. In this study, 160 MADS-box transcription factors were identified from the entire Chinese cabbage genome and compared with the MADS-box factors from 21 other representative plant species. A detailed list of MADS proteins from these 22 species was sorted. Phylogenetic analysis of the BrMADS genes, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, showed that the BrMADS genes were categorised into type I (Mα, Mβ, Mγ) and type II (MIKC(C), MIKC*) groups, and the MIKC(C) proteins were further divided into 13 subfamilies. The Chinese cabbage type II group has 95 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis type II group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage type II genes have been retained more frequently than the type I genes. Finally, RNA-seq transcriptome data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BrMADS genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner similar to Arabidopsis. Interestingly, a number of BrMIKC genes showed responses to different abiotic stress treatments, suggesting a function for some of the genes in these processes as well. Taken together, the characterization of the B. rapa MADS-box family presented here, will certainly help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and further facilitate functional studies in Chinese cabbage.

  12. 38 CFR 49.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 49.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may..., which are statutory. Exceptions on a case-by-case basis may also be made by Federal awarding...

  13. 32 CFR 32.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... class deviations. (1) For classes of awards other than small awards, the Director of Defense Research... part: (i) With the written concurrence of the Office of the Management and Budget (OMB). The DDR&E,...

  14. 32 CFR 32.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... class deviations. (1) For classes of awards other than small awards, the Director of Defense Research... part: (i) With the written concurrence of the Office of the Management and Budget (OMB). The DDR&E,...

  15. 48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 2341(2)), or with United Nations or NATO organizations; and (ii) Such governments or organizations will...). (2) Contracting officers outside the United States may deviate from prescribed nonstatutory FAR...

  16. Role of Extracorporeal Septoplasty in Deviated Noses.

    PubMed

    Ghaisas, Virendra; Parab, Sapna Ramkrishna

    2015-09-01

    Severe gross septal deviations present big surgical challenges for operating surgeon. Septal deviations has direct effect on aesthetic and functional part of nose. Correcting septal deviations during rhinoplasty is basic procedure. Extreme deviations of septum especially on dorsal and caudal end of cartilaginous septum are difficult to treat. The classical septoplasty approach becomes unsuitable for such severe deviations. Gubisch has first reported in 1995 about extracorporeal septoplasty. To report the experience of Extracorporeal septoplasty and the complication rates with the technique. Retrospective study of 112 patients who underwent extracorporeal septoplasty in primary rhinoplasty from May 2009 to June 2014. Patient's pre and postoperatively evaluation was done by photographs, nasal endoscopy and subjective by symptoms evaluation satisfaction scale 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Nasal endoscopy revealed significant improvement in nasal airway and nasal valve and subjective evaluation satisfaction score was very encouraging. Complications like septal perforation, bleeding, aesthetic complications were minimal (9 %) On basis of results obtained, shows that this technique, increases patients nasal airway and aesthetic look of the patients. Irrespective of extreme nasal deviations.

  17. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

    2002-12-01

    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  18. A MAD Model for Gamma-Ray Burst Variability

    DOE PAGES

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2016-06-09

    Here we present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 seconds or so), in the context of a magnet- ically arrested disk (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disk. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the vari- able luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic timescale defined by the free fall timemore » in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and timescales, and com- pare them to gamma-ray burst observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. Finally, we also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse (Ramirez-Ruiz & Merloni 2001).« less

  19. A MAD Model for Gamma-Ray Burst Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie; Dolence, Joshua C.; Fryer, Christopher Lee

    2016-06-09

    Here we present a model for the temporal variability of long gamma-ray bursts during the prompt phase (the highly variable first 100 seconds or so), in the context of a magnet- ically arrested disk (MAD) around a black hole. In this state, sufficient magnetic flux is held on to the black hole such that it stalls the accretion near the inner region of the disk. The system transitions in and out of the MAD state, which we relate to the vari- able luminosity of the GRB during the prompt phase, with a characteristic timescale defined by the free fall time in the region over which the accretion is arrested. We present simple analytic estimates of the relevant energetics and timescales, and com- pare them to gamma-ray burst observations. In particular, we show how this model can reproduce the characteristic one second time scale that emerges from various analyses of the prompt emission light curve. Finally, we also discuss how our model can accommodate the potentially physically important correlation between a burst quiescent time and the duration of its subsequent pulse (Ramirez-Ruiz & Merloni 2001).

  20. The MAD View on the Outskirts of Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, C. M.; Erroz-Ferrer, S.; den Brok, M.; Fagioli, M.; Onodera, M.; Tacchella, S. MAD Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We present the MUSE Atlas of Disks (MAD), a GTO program with the MUSE spectrograph on the ESO/VLT that is dedicated to the study of the optical spectroscopic properties of z = 0 disk galaxies on the star-forming `Main Sequence' at < 100 pc physical resolution. MUSE pointings on the MAD galaxies extend out to ~ 2 disk scale lengths, enabling to investigate the bulge and inner disk properties of galaxies with different outer disks. Here we specifically compare, at constant stellar-mass, the stellar population properties of the inner components in disks with down-bending (Type II) and up-bending (Type III) outer profiles. We highlight similarities in the inner stellar properties of such different hosts, which point at a universal inside-out growth of disks, as well as differences which suggest an additional role of stellar migration and/or gas accretion in the growth of disk galaxies with an outer up-bending profile, as expected from theoretical models.

  1. BTA Magnet Field Map Archive and MAD Model

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn,J.W.

    2008-04-01

    This note publishes some and information that has resided in private files. The attached tables were provided by Joseph Skelly from his archives. They show magnetic field measurements versus excitation current for the Booster to AGS transfer line quadrupoles and dipoles based on field measurements [we believe] were done by the Magnet Division. Also given are Ed Blesser's fifth order fits of field versus current. The results are given in 'Tesla' or T-M/M. These tables are attached to provide an archive of this data. The MAD model of the BTA line does have the same values as shown in the attached fits so the transfer was correct. MAD uses as its 'gradient' for quads Tesla per meter normalized to rigidity [B-rho]. The model of the BTA line in use uses the T-M/M given in the tables divided by the length to give T M which is then normalized by Brho. Thus, the input to the model appears to be correct. The original model is also attached as part of a memo by Skelly describing it.

  2. AGL15, a MADS domain protein expressed in developing embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Heck, G R; Perry, S E; Nichols, K W; Fernandez, D E

    1995-01-01

    To extend our knowledge of genes expressed during early embryogenesis, the differential display technique was used to identify and isolate mRNA sequences that accumulate preferentially in young Brassica napus embryos. One of these genes encodes a new member of the MADS domain family of regulatory proteins; it has been designated AGL15 (for AGAMOUS-like). AGL15 shows a novel pattern of expression that is distinct from those of previously characterized family members. RNA gel blot analyses and in situ hybridization techniques were used to demonstrate that AGL15 mRNA accumulated primarily in the embryo and was present in all embryonic tissues, beginning at least as early as late globular stage in B. napus. Genomic and cDNA clones corresponding to two AGL15 genes from B. napus and the homologous single-copy gene from Arabidopsis, which is located on chromosome 5, were isolated and analyzed. Antibodies prepared against overexpressed Brassica AGL15 lacking the conserved MADS domain were used to probe immunoblots, and AGL15-related proteins were found in embryos of a variety of angiosperms, including plants as distantly related as maize. Based on these data, we suggest that AGL15 is likely to be an important component of the regulatory circuitry directing seed-specific processes in the developing embryo. PMID:7549483

  3. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

  4. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  5. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  6. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckey, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  7. Overexpression of a MADS-Box Gene from Birch (Betula platyphylla) Promotes Flowering and Enhances Chloroplast Development in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Guan-Zheng; Zheng, Tangchun; Liu, Guifeng; Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Lina; Liu, Huanzhen; Yang, Chuanping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS), which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla). Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS). In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco. PMID:23691043

  8. Drosophila Dullard functions as a Mad phosphatase to terminate BMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Urrutia, Hugo; Aleman, Abigail; Eivers, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that provide essential signals for normal embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. A key step in initiating BMP signaling is ligand induced phosphorylation of receptor Smads (R-Smads) by type I receptor kinases, while linker phosphorylation of R-Smads has been shown to cause BMP signal termination. Here we present data demonstrating that the phosphatase Dullard is involved in dephosphorylating the Drosophila R-Smad, Mad, and is integral in controlling BMP signal duration. We show that a hypomorphic Dullard allele or Dullard knockdown leads to increased Mad phosphorylation levels, while Dullard overexpression resulted in reduced Mad phosphorylations. Co-immunoprecipitation binding assays demonstrate phosphorylated Mad and Dullard physically interact, while mutation of Dullard’s phosphatase domain still allowed Mad-Dullard interactions but abolished its ability to regulate Mad phosphorylations. Finally, we demonstrate that linker and C-terminally phosphorylated Mad can be regulated by one of two terminating mechanisms, degradation by proteasomes or dephosphorylation by the phosphatase Dullard. PMID:27578171

  9. Involvement of CNOT3 in mitotic progression through inhibition of MAD1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akinori; Kikuguchi, Chisato; Morita, Masahiro; Shimodaira, Tetsuhiro; Tokai-Nishizumi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Ohsugi, Miho; Suzuki, Toru; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 depletion increases the mitotic index. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 inhibits the expression of MAD1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CNOT3 destabilizes the MAD1 mRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced mitotic arrest. -- Abstract: The stability of mRNA influences the dynamics of gene expression. The CCR4-NOT complex, the major deadenylase in mammalian cells, shortens the mRNA poly(A) tail and contributes to the destabilization of mRNAs. The CCR4-NOT complex plays pivotal roles in various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Here, we show that CNOT3, a subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a part in the regulation of mitosis. CNOT3 depletion increases the population of mitotic-arrested cells and specifically increases the expression of MAD1 mRNA and its protein product that plays a part in the spindle assembly checkpoint. We showed that CNOT3 depletion stabilizes the MAD1 mRNA, and that MAD1 knockdown attenuates the CNOT3 depletion-induced increase of the mitotic index. Basing on these observations, we propose that CNOT3 is involved in the regulation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through its ability to regulate the stability of MAD1 mRNA.

  10. Tetramer formation in Arabidopsis MADS domain proteins: analysis of a protein-protein interaction network

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MADS domain proteins are transcription factors that coordinate several important developmental processes in plants. These proteins interact with other MADS domain proteins to form dimers, and it has been proposed that they are able to associate as tetrameric complexes that regulate transcription of target genes. Whether the formation of functional tetramers is a widespread property of plant MADS domain proteins, or it is specific to few of these transcriptional regulators remains unclear. Results We analyzed the structure of the network of physical interactions among MADS domain proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined the abundance of subgraphs that represent the connection pattern expected for a MADS domain protein heterotetramer. These subgraphs were significantly more abundant in the MADS domain protein interaction network than in randomized analogous networks. Importantly, these subgraphs are not significantly frequent in a protein interaction network of TCP plant transcription factors, when compared to expectation by chance. In addition, we found that MADS domain proteins in tetramer-like subgraphs are more likely to be expressed jointly than proteins in other subgraphs. This effect is mainly due to proteins in the monophyletic MIKC clade, as there is no association between tetramer-like subgraphs and co-expression for proteins outside this clade. Conclusions Our results support that the tendency to form functional tetramers is widespread in the MADS domain protein-protein interaction network. Our observations also suggest that this trend is prevalent, or perhaps exclusive, for proteins in the MIKC clade. Because it is possible to retrodict several experimental results from our analyses, our work can be an important aid to make new predictions and facilitates experimental research on plant MADS domain proteins. PMID:24468197

  11. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees.

  12. Online Deviation Detection for Medical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Stefan C.; Avrunin, George S.; Clarke, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Human errors are a major concern in many medical processes. To help address this problem, we are investigating an approach for automatically detecting when performers of a medical process deviate from the acceptable ways of performing that process as specified by a detailed process model. Such deviations could represent errors and, thus, detecting and reporting deviations as they occur could help catch errors before harm is done. In this paper, we identify important issues related to the feasibility of the proposed approach and empirically evaluate the approach for two medical procedures, chemotherapy and blood transfusion. For the evaluation, we use the process models to generate sample process executions that we then seed with synthetic errors. The process models describe the coordination of activities of different process performers in normal, as well as in exceptional situations. The evaluation results suggest that the proposed approach could be applied in clinical settings to help catch errors before harm is done. PMID:25954343

  13. Investigating differences in DOAS retrieval codes using MAD-CAT campaign data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Enno; Pinardi, Gaia; Seyler, André; Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Bösch, Tim; Van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, François; Drosoglou, Theano; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Kanaya, Yugo; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Strong, Kimberly; Lampel, Johannes; Volkamer, Rainer; Koenig, Theodore; Ortega, Ivan; Puentedura, Olga; Navarro-Comas, Mónica; Gómez, Laura; Yela González, Margarita; Piters, Ankie; Remmers, Julia; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas; Wang, Shanshan; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; García-Nieto, David; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Benavent, Nuria; Querel, Richard; Johnston, Paul; Postylyakov, Oleg; Borovski, Alexander; Elokhov, Alexander; Bruchkouski, Ilya; Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Hong, Qianqian; Rivera, Claudia; Grutter, Michel; Stremme, Wolfgang; Fahim Khokhar, M.; Khayyam, Junaid; Burrows, John P.

    2017-03-01

    The differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method is a well-known remote sensing technique that is nowadays widely used for measurements of atmospheric trace gases, creating the need for harmonization and characterization efforts. In this study, an intercomparison exercise of DOAS retrieval codes from 17 international groups is presented, focusing on NO2 slant columns. The study is based on data collected by one instrument during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, in summer 2013. As data from the same instrument are used by all groups, the results are free of biases due to instrumental differences, which is in contrast to previous intercomparison exercises.While in general an excellent correlation of NO2 slant columns between groups of > 99.98 % (noon reference fits) and > 99.2 % (sequential reference fits) for all elevation angles is found, differences between individual retrievals are as large as 8 % for NO2 slant columns and 100 % for rms residuals in small elevation angles above the horizon.Comprehensive sensitivity studies revealed that absolute slant column differences result predominantly from the choice of the reference spectrum while relative differences originate from the numerical approach for solving the DOAS equation as well as the treatment of the slit function. Furthermore, differences in the implementation of the intensity offset correction were found to produce disagreements for measurements close to sunrise (8-10 % for NO2, 80 % for rms residual). The largest effect of ≈ 8 % difference in NO2 was found to arise from the reference treatment; in particular for fits using a sequential reference. In terms of rms fit residual, the reference treatment has only a minor impact. In contrast, the wavelength calibration as well as the intensity offset correction were found to have the largest impact (up to 80 %) on rms residual while having only a minor impact on retrieved NO2

  14. Whatever happened to the 'mad, bad' scientist? Overturning the stereotype.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Roslynn D

    2016-01-01

    The cluster of myths relating to the pursuit of knowledge has perpetuated the archetype of the alchemist/scientist as sinister, dangerous, possibly mad and threatening to society's values. Shelley's Frankenstein provided imagery and a vocabulary universally invoked in relation to scientific discoveries and technological innovation. The reasons for the longevity of this seemingly antiquated, semiotic imagery are discussed. In the twenty-first century, this stereotype has been radically revised, even overturned. Scientists are now rarely objects of fear or mockery. Mathematicians, both real-life and fictional, are discussed here as being representative of scientists now depicted empathically. This article examines possible sociological reasons for this reversal; what the revisionist image suggests about society's changed attitudes to science; and what might be the substitute fears and sources of horror.

  15. Opera and madness: Britten's Peter Grimes--a case study.

    PubMed

    Durà-Vilà, G; Bentley, D

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, Britten's opera Peter Grimes (1945) is used as an illustrative case study through which to examine the depiction of psychiatric disorders in opera. It is argued that Peter Grimes is a powerful example of how opera, in the hands of a great composer, can become an invaluable tool for examining subjective human experience. After a brief discussion of opera as a vehicle to express emotions, various operas are drawn upon to provide a historical perspective and to demonstrate the long interconnection existing between opera and madness. An in-depth analysis of Peter Grimes, its background and central character, is then provided, in order to demonstrate how opera can elicit empathy for individuals affected by mental health problems.

  16. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  17. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  18. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  19. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  20. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  1. 41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... High Risk Personal Property § 109-1.5304 Deviations. (a) Life cycle control determinations. When the HFO approves a contractor program containing controls, other than life cycle control consistent with... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle...

  2. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS...

  3. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...

  4. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL...

  5. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  6. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  7. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS...

  8. Manifestations of Deviation in the Adolescent Subculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the authors look at questions relating to school students' attitudes toward types of deviation such as smoking and the use of alcohol and narcotics. The empirical material is divided into the following topics: how widespread these forms of behavior are; motives that cause adolescents to start smoking, using alcohol, and taking…

  9. 2 CFR 25.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 25.115 Section 25.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  10. 2 CFR 170.115 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations. 170.115 Section 170.115 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS REPORTING SUBAWARD AND...

  11. 15 CFR 14.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS General § 14.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for.... Exceptions on a case-by-case basis may also be made by the Assistant Secretary. An exception made on a case-by-case basis will apply to a single award....

  12. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for... awarding small awards, except for those requirements which are statutory. Exceptions on a case-by-case basis may also be made by the USAID Deputy Assistant Administrator for Management....

  13. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General §...

  14. 49 CFR 19.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deviations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General §...

  15. 48 CFR 1480.403 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... officials may authorize a deviation for an IA acquisition: For a proposed contract action . . . The... the IA Procurement Chief, absent a CCO). Exceeding $550,000 but not exceeding $11.5 million IA... solicitation when IA makes the following determinations and the appropriate official takes the...

  16. 7 CFR 2502.3 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Deviations. 2502.3 Section 2502.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL CAREER AND EMPLOYMENT (ACE) GRANTS PROGRAM General Information § 2502.3...

  17. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  18. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  19. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  20. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  1. 40 CFR 30.4 - Deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviations. 30.4 Section 30.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  2. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  3. C- and D-class MADS-box genes from Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae) display functions in gynostemium and ovule development.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Yi; Lee, Pei-Fang; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wu, Wan-Lin; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Lee, Yung-I; Liu, Ke-Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Tsai, Wen-Chieh

    2012-06-01

    Gynostemium and ovule development in orchid are unique developmental processes in the plant kingdom. Characterization of C- and D-class MADS-box genes could help reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying gynostemium and ovule development in orchids. In this study, we isolated and characterized a C- and a D-class gene, PeMADS1 and PeMADS7, respectively, from Phalaenopsis equestris. These two genes showed parallel spatial and temporal expression profiles, which suggests their cooperation in gynostemium and ovule development. Furthermore, only PeMADS1 was ectopically expressed in the petals of the gylp (gynostemium-like petal) mutant, whose petals were transformed into gynostemium-like structures. Protein-protein interaction analyses revealed that neither PeMADS1 and PeMADS7 could form a homodimer or a heterodimer. An E-class protein was needed to bridge the interaction between these two proteins. A complementation test revealed that PeMADS1 could rescue the phenotype of the AG mutant. Overexpression of PeMADS7 in Arabidopsis caused typical phenotypes of the D-class gene family. Together, these results indicated that both C-class PeMADS1 and D-class PeMADS7 play important roles in orchid gynostemium and ovule development.

  4. Functional characterization of GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 homologs from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wei, Jianghui; Fan, Shuli; Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Chengshe; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis flowering pathway, MADS-box genes encode transcription factors, with their structures and functions highly conserved in many species. In our study, two MADS-box genes GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cloned from upland cotton CCRI36 and transformed into Arabidopsis. GhSOC1 was additionally transformed into upland cotton. Comparative analysis demonstrated sequence conservation between GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 and genes of other plant species. Tissue-specific expression analysis of GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 revealed spatiotemporal expression patterns involving high transcript levels in leaves, shoot apical buds, and flowers. In addition, overexpression of both GhSOC1 and GhMADS42 in Arabidopsis accelerated flowering, with GhMADS42 transgenic plants showing abnormal floral organ phenotypes. Overexpression of GhSOC1 in upland cotton also produced variations in floral organs. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that GhSOC1 could regulate GhMADS41 and GhMADS42, but not FLOWERING LOCUS T, by directly binding to the genes promoter. Finally, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation approaches were undertaken to better understand the interaction of GhSOC1 and other MADS-box factors. These experiments showed that GhSOC1 can interact with APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like proteins in cotton.

  5. Molecular modeling and expression analysis of a MADS-box cDNA from mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Sánchez, Magda A; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Hernandez-Navarro, Eduardo; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2014-08-01

    MADS-box genes are a large family of transcription factors initially discovered for their role during development of flowers and fruits. The MADS-box transcription factors from animals have been studied by X-ray protein crystallography but those from plants remain to be studied. In this work, a MADS-box cDNA from mango encoding a protein of 254 residues was obtained and compared. Based on phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that the MADS-box transcription factor expressed in mango fruit (MiMADS1) belongs to the SEP clade of MADS-box proteins. MiMADS1 mRNA steady-state levels did not changed during mango fruit development and were up-regulated, when mango fruits reached physiological maturity as assessed by qRT-PCR. Thus, MiMADS1 could have a role during development and ripening of this fruit. The theoretical structural model of MiMADS1 showed the DNA-binding domain folding bound to a double-stranded DNA. Therefore, MiMADS1 is an interesting model for understanding DNA-binding for transcriptional regulation.

  6. Emotional and deliberative reactions to a public crisis: Mad Cow disease in France.

    PubMed

    Sinaceur, Marwan; Heath, Chip; Cole, Steve

    2005-03-01

    Although most theories of choice are cognitive, recent research has emphasized the role of emotions. We used a novel context--the Mad Cow crisis in France--to investigate how emotions alter choice even when consequences are held constant. A field study showed that individuals reduced beef consumption in months after many newspaper articles featured the emotional label "Mad Cow," but beef consumption was unaffected after articles featured scientific labels for the same disease. The reverse pattern held for the disease-related actions of a government bureaucracy. A lab study showed that the Mad Cow label induces people to make choices based solely on emotional reactions, whereas scientific labels induce people to consider their own probability judgments. Although the Mad Cow label produces less rational behavior than scientific labels, it is two to four times more common in the environment.

  7. The role of masseter muscle EMG during DISE to predict the effectiveness of MAD: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Marchese, M R; Scarano, E; Rizzotto, G; Grippaudo, C; Paludetti, G

    2016-12-01

    The use of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) increases the activity of the temporo-mandibular (TM) complex and masseter (MM) muscles with the risk of reducing treatment compliance. Predictors of treatment outcome are of importance in selecting patients who might benefit from MAD without side effects. The role of mandibular advancement (MA) during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is controversial. In three cases (BMI < 30) affected by non-severe OSAS (AHI < 30 e/h), we recorded the surface EMG signal of MM activity during DISE. At follow-up all cases improved the AHI, two cases that showed transient increase of MM activity did not suffer from changes of overjet and did not complain of discomfort with the use of MAD. The case that showed a continuing increase of MM activity reported TM discomfort without changes of dental occlusion. EMG of MM during DISE may contribute to ameliorate the selection of cases amenable to treatment with MAD.

  8. Characterisation and fate of grayanatoxins in mad honey produced from Rhododendron ponticum nectar.

    PubMed

    Kurtoglu, Arzum Bahar; Yavuz, Recep; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2014-10-15

    Mad honey from Rhododendron ponticum nectar is produced in a large quantity in the western Black Sea region of Turkey and causes poisoning due to consumption of grayanatoxins (GTX I and III). There are a few studies about characterisation of GTXs in mad honey produced from R.ponticum. This study quantified basic properties including concentrations of GTX I and GTX III in mad honey samples collected in three consecutive years. Although the chemical composition of mad honey varied annually depending on the production year, mean GTX I and GTX III contents were estimated at 20.4±1.69 and 8.20±1.93mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of GTXs did not change significantly during storage of 6months.

  9. Role for the banana AGAMOUS-like gene MaMADS7 in regulation of fruit ripening and quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juhua; Liu, Lin; Li, Yujia; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important roles in organ development. In plants, most studies on MADS-box genes have mainly focused on flower development and only a few concerned fruit development and ripening. A new MADS-box gene named MaMADS7 was isolated from banana fruit by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a MADS-box fragment obtained from a banana suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. MaMADS7 is an AGAMOUS-like MADS-box gene that is preferentially expressed in the ovaries and fruits and in tobacco its protein product localizes to the nucleus. This study found that MaMADS7 expression can be induced by exogenous ethylene. Ectopic expression of MaMADS7 in tomato resulted in broad ripening phenotypes. The expression levels of seven ripening and quality-related genes, ACO1, ACS2, E4, E8, PG, CNR and PSY1 in MaMADS7 transgenic tomato fruits were greatly increased while the expression of the AG-like MADS-box gene TAGL1 was suppressed. Compared with the control, the contents of β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and organic acid in transformed tomato fruits were increased, while the contents of glucose and fructose were slightly decreased. MaMADS7 interacted with banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene 1 (MaACO1) and tomato phytoene synthase gene (LePSY1) promoters. Our results indicated that MaMADS7 plays an important role in initiating endogenous ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening.

  10. C-terminal region of Mad2 plays an important role during mitotic spindle checkpoint in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gaurav Kumar; Karade, Sharanbasappa Shrimant; Ranjan, Rajeev; Ahamad, Nafees; Ahmed, Shakil

    2017-02-01

    The mitotic arrest deficiency 2 (Mad2) protein is an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that interacts with Cdc20/Slp1 and inhibit its ability to activate anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). In bladder cancer cell line the C-terminal residue of the mad2 gene has been found to be deleted. In this study we tried to understand the role of the C-terminal region of mad2 on the spindle checkpoint function. To envisage the role of C-terminal region of Mad2, we truncated 25 residues of Mad2 C-terminal region in fission yeast S.pombe and characterized its effect on spindle assembly checkpoint function. The cells containing C-terminal truncation of Mad2 exhibit sensitivity towards microtubule destabilizing agent suggesting perturbation of spindle assembly checkpoint. Further, the C-terminal truncation of Mad2 exhibit reduced viability in the nda3-KM311 mutant background at non-permissive temperature. Truncation in mad2 gene also affects its foci forming ability at unattached kinetochore suggesting that the mad2-∆CT mutant is unable to maintain spindle checkpoint activation. However, in response to the defective microtubule, only brief delay of mitotic progression was observed in Mad2 C-terminal truncation mutant. In addition we have shown that the deletion of two β strands of Mad2 protein abolishes its ability to interact with APC activator protein Slp1/Cdc20. We purpose that the truncation of two β strands (β7 and β8) of Mad2 destabilize the safety belt and affect the Cdc20-Mad2 interaction leading to defects in the spindle checkpoint activation.

  11. SVP-like MADS-box protein from Carya cathayensis forms higher-order complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Chuanming; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia; Xu, Yingwu

    2015-03-01

    To properly regulate plant flowering time and construct floral pattern, MADS-domain containing transcription factors must form multimers including homo- and hetero-dimers. They are also active in forming hetero-higher-order complexes with three to five different molecules. However, it is not well known if a MADS-box protein can also form homo-higher-order complex. In this study a biochemical approach is utilized to provide insight into the complex formation for an SVP-like MADS-box protein cloned from hickory. The results indicated that the protein is a heterogeneous higher-order complex with the peak population containing over 20 monomers. Y2H verified the protein to form homo-complex in yeast cells. Western blot of the hickory floral bud sample revealed that the protein exists in higher-order polymers in native. Deletion assays indicated that the flexible C-terminal residues are mainly responsible for the higher-order polymer formation and the heterogeneity. Current results provide direct biochemical evidences for an active MADS-box protein to be a high order complex, much higher than a quartermeric polymer. Analysis suggests that a MADS-box subset may be able to self-assemble into large complexes, and thereby differentiate one subfamily from the other in a higher-order structural manner. Present result is a valuable supplement to the action of mechanism for MADS-box proteins in plant development.

  12. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  13. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  14. Note Onset Deviations as Musical Piece Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields. PMID:23935971

  15. On large deviations for ensembles of distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Khrychev, D A

    2013-11-30

    The paper is concerned with the large deviations problem in the Freidlin-Wentzell formulation without the assumption of the uniqueness of the solution to the equation involving white noise. In other words, it is assumed that for each ε>0 the nonempty set P{sub ε} of weak solutions is not necessarily a singleton. Analogues of a number of concepts in the theory of large deviations are introduced for the set (P{sub ε}, ε>0), hereafter referred to as an ensemble of distributions. The ensembles of weak solutions of an n-dimensional stochastic Navier-Stokes system and stochastic wave equation with power-law nonlinearity are shown to be uniformly exponentially tight. An idempotent Wiener process in a Hilbert space and idempotent partial differential equations are defined. The accumulation points in the sense of large deviations of the ensembles in question are shown to be weak solutions of the corresponding idempotent equations. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  16. Absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.

    2006-03-27

    As a step toward absolute calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.

  17. The encounter with God in myth and madness

    PubMed Central

    Doerr, Otto; Velásquez, Óscar

    2007-01-01

    Background It is well known how often psychiatric patients report religious experiences. These are especially frequent in schizophrenic and epileptic patients as the subject of their delusions. The question we pose is: are there differences between this kind of religious experiences and those we find in religious texts or in the mythological tradition? Results An overview on famous mythological narratives, such as The Aeneid, allows us to establish that the divinities become recognizable to the human being at the moment of their departure. Thus, Aeneas does not recognise his mother, Venus, when she appears to him in the middle of the forest at the coast of Africa. A dialogue between the two takes place, and only at the end of the encounter, when she is going away and already with her back to Aeneas, she shows her son the signs of her divinity: the rose-flush emanating from her neck, her hair perfume and the majesty of her gait. Something analogous can be observed in the encounter of Moses with Yahweh on Mount Sinai. Moses asks God: "Show me your glory, I beg you". And God replies, among other things: "you shall see the back of me, but my face is not to be seen". In the same sense, the Emmaus disciples do not recognise Jesus till the moment of his disappearance ("but he had vanished from their sight"), and Saul of Tars falls off his horse just in the moment when he feels the divine presence. In short, the direct encounter with the divinity seems not to occur in the realm of myth or in religious tradition. The realm of madness is exactly the opposite. Our research on religious experiences in schizophrenic and epileptic patients leads us to conclude that God appears to them face to face, and the patient describes God the father, Jesus or the Virgin Mary in intimate detail, always in an everyday setting. So, the divinity is seen in the garden, or in the bedroom, or maybe above the wardrobe, without any of its majesty. The nearness to God also tends to be so extreme

  18. MAD2L2 controls DNA repair at telomeres and DNA breaks by inhibiting 5′ end-resection

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Bayona, Sandra; Peuscher, Marieke H.; van der Torre, Jaco; Wevers, Brigitte A.; Orthwein, Alexandre; Durocher, Daniel; Jacobs, Jacqueline J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate repair of DNA lesions and the inhibition of DNA repair activities at telomeres are critical to prevent genomic instability. By fuelling the generation of genetic alterations and by compromising cell viability, genomic instability is a driving force in cancer and aging1, 2. Here we identify MAD2L2 (also known as MAD2B or REV7) through functional genetic screening as a novel factor controlling DNA repair activities at mammalian telomeres. We show that MAD2L2 accumulates at uncapped telomeres and promotes non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated fusion of deprotected chromosome ends and genomic instability. MAD2L2 depletion causes elongated 3′ telomeric overhangs, implying that MAD2L2 inhibits 5′ end-resection. End-resection blocks NHEJ while committing to homology-directed repair (HDR) and is under control of 53BP1, RIF1 and PTIP3. Consistent with MAD2L2 promoting NHEJ-mediated telomere fusion by inhibiting 5′ end-resection, knockdown of the nucleases CTIP or EXO1 partially restores telomere-driven genomic instability in MAD2L2-depleted cells. Control of DNA repair by MAD2L2 is not limited to telomeres. MAD2L2 also accumulates and inhibits end-resection at irradiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and promotes end-joining of DSBs in multiple settings, including during immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). These activities of MAD2L2 depend on ATM kinase activity, RNF8, RNF168, 53BP1 and RIF1, but not on PTIP, REV1 and REV3, the latter two acting with MAD2L2 in translesion synthesis (TLS)4. Together our data establish MAD2L2 as a critical contributor to the control of DNA repair activity by 53BP1 that promotes NHEJ by inhibiting 5′ end-resection downstream of RIF1. PMID:25799990

  19. Measuring and Plotting Surface-Contour Deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Lino A.; Shuck, Thomas; Crockett, Leroy K.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held device measures deviation of contour of surface from desired contour and provides output to x-y plotter. Carriage on device rolled along track representing desired contour, while spring-loaded stylus on device deflects perpendicularly to track to follow surface. Operator moves carriage of contour-measuring device on beamlike track. Stylus on carriage traces contour of surface above it. Carriage of measuring device holds transducer measuring cross-track displacement of surface from desired contour, and multiple-turn potentiometer measuring position along track.

  20. Meiosis and its deviations in polyploid plants.

    PubMed

    Grandont, L; Jenczewski, E; Lloyd, A

    2013-01-01

    Meiosis is a fundamental process in all sexual organisms that ensures fertility and genome stability and creates genetic diversity. For each of these outcomes, the exclusive formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes is needed. This is more difficult to achieve in polyploid species which have more than 2 sets of chromosomes able to recombine. In this review, we describe how meiosis and meiotic recombination 'deviate' in polyploid plants compared to diploids, and give an overview of current knowledge on how they are regulated. See also the sister article focusing on animals by Stenberg and Saura in this themed issue.

  1. Penile ossification and acquired penile deviation.

    PubMed

    Vahlensieck, W K; Schaefer, H E; Westenfelder, M

    1995-01-01

    We report on 3 patients with penile deviation during erection caused by ossification in the corpora cavernosa. In each case hard plaques could be palpated. These indurations were removed through a dorsal longitudinal incision. Histologically, solid bone was demonstrable. Two patients were able to resume normal sexual intercourse, but one became impotent following postoperative cavernitis. Penile ossification is rare in man, and its etiology is unknown. It bears no relationship to the os penis normally present in many other mammals. Diagnosis is best made by palpation and X-ray examination. The treatment of choice for symptomatic ossification is surgical excision.

  2. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analysed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the EUV. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in met- als in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere. While some progress has been made in this direction, not as much work has been accomplished as expected due to the increasing commitments of the PI to the CXO project as it nears launch. A no-cost extension has been granted in order to further the analysis and carry out the next stages of the investigation: to construct an emission measure distribution with which to compute a synthetic continuum to compare with the observed continuum.

  3. Jung, spirits and madness: lessons for cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Koss-Chioino, Joan D

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the nature and meaning of 'dissociative,' 'altered' or unusual states ultimately turns on the meaning and definition of consciousness. The view of consciousness from the discipline of psychiatry is largely based on a biomedically endorsed, culturally specific perspective of 'normal' consciousness as an integrated pattern of quotidian relationships with the 'observable' physical world. This perspective underlies the nosology for mental disorders, particularly psychoses, suggesting irreconcilable difference in cognition and affect of persons with these diagnostic labels. This article reviews some theories of Carl Gustav Jung regarding the structure and content of human consciousness and their relationship to aspects of 'dementia praecox' or 'schizophrenia.' It traces the origin and development of these ideas in part to Jung's early contact with, and intense interest in spiritualists and spirits, to later influences comprised of his own altered states (dreams and fantasies) and his involvement with patients diagnosed as schizophrenic. Data on current Spiritist beliefs and healing practices focused on 'madness' (i.e. most often diagnosed as schizophrenia in mental health settings), are described to explore parallels with Jung's ideas on the structure and dynamics of the psyche. These parallels are of special interest because the experience of spirits is ubiquitous, not well explained and often rejected as meaningful by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists. Jung, however, offers a cogent explanation of spirit phenomena as manifestations of the unconscious. A concluding section suggests contributions to cultural psychiatry by Jung.

  4. Microbeam MAD Beamline for Challenging Protein Crystallography in TPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. G.; Chao, C. H.; Chang, C. H.; Juang, J. M.; Liu, C. Y.; Chang, S. H.; Chang, C. F.; Chou, C. K.; Tseng, C. C.; Chiang, C. H.; Jean, Y. C.; Tang, M. T.; Chung, S. C.; Chang, S. L.

    2013-03-01

    The TPS-05A beamline is the first X-ray beamline at NSRRC built for micro protein crystallography experiment as well as one of the seven ID beamlines in phase I at the TPS synchrotron facility. A 2-meter in-vacuum undulator (IU22) serves as the photon source from which the harmonics #3 to #9 will provide brilliance of 1018-1020 photons s-1 mrad-2 mm-2 (0.1% bandwidth)-1 and photon flux of 1013-1014 photons s-1 (0.1% bandwidth)-1 in the required energy range of 5.7-20 keV (2.175-0.620 Å) to cover MAD phasing experiments at 1 Å and SAD phasing experiments at 2 Å. The beamline optics consists of a cryo-cooled double crystal monochromator (DCM) and a pair of focusing K-B mirrors. Requirements from the user group include a target focus size of 50 μm × 50 μm (H × V) at the sample position, photon flux greater than 2 × 1012 photons s-1 at Se K-edge (0.9795 Å), pinholes for adjusting the beam size down to 5 μm. Calculation of heat load for the first optical element, i.e. the first crystal of DCM, is included in this paper.

  5. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  6. Perception via the Deviated Eye in Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Economides, John R.; Adams, Daniel L.; Horton, Jonathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Misalignment of the eyes can lead to double vision and visual confusion. However, these sensations are rare when strabismus is acquired early in life, because the extra image is suppressed. To explore the mechanism of perceptual suppression in strabismus, the visual fields were mapped binocularly in 14 human subjects with exotropia. Subjects wore red/blue filter glasses to permit dichoptic stimulation while fixating a central target on a tangent screen. A purple stimulus was flashed at a peripheral location; its reported color (“red” or “blue”) revealed which eye’s image was perceived at that locus. The maps showed a vertical border between the center of gaze for each eye, splitting the visual field into two separate regions. In each region, perception was mediated by only one eye, with suppression of the other eye. Unexpectedly, stimuli falling on the fovea of the deviated eye were seen in all subjects. However, they were perceived in a location shifted by the angle of ocular deviation. This plasticity in the coding of visual direction allows accurate localization of objects everywhere in the visual scene, despite the presence of strabismus. PMID:22836262

  7. Structure–Biological Function Relationship Extended to Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2-Like Protein Mad2 Native and Mutants-New Opportunity for Genetic Disorder Control

    PubMed Central

    Avram, Speranta; Milac, Adina; Mernea, Maria; Mihailescu, Dan; Putz, Mihai V.; Buiu, Catalin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN) and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2) to active closed (C-Mad2) conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) or Mad1) were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided) and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53–0.65) and fitted correlation r2 (0.82–0.90). Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN. PMID:25411801

  8. Adaptive evolution in the Arabidopsis MADS-box gene family inferred from its complete resolved phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Castilla, León Patricio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2003-01-01

    Gene duplication is a substrate of evolution. However, the relative importance of positive selection versus relaxation of constraints in the functional divergence of gene copies is still under debate. Plant MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators key in various aspects of development and have undergone extensive duplications to form a large family. We recovered 104 MADS sequences from the Arabidopsis genome. Bayesian phylogenetic trees recover type II lineage as a monophyletic group and resolve a branching sequence of monophyletic groups within this lineage. The type I lineage is comprised of several divergent groups. However, contrasting gene structure and patterns of chromosomal distribution between type I and II sequences suggest that they had different evolutionary histories and support the placement of the root of the gene family between these two groups. Site-specific and site-branch analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) suggest that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these lineages. We found evidence for PDS along the branch leading to flowering time genes that have a direct impact on plant fitness. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in the MADS and K domains, suggesting that these played important roles in the acquisition of novel functions during MADS-box diversification. Detected sites are targets for further experimental analyses. We argue that adaptive changes in MADS-domain protein sequences have been important for their functional divergence, suggesting that changes within coding regions of transcriptional regulators have influenced phenotypic evolution of plants. PMID:14597714

  9. Science with ESO's Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Demonstrator - MAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Jorge; Marchetti, Enrico; Amico, Paola

    2012-07-01

    ESO's Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Demonstrator (MAD) was a prototype designed and built to demonstrate wide-field adaptive optics science on large telescopes. The outstanding results obtained during commissioning and guaranteed time observations (GTO) prompted ESO to issue and open call to the community for 23 science demonstration (SD) observing nights distributed in three runs (in order to provide access to the summer an winter skies). Thus, in total MAD was used for science for 33 nights including the 10 nights of GTO time. date, 19 articles in refereed journals (including one in Nature) have been published based fully or partially o MAD data. To the best of our knowledge, these are not only the first, but also the only scientific publication from MCAO instruments world-wide to date (at least in Astronomy). The scientific impact of these publication, as measured by the h-index, is comparable to that of other AO instruments on the VLT, although over the years these instruments have been allocated many more nights than MAD. In this contribution we present an overview of the scientific results from MAD and a more detailed discussion of the most cited papers.

  10. Functional conservation of MIKC*-Type MADS box genes in Arabidopsis and rice pollen maturation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Cui, Shaojie; Wu, Feng; Yan, Shuo; Lin, Xuelei; Du, Xiaoqiu; Chong, Kang; Schilling, Susanne; Theißen, Günter; Meng, Zheng

    2013-04-01

    There are two groups of MADS intervening keratin-like and C-terminal (MIKC)-type MADS box genes, MIKC(C) type and MIKC* type. In seed plants, the MIKC(C) type shows considerable diversity, but the MIKC* type has only two subgroups, P- and S-clade, which show conserved expression in the gametophyte. To examine the functional conservation of MIKC*-type genes, we characterized all three rice (Oryza sativa) MIKC*-type genes. All three genes are specifically expressed late in pollen development. The single knockdown or knockout lines, respectively, of the S-clade MADS62 and MADS63 did not show a mutant phenotype, but lines in which both S-clade genes were affected showed severe defects in pollen maturation and germination, as did knockdown lines of MADS68, the only P-clade gene in rice. The rice MIKC*-type proteins form strong heterodimeric complexes solely with partners from the other subclade; these complexes specifically bind to N10-type C-A-rich-G-boxes in vitro and regulate downstream gene expression by binding to N10-type promoter motifs. The rice MIKC* genes have a much lower degree of functional redundancy than the Arabidopsis thaliana MIKC* genes. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the function of heterodimeric MIKC*-type protein complexes in pollen development has been conserved since the divergence of monocots and eudicots, roughly 150 million years ago.

  11. Agave tequilana MADS genes show novel expression patterns in meristems, developing bulbils and floral organs.

    PubMed

    Delgado Sandoval, Silvia del Carmen; Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Simpson, June

    2012-03-01

    Agave tequilana is a monocarpic perennial species that flowers after 5-8 years of vegetative growth signaling the end of the plant's life cycle. When fertilization is unsuccessful, vegetative bulbils are induced on the umbels of the inflorescence near the bracteoles from newly formed meristems. Although the regulation of inflorescence and flower development has been described in detail for monocarpic annuals and polycarpic species, little is known at the molecular level for these processes in monocarpic perennials, and few studies have been carried out on bulbils. Histological samples revealed the early induction of umbel meristems soon after the initiation of the vegetative to inflorescence transition in A. tequilana. To identify candidate genes involved in the regulation of floral induction, a search for MADS-box transcription factor ESTs was conducted using an A. tequilana transcriptome database. Seven different MIKC MADS genes classified into 6 different types were identified based on previously characterized A. thaliana and O. sativa MADS genes and sequences from non-grass monocotyledons. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the seven candidate MADS genes in vegetative, inflorescence, bulbil and floral tissues uncovered novel patterns of expression for some of the genes in comparison with orthologous genes characterized in other species. In situ hybridization studies using two different genes showed expression in specific tissues of vegetative meristems and floral buds. Distinct MADS gene regulatory patterns in A. tequilana may be related to the specific reproductive strategies employed by this species.

  12. Spotting deviations from R2 inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Elizalde, Emilio; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the soundness of inflationary scenarios in theories beyond the Starobinsky model, namely a class of theories described by arbitrary functions of the Ricci scalar and the K-essence field. We discuss the pathologies associated with higher-order equations of motion which will be shown to constrain the stability of this class of theories. We provide a general framework to calculate the slow-roll parameters and the corresponding mappings to the theory parameters. For paradigmatic gravitational models within the class of theories under consideration we illustrate the power of the Planck/Bicep2 latest results to constrain such gravitational Lagrangians. Finally, bounds for potential deviations from Starobinsky-like inflation are derived.

  13. Hydraulic analysis, Mad River at State Highway 41, Springfield, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, Ronald I.

    1977-01-01

    A hydraulic analysis of the lad River in a reach at Springfield, Ohio was made to determine the effects of relocating State Highway 41 in 1S76. The main channel was cleaned by dredging in the vicinity cf the new highway bridge and at the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge upstream. The new highway was placed on a high fill with relief structures for flood plain drainage consisting of a 12-foot corrugated metal pipe culvert and a bridge opening to accommodate the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway and a property access road. The effect of the new highway embankment on drainage from the flood plain was requested. Also requested was the effect that might be expected on the elevation of flood waters above the new highway embankment if the access road through the new highway embankment were raised.The study indicates that the improvement in the capacity of the main channel to carry water was such that, up to a discharge equivalent to a 25-year frequency flood, the water-surface elevation in the reach upstream from the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge would be about 0.6 foot lower than under conditions prior to the construction on State Highway 41. Diversion through the Mad River left bank levee break above the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge to the flood Flain would be decreased about one-half in terms of rate of discharge in cubic feet per second. The maximum difference in elevation cf the flood water between the upstream and downstream side of the new State Highway 41 embankment would be about 0.2 foot, with an additional 0.4 foot to be expected if the access road were raised 1.5 feet.

  14. MADS box genes control vernalization-induced flowering in cereals

    PubMed Central

    Trevaskis, Ben; Bagnall, David J.; Ellis, Marc H.; Peacock, W. James; Dennis, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    By comparing expression levels of MADS box transcription factor genes between near-isogenic winter and spring lines of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, we have identified WAP1 as the probable candidate for the Vrn-1 gene, the major locus controlling the vernalization flowering response in wheat. WAP1 is strongly expressed in spring wheats and moderately expressed in semispring wheats, but is not expressed in winter wheat plants that have not been exposed to vernalization treatment. Vernalization promotes flowering in winter wheats and strongly induces expression of WAP1. WAP1 is located on chromosome 5 in wheat and, by synteny with other cereal genomes, is likely to be collocated with Vrn-1. These results in hexaploid bread wheat cultivars extend the conclusion made by Yan et al. [Yan, L., Loukoianov, A., Tranquilli, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T. & Dubcovsky, J. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 6263–6268] in the diploid wheat progenitor Triticum monococcum that WAP1 (TmAP1) corresponds to the Vrn-1 gene. The barley homologue of WAP1, BM5, shows a similar pattern of expression to WAP1 and TmAP1. BM5 is not expressed in winter barleys that have not been vernalized, but as with WAP1, expression of BM5 is strongly induced by vernalization treatment. In spring barleys, the level of BM5 expression is determined by interactions between the Vrn-H1 locus and a second locus for spring habit, Vrn-H2. There is now evidence that AP1-like genes determine the time of flowering in a range of cereal and grass species. PMID:14557548

  15. Involvement of AMPK in regulating the degradation of MAD2B under high glucose in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianfang; Chu, Guangpin; Ye, Chen; Tang, Hui; Qiu, Ping; Hu, Yue; Li, Man; Zhang, Chun

    2016-12-13

    Although our recent study has demonstrated that mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein (MAD2B) mediates high glucose-induced neuronal apoptosis, the mechanisms for MAD2B degradation under hyperglycaemia have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we first found that the activation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was decreased in neurons, accompanied with the increased expression of MAD2B. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that activation of AMPK with its activators such as AICAR and metformin decreased the expression of MAD2B, indicating a role of AMPK in regulating the expression of MAD2B. Moreover, activation of AMPK prevented neuronal cells from high glucose-induced injury as demonstrated by the reduced expression of cyclin B1 and percentage of apoptosis as detected by TUNEL. We further found that when total protein synthesis was suppressed by chlorhexidine, the degradation of MAD2B was slower in high glucose-treated neurons and was mainly dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Finally, it was indicated that high glucose inhibited the ubiquitination of MAD2B, which could be reversed by activation of AMPK. Collectively, this study demonstrates that AMPK acts as a key regulator of MAD2B expression, suggesting that activation of AMPK signalling might be crucial for the treatment of high glucose-induced neuronal injury.

  16. Phenotypic alterations of petal and sepal by ectopic expression of a rice MADS box gene in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Noh, Y S; Chung, Y Y; Costa, M A; An, K; An, G

    1995-10-01

    Floral organ development is controlled by a group of regulatory factors containing the MADS domain. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone from rice, OsMADS3, which encodes a MADS-domain containing protein. The OsMADS3 amino acid sequence shows over 60% identity to AG of Arabidopsis, PLE of Antirrhinum majus, and AG/PLE homologues of petunia, tobacco, tomato, Brassica napus, and maize. Homology in the MADS box region is most conserved. RNA blot analysis indicated that the rice MADS gene was preferentially expressed in reproductive organs, especially in stamen and carpel. In situ localization studies showed that the transcript was present primarily in stamen and carpel. The function of the rice OsMADS3 was elucidated by ectopic expression of the gene under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in a heterologous tobacco plant system. Transgenic plants exhibited an altered morphology and coloration of the perianth organs. Sepals were pale green and elongated. Limbs of the corolla were split into sections which in some plants became antheroid structures attached to tubes that resembled filaments. The phenotypes mimic the results of ectopic expression of dicot AG gene or AG homologues. These results indicate that the OsMADS3 gene is possibly an AG homologue and that the AG genes appear to be structurally and functionally conserved between dicot and monocot.

  17. Histone H3K4 methylation regulates deactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through direct binding of Mad2.

    PubMed

    Schibler, Andria; Koutelou, Evangelia; Tomida, Junya; Wilson-Pham, Marenda; Wang, Li; Lu, Yue; Cabrera, Alexa Parra; Chosed, Renee J; Li, Wenqian; Li, Bing; Shi, Xiaobing; Wood, Richard D; Dent, Sharon Y R

    2016-05-15

    Histone H3 methylation on Lys4 (H3K4me) is associated with active gene transcription in all eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Set1 is the sole lysine methyltransferase required for mono-, di-, and trimethylation of this site. Although H3K4me3 is linked to gene expression, whether H3K4 methylation regulates other cellular processes, such as mitosis, is less clear. Here we show that both Set1 and H3K4 mutants display a benomyl resistance phenotype that requires components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), including Bub3 and Mad2. These proteins inhibit Cdc20, an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Mutations in Cdc20 that block Mad2 interactions suppress the benomyl resistance of both set1 and H3K4 mutant cells. Furthermore, the HORMA domain in Mad2 directly binds H3, identifying a new histone H3 "reader" motif. Mad2 undergoes a conformational change important for execution of the SAC. We found that the closed (active) conformation of both yeast and human Mad2 is capable of binding methylated H3K4, but, in contrast, the open (inactive) Mad2 conformation limits interaction with methylated H3. Collectively, our data indicate that interactions between Mad2 and H3K4 regulate resolution of the SAC by limiting closed Mad2 availability for Cdc20 inhibition.

  18. Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) of ferromagnetic pipelines using principal component analysis (PCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinker, Arie; Moldwin, Mark B.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) method is used for detection of visually obscured ferromagnetic objects. The method exploits the magnetic field originating from the ferromagnetic object, which constitutes an anomaly in the ambient earth’s magnetic field. Traditionally, MAD is used to detect objects with a magnetic field of a dipole structure, where far from the object it can be considered as a point source. In the present work, we expand MAD to the case of a non-dipole source, i.e. a ferromagnetic pipeline. We use principal component analysis (PCA) to calculate the principal components, which are then employed to construct an effective detector. Experiments conducted in our lab with real-world data validate the above analysis. The simplicity, low computational complexity, and the high detection rate make the proposed detector attractive for real-time, low power applications.

  19. Selaginella Genome Analysis – Entering the “Homoplasy Heaven” of the MADS World

    PubMed Central

    Gramzow, Lydia; Barker, Elizabeth; Schulz, Christian; Ambrose, Barbara; Ashton, Neil; Theißen, Günter; Litt, Amy

    2012-01-01

    In flowering plants, arguably the most significant transcription factors regulating development are MADS-domain proteins, encoded by Type I and Type II MADS-box genes. Type II genes are divided into the MIKCC and MIKC* groups. In angiosperms, these types and groups play distinct roles in the development of female gametophytes, embryos, and seeds (Type I); vegetative and floral tissues in sporophytes (MIKCC); and male gametophytes (MIKC*), but their functions in other plants are largely unknown. The complete set of MADS-box genes has been described for several angiosperms and a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Our examination of the complete genome sequence of a lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii, revealed 19 putative MADS-box genes (13 Type I, 3 MIKCC, and 3 MIKC*). Our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor of vascular plants possessed at least two Type I and two Type II genes. None of the S. moellendorffii MIKCC genes were identified as orthologs of any floral organ identity genes. This strongly corroborates the view that the clades of floral organ identity genes originated in a common ancestor of seed plants after the lineage that led to lycophytes had branched off, and that expansion of MIKCC genes in the lineage leading to seed plants facilitated the evolution of their unique reproductive organs. The number of MIKC* genes and the ratio of MIKC* to MIKCC genes is lower in S. moellendorffii and angiosperms than in P. patens, correlated with reduction of the gametophyte in vascular plants. Our data indicate that Type I genes duplicated and diversified independently within lycophytes and seed plants. Our observations on MADS-box gene evolution echo morphological evolution since the two lineages of vascular plants appear to have arrived independently at similar body plans. Our annotation of MADS-box genes in S. moellendorffii provides the basis for functional studies to reveal the roles of this crucial gene family in basal vascular plants. PMID

  20. The secular and the supernatural: madness and psychiatry in the short stories of Muriel Spark.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, A W

    2015-01-01

    Edinburgh-born Muriel Spark is one of modern Scotland's greatest writers. Examination of her work reveals that the subjects of madness and psychiatry are recurrent themes in her writing. She herself had a mental breakdown when she was a young woman and she took an interest in the world of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In her short stories, Spark approaches the subject of madness in a variety of ways: she relates it to the supernatural; to writing fiction; and to religion. She frequently juxtaposes secular and supernatural explanations of mental disturbance. Spark adopts a sceptical and, at times, mocking view of psychiatrists and psychiatric treatment. Both psychoanalysis and pills are seen as problematic.

  1. Large deviations for nonlocal stochastic neural fields.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Christian; Riedler, Martin G

    2014-04-17

    We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers' law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations.Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20.

  2. Program helps quickly calculate deviated well path

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.P. )

    1993-11-22

    A BASIC computer program quickly calculates the angle and measured depth of a simple directional well given only the true vertical depth and total displacement of the target. Many petroleum engineers and geologists need a quick, easy method to calculate the angle and measured depth necessary to reach a target in a proposed deviated well bore. Too many of the existing programs are large and require much input data. The drilling literature is full of equations and methods to calculate the course of well paths from surveys taken after a well is drilled. Very little information, however, covers how to calculate well bore trajectories for proposed wells from limited data. Furthermore, many of the equations are quite complex and difficult to use. A figure lists a computer program with the equations to calculate the well bore trajectory necessary to reach a given displacement and true vertical depth (TVD) for a simple build plant. It can be run on an IBM compatible computer with MS-DOS version 5 or higher, QBasic, or any BASIC that does no require line numbers. QBasic 4.5 compiler will also run the program. The equations are based on conventional geometry and trigonometry.

  3. Meiosis and its deviations in polyploid animals.

    PubMed

    Stenberg, P; Saura, A

    2013-01-01

    We review the different modes of meiosis and its deviations encountered in polyploid animals. Bisexual reproduction involving normal meiosis occurs in some allopolyploid frogs with variable degrees of polyploidy. Aberrant modes of bisexual reproduction include gynogenesis, where a sperm stimulates the egg to develop. The sperm may enter the egg but there is no fertilization and syngamy. In hybridogenesis, a genome is eliminated to produce haploid or diploid eggs or sperm. Ploidy can be elevated by fertilization with a haploid sperm in meiotic hybridogenesis, which elevates the ploidy of hybrid offspring such that they produce diploid gametes. Polyploids are then produced in the next generation. In kleptogenesis, females acquire full or partial genomes from their partners. In pre-equalizing hybrid meiosis, one genome is transmitted in the Mendelian fashion, while the other is transmitted clonally. Parthenogenetic animals have a very wide range of mechanisms for restoring or maintaining the mother's ploidy level, including gamete duplication, terminal fusion, central fusion, fusion of the first polar nucleus with the product of the first division, and premeiotic duplication followed by a normal meiosis. In apomictic parthenogenesis, meiosis is replaced by what is effectively mitotic cell division. The above modes have different evolutionary consequences, which are discussed. See also the sister article by Grandont et al. in this themed issue.

  4. Large Deviations for Nonlocal Stochastic Neural Fields

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of additive noise on integro-differential neural field equations. In particular, we analyze an Amari-type model driven by a Q-Wiener process, and focus on noise-induced transitions and escape. We argue that proving a sharp Kramers’ law for neural fields poses substantial difficulties, but that one may transfer techniques from stochastic partial differential equations to establish a large deviation principle (LDP). Then we demonstrate that an efficient finite-dimensional approximation of the stochastic neural field equation can be achieved using a Galerkin method and that the resulting finite-dimensional rate function for the LDP can have a multiscale structure in certain cases. These results form the starting point for an efficient practical computation of the LDP. Our approach also provides the technical basis for further rigorous study of noise-induced transitions in neural fields based on Galerkin approximations. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F10, 60H15, 65M60, 92C20. PMID:24742297

  5. Analysis of E-box DNA binding during myeloid differentiation reveals complexes that contain Mad but not Max.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, K M; Birnie, G D

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that during myeloid differentiation the levels of mad1 mRNA are induced before the loss of c-Myc protein. This suggests that inactivation of the differentiation-blocking activity of c-Myc might not occur primarily through the loss of Myc protein, but through an increase in the levels of its antagonist, Mad1. To investigate this question we have analysed the levels of mad1 mRNA during differentiation of myeloid leukaemic HL60 cells. Although levels of mad1 mRNA were moderately increased after induction with phorbol ester, we also found that differentiation could be achieved with other inducers without any concomitant up-regulation of mad1 mRNA. In addition, analysis of E-box DNA binding revealed that, although Myc-Max complexes were lost rapidly after differentiation induction, formation of Mad1-containing complexes only occurred during the later stages of the differentiation programme. Further analysis of these Mad-containing complexes revealed that they were also unlikely to have the capacity to antagonize c-Myc function, as they did not contain Max. Therefore these data suggest that an increase in the levels of mad1 mRNA or the formation of a Mad-Max complex are unlikely to be essential or determining events for myeloid differentiation. In addition, the discovery of DNA-binding complexes that contain Mad1, but not Max, opens up this transcription factor network to include other Max-like proteins or proteins of an unrelated nature. PMID:9224632

  6. [Existence, Absence and Power of Madness: A Critical Review of Michel Foucault's Writings on the History and Philosophy of Madness].

    PubMed

    Brückner, Burkhart; Iwer, Lukas; Thoma, Samuel

    2017-04-04

    This article discusses Michel Foucault's main writings on "madness and psychiatry" from his early works up to the 1970s. On the one hand, we reconstruct the overall theoretical and methodological development of his positions over the course of the different periods in his oeuvre. On the other hand, we also take a closer look at Foucault's philosophical considerations regarding the subjects of his investigations. After an initial introduction of our conceptual approach, we draw on the most recent research on Foucault to show to what extent the phenomenological description of the topic at hand and the historical-critical perspective that are reflected in his early writings of 1954 (the Introduction to Binswanger's Dream and Existence and Mental Illness and Personality) laid the ground for his later work. Moving on to Foucault's work during the 1960s, we look at the core features and methodological bases of his 1961 classic Folie et déraison (History of Madness). His propositions regarding the "absence of madness" in modernity are conceptualized as an inherently contradictory attempt to liberate the topic under study from the common assumptions at that time. We then situate his 1973/74 lectures on Psychiatric Power in the context of his shift towards analyzing the dynamics of power and highlight the renewed shift of focus in his statements on the "productivity" of madness as an effect of power. Finally, we sum up our critique by taking into account the history of the reception of Foucault's writings and ask about their potential significance for the contemporary philosophy and history of psychiatry.

  7. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  8. ON A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The formulation of a condition which yields absolute continuity when combined with continuity and bounded variation is the problem considered in the...Briefly, the formulation is achieved through a discussion which develops a proof by contradiction of a sufficiently theorem for absolute continuity which uses in its hypothesis the condition of continuity and bounded variation .

  9. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  10. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  11. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is a deviation? 63.1965 Section 63.1965 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Requirements § 63.1965 What is a deviation? A deviation is defined in § 63.1990. For the purposes of...

  12. 21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph...

  13. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...

  14. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  15. Visual Search in a Multi-Element Asynchronous Dynamic (MAD) World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.

    2011-01-01

    In visual search tasks participants search for a target among distractors in strictly controlled displays. We show that visual search principles observed in these tasks do not necessarily apply in more ecologically valid search conditions, using dynamic and complex displays. A multi-element asynchronous dynamic (MAD) visual search was developed in…

  16. The (un)dress of the mad poor in England, c.1650-1850. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jonathan

    2007-03-01

    Part 1 of this paper discusses the representation of the mad poor in literature and (to a lesser extent) art, emphasizing how commonly they are found in states of undress. It delineates the meanings behind such portrayals, arguing that the mad were thus displayed: (a) to signify their putative intellectual/ moral degradation, irrationality and 'otherness', and to designate them as an ontologically distinct (and inferior) species of person; (b) to denote their animality/childishness, and their proximity to Nature; (c) to reflect perceived phenomenological realities, such as that the mad were innately prone to denudation, and to tearing or destroying their clothes; and (d) as a direct appeal to charity and relief, and as a sign of their personal neglect (of decency/social codes) or neglect by others. It additionally explores medical representations and explanations of the (un)dress of the insane, before (in Part 2) comparing such representations with actual clothing provision for the mad as recorded in parochial and institutional records.

  17. The Sad, the Mad and the Bad: Co-Existing Discourses of Girlhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Three significant, prevailing and overlapping narratives of teenage girls have dominated North American popular consciousness since the early 1990s: the sad girl, victimized by male privilege and misogyny of adolescence and beyond; the mad grrrls who rejected this vulnerability through music and media; and the bad girls of much current popular…

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning subproject characterization report for the E-MAD Decontamination Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-01-01

    This document describes and reports the results of the work undertaken to determine the nature and extent of contamination of portions of the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility located in Area 25 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  19. The MADS and the Beauty: Genes Involved in the Development of Orchid Flowers.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Serena; Gaudio, Luciano

    2011-08-01

    Since the time of Darwin, biologists have studied the origin and evolution of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants. In the last two decades, the extreme diversity and specialization of floral morphology and the uncoupled rate of morphological and molecular evolution that have been observed in some orchid species have spurred interest in the study of the genes involved in flower development in this plant family. As part of the complex network of regulatory genes driving the formation of flower organs, the MADS-box represents the most studied gene family, both from functional and evolutionary perspectives. Despite the absence of a published genome for orchids, comparative genetic analyses are clarifying the functional role and the evolutionary pattern of the MADS-box genes in orchids. Various evolutionary forces act on the MADS-box genes in orchids, such as diffuse purifying selection and the relaxation of selective constraints, which sometimes reveals a heterogeneous selective pattern of the coding and non-coding regions. The emerging theory regarding the evolution of floral diversity in orchids proposes that the diversification of the orchid perianth was a consequence of duplication events and changes in the regulatory regions of the MADS-box genes, followed by sub- and neo-functionalization. This specific developmental-genetic code is termed the "orchid code."

  20. Drosophila Mad binds to DNA and directly mediates activation of vestigial by Decapentaplegic.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Johnson, K; Chen, H J; Carroll, S; Laughon, A

    1997-07-17

    The TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta)-related signalling proteins, including Decapentaplegic (Dpp) in Drosophila-and bone morphogenic proteins and activin in vertebrates, affect the growth and patterning of a great variety of structures. However, the mechanisms by which these ligands regulate gene expression are not understood. Activation of complexes of type I with type II receptors results in the phosphorylation and nuclear localization of members of the SMAD protein family, which are thought to act as co-activators of transcription, perhaps in conjunction with sequence-specific cofactors. Here we show that the amino-terminal domain of the Drosophila Mothers against dpp protein (Mad), a mediator of Dpp signalling, possesses a sequence-specific DNA-binding activity that becomes apparent when carboxy-terminal residues are removed. Mad binds to and is required for the activation of an enhancer within the vestigial wing-patterning gene in cells across the entire developing wing blade. Mad also binds to Dpp-response elements in other genes. These results suggest that Dpp signalling regulates gene expression by activating Mad binding to target gene enhancers.

  1. An Act of Methodology: A Document in Madness--Writing Ophelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinnes, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to stage some questions concerning methodology and education, inspired by Ophelia in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" and by Jacques Derrida's poetic philosophical oeuvres. What are at stake are the long traditions of preferences of sanity over madness, friend over enemy, male over female and of clean, unambiguous univocal language…

  2. Some reflections on madness and culture in the post-war world.

    PubMed

    Scull, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    This article examines the treatment of madness as a theme in drama, opera and films, concentrating its attention for the most part on the period between World War II and the 1980s. These were the years in which psychoanalysis dominated psychiatry in the USA, and so Freud's influence in the broader culture forms the central though not the sole focus of the analysis.

  3. DNA sequence variation in BpMADS2 gene in two populations of Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Pia; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Savolainen, Outi; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2003-02-01

    The PISTILLATA (PI) homologue, BpMADS2, was isolated from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and used to study nucleotide polymorphism. Two regions (together about 2450 bp) comprising mainly untranslated sequences were sequenced from 10 individuals from each of two populations in Finland. The nucleotide polymorphism was low in the BpMADS2 locus, especially in the coding region. The synonymous site overall nucleotide diversity (pis) was 0.0043 and the nonsynonymous nucleotide diversity (pia) was only 0.000052. For the whole region, the pi values for the two populations were 0.0039 and 0.0045, and for the coding regions, the pi values were only 0 and 0.00066 (for the corresponding coding regions of Arabidopsis thaliana PI world-wide pi was 0.0021). Estimates of pi or theta did not differ significantly between the two populations, and the two populations were not diverged from each other. Two classes of BpMADS2 alleles were present in both populations, suggesting that this gene exhibits allelic dimorphism. In addition to the nucleotide site variation, two microsatellites were also associated within the haplotypes. This allelic dimorphism might be the result of postglacial re-colonization partly from northwestern, partly from southeastern/eastern refugia. The sequence comparison detected five recombination events in the regions studied. The large number of microsatellites in all of the three introns studied suggests that BpMADS2 is a hotspot for microsatellite formation.

  4. Proteomics and SSH Analyses of ALA-Promoted Fruit Coloration and Evidence for the Involvement of a MADS-Box Gene, MdMADS1.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinxin; An, Yuyan; Zheng, Jie; Sun, Miao; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels. A total of 85 differentially expressed proteins in apple skins between ALA and water treatment (control) were identified by complementary gel-based and gel-free separation techniques. Most of these differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated by ALA. Function analysis suggested that 87.06% of the ALA-responsive proteins were associated with fruit ripening. To further screen ALA-responsive regulators, we constructed a subtracted cDNA library (tester: ALA treatment; driver: control) and obtained 104 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 38 unigenes were indicators for the fruit ripening-related genes. The differentially changed proteins and transcripts did not correspond well at an individual level, but showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. Among the identified fruit ripening-related genes, the expression of MdMADS1, a developmental transcription regulator of fruit ripening, was positively correlated with expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (MdCHS, MdDFR, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT) in apple skin under ALA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of MdMADS1 enhanced anthocyanin content in transformed apple calli, which was further enhanced by ALA. The anthocyanin content in MdMADS1-silenced calli was less than that in the control with ALA treatment, but higher than that without ALA treatment. These results indicated that MdMADS1 is involved in ALA-induced anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, anthocyanin

  5. Proteomics and SSH Analyses of ALA-Promoted Fruit Coloration and Evidence for the Involvement of a MADS-Box Gene, MdMADS1

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinxin; An, Yuyan; Zheng, Jie; Sun, Miao; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels. A total of 85 differentially expressed proteins in apple skins between ALA and water treatment (control) were identified by complementary gel-based and gel-free separation techniques. Most of these differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated by ALA. Function analysis suggested that 87.06% of the ALA-responsive proteins were associated with fruit ripening. To further screen ALA-responsive regulators, we constructed a subtracted cDNA library (tester: ALA treatment; driver: control) and obtained 104 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 38 unigenes were indicators for the fruit ripening-related genes. The differentially changed proteins and transcripts did not correspond well at an individual level, but showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. Among the identified fruit ripening-related genes, the expression of MdMADS1, a developmental transcription regulator of fruit ripening, was positively correlated with expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (MdCHS, MdDFR, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT) in apple skin under ALA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of MdMADS1 enhanced anthocyanin content in transformed apple calli, which was further enhanced by ALA. The anthocyanin content in MdMADS1-silenced calli was less than that in the control with ALA treatment, but higher than that without ALA treatment. These results indicated that MdMADS1 is involved in ALA-induced anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, anthocyanin

  6. miR-125b promotes cell death by targeting spindle assembly checkpoint gene MAD1 and modulating mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjya, S; Nath, S; Ghose, J; Maiti, G P; Biswas, N; Bandyopadhyay, S; Panda, C K; Bhattacharyya, N P; Roychoudhury, S

    2013-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a ‘wait-anaphase' mechanism that has evolved in eukaryotic cells in response to the stochastic nature of chromosome–spindle attachments. In the recent past, different aspects of the SAC regulation have been described. However, the role of microRNAs in the SAC is vaguely understood. We report here that Mad1, a core SAC protein, is repressed by human miR-125b. Mad1 serves as an adaptor protein for Mad2 – which functions to inhibit anaphase entry till the chromosomal defects in metaphase are corrected. We show that exogenous expression of miR-125b, through downregulation of Mad1, delays cells at metaphase. As a result of this delay, cells proceed towards apoptotic death, which follows from elevated chromosomal abnormalities upon ectopic expression of miR-125b. Moreover, expressions of Mad1 and miR-125b are inversely correlated in a variety of cancer cell lines, as well as in primary head and neck tumour tissues. We conclude that increased expression of miR-125b inhibits cell proliferation by suppressing Mad1 and activating the SAC transiently. We hypothesize an optimum Mad1 level and thus, a properly scheduled SAC is maintained partly by miR-125b. PMID:23099851

  7. OsMADS1 Represses microRNA172 in Elongation of Palea/Lemma Development in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhengyan; Wang, Jiang; Zhu, Mulan; Miao, Xuexia; Shi, Zhenying

    2016-01-01

    Specification of floral organ identity is critical for the establishment of floral morphology and inflorescence architecture. Although multiple genes are involved in the regulation of floral organogenesis, our understanding of the underlying regulating network is still fragmentary. MADs-box genes are principle members in the ABCDE model that characterized floral organs. OsMADS1 specifies the determinacy of spikelet meristem and lemma/palea identity in rice. However, the pathway through which OsMADS1 regulates floral organs remains elusive; here, we identified the microRNA172 (miR172) family as possible regulators downstream of OsMADS1. Genetic study revealed that overexpression of each miR172 gene resulted in elongated lemma/palea and indeterminacy of the floret, which resemble the phenotype of osmads1 mutant. On the contrary, overexpression of each target APETALA2 (AP2) genes resulted in shortened palea/lemma. Expression level and specificity of miR172 was greatly influenced by OsMADS1, as revealed by Northern blot analysis and In situ hybridization. Genetically, AP2-3 and AP2-2 over expression rescued the elongation and inconsistent development of the lemma/palea in OsMADS1RNAi transgenic plants. Our results suggested that in rice, OsMADS1 and miR172s/AP2s formed a regulatory network involved in floral organ development, particularly the elongation of the lemma and the palea. PMID:28066457

  8. Absolute realization of low BRDF value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zilong; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu

    2010-10-01

    Low BRDF value is widespread used in many critical domains such as space and military fairs. These values below 0.1 Sr-1 . So the Absolute realization of these value is the most critical issue in the absolute measurement of BRDF. To develop the Absolute value realization theory of BRDF , defining an arithmetic operators of BRDF , achieving an absolute measurement Eq. of BRDF based on radiance. This is a new theory method to solve the realization problem of low BRDF value. This theory method is realized on a self-designed common double orientation structure in space. By designing an adding structure to extend the range of the measurement system and a control and processing software, Absolute realization of low BRDF value is achieved. A material of low BRDF value is measured in this measurement system and the spectral BRDF value are showed within different angles allover the space. All these values are below 0.4 Sr-1 . This process is a representative procedure about the measurement of low BRDF value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis of this measurement data is given depend on the new theory of absolute realization and the performance of the measurement system. The relative expand uncertainty of the measurement data is 0.078. This uncertainty analysis is suitable for all measurements using the new theory of absolute realization and the corresponding measurement system.

  9. Evolutionary and expression analysis of a MADS-box gene superfamily involved in ovule development of seeded and seedless grapevines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yin, Xiangjing; Cheng, Chenxia; Wang, Hao; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhao, Jiao; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2015-06-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development, such as floral organ determination, fruit ripening, and embryonic development. Yet not much is known about grape (Vitis vinifera) MADS-box genes in a relatively comprehensive genomic and functional way during ovule development. Accordingly, we identified 54 grape MADS-box genes, aiming to enhance our understanding of grape MADS-box genes from both evolutionary and functional perspectives. Synteny analysis indicated that both segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape MADS-box family. Furthermore, synteny analysis between the grape and Arabidopsis genomes suggested that several grape MADS-box genes arose before divergence of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of exon-intron structures provided further insight into the evolutionary relationships between the genes, as well as their putative functions. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, grape MADS-box genes were divided into type I and type II subgroups. Tissue-specific expression analysis suggested roles in both vegetative and reproductive tissue development. Expression analysis of the MADS-box genes following gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment revealed their response to GA3 treatment and that seedlessness caused by GA3 treatment underwent a different mechanism from that of normal ovule abortion. Expression profiling of MADS-box genes from six cultivars suggests their function in ovule development and may represent potential ovule identity genes involved in parthenocarpy. The results presented provide a few candidate genes involved in ovule development for future study, which may be useful in seedlessness-related molecular breeding programs.

  10. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    the AQG01. This paper summarizes the latest results obtained from these experiments. The evaluation of the AQG01 is still in progress but this study confirmed that the AQG01 enables absolute gravity measurements with a sensitivity of 2 μGal standard deviation after 1000 s of data integration. Perspectives of expected instrumental developments for monitoring both spatial and temporal gravity variations at the microGal level in both laboratory and field conditions will be also discussed.

  11. MAD (Multi-Agent-Delivery) Nanolayer: Delivering Multiple Therapeutics from Hierarchical Assembled Surface Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byeong-Su; Smith, Renée C.; Poon, Zhiyong; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    We present the hydrolytically degradable polymeric multilayer films that can co-deliver multiple therapeutics of differing chemical characteristics (charged biomacromolecules and neutral hydrophobic small molecules) from a surface. This multi-agent-delivery (MAD) nanolayer system integrates the hydrolytically degradable poly(β-amino ester) as a structural component to control the degradation of the multilayers to release active therapeutic macromolecules, as well as hydrophobic drugs imbedded within amphiphilic block copolymer micellar carriers within layer-by-layer (LbL) films, which would otherwise be difficult to include within the multilayers. By varying the anionic therapeutic agents (heparin and dextran sulfate) within the multilayer, we examine how different structural components can be used to control the release kinetics of multiple therapeutics from MAD nanolayers. Controlled release profiles and the in vitro efficacy of the MAD nanolayers in suppressing the growth of human smooth muscle cell lines were evaluated. The dual delivery of a charged macromolecular heparin and a small hydrophobic drug, paclitaxel, is found to be synergistic and beneficial toward effective therapeutic activity. Furthermore, we compared the classical dipping method we employed here with an automated spray-LbL technique. Spray-LbL significantly facilitates film processing time while preserving the characteristic release profiles of the MAD nanolayers. With the highly versatile and tunable nature of LbL assembly, we anticipate that MAD nanolayers can provide a unique platform for delivering multiple therapeutics from macromolecular to small molecules with distinct release profiles for applications in biological and biomedical surface coatings. PMID:19630389

  12. SEPALLATA3: the 'glue' for MADS box transcription factor complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Immink, Richard GH; Tonaco, Isabella AN; de Folter, Stefan; Shchennikova, Anna; van Dijk, Aalt DJ; Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline; Borst, Jan W; Angenent, Gerco C

    2009-01-01

    Background Plant MADS box proteins play important roles in a plethora of developmental processes. In order to regulate specific sets of target genes, MADS box proteins dimerize and are thought to assemble into multimeric complexes. In this study a large-scale yeast three-hybrid screen is utilized to provide insight into the higher-order complex formation capacity of the Arabidopsis MADS box family. SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) has been shown to mediate complex formation and, therefore, special attention is paid to this factor in this study. Results In total, 106 multimeric complexes were identified; in more than half of these at least one SEP protein was present. Besides the known complexes involved in determining floral organ identity, various complexes consisting of combinations of proteins known to play a role in floral organ identity specification, and flowering time determination were discovered. The capacity to form this latter type of complex suggests that homeotic factors play essential roles in down-regulation of the MADS box genes involved in floral timing in the flower via negative auto-regulatory loops. Furthermore, various novel complexes were identified that may be important for the direct regulation of the floral transition process. A subsequent detailed analysis of the APETALA3, PISTILLATA, and SEP3 proteins in living plant cells suggests the formation of a multimeric complex in vivo. Conclusions Overall, these results provide strong indications that higher-order complex formation is a general and essential molecular mechanism for plant MADS box protein functioning and attribute a pivotal role to the SEP3 'glue' protein in mediating multimerization. PMID:19243611

  13. The possibility of constructing the hydrogen scale of the absolute atomic masses of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, I. I.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents a scheme for the experimental-empirical construction of the existing chemical, physical, and carbon scales of the relative nonintegral atomic masses of the elements. The quantitative interrelation between the nonintegral relative atomic masses, their minimized fractional positive and negative natural deviations from integral numbers, and their integral parts are reproduced mathematically. Nonisotopic fractional deviations are shown to be a consequence of methodological side effects of the scheme for theoretical processing of the data of thorough physical and chemical measurements performed by Stas and Aston in constructing scales of relative atomic masses. In conformity with the Prout hypothesis, the absolute atomic mass unit and the corresponding Avogadro’s number value are suggested for the construction of the hydrogen scale of absolute atomic masses of nonisotopic elements, individual isotopes, and isotope-containing elements.

  14. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Data have been reduced and partially analyzed and models have been fitted. ASCA data indicate a metal-poor corona, with metals down by a factor of 3 or more relative to the photospheric values. EUVE data show a FIP effect, which is expected if the metals are enhanced rather than depleted. An absolute measure of the metal abundance has not yet been performed for the EUVE data. Either the FIP effect is in operation in the presence of a global depletion of metals, or the ASCA analysis is giving the wrong answer. The latter could be the case if the plasma models applied are incomplete. Further investigation into this is warranted prior to publication.

  15. Absolute rate of the reaction of hydrogen atoms with ozone from 219-360 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ozone were obtained over the temperature range 219-360 K by the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The results can be expressed in Arrhenius form by K = (1.33 plus or minus 0.32)x10 to the minus 10 power exp (-449 plus or minus 58/T) cu cm/molecule/s (two standard deviations). The present work is compared to two previous determinations and is discussed theoretically.

  16. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  17. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-09-15

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  18. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  19. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  20. Kelvin and the absolute temperature scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlichson, Herman

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the absolute temperature scale of Kelvin (William Thomson). Kelvin found that Carnot's axiom about heat being a conserved quantity had to be abandoned. Nevertheless, he found that Carnot's fundamental work on heat engines was correct. Using the concept of a Carnot engine Kelvin found that Q1/Q2 = T1/T2. Thermometers are not used to obtain absolute temperatures since they are calculated temperatures.

  1. "Absolute" quantification in magnetic resonance spectroscopy: validation of a clinical protocol in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bagory, Matthieu; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Ibarrola, Danielle; Confavreux, Christian; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    MRS allows to measure cerebral metabolites, thus helping to characterize brain disease diagnosis and followup. Metabolite concentration quantification is usually based on metabolite ratio referring to creatine. If this metabolite concentration is supposed to be constant, it may vary in pathological processes. Therefore, "absolute" concentration methodology is needed. The aim of this study is to validate a clinical "absolute" quantification protocol through the development of an external metabolic phantom, calibration and correction, and the investigation of reproducibility issues. When phantom stability was investigated by a short-term and a long-term reproducibility study, both Standard Deviations (SD) were in agreement with literature values. This "absolute" quantification method was applied to patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The results show a significant decrease in both N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA) and choline concentrations.

  2. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Midori; Yamamoto, Ayumu; Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi; Aiba, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2009-10-23

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2{sup +}. The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) induces effective bone formation from reversibly immortalized multipotent adipose-derived (iMAD) mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shun; Wang, Jing; Ye, Jixing; Zou, Yulong; Zhu, Yunxiao; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Fan, Jiaming; Zhang, Fugui; Farina, Evan M; Mohammed, Maryam M; Song, Dongzhe; Liao, Junyi; Huang, Jiayi; Guo, Dan; Lu, Minpeng; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jianxiang; Li, Li; Ma, Chao; Hu, Xue; Lee, Michael J; Reid, Russell R; Ameer, Guillermo A; Zhou, Dongsheng; He, Tongchuan

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine and bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise as an effective approach to bone and skeletal reconstruction. While adipose tissue harbors MSC-like progenitors, or multipotent adipose-derived cells (MADs), it is important to identify and characterize potential biological factors that can effectively induce osteogenic differentiation of MADs. To overcome the time-consuming and technically challenging process of isolating and culturing primary MADs, here we establish and characterize the reversibly immortalized mouse multipotent adipose-derived cells (iMADs). The isolated mouse primary inguinal MAD cells are reversibly immortalized via the retrovirus-mediated expression of SV40 T antigen flanked with FRT sites. The iMADs are shown to express most common MSC markers. FLP-mediated removal of SV40 T antigen effectively reduces the proliferative activity and cell survival of iMADs, indicating the immortalization is reversible. Using the highly osteogenic BMP9, we find that the iMADs are highly responsive to BMP9 stimulation, express multiple lineage regulators, and undergo osteogenic differentiation in vitro upon BMP9 stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BMP9-stimulated iMADs form robust ectopic bone with a thermoresponsive biodegradable scaffold material. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the reversibly immortalized iMADs exhibit the characteristics of multipotent MSCs and are highly responsive to BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Thus, the iMADs should provide a valuable resource for the study of MAD biology, which would ultimately enable us to develop novel and efficacious strategies for MAD-based bone tissue engineering. PMID:27725853

  4. LD-SPatt: large deviations statistics for patterns on Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Nuel, G

    2004-01-01

    Statistics on Markov chains are widely used for the study of patterns in biological sequences. Statistics on these models can be done through several approaches. Central limit theorem (CLT) producing Gaussian approximations are one of the most popular ones. Unfortunately, in order to find a pattern of interest, these methods have to deal with tail distribution events where CLT is especially bad. In this paper, we propose a new approach based on the large deviations theory to assess pattern statistics. We first recall theoretical results for empiric mean (level 1) as well as empiric distribution (level 2) large deviations on Markov chains. Then, we present the applications of these results focusing on numerical issues. LD-SPatt is the name of GPL software implementing these algorithms. We compare this approach to several existing ones in terms of complexity and reliability and show that the large deviations are more reliable than the Gaussian approximations in absolute values as well as in terms of ranking and are at least as reliable as compound Poisson approximations. We then finally discuss some further possible improvements and applications of this new method.

  5. Validation of Mean Absolute Sea Level of the North Atlantic obtained from Drifter, Altimetry and Wind Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximenko, Nikolai A.

    2003-01-01

    Mean absolute sea level reflects the deviation of the Ocean surface from geoid due to the ocean currents and is an important characteristic of the dynamical state of the ocean. Values of its spatial variations (order of 1 m) are generally much smaller than deviations of the geoid shape from ellipsoid (order of 100 m) that makes the derivation of the absolute mean sea level a difficult task for gravity and satellite altimetry observations. Technique used by Niiler et al. for computation of the absolute mean sea level in the Kuroshio Extension was then developed into more general method and applied by Niiler et al. (2003b) to the global Ocean. The method is based on the consideration of balance of horizontal momentum.

  6. Does standard deviation matter? Using "standard deviation" to quantify security of multistage testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk.

  7. Functional delineation of rice MADS29 reveals its role in embryo and endosperm development by affecting hormone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Rice MADS29 has recently been reported to cause programmed cell death of maternal tissues, the nucellus, and the nucellar projection during early stages of seed development. However, analyses involving OsMADS29 protein expression domains and characterization of OsMADS29 gain-of-function and knockdown phenotypes revealed novel aspects of its function in maintaining hormone homeostasis, which may have a role in the development of embryo and plastid differentiation and starch filling in endosperm cells. The MADS29 transcripts accumulated to high levels soon after fertilization; however, protein accumulation was found to be delayed by at least 4 days. Immunolocalization studies revealed that the protein accumulated initially in the dorsal-vascular trace and the outer layers of endosperm, and subsequently in the embryo and aleurone and subaleurone layers of the endosperm. Ectopic expression of MADS29 resulted in a severely dwarfed phenotype, exhibiting elevated levels of cytokinin, thereby suggesting that cytokinin biosynthesis pathway could be one of the major targets of OsMADS29. Overexpression of OsMADS29 in heterologous BY2 cells was found to mimic the effects of exogenous application of cytokinins that causes differentiation of proplastids to starch-containing amyloplasts and activation of genes involved in the starch biosynthesis pathway. Suppression of MADS29 expression by RNAi severely affected seed set. The surviving seeds were smaller in size, with developmental abnormalities in the embryo and reduced size of endosperm cells, which also contained loosely packed starch granules. Microarray analysis of overexpression and knockdown lines exhibited altered expression of genes involved in plastid biogenesis, starch biosynthesis, cytokinin signalling and biosynthesis. PMID:23929654

  8. Genome-Wide Targets Regulated by the OsMADS1 Transcription Factor Reveals Its DNA Recognition Properties1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Khanday, Imtiyaz; Das, Sanjukta; Chongloi, Grace L; Vijayraghavan, Usha

    2016-01-01

    OsMADS1 controls rice (Oryza sativa) floral fate and organ development. Yet, its genome-wide targets and the mechanisms underlying its role as a transcription regulator controlling developmental gene expression are unknown. We identify 3112 gene-associated OsMADS1-bound sites in the floret genome. These occur in the vicinity of transcription start sites, within gene bodies, and in intergenic regions. Majority of the bound DNA contained CArG motif variants or, in several cases, only A-tracts. Sequences flanking the binding peak had a higher AT nucleotide content, implying that broader DNA structural features may define in planta binding. Sequences for binding by other transcription factor families like MYC, AP2/ERF, bZIP, etc. are enriched in OsMADS1-bound DNAs. Target genes implicated in transcription, chromatin remodeling, cellular processes, and hormone metabolism were enriched. Combining expression data from OsMADS1 knockdown florets with these DNA binding data, a snapshot of a gene regulatory network was deduced where targets, such as AP2/ERF and bHLH transcription factors and chromatin remodelers form nodes. We show that the expression status of these nodal factors can be altered by inducing the OsMADS1-GR fusion protein and present a model for a regulatory cascade where the direct targets of OsMADS1, OsbHLH108/SPT, OsERF034, and OsHSF24, in turn control genes such as OsMADS32 and OsYABBY5. This cascade, with other similar relationships, cumulatively contributes to floral organ development. Overall, OsMADS1 binds to several regulatory genes and, probably in combination with other factors, controls a gene regulatory network that ensures rice floret development. PMID:27457124

  9. Mad2-independent Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Activation and Controlled Metaphase–Anaphase Transition in Drosophila S2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Bernardo; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint is essential to maintain genomic stability during cell division. We analyzed the role of the putative Drosophila Mad2 homologue in the spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic progression. Depletion of Mad2 by RNAi from S2 cells shows that it is essential to prevent mitotic exit after spindle damage, demonstrating its conserved role. Mad2-depleted cells also show accelerated transit through prometaphase and premature sister chromatid separation, fail to form metaphases, and exit mitosis soon after nuclear envelope breakdown with extensive chromatin bridges that result in severe aneuploidy. Interestingly, preventing Mad2-depleted cells from exiting mitosis by a checkpoint-independent arrest allows congression of normally condensed chromosomes. More importantly, a transient mitotic arrest is sufficient for Mad2-depleted cells to exit mitosis with normal patterns of chromosome segregation, suggesting that all the associated phenotypes result from a highly accelerated exit from mitosis. Surprisingly, if Mad2-depleted cells are blocked transiently in mitosis and then released into a media containing a microtubule poison, they arrest with high levels of kinetochore-associated BubR1, properly localized cohesin complex and fail to exit mitosis revealing normal spindle assembly checkpoint activity. This behavior is specific for Mad2 because BubR1-depleted cells fail to arrest in mitosis under these experimental conditions. Taken together our results strongly suggest that Mad2 is exclusively required to delay progression through early stages of prometaphase so that cells have time to fully engage the spindle assembly checkpoint, allowing a controlled metaphase–anaphase transition and normal patterns of chromosome segregation. PMID:17182852

  10. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  11. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  12. Antirationalist critique or fifth column of scientism? Challenges from Doctor Who to the mad scientist trope.

    PubMed

    Orthia, Lindy A

    2011-07-01

    Much of the public understanding of science literature dealing with fictional scientists claims that scientist villains by their nature embody an antiscience critique. I characterize this claim and its founding assumptions as the "mad scientist" trope. I show how scientist villain characters from the science fiction television series Doctor Who undermine the trope via the programme's use of rhetorical strategies similar to Gilbert and Mulkay's empiricist and contingent repertoires, which define and patrol the boundaries between "science" and "non-science." I discuss three such strategies, including the literal framing of scientist villains as "mad." All three strategies exclude the characters from science, relieve science of responsibility for their villainy, and overtly or covertly contribute to the delivery of pro-science messages consistent with rationalist scientism. I focus on scientist villains from the most popular era of Doctor Who, the mid 1970s, when the show embraced the gothic horror genre.

  13. David Hartley's views on Madness: With an introduction by GE Berrios.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    2015-03-01

    The psychiatric aspects of David Hartley's writings have received less attention than the rest of his work. This Classic Text deals with Section VI of his Observations on Man …, namely, the 'Imperfections of the rational Faculty'. Hartley defines madness as an imperfection of reason that can be temporary or enduring. He makes use of his model of mental functioning to differentiate between eight clinical categories of madness, each representing a different pattern of vibrations of the nerves. Hartley developed this model based on Newton's theory of vibrations and, to explain the complexity of mental acts and entities, he combined it with his own version of the mechanism of Association of Ideas borrowed from John Locke. Much work needs to be done to identify the provenance of Hartley's nosology and nosography.

  14. Flowering Time-Regulated Genes in Maize Include the Transcription Factor ZmMADS11[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Philipp; Bircheneder, Susanne; Schlüter, Urte; Gahrtz, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time (FTi) control is well examined in the long-day plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and increasing knowledge is available for the short-day plant rice (Oryza sativa). In contrast, little is known in the day-neutral and agronomically important crop plant maize (Zea mays). To learn more about FTi and to identify novel regulators in this species, we first compared the time points of floral transition of almost 30 maize inbred lines and show that tropical lines exhibit a delay in flowering transition of more than 3 weeks under long-day conditions compared with European flint lines adapted to temperate climate zones. We further analyzed the leaf transcriptomes of four lines that exhibit strong differences in flowering transition to identify new key players of the flowering control network in maize. We found strong differences among regulated genes between these lines and thus assume that the regulation of FTi is very complex in maize. Especially genes encoding MADS box transcriptional regulators are up-regulated in leaves during the meristem transition. ZmMADS1 was selected for functional studies. We demonstrate that it represents a functional ortholog of the central FTi integrator SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) of Arabidopsis. RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of ZmMADS1 resulted in a delay of FTi in maize, while strong overexpression caused an early-flowering phenotype, indicating its role as a flowering activator. Taken together, we report that ZmMADS1 represents a positive FTi regulator that shares an evolutionarily conserved function with SOC1 and may now serve as an ideal stating point to study the integration and variation of FTi pathways also in maize. PMID:27457125

  15. Adverse Drug Reactions and quality deviations monitored by spontaneous reports

    PubMed Central

    Visacri, Marília Berlofa; de Souza, Cinthia Madeira; Sato, Catarina Miyako Shibata; Granja, Silvia; de Marialva, Mécia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Moriel, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and profile of spontaneous reports of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and quality deviations in a Brazilian teaching hospital and propose a consistent classification to study quality deviations. Methods This is a descriptive and retrospective study involving the analysis of spontaneous reports of ADRs and quality deviations in 2010. ADRs were classified according to the reaction mechanism, severity, and causality. The drugs were classified according to their therapeutic classes and symptoms according to the affected organ. The quality deviations were classified according to the type of deviation and type of medicine available in the Brazilian market. Results A total of 68 forms were examined; ADRs accounted for 39.7% of the notifications, while quality deviations accounted for 60.3%. ADRs occurred more frequently in men (51.9%) and adults (63.0%). The skin (28.0%) was the most affected organ, while anti-infectives (40.7%) were the therapeutic class that caused the most ADRs. The most common ADRs were type B (74.0%), moderates (37.0%), and probables (55.6%). In relation to quality deviations, the most frequent notifications were breaks, splits and leaks (20.9%) and related to generic drugs (43.9%). Conclusion The classification system to study quality deviations was clear and consistent. This study demonstrated that practices and public policies related to more effective pharmacovigilance need to be implemented so that the number of spontaneous reports increases. PMID:25972731

  16. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  17. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  18. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and...

  19. 41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... number(s) of the DOE-PMR; (2) The reason why the deviation is considered necessary or would be in the...) Requests for deviations from applicable portions of the FPMR and DOE-PMR (except aviation related portions... related portions of the FPMR and DOE-PMR concerning aviation operations shall be forwarded by the OPMO...

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  1. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  3. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  4. 41 CFR 101-42.002 - Requests for deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY § 101-42.002 Requests for deviations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Requests for deviations. 101-42.002 Section 101-42.002 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  5. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  6. 33 CFR 164.51 - Deviations from rules: Emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviations from rules: Emergency. 164.51 Section 164.51 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.51 Deviations from...

  7. Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

  8. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  10. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  11. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...

  13. 21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section... Process Controls § 211.100 Written procedures; deviations. (a) There shall be written procedures for... in this subpart. These written procedures, including any changes, shall be drafted, reviewed,...

  14. Syntactic Deviations in the Novel "The Sound and the Fury"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alirezazadeh, Pooria; Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at William Faulkner's work "The Sound and the Fury." The goals are to investigate different types of syntactic deviations in the novel, and how these deviations helped the writer to create a literary work in the field of modernist literature and stream of consciousness. To this end, the theoretical framework for…

  15. 7 CFR 3015.3 - Conflicting policies and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicting policies and deviations. 3015.3 Section... Conflicting policies and deviations. (a) Statutory provisions. Federal statutes that apply to some USDA grant..., when permissible under existing laws. In those instances where a program receives an exception to...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  17. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  18. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing Compliance... landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a) through (c.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  19. 40 CFR 63.1965 - What is a deviation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills General and Continuing... of the landfill monitoring and SSM plan requirements, deviations include the items in paragraphs (a.... (c) A deviation occurs when a SSM plan is not developed or maintained on site....

  20. 10 CFR 1017.5 - Requesting a deviation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requesting a deviation. 1017.5 Section 1017.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR... create a potential or real vulnerability); or (3) An exception (i.e., an approved deviation from...

  1. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... deviation file. The establishment shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or (ii) Use...

  2. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... deviation file. The establishment shall maintain full records regarding the handling of each deviation. Such records shall include, at a minimum, the appropriate processing and production records, a full description... establishment shall: (i) Immediately reprocess the product using the full process schedule; or (ii) Use...

  3. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  4. Ships of fools and vessels of the divine: mental hospitals and madness, a case study.

    PubMed

    Connor, L H

    1982-01-01

    Rural Balinese conceive of madness as a phenomenon which gives men intimations of another reality transcending the everyday world, and which reveals the possibility of more direct communication with the divine. European views of madness became gradually secularized over a period of several centuries, and were finally absorbed by the predominantly medical models of modern psychiatry. In Bali, this transformation is occurring within a much shorter time span, under different socioeconomic conditions. In this paper, I examine the ideas which traditional healers in Bali and their clients invoke about the influence of the supernatural in worldly affairs. I then contrast traditional classifications and treatments of madness with the version of Western psychiatry currently practised in mental hospitals and out-patient clinics on the island. This section of the paper is based on the author's field study of mental health services in Bali, incorporating a survey of mental hospital inpatients and their families. I conclude with a discussion of the genesis, future development and possible effects of the increase in psychiatric facilities on the island.

  5. Cloning and characterization of a novel PI-like MADS-box gene in Phalaenopsis orchid.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Zhang, Tian; Shi, Jinlei; Chen, Donghong; Shen, Daleng; Ming, Feng

    2008-06-01

    The specification of floral organ identity during development depends on the function of a limited number of homeotic genes, which are grouped into three classes. Most of these genes belong to the MADS-box gene family. The PISTILLATA (PI) family of MADS-box genes plays important roles in controlling the development of the petal and stamen of flowering plants. In an attempt to understand the molecular mechanisms behind floral development in the orchid, a MADS-box gene, PhPI10 was cloned from Phalaenopsis orchid. We provide phylogenetic evidence that PhPI10 is closely related to PI-like genes of angiosperms, which are required for establishing petal and stamen identity. In addition, there is a PI-motif in the C-terminal of the putative amino acid sequence of PhPI10. Southern analysis showed that a single copy of PhPI10 was present in the Phalaenopsis orchid genome. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that its transcription was only detectable in the top of the floral bud and undetectable in other vegetative organs. In the floral organs its expression was limited to the lip of the Phalaenopsis flower.

  6. ["I am but mad north-north-west"--Hamlet's portrayed delusion].

    PubMed

    Schulte Herbrüggen, H

    1996-01-01

    Whereas science refers to the real world existing independently and conditioned by cause and effect, the world of literature is fictitious, created by the artist in our imagination by means of language, an artefact conditioned by aesthetic laws, a world sui generis. Accordingly, Hamlet is no person, but a literary figure, doing, saying, thinking and feeling only what the poet dictated him word for word. The essential difference between the two worlds is often overlooked. That "blind spot" has a long-standing tradition in European intellectual history and goes back i.a. to the German "Hamlet experience" in the eighteenth, the "Hamlet fever" and the felt spiritual kinship (Seelenverwandtschaft) in the nineteenth century. Teleological literary criticism, centering around Hamlet's "character" and isolating his psychologically evaluated monologues (e.g. Bradley), refrained from Hamlet's fictionality and role-play and led to blurring beyond recognition the boundaries between real person and literary figure (e.g. Freud, Jones) and assisted in reducing a dramatic role to a medical case history. Speaking of Hamlet, one has to start from Shakespeare's text, our subject matter. A dramatic play being a plot turned into dialogue, the poet's vocabulary used (but indirectly also the vocabulary not used) is particularly informative. When referring to Hamlet's "antic disposition", Shakespeare uses a wide range of over 20 different terms, the most frequented being mad/madness (44 times). Evidence of primary importance are the five occasions after the apparition of his father's ghost, when Hamlet speaks of hist "madness" as an assumed role. In Act I "madness occurs first as a mere possibility when Hamlet informs his friends, he might "put an antic disposition on"; in Act II vis-a-vis Rosencrantz and Guildenstern ("I am but mad north-north-west") it is his deliberate action under certain conditions; in Act III it occurs thrice, first in his declaration of intent ("They are coming to

  7. Characterization and expression analysis of six MADS-box genes in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongbao; Li, Huiyong; Zhang, Dengfeng; Liu, Yinghui; Fu, Jing; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

    2012-05-15

    MADS-box genes encode a family of transcription factors, which control diverse developmental processes in flowering plants, with organs ranging from roots, flowers and fruits. In this study, six maize cDNAs encoding MADS-box proteins were isolated. BLASTX searches and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the six MADS-box genes belonging to the AGL2-like clade. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that these genes had differential expression patterns in different organs in maize. The results of yeast one-hybrid system indicated that the protein ZMM3-1, ZMM3-2, ZMM6, ZMM7-L, ZMM8-L and ZMM14-L had transcriptional activation activity. Subcellular localization of ZMM7-L demonstrated that the fluorescence of ZMM7-L-GFP was mainly detected in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells. qRT-PCR analysis for expression pattern of ZMM7-L showed that the gene was up-regulated by abiotic stresses and down-regulated by exogenous ABA. The germination rates of over-expression transgenic lines were lower than that of the wild type on medium with 150 mM NaCl, 350 mM mannitol. These results indicated that ZMM7-L might be a negative transcription factor responsive to abiotic stresses.

  8. 'Is getting well ever an art?': Psychopharmacology and madness in Robert Lowell's Day by Day.

    PubMed

    Travis, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    On the publication of Robert Lowell's Life Studies in 1959, some critics were shocked by the poet's use of seemingly frank autobiographical material, in particular the portrayal of his hospitalizations for bipolar disorder. During the late fifties and throughout the sixties, a rich vein, influenced by Lowell, developed in American poetry. Also during this time, the nascent science of psychopharmacology competed with and complemented the more established somatic treatments, such as psychosurgery, shock treatments, and psychoanalytical therapies. The development of Thorazine was a remarkable breakthrough allowing patients previously thought incurable to leave hospital. In 1955, the release of Miltown, the first 'minor' tranquilizer, was heralded with a media fanfare promising a new dawn of psychological cure-all. These two events blurred the boundary between 'normality' and madness by making treatment in the community more widely possible and by medicalizing more commonplace distress. Lowell's early depictions of madness situate it as emblematic of the cultural malaise of 'the tranquilized fifties.' By his final collection, Day by Day (1977), mental illness had lost its symbolic power. These late poems explore the power of art as a way of representing and remedying suffering in a culture where psychopharmacology has normalized madness.

  9. Members of the tomato FRUITFULL MADS-box family regulate style abscission and fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shufen; Lu, Gang; Hou, Zheng; Luo, Zhidan; Wang, Taotao; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2014-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) protein MADS-RIN plays important roles in fruit ripening. In this study, the functions of two homologous tomato proteins, FUL1 and FUL2, which contain conserved MIKC domains that typify plant MADS-box proteins, and which interact with MADS-RIN, were analysed. Transgenic functional analysis showed that FUL1 and FUL2 function redundantly in fruit ripening regulation, but exhibit distinct roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation and expansion. Over-expression of FUL2 in tomato resulted in a pointed tip at the blossom end of the fruit, together with a thinner pericarp, reduced stem diameter, and smaller leaves, but no obvious phenotypes resulted from FUL1 over-expression. Dual suppression of FUL1 and FUL2 substantially inhibited fruit ripening by blocking ethylene biosynthesis and decreasing carotenoid accumulation. In addition, the levels of transcript corresponding to ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2), which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis, were significantly decreased in the FUL1/FUL2 knock-down tomato fruits. Overall, our results suggest that FUL proteins can regulate tomato fruit ripening through fine-tuning ethylene biosynthesis and the expression of ripening-related genes. PMID:24723399

  10. The Bsister MADS gene FST determines ovule patterning and development of the zygotic embryo and endosperm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Sun; Chen, Li Juan; Li, Cheng Yun; Liu, Yongsheng; Tan, Xue Lin; Lu, Bao-Rong; Li, Juan; Gan, Shu Xian; Kang, Sang Gu; Suh, Hak Soo; Zhu, Youyong

    2013-01-01

    Many homeotic MADS-box genes have been identified as controllers of the floral transition and floral development. However, information regarding Bsister (Bs)-function genes in monocots is still limited. Here, we describe the functional characterization of a Bs-group MADS-box gene FEMALE-STERILE (FST), whose frame-shift mutation (fst) results in abnormal ovules and the complete abortion of zygotic embryos and endosperms in rice. Anatomical analysis showed that the defective development in the fst mutant exclusively occurred in sporophytic tissues including integuments, fertilized proembryos and endosperms. Analyses of the spatio-temporal expression pattern revealed that the prominent FST gene products accumulated in the inner integument, nucellar cell of the micropylar side, apical and base of the proembryos and free endosperm nuclei. Microarray and gene ontology analysis unraveled substantial changes in the expression level of many genes in the fst mutant ovules and seeds, with a subset of genes involved in several developmental and hormonal pathways appearing to be down-regulated. Using both forward and reverse genetics approaches, we demonstrated that rice FST plays indispensable roles and multiple functions during ovule and early seed development. These findings support a novel function for the Bs-group MADS-box genes in plants.

  11. [From the a-topia of madness to the u-topia of the novel].

    PubMed

    Pirlot, G

    1991-04-01

    European civilization is the only one which produced individual and fictitious novels ("romans" in French) and at the same time, an objective and scientific speech upon madness; in this article, the author shows how this second phenomenon allowed the appearance of the first. Actually, in France, it was when madness was enclosed within the walls of the "Hôpital général" and the Bastille, which occurred between the XVIth and XVIIth centuries (called Classical century) and after the moment grammar and Descartes' Cogito had put some order into the language, that the narration left its epic form developing into a free one, the novel. A place (a-topos) for madness and fancy made possible a non-place (u-topos) for the subject, the narrator of the novel. Do not forget that before this time, fiction was similar to fancy, and imagination to a foolish unreality. Only the theater (Shakespeare) was possible, as a visual perception of the virtual and unconscious fact. Even reading works of fiction was dangerous at that time. Novels, or works of fiction were only admitted when the superiority of reason and Cogito upon the language allowed a "good enough" reality for people's mind. After that, imagination and virtual speech subverted reason and scientific speech.

  12. madSTORM: a superresolution technique for large-scale multiplexing at single-molecule accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jason; Manna, Asit; Barr, Valarie A.; Hong, Jennifer; Neuman, Keir C.; Samelson, Lawrence E.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of heterogeneous cellular structures using single-molecule localization microscopy has been limited by poorly defined localization accuracy and inadequate multiplexing capacity. Using fluorescent nanodiamonds as fiducial markers, we define and achieve localization precision required for single-molecule accuracy in dSTORM images. Coupled with this advance, our new multiplexing strategy, madSTORM, allows accurate targeting of multiple molecules using sequential binding and elution of fluorescent antibodies. madSTORM is used on an activated T-cell to localize 25 epitopes, 14 of which are on components of the same multimolecular T-cell receptor complex. We obtain an average localization precision of 2.6 nm, alignment error of 2.0 nm, and <0.01% cross-talk. Combining these technical advances affords the ability to move beyond obtaining superresolved structures to defining spatial relationships among constituent molecules within structures. Probing the molecular topology of complex signaling cascades and other heterogeneous networks is feasible with madSTORM. PMID:27708141

  13. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  14. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  15. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  16. Genome-Wide Characterization of the MADS-Box Gene Family in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and Assessment of Its Roles in Flowering and Floral Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Nie, Shanshan; Chen, Yinglong; Liang, Dongyi; Sun, Xiaochuan; Karanja, Benard K; Luo, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ) and 76 type II (70 MIKC(C) and 6 MIKC(∗)). Among them, 41 (28.47%) RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  17. The LAMB1 gene from the clubmoss, Lycopodium annotinum, is a divergent MADS-box gene, expressed specifically in sporogenic structures.

    PubMed

    Svensson, M E; Johannesson, H; Engström, P

    2000-07-25

    Transcription factors encoded by the large MADS-box gene family have important developmental functions in angiosperms, the flowering plants. Mutations in certain MADS-box genes are known to cause homeotic alterations in floral organ identity, and the establishment of floral organ identity is the most well-studied developmental process in which MADS-box genes are known to function. Our interest is in the potential connection between the duplication history of this gene family and the evolutionary origin of the structures that the different MADS-box genes developmentally regulate in plants. Previous studies have demonstrated that the origin of the MADS-box genes that control floral organ identity predate the evolutionary origin of the flower itself, since gymnosperms have genes that are orthologous to angiosperm floral homeotic MADS-box genes, whereas ferns appear to lack such genes. Here we report on the isolation of a MADS-box gene from Lycopodium annotinum, which belongs to the clubmosses, the phylogenetic sister group to other vascular plants. The gene, LAMB1, in the sporophyte is expressed exclusively in the reproductive structure, the strobilus, during sporogenesis. LAMB1 is similar to other plant MADS-box genes in that it contains a MADS-box as well as a second conserved element, a K-box. However, it differs in length and in exon/intron structure in the region between the MADS- and K-box, and also in the length and structure of the C-terminal region. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that LAMB1 is not closely related to other plant-type MADS-box genes, and may represent one of the basal branches in the phylogenetic tree of plant MADS-box genes.

  18. Genome-Wide Characterization of the MADS-Box Gene Family in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and Assessment of Its Roles in Flowering and Floral Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Nie, Shanshan; Chen, Yinglong; Liang, Dongyi; Sun, Xiaochuan; Karanja, Benard K.; Luo, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ) and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC∗). Among them, 41 (28.47%) RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops. PMID:27703461

  19. PeMADS6, a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene in Phalaenopsis equestris involved in petaloid formation, and correlated with flower longevity and ovary development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Lee, Pei-Fang; Chen, Hong-Ie; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Wei, Wan-Ju; Pan, Zhao-Jun; Chuang, Ming-Hsiang; Kuoh, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the function of a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene, PeMADS6, from a native Phalaenopsis species, P. equestris. Southern blot analysis showed PeMADS6 as a single copy in the Phalaenopsis genome. Results of the determination of temporal and spatial expression showed that PeMADS6 was expressed and thus participated in the development of the sepals, petals, labellum and column in Phalaenopsis. Further confirmation of the expression pattern of PeMADS6 was carried out with in situ hybridization. Repressed expression of PeMADS6 in the orchid ovary was found to be pollination regulated, which suggests that the gene may have an inhibitory effect on the development of the ovary or ovule. In addition, auxin acted as the candidate signal to regulate the repression of PeMADS6 expression in the ovary. Furthermore, the flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically overexpressing PeMADS6 showed the morphology of petaloid sepals, with a 3- to 4-fold increase in flower longevity. Concomitantly, delayed fruit maturation was also observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis, which is consistent with the inhibitory effect of PeMADS6 on the development of the ovary. Thus, as a B-function gene, PeMADS6, not only specifies floral organ identity but has functions in flower longevity and ovary development in orchids.

  20. Vertical deviations of the midplane of the Galaxy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.

    Besides the integral sign warp in the outer Galaxy, the gas in the Milky Way shows small, but systematic deviations from a flat z = 0 plane both in the inner and the outer Galaxy. In the inner Galaxy, the tangent points have no distance ambiguity, so their distances, and hence midplane deviations, can be measured. From the tangent point analysis the authors find that the molecular and atomic gas layers deviate from the z = 0 plane with an amplitude of ≅50 pc. Whether these deviations are due to a small, smooth inner warp or are similar to the m = 10 mode corrugations found in the outer Galaxy (Kulkarni, Blitz & Heiles, 1982) can be checked by looking at the two-dimensional (in Galactic radius and azimuthal angle) structure of the z deviations. For the inner Galaxy, distance ambiguity at points other than the tangent points makes the interpretation difficult, but these hypotheses can be checked in a limited way. Magnetic instabilities can cause vertical deviations of the gas, but if stars share the same deviations the origin has to be gravitational.

  1. Comparative vs. Absolute Judgments of Trait Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstee, Willem K. B.

    1970-01-01

    Reversals of trait desirability are studied. Terms indicating conservativw behavior appeared to be judged relatively desirable in comparative judgement, while traits indicating dynamic and expansive behavior benefited from absolute judgement. The reversal effect was shown to be a general one, i.e. reversals were not dependent upon the specific…

  2. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-07

    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  3. An Absolute Electrometer for the Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Cartacci, A.

    2009-01-01

    A low-cost, easy-to-use absolute electrometer is presented: two thin metallic plates and an electronic balance, usually available in a laboratory, are used. We report on the very good performance of the device that allows precise measurements of the force acting between two charged plates. (Contains 5 footnotes, 2 tables, and 6 figures.)

  4. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  5. Absolute Positioning Using the Global Positioning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has becom a useful tool In providing relativ survey...Includes the development of a low cost navigator for wheeled vehicles. ABSTRACT The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has become a useful tool In providing...technique of absolute or point positioning involves the use of a single Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver to determine the three-dimenslonal

  6. A Modular GIS-Based Software Architecture for Model Parameter Estimation using the Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, D. P.; Osorio-Murillo, C.; Over, M. W.; Rubin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD) is an inverse modeling technique that is well-suited for estimation of spatially varying parameter fields using limited observations and Bayesian methods. This presentation will discuss the design, development, and testing of a free software implementation of the MAD technique using the open source DotSpatial geographic information system (GIS) framework, R statistical software, and the MODFLOW groundwater model. This new tool, dubbed MAD-GIS, is built using a modular architecture that supports the integration of external analytical tools and models for key computational processes including a forward model (e.g. MODFLOW, HYDRUS) and geostatistical analysis (e.g. R, GSLIB). The GIS-based graphical user interface provides a relatively simple way for new users of the technique to prepare the spatial domain, to identify observation and anchor points, to perform the MAD analysis using a selected forward model, and to view results. MAD-GIS uses the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF) provided by the Microsoft .NET programming platform to support integration of different modeling and analytical tools at run-time through a custom "driver." Each driver establishes a connection with external programs through a programming interface, which provides the elements for communicating with core MAD software. This presentation gives an example of adapting the MODFLOW to serve as the external forward model in MAD-GIS for inferring the distribution functions of key MODFLOW parameters. Additional drivers for other models are being developed and it is expected that the open source nature of the project will engender the development of additional model drivers by 3rd party scientists.

  7. A Non-Climacteric Fruit Gene CaMADS-RIN Regulates Fruit Ripening and Ethylene Biosynthesis in Climacteric Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Tingting; Chen, Guoping; Tian, Shibing; Xie, Qiaoli; Yin, Wencheng; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli

    2014-01-01

    MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP) group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin) mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4) and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC) accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1–3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits. PMID:24751940

  8. Reflected beam's direction deviation induced by the corner cube retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Xian, Hao; Jang, WenHan

    2008-12-01

    The direction deviation of the reflected beam induced by the corner cube retroreflector (CCR) is respectively discussed by geometrical optics approach and the principle of physical optics in this paper. A mathematical model was built to calculate the beam's aberration due to the fabrication errors of the CCR. It can be concluded that the centroid direction error of far field spot is much more appropriate to describe the reflection beam's direction deviation for a broad incident beam, and the beam with even intensity distribution should be used to reduce its direction deviation.

  9. Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.

    2005-05-01

    For systems in contact with two reservoirs at different densities or with two thermostats at different temperatures, the large deviation function of the density gives a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for exclusion models in one dimension with open boundary conditions. For these models, one can also obtain the distribution of the current of particles flowing through the system and the results lead to a simple conjecture for the large deviation function of the current of more general diffusive systems.

  10. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

    2017-04-01

    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  11. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  12. Deviation of the statistical fluctuation in heterogeneous anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itto, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    The exponent of anomalous diffusion of virus in cytoplasm of a living cell is experimentally known to fluctuate depending on localized areas of the cytoplasm, indicating heterogeneity of diffusion. In a recent paper (Itto, 2012), a maximum-entropy-principle approach has been developed in order to propose an Ansatz for the statistical distribution of such exponent fluctuations. Based on this approach, here the deviation of the statistical distribution of the fluctuations from the proposed one is studied from the viewpoint of Einstein's theory of fluctuations (of the thermodynamic quantities). This may present a step toward understanding the statistical property of the deviation. It is shown in a certain class of small deviations that the deviation obeys the multivariate Gaussian distribution.

  13. Large Deviations and a Fluctuation Symmetry for Chaotic Homeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christian; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    We consider expansive homeomorphisms with the specification property. We give a new simple proof of a large deviation principle for Gibbs measures corresponding to a regular potential and we establish a general symmetry of the rate function for the large deviations of the antisymmetric part, under time-reversal, of the potential. This generalizes the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem to a larger class of chaotic systems.

  14. Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors

  15. Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jamille Barros; da Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; da Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. Methods: An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Results: Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Conclusions: Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation. PMID:28125140

  16. Computerized inspection of real surfaces and minimization of their deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, Chihping; Handschuh, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for the minimization of gear tooth surface deviations between theoretical and real surfaces for the improvement of precision of surface manufacture. Coordinate measurement machinery is used to determine a grid of surface coordinates. Theoretical calculations are made for the grid points. A least-square method is used to minimize the deviations between real and theoretical surfaces by altering the manufacturing machine-tool settings. An example is given for a hypoid gear.

  17. Characterization of an AGAMOUS-like MADS box protein, a probable constituent of flowering and fruit ripening regulatory system in banana.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Nag, Anish; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes has been shown to play a significant role in the development of reproductive organs, including dry and fleshy fruits. In this study, the molecular properties of an AGAMOUS like MADS box transcription factor in banana cultivar Giant governor (Musa sp, AAA group, subgroup Cavendish) has been elucidated. We have detected a CArG-box sequence binding AGAMOUS MADS-box protein in banana flower and fruit nuclear extracts in DNA-protein interaction assays. The protein fraction in the DNA-protein complex was analyzed by mass spectrometry and using this information we have obtained the full length cDNA of the corresponding protein. The deduced protein sequence showed ~95% amino acid sequence homology with MA-MADS5, a MADS-box protein described previously from banana. We have characterized the domains of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein involved in DNA binding and homodimer formation in vitro using full-length and truncated versions of affinity purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, in order to gain insight about how DNA bending is achieved by this MADS-box factor, we performed circular permutation and phasing analysis using the wild type recombinant protein. The AGAMOUS MADS-box protein identified in this study has been found to predominantly accumulate in the climacteric fruit pulp and also in female flower ovary. In vivo and in vitro assays have revealed specific binding of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein to CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes in banana fruit. Overall, the expression patterns of this MADS-box protein in banana female flower ovary and during various phases of fruit ripening along with the interaction of the protein to the CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes lead to interesting assumption about the possible involvement of this AGAMOUS MADS-box factor in banana fruit ripening and floral reproductive organ development.

  18. Characterization of an AGAMOUS-like MADS Box Protein, a Probable Constituent of Flowering and Fruit Ripening Regulatory System in Banana

    PubMed Central

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Nag, Anish; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N.

    2012-01-01

    The MADS-box family of genes has been shown to play a significant role in the development of reproductive organs, including dry and fleshy fruits. In this study, the molecular properties of an AGAMOUS like MADS box transcription factor in banana cultivar Giant governor (Musa sp, AAA group, subgroup Cavendish) has been elucidated. We have detected a CArG-box sequence binding AGAMOUS MADS-box protein in banana flower and fruit nuclear extracts in DNA-protein interaction assays. The protein fraction in the DNA-protein complex was analyzed by mass spectrometry and using this information we have obtained the full length cDNA of the corresponding protein. The deduced protein sequence showed ∼95% amino acid sequence homology with MA-MADS5, a MADS-box protein described previously from banana. We have characterized the domains of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein involved in DNA binding and homodimer formation in vitro using full-length and truncated versions of affinity purified recombinant proteins. Furthermore, in order to gain insight about how DNA bending is achieved by this MADS-box factor, we performed circular permutation and phasing analysis using the wild type recombinant protein. The AGAMOUS MADS-box protein identified in this study has been found to predominantly accumulate in the climacteric fruit pulp and also in female flower ovary. In vivo and in vitro assays have revealed specific binding of the identified AGAMOUS MADS-box protein to CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes in banana fruit. Overall, the expression patterns of this MADS-box protein in banana female flower ovary and during various phases of fruit ripening along with the interaction of the protein to the CArG-box sequence in the promoters of major ripening genes lead to interesting assumption about the possible involvement of this AGAMOUS MADS-box factor in banana fruit ripening and floral reproductive organ development. PMID:22984496

  19. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.

  20. Regulatory Role of OsMADS34 in the Determination of Glumes Fate, Grain Yield, and Quality in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Deyong; Rao, Yuchun; Leng, Yujia; Li, Zizhuang; Xu, Qiankun; Wu, Liwen; Qiu, Zhennan; Xue, Dawei; Zeng, Dali; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Guangheng; Zhu, Li; Gao, Zhenyu; Chen, Guang; Dong, Guojun; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Grasses produce seeds on spikelets, a unique type of inflorescence. Despite the importance of grass crops for food, the genetic mechanisms that control spikelet development remain poorly understood. In this study, we used m34-z, a new mutant allele of the rice (Oryza sativa) E-class gene OsMADS34, to examine OsMADS34 function in determining the identities of glumes (rudimentary glume and sterile lemma) and grain size. In the m34-z mutant, both the rudimentary glume and sterile lemma were homeotically converted to the lemma-like organ and acquired the lemma identity, suggesting that OsMADS34 plays important roles in the development of glumes. In the m34-z mutant, most of the grains from the secondary panicle branches (spb) were decreased in size, compared with grains from wild-type, but no differences were observed in the grains from the primary panicle branches. The amylose content and gel consistency, and a seed-setting rate from the spb were reduced in the m34-z mutant. Interesting, transcriptional activity analysis revealed that OsMADS34 protein was a transcription repressor and it may influence grain yield by suppressing the expressions of BG1, GW8, GW2, and GL7 in the m34-z mutant. These findings revealed that OsMADS34 largely affects grain yield by affecting the size of grains from the secondary branches. PMID:28018389

  1. Comparison of CID, ETD and metastable atom-activated dissociation (MAD) of doubly and triply charged phosphorylated tau peptides.

    PubMed

    Cook, Shannon L; Zimmermann, Carolyn M; Singer, David; Fedorova, Maria; Hoffmann, Ralf; Jackson, Glen P

    2012-06-01

    The fragmentation behavior of the 2+ and 3+ charge states of eleven different phosphorylated tau peptides was studied using collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and metastable atom-activated dissociation (MAD). The synthetic peptides studied contain up to two known phosphorylation sites on serine or threonine residues, at least two basic residues, and between four and eight potential sites of phosphorylation. CID produced mainly b-/y-type ions with abundant neutral losses of the phosphorylation modification. ETD produced c-/z-type ions in highest abundance but also showed numerous y-type ions at a frequency about 50% that of the z-type ions. The major peaks observed in the ETD spectra correspond to the charge-reduced product ions and small neutral losses from the charge-reduced peaks. ETD of the 2+ charge state of each peptide generally produced fewer backbone cleavages than the 3+ charge state, consistent with previous reports. Regardless of charge state, MAD achieved more extensive backbone cleavage than CID or ETD, while retaining the modification(s) in most cases. In all but one case, unambiguous modification site determination was achieved with MAD. MAD produced 15-20% better sequence coverage than CID and ETD for both the 2+ and 3+ charge states and very different fragmentation products indicating that the mechanism of fragmentation in MAD is unique and complementary to CID and ETD.

  2. Novel Mad2-targeting miR-493-3p controls mitotic fidelity and cancer cells’ sensitivity to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni; Chen, Ping; Elgaaen, Bente Vilming; Straume, Anne Hege; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Cárpen, Olli; Lønning, Per Eystein; Davidson, Ben; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kallio, Marko J.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pathways that contribute to the proliferation and drug response of cancer cells are highly complex and currently insufficiently characterized. We have identified a previously unknown microRNA-based mechanism that provides cancer cells means to stimulate tumorigenesis via increased genomic instability and, at the same time, evade the action of clinically utilized microtubule drugs. We demonstrate miR-493-3p to be a novel negative regulator of mitotic arrest deficient-2 (MAD2), an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that monitors the fidelity of chromosome segregation. The microRNA targets the 3′ UTR of Mad2 mRNA thereby preventing translation of the Mad2 protein. In cancer cells, overexpression of miR-493-3p induced a premature mitotic exit that led to increased frequency of aneuploidy and cellular senescence in the progeny cells. Importantly, excess of the miR-493-3p conferred resistance of cancer cells to microtubule drugs. In human neoplasms, miR-493-3p and Mad2 expression alterations correlated with advanced ovarian cancer forms and high miR-493-3p levels were associated with reduced survival of ovarian and breast cancer patients with aggressive tumors, especially in the paclitaxel therapy arm. Our results suggest that intratumoral profiling of miR-493-3p and Mad2 levels can have diagnostic value in predicting the efficacy of taxane chemotherapy. PMID:26943585

  3. CHIMERIC FLORAL ORGANS1, encoding a monocot-specific MADS box protein, regulates floral organ identity in rice.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xianchun; Li, Yunfeng; Luo, Zengke; Ren, Deyong; Fang, Likui; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Fangming; Ling, Yinghua; Yang, Zhenglin; Liu, Yongsheng; He, Guanghua

    2012-10-01

    The control of floral organ identity by homeotic MADS box genes is well established in eudicots. However, grasses have highly specialized outer floral organs, and the identities of the genes that regulate the highly specialized outer floral organs of grasses remain unclear. In this study, we characterized a MIKC-type MADS box gene, CHIMERIC FLORAL ORGANS (CFO1), which plays a key role in the regulation of floral organ identity in rice (Oryza sativa). The cfo1 mutant displayed defective marginal regions of the palea, chimeric floral organs, and ectopic floral organs. Map-based cloning demonstrated that CFO1 encoded the OsMADS32 protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CFO1/OsMADS32 belonged to a monocot-specific clade in the MIKC-type MADS box gene family. The expression domains of CFO1 were mainly restricted to the marginal region of the palea and inner floral organs. The floral organ identity gene DROOPING LEAF (DL) was expressed ectopically in all defective organs of cfo1 flowers. Double mutant analysis revealed that loss of DL function mitigated some of the defects of floral organs in cfo1 flowers. We propose that the CFO1 gene plays a pivotal role in maintaining floral organ identity through negative regulation of DL expression.

  4. Mad linker phosphorylations control the intensity and range of the BMP-activity gradient in developing Drosophila tissues

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Abigail; Rios, Marlyn; Juarez, Matthew; Lee, Daniel; Chen, Annan; Eivers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The BMP ligand Dpp, operates as a long range morphogen to control many important functions during Drosophila development from tissue patterning to growth. The BMP signal is transduced intracellularly via C-terminal phosphorylation of the BMP transcription factor Mad, which forms an activity gradient in developing embryonic tissues. Here we show that Cyclin dependent kinase 8 and Shaggy phosphorylate three Mad linker serines. We demonstrate that linker phosphorylations control the peak intensity and range of the BMP signal across rapidly developing embryonic tissues. Shaggy knockdown broadened the range of the BMP-activity gradient and increased high threshold target gene expression in the early embryo, while expression of a Mad linker mutant in the wing disc resulted in enhanced levels of C-terminally phosphorylated Mad, a 30% increase in wing tissue, and elevated BMP target genes. In conclusion, our results describe how Mad linker phosphorylations work to control the peak intensity and range of the BMP signal in rapidly developing Drosophila tissues. PMID:25377173

  5. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  6. The regularized iteratively reweighted object-based MAD method for change detection in bi-temporal, multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiangqiang; Liu, Zhengjun; Li, Fangfang; Yang, Mingze; Ren, Haicheng

    2016-10-01

    As the resolution for multispectral images continuously improving, the phenomena that "synonyms spectrum", "foreign body with spectrum" become more apparently, therefore, in the results for pixel-based iteratively reweighted multivariate alteration detection (IR -MAD) may appear many issues such as broken patch, much pseudo-change, more noise, the low overall detection rate et al. In order to improving the above problems. In this paper, the pixel-based IR-MAD algorithm can be transferred to the object domain. the object-based IR-MAD(OB_IRMAD) method apply different and meaningful combinations of features rather than the original pixels. these features are classified into meaningful combinations, so that the results for object-based change detection can get higher reliability and accuracy. To stabilize solutions to the IR-MAD problem, some of regularization may be needed. A case with ZY-3 multispectral image at one point in time in province of Xinjiang border port demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the OB_IRMAD. Compared as, using the same date and region we do the pixel-level IR-MAD change detection and artificial visual change detection. Finally, we calculate the various evaluation indexes for accuracy utilizing confuse matrix and compare the accuracy of the two detection results. The results show: in the ways of overall accuracy, correct rate, error rate, the OB_IRMAD is better than pixel-level IRMAD, change polygon more rules and indicates a less noisy.

  7. Identification of a Sgo2-Dependent but Mad2-Independent Pathway Controlling Anaphase Onset in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Meadows, John C; Lancaster, Theresa C; Buttrick, Graham J; Sochaj, Alicja M; Messin, Liam J; Del Mar Mora-Santos, Maria; Hardwick, Kevin G; Millar, Jonathan B A

    2017-02-07

    The onset of anaphase is triggered by activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) following silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). APC/C triggers ubiquitination of Securin and Cyclin B, which leads to loss of sister chromatid cohesion and inactivation of Cyclin B/Cdk1, respectively. This promotes relocalization of Aurora B kinase and other components of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC) from centromeres to the spindle midzone. In fission yeast, this is mediated by Clp1 phosphatase-dependent interaction of CPC with Klp9/MKLP2 (kinesin-6). When this interaction is disrupted, kinetochores bi-orient normally, but APC/C activation is delayed via a mechanism that requires Sgo2 and some (Bub1, Mph1/Mps1, and Mad3), but not all (Mad1 and Mad2), components of the SAC and the first, but not second, lysine, glutamic acid, glutamine (KEN) box in Mad3. These data indicate that interaction of CPC with Klp9 terminates a Sgo2-dependent, but Mad2-independent, APC/C-inhibitory pathway that is distinct from the canonical SAC.

  8. Sequestration of CDH1 by MAD2L2 prevents premature APC/C activation prior to anaphase onset.

    PubMed

    Listovsky, Tamar; Sale, Julian E

    2013-10-14

    The switch from activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) by CDC20 to CDH1 during anaphase is crucial for accurate mitosis. APC/C(CDC20) ubiquitinates a limited set of substrates for subsequent degradation, including Cyclin B1 and Securin, whereas APC/C(CDH1) has a broader specificity. This switch depends on dephosphorylation of CDH1 and the APC/C, and on the degradation of CDC20. Here we show, in human cells, that the APC/C inhibitor MAD2L2 also contributes to ensuring the sequential activation of the APC/C by CDC20 and CDH1. In prometaphase, MAD2L2 sequestered free CDH1 away from the APC/C. At the onset of anaphase, MAD2L2 was rapidly degraded by APC/C(CDC20), releasing CDH1 to activate the dephosphorylated APC/C. Loss of MAD2L2 led to premature association of CDH1 with the APC/C, early destruction of APC/C(CDH1) substrates, and accelerated mitosis with frequent mitotic aberrations. Thus, MAD2L2 helps to ensure a robustly bistable switch between APC/C(CDC20) and APC/C(CDH1) during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, thereby contributing to mitotic fidelity.

  9. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  10. Consistent thermostatistics forbids negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hilbert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, a considerable number of theories and experiments have claimed the existence of negative absolute temperature in spin systems and ultracold quantum gases. This has led to speculation that ultracold gases may be dark-energy analogues and also suggests the feasibility of heat engines with efficiencies larger than one. Here, we prove that all previous negative temperature claims and their implications are invalid as they arise from the use of an entropy definition that is inconsistent both mathematically and thermodynamically. We show that the underlying conceptual deficiencies can be overcome if one adopts a microcanonical entropy functional originally derived by Gibbs. The resulting thermodynamic framework is self-consistent and implies that absolute temperature remains positive even for systems with a bounded spectrum. In addition, we propose a minimal quantum thermometer that can be implemented with available experimental techniques.

  11. Absolute measurement of length with nanometric resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, D.; Garoi, F.; Timcu, A.; Damian, V.; Logofatu, P. C.; Nascov, V.

    2005-08-01

    Laser interferometer displacement measuring transducers have a well-defined traceability route to the definition of the meter. The laser interferometer is de-facto length scale for applications in micro and nano technologies. However their physical unit -half lambda is too large for nanometric resolution. Fringe interpolation-usual technique to improve the resolution-lack of reproducibility could be avoided using the principles of absolute distance measurement. Absolute distance refers to the use of interferometric techniques for determining the position of an object without the necessity of measuring continuous displacements between points. The interference pattern as produced by the interference of two point-like coherent sources is fitted to a geometric model so as to determine the longitudinal location of the target by minimizing least square errors. The longitudinal coordinate of the target was measured with accuracy better than 1 nm, for a target position range of 0.4μm.

  12. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  13. Computer processing of spectrograms for absolute intensities.

    PubMed

    Guttman, A; Golden, J; Galbraith, H J

    1967-09-01

    A computer program was developed to process photographically recorded spectra for absolute intensity. Test and calibration films are subjected to densitometric scans that provide digitally recorded densities on magnetic tapes. The nonlinear calibration data are fitted by least-squares cubic polynomials to yield a good approximation to the monochromatic H&D curves for commonly used emulsions (2475 recording film, Royal-X, Tri-X, 4-X). Several test cases were made. Results of these cases show that the machine processed absolute intensities are accurate to within 15%o. Arbitrarily raising the sensitivity threshold by 0.1 density units above gross fog yields cubic polynomial fits to the H&D curves that are radiometrically accurate within 10%. In addition, curves of gamma vs wavelength for 2475, Tri-X, and 4-X emulsions were made. These data show slight evidence of the photographic Purkinje effect in the 2475 emulsion.

  14. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  15. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum.

  16. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  17. Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie

    2010-06-23

    The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

  18. Negative absolute temperature for mobile particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Simon; Ronzheimer, Philipp; Schreiber, Michael; Hodgman, Sean; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    Absolute temperature is usually bound to be strictly positive. However, negative absolute temperature states, where the occupation probability of states increases with their energy, are possible in systems with an upper energy bound. So far, such states have only been demonstrated in localized spin systems with finite, discrete spectra. We realized a negative absolute temperature state for motional degrees of freedom with ultracold bosonic 39K atoms in an optical lattice, by implementing the attractive Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. This new state strikingly revealed itself by a quasimomentum distribution that is peaked at maximum kinetic energy. The measured kinetic energy distribution and the extracted negative temperature indicate that the ensemble is close to degeneracy, with coherence over several lattice sites. The state is as stable as a corresponding positive temperature state: The negative temperature stabilizes the system against mean-field collapse driven by negative pressure. Negative temperatures open up new parameter regimes for cold atoms, enabling fundamentally new many-body states. Additionally, they give rise to several counterintuitive effects such as heat engines with above unity efficiency.

  19. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  20. System for absolute measurements by interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Douglas A.

    1993-03-01

    The most common problem of interferometric sensors is their inability to measure absolute path imbalance. Presented in this paper is a signal processing system that gives absolute, unambiguous reading of optical path difference for almost any style of interferometric sensor. Key components are a wide band (incoherent) optical source, a polychromator, and FFT electronics. Advantages include no moving parts in the signal processor, no active components at the sensor location, and the use of standard single mode fiber for sensor illumination and signal transmission. Actual absolute path imbalance of the interferometer is determined without using fringe counting or other inferential techniques. The polychromator extracts the interference information that occurs at each discrete wavelength within the spectral band of the optical source. The signal processing consists of analog and digital filtering, Fast Fourier analysis, and a peak detection and interpolation algorithm. This system was originally designed for use in a remote pressure sensing application that employed a totally passive fiber optic interferometer. A performance qualification was made using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercially available laser interferometer to measure the reference displacement.

  1. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  2. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent BICEP2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid or from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequency uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as LIGO/Virgo, LISA and BBO/DECIGO) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B-mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  3. Determination of the absolute configuration of a novel dipeptide isostere.

    PubMed

    Lynch, V M; Austin, R E; Martin, S F; George, T

    1991-06-15

    (1R-[1 alpha(1R*,2R*,3S*),2 beta,5 alpha])-2-(4-Morpholinocarbonyl)- 3-phenylcyclopropane 2-(1-methyl-ethyl)-5-methylcyclohexyl ester, C25H35NO4, Mr = 413 x 56, orthorhombic, P2(1)2(1)2(1), a = 9 x 359 (2), b = 10 x 1172 (14), c = 24 x 710 (4) A, V = 2339 x 8 (6) A3, Z = 4, Dx = 1 x 17 g cm-3, mu = 0 x 7332 cm-1, Mo K alpha radiation, lambda = 0 x 7107 A, F(000) = 896, T = 198 K, R = 0 x 0475 for 2460 reflections [Fo greater than or equal to 4 sigma(Fo)]. The assignment of the absolute configuration was based on internal comparison to the (-)-menthol moiety. The morpholenyl and cyclohexyl rings are in the chair conformation. The amide group is essentially planar [max. deviation 0.025 (2) A for N19] resulting in a close non-bonded contact between the amide oxygen, O18, and H24a of 2 x 24 (4) A.

  4. Terminator field-aligned current system: A new finding from model-assimilated data set (MADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Gardner, L. C.; Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.

    2013-12-01

    Physics-based data assimilation models have been recognized by the space science community as the most accurate approach to specify and forecast the space weather of the solar-terrestrial environment. The model-assimilated data sets (MADS) produced by these models constitute an internally consistent time series of global three-dimensional fields whose accuracy can be estimated. Because of its internal consistency of physics and completeness of descriptions on the status of global systems, the MADS has also been a powerful tool to identify the systematic errors in measurements, reveal the missing physics in physical models, and discover the important dynamical physical processes that are inadequately observed or missed by measurements due to observational limitations. In the past years, we developed a data assimilation model for the high-latitude ionospheric plasma dynamics and electrodynamics. With a set of physical models, an ensemble Kalman filter, and the ingestion of data from multiple observations, the data assimilation model can produce a self-consistent time-series of the complete descriptions of the global high-latitude ionosphere, which includes the convection electric field, horizontal and field-aligned currents, conductivity, as well as 3-D plasma densities and temperatures, In this presentation, we will show a new field-aligned current system discovered from the analysis of the MADS produced by our data assimilation model. This new current system appears and develops near the ionospheric terminator. The dynamical features of this current system will be described and its connection to the active role of the ionosphere in the M-I coupling will be discussed.

  5. Divergence of recently duplicated M{gamma}-type MADS-box genes in Petunia.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Gordon, Jonathan; Weterings, Koen; Angenent, Gerco C

    2010-02-01

    The MADS-box transcription factor family has expanded considerably in plants via gene and genome duplications and can be subdivided into type I and MIKC-type genes. The two gene classes show a different evolutionary history. Whereas the MIKC-type genes originated during ancient genome duplications, as well as during more recent events, the type I loci appear to experience high turnover with many recent duplications. This different mode of origin also suggests a different fate for the type I duplicates, which are thought to have a higher chance to become silenced or lost from the genome. To get more insight into the evolution of the type I MADS-box genes, we isolated nine type I genes from Petunia, which belong to the Mgamma subclass, and investigated the divergence of their coding and regulatory regions. The isolated genes could be subdivided into two categories: two genes were highly similar to Arabidopsis Mgamma-type genes, whereas the other seven genes showed less similarity to Arabidopsis genes and originated more recently. Two of the recently duplicated genes were found to contain deleterious mutations in their coding regions, and expression analysis revealed that a third paralog was silenced by mutations in its regulatory region. However, in addition to the three genes that were subjected to nonfunctionalization, we also found evidence for neofunctionalization of one of the Petunia Mgamma-type genes. Our study shows a rapid divergence of recently duplicated Mgamma-type MADS-box genes and suggests that redundancy among type I paralogs may be less common than expected.

  6. From MAD to SAD: The Italian experience for the low-frequency aperture array of SKA1-LOW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolli, P.; Pupillo, G.; Virone, G.; Farooqui, M. Z.; Lingua, A.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Murgia, M.; Naldi, G.; Paonessa, F.; Perini, F.; Pluchino, S.; Rusticelli, S.; Schiaffino, M.; Schillirò, F.; Tartarini, G.; Tibaldi, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes two small aperture array demonstrators called Medicina and Sardinia Array Demonstrators (MAD and SAD, respectively). The objectives of these instruments are to acquire experience and test new technologies for a possible application to the low-frequency aperture array of the low-frequency telescope of the Square Kilometer Array phase 1 (SKA1-LOW). The MAD experience was concluded in 2014, and it turned out to be an important test bench for implementing calibration techniques based on an artificial source mounted in an aerial vehicle. SAD is based on 128 dual-polarized Vivaldi antennas and is 1 order of magnitude larger than MAD. The architecture and the station size of SAD, which is along the construction phase, are more similar to those under evaluation for SKA1-LOW, and therefore, SAD is expected to provide useful hints for SKA1-LOW.

  7. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  8. [The concept of madness among the Cainguá (Mbŷá) of Misiones].

    PubMed

    Pagés Larraya, F

    1985-06-01

    To analyse the madness concept among the Cainguá (Mbŷá) it is necessary to be acquainted with their culture, as this concept becomes meaningful only within that culture frame. The Cainguá (Mbŷá) have preserved a singular theology whereof the comprehension makes possible an approach to the real being within that culture. This group keeps its ethnic individuality through a culturally patterned attitude of rejection and withdrawal from accidental culture, which has been dominant in its territory, especially since the 17th century.

  9. Balancing Newton's mind: his singular behaviour and his madness of 1692-93.

    PubMed

    Keynes, Milo

    2008-09-20

    Newton grew up with a vulnerable and eccentric character besides having a low self-esteem, and he was someone who only uncommonly developed any close relationships. On review it is argued that his distrust and suspicions of others, and the fear that he might be harmed by criticism and his discoveries stolen, followed from his mother's separation from him in childhood and not, as has been claimed, from the developmental disorder of Asperger's syndrome. It is further firmly argued that his 'madness' of 1692 and 1693 was due to mercury poisoning from his alchemical experiments and not to clinical depression.

  10. [Foucault, Derrida, and the history of madness: notes on a controversy].

    PubMed

    Pereira Neto, A F

    1998-01-01

    The publication of the book Folie et Déraison. Histoire de la Folie à l'Age Classique (1961), by Michel Foucault, sparked a debate between the author and philosopher Jacques Derrida during the 1960s and 70s. Derrida criticized the methodological proposal and organization of the History of Madness presented by Foucault in the foreword to the first edition. The controversy appears to have motivated the author to withdraw this same foreword from the second edition. The purpose of this article is to analyze some current points in this controversy. It also presents a research agenda for an understanding of the reasons leading Foucault to take this stance.

  11. Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callin, P.; Burgess, C. P.

    2006-09-01

    Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case.

  12. Cosolvency and deviations from log-linear solubilization.

    PubMed

    Rubino, J T; Yalkowsky, S H

    1987-06-01

    The solubilities of three nonpolar drugs, phenytoin, diazepam, and benzocaine, have been measured in 14 cosolvent-water binary mixtures. The observed solubilities were examined for deviations from solubilities calculated by the equation log Sm = f log Sc + (1 - f) log Sw, where Sm is the solubility of the drug in the cosolvent-water mixture, Sc is the solubility of the drug in neat cosolvent, f is the volume fraction of cosolvent, and Sw is the solubility of the drug in water. When presented graphically, the patterns of the deviations were similar for all three drugs in mixtures of amphiprotic cosolvents (glycols, polyols, and alcohols) and water as well as nonpolar, aprotic cosolvents (dioxane, triglyme, dimethyl isosorbide) and water. The deviations were positive for phenytoin and benzocaine but negative for diazepam in mixtures of dipolar, aprotic cosolvents (dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and dimethylacetamide) and water. The source of the deviations could not consistently be attributed to physical properties of the cosolvent-water mixtures or to alterations in the solute crystal. Similarities between the results of this study and those of previous investigations suggest that changes in the structure of the solvent play a role in the deviations from the expected solubilities.

  13. Interferometric determination of the topographies of absolute sphere radii using the sphere interferometer of PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Guido; Krystek, Michael; Nicolaus, Arnold; Giardini, Walter

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a method to reconstruct the absolute shape of a sphere—i.e. a topography of radii—using the sphere interferometer of PTB in combination with a stitching approach. The method allows for the reconstruction of absolute radii instead of the relative shape deviations which result from conventional sphericity measurements. The sphere interferometer was developed for the volume determination of spherical material measures—in particular the spheres of the Avogadro project—by precise diameter measurements with an uncertainty of 1 nm or less. In the scope of the present work a procedure has been implemented that extends the applicability of the interferometer to fields where not the volume or diameter but the direction-dependent radii are of interest. The results of the reconstruction were compared quantitatively to the independent results of sphericity measurements from CSIRO.

  14. Simple and accurate empirical absolute volume calibration of a multi-sensor fringe projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gdeisat, Munther; Qudeisat, Mohammad; AlSa`d, Mohammed; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Ammous, Marwan M. M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper suggests a novel absolute empirical calibration method for a multi-sensor fringe projection system. The optical setup of the projector-camera sensor can be arbitrary. The term absolute calibration here means that the centre of the three dimensional coordinates in the resultant calibrated volume coincides with a preset centre to the three-dimensional real-world coordinate system. The use of a zero-phase fringe marking spot is proposed to increase depth calibration accuracy, where the spot centre is determined with sub-pixel accuracy. Also, a new method is proposed for transversal calibration. Depth and transversal calibration methods have been tested using both single sensor and three-sensor fringe projection systems. The standard deviation of the error produced by this system is 0.25 mm. The calibrated volume produced by this method is 400 mm×400 mm×140 mm.

  15. Mean Deviation of Inter-rater Scoring (MDIS): a simple tool for introducing conformity into groups of clinical investigators.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel; Deplanque, Dominique; Zins-Ritter, Marcel

    2004-07-01

    In spite of considerable progress over the past decade, training investigators for inter-rater reliability for clinical trials remains a major problem. The aim of the present study was to promote a new tool to increase data homogeneity by introducing conformity into groups of clinical investigators. The investigators scoring grid we are proposing-the Mean Deviation of Inter-rater Scoring (MDIS)-involves the calculation of the score deviation for each investigator relative to the median score of an expert group who had evaluated the same videotape-recorded clinical case. Whatever the scale, the score deviation is calculated as the absolute deviation value from the median score obtained by the experts for each item. The MDIS value is then evaluated from all the scores given by an investigator by dividing the total sum of the previously defined values by the number of items of the scale. Some examples from practice are given using several rating scales: (i) Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; (ii) Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; (iii) Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale; and (iv) Positive And Negative Symptoms Scale. Finally, such a method could also be employed by experts to evaluate the quality of videotape-recorded clinical cases used in clinical trials, as well as by teachers to evaluate initial or continuous medical training.

  16. Pharmacology and psychiatry at the origins of Greek medicine: The myth of Melampus and the madness of the Proetides.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Matteo F; Marzari, Francesca; Kesel, Andreas J; Bonalume, Laura; Saettini, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Melampus is a seer-healer of Greek myth attributed with having healed the young princesses of Argos of madness. Analysis of this legend and its sources sheds light on the early stages of the "medicalizing" shift in the history of ancient Greek medicine. Retrospective psychological diagnosis suggests that the descriptions of the youths' madness rose from actual observation of behavioral and mental disorders. Melampus is credited with having healed them by administering hellebore. Pharmacological analysis of botanical specimens proves that Helleborus niger features actual neurological properties effective in the treatment of mental disorders. The discussion aims at examining the rational aspects of the treatment of mental conditions in Greco-Roman antiquity.

  17. Large deviation theory for coin tossing and turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sagar; Saha, Arnab; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K

    2009-11-01

    Large deviations play a significant role in many branches of nonequilibrium statistical physics. They are difficult to handle because their effects, though small, are not amenable to perturbation theory. Even the Gaussian model, which is the usual initial step for most perturbation theories, fails to be a starting point while discussing intermittency in fluid turbulence, where large deviations dominate. Our contention is: in the large deviation theory, the central role is played by the distribution associated with the tossing of a coin and the simple coin toss is the "Gaussian model" of problems where rare events play significant role. We illustrate this by applying it to calculate the multifractal exponents of the order structure factors in fully developed turbulence.

  18. Scaling Deviations for Neutrino Reactions in Aysmptotically Free Field Theories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Treiman, S. B.

    1974-11-01

    Several aspects of deep inelastic neutrino scattering are discussed in the framework of asymptotically free field theories. We first consider the growth behavior of the total cross sections at large energies. Because of the deviations from strict scaling which are characteristic of such theories the growth need not be linear. However, upper and lower bounds are established which rather closely bracket a linear growth. We next consider in more detail the expected pattern of scaling deviation for the structure functions and, correspondingly, for the differential cross sections. The analysis here is based on certain speculative assumptions. The focus is on qualitative effects of scaling breakdown as they may show up in the X and y distributions. The last section of the paper deals with deviations from the Callan-Gross relation.

  19. On the cubic velocity deviations in lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Házi, Gábor; Kávrán, Péter

    2006-03-01

    The macroscopic equations derived from the lattice Boltzmann equation are not exactly the Navier-Stokes equations. Here the cubic deviation terms and the methods proposed to eliminate them are studied. The most popular two- and three-dimensional models (D2Q9, D3Q15, D3Q19, D3Q27) are considered in the paper. It is demonstrated that the compensation methods provide only partial elimination of the deviations for these models. It is also shown that the compensation of Qian and Zhou (1998 Europhys. Lett. 42 359) using the compensation parameter K = 1 in a D2Q9 or D3Q27 model can eliminate all the cross terms perfectly, but the deviation terms ∂xρu3x, ∂yρu3y and ∂zρu3z still survive the compensation.

  20. Exact Large Deviation Function in the Asymmetric Exclusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    1998-01-01

    By an extension of the Bethe ansatz method used by Gwa and Spohn, we obtain an exact expression for the large deviation function of the time averaged current for the fully asymmetric exclusion process in a ring containing N sites and p particles. Using this expression we easily recover the exact diffusion constant obtained earlier and calculate as well some higher cumulants. The distribution of the deviation y of the average current is, in the limit N-->∞, skew and decays like exp-\\(Ay5/2\\) for y-->+∞ and exp-\\(A'\\|y\\|3/2\\) for y-->-∞. Surprisingly, the large deviation function has an expression very similar to the pressure (as a function of the density) of an ideal Bose or Fermi gas in 3D.

  1. Phase transitions in large deviations of reset processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Rosemary J.; Touchette, Hugo

    2017-03-01

    We study the large deviations of additive quantities, such as energy or current, in stochastic processes with intermittent reset. Via a mapping from a discrete-time reset process to the Poland–Scheraga model for DNA denaturation, we derive conditions for observing first-order or continuous dynamical phase transitions in the fluctuations of such quantities and confirm these conditions on simple random walk examples. These results apply to reset Markov processes, but also show more generally that subleading terms in generating functions can lead to non-analyticities in large deviation functions of ‘compound processes’ or ‘random evolutions’ switching stochastically between two or more subprocesses.

  2. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  3. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  4. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  5. Brownian motion: Absolute negative particle mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario

    2005-08-01

    Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force (`absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells.

  6. Arbitrary segments of absolute negative mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruyin; Nie, Linru; Chen, Chongyang; Wang, Chaojie

    2017-01-01

    In previous research work, investigators have reported only one or two segments of absolute negative mobility (ANM) in a periodic potential. In fact, many segments of ANM also occur in the system considered here. We investigate transport of an inertial particle in a gating ratchet periodic potential subjected to a constant bias force. Our numerical results show that its mean velocity can decrease with the bias force increasing, i.e. ANM phenomenon. Furthermore, the ANM can take place arbitrary segments, even up to more than thirty. Intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for arbitrary segments of ANM to occur are discussed in detail.

  7. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara

    2016-07-21

    With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.

  8. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  9. Absolute Rate Theories of Epigenetic Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, Jose N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2006-03-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape, and the transmission factor, depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates.

  10. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  11. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  12. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  13. MADS-Box Genes and Gibberellins Regulate Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Han, Yingyan; Chen, Zijing; Lv, Shanshan; Ning, Kang; Ji, Xueliang; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qian; Liu, Renyi; Fan, Shuangxi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs. S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines.

  14. MADS-Box Genes and Gibberellins Regulate Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yingyan; Chen, Zijing; Lv, Shanshan; Ning, Kang; Ji, Xueliang; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qian; Liu, Renyi; Fan, Shuangxi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs. S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines. PMID:28018414

  15. The Evolution of the SEPALLATA Subfamily of MADS-Box Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Laura M.; Kong, Hongzhi; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Pamela S.; Landherr, Lena L.; Soltis, Douglas E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Ma, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Members of the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box subfamily are required for specifying the “floral state” by contributing to floral organ and meristem identity. SEP genes have not been detected in gymnosperms and seem to have originated since the lineage leading to extant angiosperms diverged from extant gymnosperms. Therefore, both functional and evolutionary studies suggest that SEP genes may have been critical for the origin of the flower. To gain insights into the evolution of SEP genes, we isolated nine genes from plants that occupy phylogenetically important positions. Phylogenetic analyses of SEP sequences show that several gene duplications occurred during the evolution of this subfamily, providing potential opportunities for functional divergence. The first duplication occurred prior to the origin of the extant angiosperms, resulting in the AGL2/3/4 and AGL9 clades. Subsequent duplications occurred within these clades in the eudicots and monocots. The timing of the first SEP duplication approximately coincides with duplications in the DEFICIENS/GLOBOSA and AGAMOUS MADS-box subfamilies, which may have resulted from either a proposed genome-wide duplication in the ancestor of extant angiosperms or multiple independent duplication events. Regardless of the mechanism of gene duplication, these pairs of duplicate transcription factors provided new possibilities of genetic interactions that may have been important in the origin of the flower. PMID:15687268

  16. Genomic binding by the Drosophila Myc, Max, Mad/Mnt transcription factor network

    PubMed Central

    Orian, Amir; van Steensel, Bas; Delrow, Jeffrey; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; Li, Ling; Sawado, Tomoyuki; Williams, Eleanor; Loo, Lenora W.M.; Cowley, Shaun M.; Yost, Cynthia; Pierce, Sarah; Edgar, Bruce A.; Parkhurst, Susan M.; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2003-01-01

    The Myc/Max/Mad transcription factor network is critically involved in cell behavior; however, there is relatively little information on its genomic binding sites. We have employed the DamID method to carry out global genomic mapping of the Drosophila Myc, Max, and Mad/Mnt proteins. Each protein was tethered to Escherichia coli DNA adenine-methyltransferase (Dam) permitting methylation proximal to in vivo binding sites in Kc cells. Microarray analyses of methylated DNA fragments reveals binding to multiple loci on all major Drosophila chromosomes. This approach also reveals dynamic interactions among network members as we find that increased levels of dMax influence the extent of dMyc, but not dMnt, binding. Computer analysis using the REDUCE algorithm demonstrates that binding regions correlate with the presence of E-boxes, CG repeats, and other sequence motifs. The surprisingly large number of directly bound loci (∼15% of coding regions) suggests that the network interacts widely with the genome. Furthermore, we employ microarray expression analysis to demonstrate that hundreds of DamID-binding loci correspond to genes whose expression is directly regulated by dMyc in larvae. These results suggest that a fundamental aspect of Max network function involves widespread binding and regulation of gene expression. PMID:12695332

  17. Myc/Max/Mad regulate the frequency but not the duration of productive cell cycles

    PubMed Central

    Hölzel, Michael; Kohlhuber, Franz; Schlosser, Isabel; Hölzel, Dieter; Lüscher, Bernhard; Eick, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    Upregulation of the proto-oncoprotein Myc, a basic, helix–loop–helix, leucin zipper domain transcription factor has profound consequences on cell proliferation, cell growth and apoptosis. Cell cultures of somatic c-myc–/– rat fibroblasts show extremely prolonged doubling times of 52 h. Using time-lapse microscopy, we show here that individual c-myc–/– cells proceeded within ∼24 h through the cell cycle as fast as c-myc+/+ cells. However, c-myc–/– cells were highly sensitive to contact inhibition and readily arrested in the cell cycle already at low density. Activation of conditional MycER overcame cell cycle arrest in c-myc–/– cells and led to continuous proliferation at the expense of increased apoptosis at high cell density. Conditional expression of Mad1, a Myc antagonist, represses proliferation of different cell types including U2OS cells. In analogy to the effect of Myc, this occurs mainly by reducing the probability of cells remaining in the cycle. Our data demonstrate that the Myc/Max/Mad network does not regulate the duration of the cell cycle, but the decision of cells to enter or exit the cell cycle. PMID:11743027

  18. The magic triangle goes MAD: experimental phasing with a bromine derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Tobias Gruene, Tim; Sheldrick, George M.

    2010-04-01

    5-Amino-2, 4, 6-tribromoisophthalic acid is used as a phasing tool for protein structure determination by MAD phasing. It is the second representative of a novel class of compounds for heavy-atom derivatization that combine heavy atoms with amino and carboxyl groups for binding to proteins. Experimental phasing is an essential technique for the solution of macromolecular structures. Since many heavy-atom ion soaks suffer from nonspecific binding, a novel class of compounds has been developed that combines heavy atoms with functional groups for binding to proteins. The phasing tool 5-amino-2, 4, 6-tribromoisophthalic acid (B3C) contains three functional groups (two carboxylate groups and one amino group) that interact with proteins via hydrogen bonds. Three Br atoms suitable for anomalous dispersion phasing are arranged in an equilateral triangle and are thus readily identified in the heavy-atom substructure. B3C was incorporated into proteinase K and a multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) experiment at the Br K edge was successfully carried out. Radiation damage to the bromine–carbon bond was investigated. A comparison with the phasing tool I3C that contains three I atoms for single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) phasing was also carried out.

  19. 21 CFR 211.100 - Written procedures; deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written procedures; deviations. 211.100 Section 211.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Production...

  20. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  1. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  2. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  3. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  4. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  5. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  6. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  7. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6025 - Deviation from this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deviation from this subpart. 35.6025 Section 35.6025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for...

  9. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  10. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  11. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  12. Identifying specific erotic cues in sexual deviations by audiotaped descriptions.

    PubMed Central

    Abel, G G; Blanchard, E B; Barlow, D H; Mavissakalian, M

    1975-01-01

    Using audiotaped descriptions of sexual experiences and a direct measure of penile erection, it is possible to specify more precisely erotic cues in sexual deviates. Results indicated that such cues are highly idiosyncratic. Some tentative conclusions and suggested application for the method are discussed. PMID:1184490

  13. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions §...

  14. 48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations...

  15. 48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations...

  16. 48 CFR 927.403 - Negotiations and deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Negotiations and deviations. 927.403 Section 927.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Technical Data and Copyrights 927.403 Negotiations...

  17. Large Deviation Analysis of Rapid Onset of Rain Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.

  18. 46 CFR 385.9 - Exceptions, deviations, or waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions, deviations, or waivers. 385.9 Section 385.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GRANT... Management and Budget when required by law or other applicable Federal requirement. Definition of Terms...

  19. 21 CFR 114.89 - Deviations from scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations from scheduled processes. 114.89 Section 114.89 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.89...

  20. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF COLUMN #072 DEVIATING FROM VERTICAL IN ROW OF INTACT COLUMNS, LOOKING NORTHEAST TO SOUTHWEST. (NOTE BOLTED BLOCK SCABBED TO COLUMN AS JOIST/TRUSS SUPPORT) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA