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  1. Multidirectional age differences in anger and sadness.

    PubMed

    Kunzmann, Ute; Thomas, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    Age differences in anger and sadness were explored, focusing on the intensity and frequency of these experiences in everyday life and their implicit associations with the self. Ninety-six young and older adults participated in the Day Reconstruction Method, in which emotional experiences on a typical day were recorded, and in 2 implicit association tests assessing implicit self-concepts for anger and sadness. Older adults experienced anger less frequently and less intensively than young adults, but there were no age differences in sadness. In comparison with their younger counterparts, older adults showed a greater IAT effect in the implicit anger test, suggesting a weaker association between the self and anger, but there were no age differences in the implicit sadness test, suggesting age-invariant associations between the self and sadness. Together these findings suggest multidirectional age differences in negative affect and the usefulness of a discrete emotions approach for research interested in emotional aging.

  2. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  3. Sadness and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  4. Gender Differences in Empathic Sadness towards Persons of the Same- versus Other-sex during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stuijfzand, Suzannah; De Wied, Minet; Kempes, Maaike; Van de Graaff, Jolien; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although gender differences in affective empathy are well established, evidence of gender differences in the development of affective empathy is inconsistent. Consideration of same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy may assist in elucidating these inconsistencies. Gender differences were investigated in the experience of empathic sadness towards same- versus other-sex targets. The relationships were studied cross-sectionally (N = 730) and longitudinally (N = 318) with Dutch adolescents using the empathic sadness scale of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA; Bryant 1982). In both studies, female adolescents reported more empathic sadness than did male adolescents. Female targets also received more affective empathy than did male targets, and, more importantly, gender differences were observed in same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy. Specifically, in both studies male adolescents reported less empathic sadness towards same-sex than towards other-sex targets. In contrast, female adolescents reported more empathic sadness towards same-sex than towards other-sex targets in the cross-sectional study, and equal levels of empathic sadness towards both types of targets in the longitudinal study. Findings highlight the importance of considering same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy. Gender differences in same-sex and other-sex affective empathy have implications for assisting adolescents in social conflict resolution and interventions for bullying and aggressive behaviour in adolescence using empathy training.

  5. [Exploration on Electroencephalogram Mechanism Differences of Negative Emotions Induced by Disgusted and Sad Situation Images].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Jin, Jingna; Li, Song; Liu, Zhipeng; Yin, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Evolutionary psychology holds such an opinion that negative situation may threaten survival, trigger avoidance motive and have poor effects on the human-body function and the psychological quality. Both disgusted and sad situations can induce negative emotions. However, differences between the two situations on attention capture and emotion cognition during the emotion induction are still not well known. Typical disgusted and sad situation images were used in the present study to induce two negative emotions, and 15 young students (7 males and 8 females, aged 27 ± 3) were recruited in the experiments. Electroencephalogram of 32 leads was recorded when the subjects were viewing situation images, and event-related potentials (ERP) of all leads were obtained for future analysis. Paired sample t tests were carried out on two ERP signals separately induced by disgusted and sad situation images to get time quantum with significant statistical differences between the two ERP signals. Root-mean-square deviations of two ERP signals during each time quantum were calculated and the brain topographic map based on root-mean-square deviations was drawn to display differences of two ERP signals in spatial. Results showed that differences of ERP signals induced by disgusted and sad situation images were mainly manifested in T1 (120-450 ms) early and T2 (800-1,000 ms) later. During the period of T1, the occipital lobe reflecting attention capture was activated by both disgusted and sad situation images, but the prefrontal cortex reflecting emotion sense was activated only by disgusted situation images. During the period of T2, the prefrontal cortex was activated by both disgusted and sad situation images. However, the parietal lobe was activated only by disgusted situation images, which showed stronger emotional perception. The research results would have enlightenment to deepen understanding of negative emotion and to exploredeep cognitive neuroscience mechanisms of negative

  6. The experience of anger and sadness in everyday problems impacts age differences in emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman

    2008-11-01

    The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer proactive emotion-regulation strategies in interpersonal situations. The experience of anger partially mediated age differences in the use of proactive emotion regulation. This suggests that at least part of the reason why older adults use fewer proactive emotion-regulation strategies is their decreased experience of anger. Results are discussed in the context of lifespan theories of emotional development.

  7. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  8. Is Sadness Only One Emotion? Psychological and Physiological Responses to Sadness Induced by Two Different Situations: “Loss of Someone” and “Failure to Achieve a Goal”

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Mariko; Suzuki, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether sadness elicited by two different situations—loss of someone (loss) and failure to achieve a goal (failure)—had different physiological responses. Seventy-four participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (loss, failure, and neutral). Physiological responses were recorded during an imagery task that was designed to evoke sadness. The results of characteristics in the subjective ratings indicated that loss-evoked sadness was only associated with expressive words relating to tears. For the results of physiological measures, skin conductance levels (SCLs) increased during the imagery task across all conditions and differed between conditions during the post-task. For the loss condition, restoration to baseline level took longer, while in the failure the SCL decreased sharply back to baseline. Furthermore, tear ratings correlated with blood pressures in the loss condition, while sadness intensity correlated with blood pressures in the failure condition. These results suggest that sadness includes at least two subtypes that produce different responses in subjective ratings and physiological measures. PMID:28316577

  9. The Experience of Anger and Sadness in Everyday Problems Impacts Age Differences in Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Coats, Abby Heckman

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined regulation of the discrete emotions anger and sadness in adolescents through older adults in the context of describing everyday problem situations. The results support previous work; in comparison to younger age groups, older adults reported that they experienced less anger and reported that they used more passive and fewer…

  10. Screaming, Yelling, Whining and Crying: Categorical and intensity differences in Vocal Expressions of Anger and Sadness in Children's Tantrums

    PubMed Central

    Green, James A.; Whitney, Pamela G.; Potegal, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Young children's temper tantrums offer a unique window into the expression and regulation of strong emotions. Previous work, largely based on parental report, suggests that two emotions, anger and sadness, have different behavioral manifestations and different time courses within tantrums. Individual motor and vocal behaviors, reported by parents, have been interpreted as representing different levels of intensity within each emotion category. The present study used high fidelity audio recordings to capture the acoustic features of children's vocalizations during tantrums. Results indicated that perceptually categorized screaming, yelling, crying, whining, and fussing each have distinct acoustic features. Screaming and yelling form a group with similar acoustic features while crying, whining, and fussing form a second acoustically related group. Within these groups, screaming may reflect a higher intensity of anger than yelling while fussing, whining and crying may reflect an increasing intensity of sadness. PMID:21707157

  11. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  12. Gender differences in affective sharing and self-other distinction during empathic neural responses to others' sadness.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pinchao; Wang, Junfang; Jin, Yan; Huang, Shanshan; Xie, Mengshu; Deng, Lin; Fang, Juncong; Zheng, Xiaochun; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Yue; Jiang, Yijie; Zheng, Xifu

    2015-06-01

    Self-other distinction, the separation between self and other, is a prerequisite for empathy through which individuals share another individual's feelings. Prior research suggests that females are better at recognizing and sharing others' emotions, whereas males perform better at self-other distinction. It is unclear, however, whether this superiority in the self-other distinction occurs in males throughout the experience of empathy or only at some stages of the empathic process. The present study utilized event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate this issue. In two separate experimental tasks, subjects were instructed to either judge the emotions shown on a face (other-task) or evaluate their own affective responses to the emotions shown on a face (self-task). The results of the other-task revealed that unlike males, females displayed increased P2 (190-240 ms) amplitudes to sad expressions compared with neutral expressions. This finding might be associated with an improved ability to recognize and share the emotions of others in females. In contrast, only males exhibited larger P2 amplitudes to sad expressions compared with neutral expressions during the self-task. This awareness of one's own emotions in response to another individual might reflect a distinction between the self and the other at an early stage in males. At the late cognitive controlled stage, gender differences became weak. However, the emotion effects in each task for both genders were positively correlated with self-reported cognitive empathy, which was indexed by the perspective taking (PT) and fantasy (FS) subscale, but not with affective empathy.

  13. Sex differences in neural responses to subliminal sad and happy faces in healthy individuals: Implications for depression.

    PubMed

    Victor, Teresa A; Drevets, Wayne C; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; Savitz, Jonathan

    2017-01-02

    Twice as many women as men suffer from mood and anxiety disorders, yet the biological underpinnings of this phenomenon have been understudied and remain unclear. We and others have shown that the hemodynamic response to subliminally presented sad or happy faces during functional MRI (fMRI) is a robust biomarker for the attentional bias toward negative information classically observed in major depression. Here we used fMRI to compare the performance of healthy females (n = 28) and healthy males (n = 28) on a backward masking task using a fast event-related design with gradient-recalled, echoplanar imaging with sensitivity encoding. The image data were compared across groups using a region-of-interest analysis with small-volume correction to control for multiple testing (Pcorrected  < 0.05, cluster size ≥ 20 voxels). Notably, compared with males, females showed greater BOLD activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the right hippocampus when viewing masked sad vs. masked happy faces. Furthermore, females displayed reduced BOLD activity in the right pregenual ACC and left amygdala when viewing masked happy vs. masked neutral faces. Given that we have previously reported similar findings for depressed participants compared with healthy controls (regardless of gender), our results raise the possibility that on average healthy females show subtle emotional processing biases that conceivably reflect a subgroup of women predisposed to depression. Nevertheless, we note that the differences between males and females were small and derived from region-of-interest rather than voxelwise analyses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. This mood is familiar and I don't deserve to feel better anyway: mechanisms underlying self-esteem differences in motivation to repair sad moods.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joanne V; Heimpel, Sara A; Manwell, Laurie A; Whittington, Elizabeth J

    2009-02-01

    Why are people with low self-esteem (LSE) less motivated than people with high self-esteem (HSE) to improve sad moods? The present research examined whether feelings of personal deservingness contribute to this difference. Four experiments with undergraduate participants involved a sad mood induction, a manipulation of personal deservingness, or both. Results suggested that (a) LSEs feel less deserving of positive outcomes and of positive moods than do HSEs, (b) feelings of personal deservingness can vary with the situation, and be lowered through reminders of social rejection and personal flaws, and (c) feeling relatively undeserving dampens LSEs', but not HSEs', motivation to repair sad moods. These results have implications for the emotion regulation, self-esteem, and social justice literatures.

  15. Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…

  16. Differences between musicians and non-musicians in neuro-affective processing of sadness and fear expressed in music.

    PubMed

    Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Bao, Yan; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Carl, Petra; Welker, Lorenz; Pöppel, Ernst; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch; Meindl, Thomas

    2014-04-30

    Music is known to convey and evoke emotional states. Musical training has been argued to lead to changes in neural architecture and enhanced processing of emotions. It is not clear, however, whether musical training is also associated with changes in behavioral and neural responses to musically conveyed discrete emotions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the responses to three musically conveyed emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) in a group of musicians and a group of non-musicians. We find that musicians rate sadness and fear as significantly more arousing than non-musicians, and that musical training is associated with specific neural activations: In response to sadness expressed in music, musicians show activation increases in the right prefrontal cortex, specifically in the superior and middle frontal gyri. In response to fear, musicians show activation increases in the right parietal cortex, specifically in the supramarginal and inferior parietal gyri. No specific activations were observed in response to happiness. Our results highlight the strong association between musical training and altered processing of "negative" emotions on both the behavioral and on the neural level.

  17. Explaining Sad People's Memory Advantage for Faces.

    PubMed

    Hills, Peter J; Marquardt, Zoe; Young, Isabel; Goodenough, Imogen

    2017-01-01

    Sad people recognize faces more accurately than happy people (Hills et al., 2011). We devised four hypotheses for this finding that are tested between in the current study. The four hypotheses are: (1) sad people engage in more expert processing associated with face processing; (2) sad people are motivated to be more accurate than happy people in an attempt to repair their mood; (3) sad people have a defocused attentional strategy that allows more information about a face to be encoded; and (4) sad people scan more of the face than happy people leading to more facial features to be encoded. In Experiment 1, we found that dysphoria (sad mood often associated with depression) was not correlated with the face-inversion effect (a measure of expert processing) nor with response times but was correlated with defocused attention and recognition accuracy. Experiment 2 established that dysphoric participants detected changes made to more facial features than happy participants. In Experiment 3, using eye-tracking we found that sad-induced participants sampled more of the face whilst avoiding the eyes. Experiment 4 showed that sad-induced people demonstrated a smaller own-ethnicity bias. These results indicate that sad people show different attentional allocation to faces than happy and neutral people.

  18. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    PubMed

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  19. The Paradox of Music-Evoked Sadness: An Online Survey

    PubMed Central

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no “real-life” implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life. PMID:25330315

  20. Native SAD is maturing

    PubMed Central

    Rose, John P.; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2015-01-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow ‘highly accurate data’ to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a ‘first-choice’ method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development. PMID:26175902

  1. Using SAD data in Phaser

    SciTech Connect

    Read, Randy J. McCoy, Airlie J.

    2011-04-01

    SAD data can be used in Phaser to solve novel structures, supplement molecular-replacement phase information or identify anomalous scatterers from a final refined model. Phaser is a program that implements likelihood-based methods to solve macromolecular crystal structures, currently by molecular replacement or single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD). SAD phasing is based on a likelihood target derived from the joint probability distribution of observed and calculated pairs of Friedel-related structure factors. This target combines information from the total structure factor (primarily non-anomalous scattering) and the difference between the Friedel mates (anomalous scattering). Phasing starts from a substructure, which is usually but not necessarily a set of anomalous scatterers. The substructure can also be a protein model, such as one obtained by molecular replacement. Additional atoms are found using a log-likelihood gradient map, which shows the sites where the addition of scattering from a particular atom type would improve the likelihood score. An automated completion algorithm adds new sites, choosing optionally among different atom types, adds anisotropic B-factor parameters if appropriate and deletes atoms that refine to low occupancy. Log-likelihood gradient maps can also identify which atoms in a refined protein structure are anomalous scatterers, such as metal or halide ions. These maps are more sensitive than conventional model-phased anomalous difference Fouriers and the iterative completion algorithm is able to find a significantly larger number of convincing sites.

  2. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... do a thorough evaluation, which generally includes: Physical exam. Your doctor may do a physical exam and ask in-depth questions about your health. ... to cope with SAD Learn how to manage stress In addition to your treatment plan for seasonal ...

  3. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  4. Relative and Absolute Error Control in a Finite-Difference Method Solution of Poisson's Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm for error control (absolute and relative) in the five-point finite-difference method applied to Poisson's equation is described. The algorithm is based on discretization of the domain of the problem by means of three rectilinear grids, each of different resolution. We discuss some hardware limitations associated with the algorithm,…

  5. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual’s regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han (N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese (N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective. PMID:27833582

  6. Feeling Happy and Sad at the Same Time? Subcultural Differences in Experiencing Mixed Emotions between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinmei; Ding, Xuechen; Cheng, Chen; Chou, Hiu Mei

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes people experience pleasant and unpleasant emotions at the same time in a single emotional event. Previous cross-cultural studies indicated that such mixed emotions are more prevalent in China and related to the attitudes toward happiness and individual's regulatory motivation. However, China is a multi-ethnic country and not much is known about subcultural differences in mixed emotions. The aim of this study was to examine the role that implicit attitudes toward happiness and regulatory motivation played in regard of the subcultural differences in mixed emotions between Han (N = 61) and Mongolian Chinese (N = 46). Results indicated that, compared with Mongolian Chinese, Han Chinese showed stronger associations between implicit contra-hedonic attitudes toward happiness and mixed emotions during pleasant emotional events. Also, Han Chinese who reported contra-hedonic motivation during pleasant emotional events had higher levels of mixed emotions than those who had hedonic motivation. No significant differences were found in terms of mixed emotions between Mongolian Chinese who had contra-hedonic and hedonic motivation. These results suggest that the psychological mechanisms underlying differences in mixed emotions also require a more comprehensive understanding from a subcultural perspective.

  7. Determination of absolute threshold and just noticeable difference in the sensory perception of pungency.

    PubMed

    Orellana-Escobedo, L; Ornelas-Paz, J J; Olivas, G I; Guerrero-Beltran, J A; Jimenez-Castro, J; Sepulveda, D R

    2012-03-01

    Absolute threshold and just noticeable difference (JND) were determined for the perception of pungency using chili pepper in aqueous solutions. Absolute threshold and JND were determined using 2 alternative forced-choice sensory tests tests. High-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to determine capsaicinoids concentration in samples used for sensory analysis. Sensory absolute threshold was 0.050 mg capsaicinoids/kg sample. Five JND values were determined using 5 reference solutions with different capsaicinoids concentration. JND values changed proportionally as capsaicinoids concentration of the reference sample solutions changed. Weber fraction remained stable for the first 4 reference capsaicinoid solutions (0.05, 0.11, 0.13, and 0.17 mg/kg) but changed when the most concentrated reference capsaicinoids solution was used (0.23 mg/kg). Quantification limit for instrumental analysis was 1.512 mg/kg capsaicinoids. Sensory methods employed in this study proved to be more sensitive than instrumental methods. Practical Application: A better understanding of the process involved in the sensory perception of pungency is currently required because "hot" foods are becoming more popular in western cuisine. Absolute thresholds and differential thresholds are useful tools in the formulation and development of new food products. These parameters may help in defining how much chili pepper is required in a formulated product to ensure a perceptible level of pungency, as well as in deciding how much more chili pepper is required in a product to produce a perceptible increase in its pungency.

  8. Infants' discrimination of happy and sad music.

    PubMed

    Flom, Ross; Gentile, Douglas A; Pick, Anne D

    2008-12-01

    Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation procedure, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds heard three musical excerpts that were rated as either happy or sad. Following habituation, infants were presented with two new musical excerpts from the other affect group. Nine-month-olds discriminated the musical excerpts rated as affectively different. Five- and seven-month-olds discriminated the happy and sad excerpts when they were habituated to sad excerpts but not when they were habituated to happy excerpts. Three-month-olds showed no evidence of discriminating the sad and happy excerpts. In Experiment 2, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds were presented with two new musical excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. At no age did infants discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar, musical excerpts. In Experiment 3, we examined 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of individual excerpts rated as affectively similar. Only the 9-month-olds discriminated the affectively similar individual excerpts. Results are discussed in terms of infants' ability to discriminate affect across a variety of events and its relevance for later social-communicative development.

  9. Sad music induces pleasant emotion.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In general, sad music is thought to cause us to experience sadness, which is considered an unpleasant emotion. As a result, the question arises as to why we listen to sad music if it evokes sadness. One possible answer to this question is that we may actually feel positive emotions when we listen to sad music. This suggestion may appear to be counterintuitive; however, in this study, by dividing musical emotion into perceived emotion and felt emotion, we investigated this potential emotional response to music. We hypothesized that felt and perceived emotion may not actually coincide in this respect: sad music would be perceived as sad, but the experience of listening to sad music would evoke positive emotions. A total of 44 participants listened to musical excerpts and provided data on perceived and felt emotions by rating 62 descriptive words or phrases related to emotions on a scale that ranged from 0 (not at all) to 4 (very much). The results revealed that the sad music was perceived to be more tragic, whereas the actual experiences of the participants listening to the sad music induced them to feel more romantic, more blithe, and less tragic emotions than they actually perceived with respect to the same music. Thus, the participants experienced ambivalent emotions when they listened to the sad music. After considering the possible reasons that listeners were induced to experience emotional ambivalence by the sad music, we concluded that the formulation of a new model would be essential for examining the emotions induced by music and that this new model must entertain the possibility that what we experience when listening to music is vicarious emotion.

  10. Explaining Sad People’s Memory Advantage for Faces

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Peter J.; Marquardt, Zoe; Young, Isabel; Goodenough, Imogen

    2017-01-01

    Sad people recognize faces more accurately than happy people (Hills et al., 2011). We devised four hypotheses for this finding that are tested between in the current study. The four hypotheses are: (1) sad people engage in more expert processing associated with face processing; (2) sad people are motivated to be more accurate than happy people in an attempt to repair their mood; (3) sad people have a defocused attentional strategy that allows more information about a face to be encoded; and (4) sad people scan more of the face than happy people leading to more facial features to be encoded. In Experiment 1, we found that dysphoria (sad mood often associated with depression) was not correlated with the face-inversion effect (a measure of expert processing) nor with response times but was correlated with defocused attention and recognition accuracy. Experiment 2 established that dysphoric participants detected changes made to more facial features than happy participants. In Experiment 3, using eye-tracking we found that sad-induced participants sampled more of the face whilst avoiding the eyes. Experiment 4 showed that sad-induced people demonstrated a smaller own-ethnicity bias. These results indicate that sad people show different attentional allocation to faces than happy and neutral people. PMID:28261138

  11. Why Am I So Sad?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Am I So Sad? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Am I So Sad? A A A What's in this ... ON THIS TOPIC My Pet Died - How Can I Feel Better? Five Steps for Fighting Stress What ...

  12. Use of the SADS Diagnostic Interview in Evaluating Legal Insanity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Richard; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined clinical usefulness of the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) diagnostic interview in evaluations of criminal responsibility. Findings, based on 78 evaluations from a forensic clinic, indicated that SADS successfully differentiated between sane and insane evaluatees. Differences were primarily in severity of symptoms…

  13. The Impact of Different Absolute Solar Irradiance Values on Current Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David H.; Lean, Judith L.; Jonas, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of the preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates are made with the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model 3 using two different estimates of the absolute solar irradiance value: a higher value measured by solar radiometers in the 1990s and a lower value measured recently by the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. Each of the model simulations is adjusted to achieve global energy balance; without this adjustment the difference in irradiance produces a global temperature change of 0.48C, comparable to the cooling estimated for the Maunder Minimum. The results indicate that by altering cloud cover the model properly compensates for the different absolute solar irradiance values on a global level when simulating both preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates. On a regional level, the preindustrial climate simulations and the patterns of change with doubled CO2 concentrations are again remarkably similar, but there are some differences. Using a higher absolute solar irradiance value and the requisite cloud cover affects the model's depictions of high-latitude surface air temperature, sea level pressure, and stratospheric ozone, as well as tropical precipitation. In the climate change experiments it leads to an underestimation of North Atlantic warming, reduced precipitation in the tropical western Pacific, and smaller total ozone growth at high northern latitudes. Although significant, these differences are typically modest compared with the magnitude of the regional changes expected for doubled greenhouse gas concentrations. Nevertheless, the model simulations demonstrate that achieving the highest possible fidelity when simulating regional climate change requires that climate models use as input the most accurate (lower) solar irradiance value.

  14. Being Moved by Unfamiliar Sad Music Is Associated with High Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions. PMID:27695424

  15. Synchronous absolute EIT in three thoracic planes at different gravity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, G.; Just, A.; Dittmar, J.; Fromm, K. H.; Quintel, M.

    2013-04-01

    The validity of absolute Electrical Impedance Tomography (a-EIT) for assessment of local lung volume has been investigated far less than the well evaluated ventilation monitoring by functional EIT (f-EIT). To achieve progress in a-EIT we investigated 10 healthy volunteers in an upright sitting position by using a-EIT at normal gravity (1 g), weightlessness (0 g) and approx. double gravity (1.8 g) during parabolic flight manoeuvres. Lung resistivity in three thoracic planes was determined by a-EIT using a multiple-plane synchronised Goe-MF II EIT system. Tomograms of resistivity at end-expiration in normal spontaneous breathing were reconstructed by a modified SIRT algorithm. Local lung resistivity was determined separately for both lungs. The respective resistivity values at 1 g and 1.8 g before and after weightlessness show an almost reversible behaviour along the sequence of gravity changes with a tendency to be lower after occurrence of weightlessness. The results reveal not only the expected varying resistivity of lung tissue in cranio-caudal direction but also a clear difference in these cranio-caudal stratifications of local lung volume between the left and right lung. The resolution and stability of absolute EIT seem to be valid and expressive for future investigations of unilateral lung volume under different physiological and pathological conditions.

  16. Infrared and Visible Absolute and Difference Spectra of Bacteriorhodopsin Photocycle Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Hendler, Richard W.; Meuse, Curtis W.; Braiman, Mark S.; Smith, Paul D.; Kakareka, John W.

    2014-01-01

    We have used new kinetic fitting procedures to obtain IR absolute spectra for intermediates of the main bacteriorhodopsin (bR) photocycle(s). The linear algebra-based procedures of Hendler et al. (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B, 105, 3319–3228, for obtaining clean absolute visible spectra of bR photocycle intermediates, were adapted for use with IR data. This led to isolation, for the first time, of corresponding clean absolute IR spectra, including the separation of the M intermediate into its MF and MS components from parallel photocycles. This in turn permitted the computation of clean IR difference spectra between pairs of successive intermediates, allowing for the most rigorous analysis to date of changes occurring at each step of the photocycle. The statistical accuracy of the spectral calculation methods allows us to identify, with great confidence, new spectral features. One of these is a very strong differential IR band at 1650 cm−1 for the L intermediate at room temperature that is not present in analogous L spectra measured at cryogenic temperatures. This band, in one of the noisiest spectral regions, has not been identified in any previous time-resolved IR papers, although retrospectively it is apparent as one of the strongest L absorbance changes in their raw data, considered collectively. Additionally, our results are most consistent with Arg82 as the primary proton-release group (PRG), rather than a protonated water cluster or H-bonded grouping of carboxylic residues. Notably, the Arg82 deprotonation occurs exclusively in the MF pathway of the parallel cycles model of the photocycle. PMID:21929858

  17. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    PubMed

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes-labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed.

  18. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes—labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed. PMID:27445752

  19. Modeling absolute differences in life expectancy with a censored skew-normal regression approach.

    PubMed

    Moser, André; Clough-Gorr, Kerri; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Parameter estimates from commonly used multivariable parametric survival regression models do not directly quantify differences in years of life expectancy. Gaussian linear regression models give results in terms of absolute mean differences, but are not appropriate in modeling life expectancy, because in many situations time to death has a negative skewed distribution. A regression approach using a skew-normal distribution would be an alternative to parametric survival models in the modeling of life expectancy, because parameter estimates can be interpreted in terms of survival time differences while allowing for skewness of the distribution. In this paper we show how to use the skew-normal regression so that censored and left-truncated observations are accounted for. With this we model differences in life expectancy using data from the Swiss National Cohort Study and from official life expectancy estimates and compare the results with those derived from commonly used survival regression models. We conclude that a censored skew-normal survival regression approach for left-truncated observations can be used to model differences in life expectancy across covariates of interest.

  20. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  1. Excitation power dependent population pathways and absolute quantum yields of upconversion nanoparticles in different solvents.

    PubMed

    Würth, C; Kaiser, M; Wilhelm, S; Grauel, B; Hirsch, T; Resch-Genger, U

    2017-03-23

    The rational design of brighter upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) requires a better understanding of the radiationless deactivation pathways in these materials. Here, we demonstrate the potential of excitation power density (P)-dependent studies of upconversion (UC) luminescence intensities, slope factors, and absolute quantum yields (ΦUC) of popular β-NaYF4:20% Yb(3+),2% Er(3+) UCNPs of different surface chemistries in organic solvents, D2O, and water as a tool to gain deeper insight into the UC mechanism including population and deactivation pathways particularly of the red emission. Our measurements, covering a P regime of three orders of magnitude, reveal a strong difference of the P-dependence of the ratio of the green and red luminescence bands (Ig/r) in water and organic solvents and P-dependent population pathways of the different emissive energy levels of Er(3+). In summary, we provide experimental evidence for three photon processes in UCNPs, particularly for the red emission. Moreover, we demonstrate changes in the excited population dynamics via bi- and triphotonic processes dependent on the environment, surface chemistry, and P, and validate our findings theoretically.

  2. Affinity for Poetry and Aesthetic Appreciation of Joyful and Sad Poems

    PubMed Central

    Kraxenberger, Maria; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    Artworks with sad and affectively negative content have repeatedly been reported to elicit positive aesthetic appreciation. This topic has received much attention both in the history of poetics and aesthetics as well as in recent studies on sad films and sad music. However, poetry and aesthetic evaluations of joyful and sad poetry have received only little attention in empirical studies to date. We collected beauty and liking ratings for 24 sad and 24 joyful poems from 128 participants. Following previous studies, we computed an integrated measure for overall aesthetic appreciation based on the beauty and liking ratings to test for differences in appreciation between joyful and sad poems. Further, we tested whether readers' judgments are related to their affinity for poetry. Results show that sad poems are rated significantly higher for aesthetic appreciation than joyful poems, and that aesthetic appreciation is influenced by the participants' affinity for poetry. PMID:28119649

  3. Affinity for Poetry and Aesthetic Appreciation of Joyful and Sad Poems.

    PubMed

    Kraxenberger, Maria; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Artworks with sad and affectively negative content have repeatedly been reported to elicit positive aesthetic appreciation. This topic has received much attention both in the history of poetics and aesthetics as well as in recent studies on sad films and sad music. However, poetry and aesthetic evaluations of joyful and sad poetry have received only little attention in empirical studies to date. We collected beauty and liking ratings for 24 sad and 24 joyful poems from 128 participants. Following previous studies, we computed an integrated measure for overall aesthetic appreciation based on the beauty and liking ratings to test for differences in appreciation between joyful and sad poems. Further, we tested whether readers' judgments are related to their affinity for poetry. Results show that sad poems are rated significantly higher for aesthetic appreciation than joyful poems, and that aesthetic appreciation is influenced by the participants' affinity for poetry.

  4. Concurrently examining unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism: Temporal shifts, individual-difference and event-specific correlates, and behavioural outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ruthig, Joelle C; Gamblin, Bradlee W; Jones, Kelly; Vanderzanden, Karen; Kehn, Andre

    2017-02-01

    Researchers have spent considerable effort examining unrealistic absolute optimism and unrealistic comparative optimism, yet there is a lack of research exploring them concurrently. This longitudinal study repeatedly assessed unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism within a performance context over several months to identify the degree to which they shift as a function of proximity to performance and performance feedback, their associations with global individual difference and event-specific factors, and their link to subsequent behavioural outcomes. Results showed similar shifts in unrealistic absolute and comparative optimism based on proximity to performance and performance feedback. Moreover, increases in both types of unrealistic optimism were associated with better subsequent performance beyond the effect of prior performance. However, several differences were found between the two forms of unrealistic optimism in their associations with global individual difference factors and event-specific factors, highlighting the distinctiveness of the two constructs.

  5. Sadness prediction and response: effects of age and agreeableness.

    PubMed

    Pearman, Ann; Andreoletti, Carrie; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2010-04-01

    Research has suggested that both age and personality play a role in emotional experience and regulation, but these variables have not been considered together to determine the relative contribution of each. This study simultaneously examined age and agreeableness differences in the experience of sad stimuli. Participants were 46 younger adults (age, M = 22.04 years, SD = 5.41 years) and 48 older adults (age, M = 74.23, SD = 7.82 years). Participants were asked to predict how sad stimuli (i.e., sad photos) would make them feel and were then measured on their actual reaction to the stimuli (reactivity) as well as on their emotional recovery. Agreeableness, but not age, was related to predicted levels of sadness, such that the more agreeable, the higher the predicted sadness (beta = 0.37). In contrast to expectations, prediction accuracy was not related to age or agreeableness. For emotional reactivity, agreeableness (beta = 0.16), but not age, was related to reactivity to sad stimuli (i.e., more agreeable, higher reactivity). Finally, age (beta = 0.14) was significantly related to emotional recovery such that the older adults reported lower levels of sadness at posttest than did the younger adults. Similarly, people who were more agreeable also reported better emotional recovery (beta = 0.15). These relationships were not affected by depression or pretest sadness ratings. Overall, these findings suggest distinct roles for age and agreeableness in predicting different components of the emotion regulation process. An individual with advanced age, high levels of agreeableness, or both may be well-positioned for resilience throughout the emotion regulation process.

  6. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. A simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment is presented. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined. In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. This means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure. PMID:26960122

  7. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Mogens; Dam, Henrik; Ali, Fatuma; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland. A Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was mailed to 6021 men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 years living in four different municipalities in Greenland. The recipients were randomly selected from the National Population Register. Approximately 9% of the respondents met the criteria for SAD, and the incidence of SAD varied between a southern municipality and three northern municipalities. The prevalence of SAD was particularly high in northern municipalities. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of SAD between Greenlanders and Danes. The results are comparable with other population studies that have reported a high prevalence of SAD in arctic areas. The clinical implications of our findings and the possibilities for introducing light therapy should be assessed in future studies.

  8. Absolute Configuration from Different Multifragmentation Pathways in Light-Induced Coulomb Explosion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Martin; Kastirke, Gregor; Kunitski, Maksim; Jahnke, Till; Bauer, Tobias; Goihl, Christoph; Trinter, Florian; Schober, Carl; Henrichs, Kevin; Becht, Jasper; Zeller, Stefan; Gassert, Helena; Waitz, Markus; Kuhlins, Andreas; Sann, Hendrik; Sturm, Felix; Wiegandt, Florian; Wallauer, Robert; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Johnson, Allan S; Mazenauer, Manuel; Spenger, Benjamin; Marquardt, Sabrina; Marquardt, Sebastian; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Stohner, Jürgen; Dörner, Reinhard; Schöffler, Markus; Berger, Robert

    2016-08-18

    The absolute configuration of individual small molecules in the gas phase can be determined directly by light-induced Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI). Herein, this approach is demonstrated for ionization with a single X-ray photon from a synchrotron light source, leading to enhanced efficiency and faster fragmentation as compared to previous experiments with a femtosecond laser. In addition, it is shown that even incomplete fragmentation pathways of individual molecules from a racemic CHBrClF sample can give access to the absolute configuration in CEI. This leads to a significant increase of the applicability of the method as compared to the previously reported complete break-up into atomic ions and can pave the way for routine stereochemical analysis of larger chiral molecules by light-induced CEI.

  9. Misery loves company: when sadness increases the desire for social connectedness.

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather M; Ishii, Keiko; Ambady, Nalini

    2011-11-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the effects of sadness on the desire for social connectedness. They hypothesized that sadness serves an adaptive function by motivating people to reach out to others and preferentially attend to information related to one's current level of social connectedness, but only when it is instigated by social loss. Consistent with this hypothesis, the authors observed that sadness induced by an emotional depiction of social loss enhanced (a) attention to nonverbal cues, an important source of information concerning an individual's current level of social connectedness (Experiment 1), and (b) the desire to engage in social behaviors (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 the authors found that sadness that results from imagined social loss uniquely produced this pattern of effects. Sadness that resulted from imagined failure had different effects on motivation and no effect on sensitivity to nonverbal cues. These results support and refine functional explanations for the universality of sadness.

  10. The performance of different propensity score methods for estimating absolute effects of treatments on survival outcomes: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Schuster, Tibor

    2016-10-01

    Observational studies are increasingly being used to estimate the effect of treatments, interventions and exposures on outcomes that can occur over time. Historically, the hazard ratio, which is a relative measure of effect, has been reported. However, medical decision making is best informed when both relative and absolute measures of effect are reported. When outcomes are time-to-event in nature, the effect of treatment can also be quantified as the change in mean or median survival time due to treatment and the absolute reduction in the probability of the occurrence of an event within a specified duration of follow-up. We describe how three different propensity score methods, propensity score matching, stratification on the propensity score and inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score, can be used to estimate absolute measures of treatment effect on survival outcomes. These methods are all based on estimating marginal survival functions under treatment and lack of treatment. We then conducted an extensive series of Monte Carlo simulations to compare the relative performance of these methods for estimating the absolute effects of treatment on survival outcomes. We found that stratification on the propensity score resulted in the greatest bias. Caliper matching on the propensity score and a method based on earlier work by Cole and Hernán tended to have the best performance for estimating absolute effects of treatment on survival outcomes. When the prevalence of treatment was less extreme, then inverse probability of treatment weighting-based methods tended to perform better than matching-based methods.

  11. Absolute spectral response measurements of different photodiodes useful for applications in the UV spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelizzo, Maria G.; Ceccherini, Paolo; Garoli, Denis; Masut, Pietro; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio

    2004-09-01

    Long UV radiation exposure can result in damages of biological tissues, as burns, skin aging, erythema and even melanoma cancer. In the past years an increase of melanoma cancer has been observed and associated to the atmospheric ozone deployment. Attendance of sun tanning unit centers has become a huge social phenomena, and the maximum UV radiation dose that a human being can receive is regulated by law. On the other side, UV radiation is largely used for therapeutic and germicidal purposes. In all these areas, spectroradiometer and radiomenter are needed for monitoring UVA (315-400 nm), UVB (280-315 nm) and UVC (100-280 nm) irradiance. We have selected some commercial photodiodes which can be used as solid state detectors in these instruments. We have characterized them by measuring their absolute spectral response in the 200 - 400 nm spectral range.

  12. Differences in absolute and relative growth between two shell forms of Pinna nobilis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) along the Tunisian coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaoui, Lotfi; Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Belgacem, Walid; Hassine, Oum Kalthoum Ben

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the absolute and relative growth patterns of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis along the Tunisian coastline, taking into consideration both the variability among different areas and between the two shell forms "combed" and "straight and wide". Five subpopulations of the species were sampled, one from northern, two from eastern and two from southern Tunisia. Various assumptions on the growth patterns were tested based on an information theory approach and multi-model inference. For absolute growth, the assumption of different growth patterns between the two shell forms of P. nobilis and no difference among subpopulations was the most supported by the data. For the same age, "straight and wide" individuals gained on average greater lengths than the "combed" individuals. The absolute growth of the species was found to be asymptotic and the logistic model was the one most supported by the data. As for the relative growth, apart from the classical allometric model Y = aXb, more complicated models of the form ln Y = f(ln X) that either assumed non-linearities or breakpoints were tested in combination with assumptions for possible differences between the two forms and among subpopulations. Among the eight studied relationships between morphometric characters, the classical allometric model was supported in only two cases, while in all other cases more complicated models were supported. Moreover, the assumption of different growth patterns between the two forms was supported in three cases and the assumption of different growth patterns among subpopulations in four cases. Although precise relationships between the morphometric plasticity of the fan mussel and environmental factors have not been proven in this paper, local small scale constraints might be responsible of the different growth patterns observed in the same locality. A possible co-action of genetic factors should be evaluated in the future.

  13. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing

    DOE PAGES

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; ...

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. We present a simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined.more » In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. In conclusion, this means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure.« less

  14. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. We present a simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined. In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. In conclusion, this means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure.

  15. Friendship and the Socialization of Sadness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Rachel; Cohen, Robert; Parra, Gilbert R.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Sharp, Katianne M. Howard

    2015-01-01

    Children's ability to manage the expression of sadness is critical to their development and adjustment. Although parents have been the primary focus of research examining sadness socialization, many acknowledge the influence of other agents such as children's peers. The present research evaluated one type of emotion socialization--reactions to…

  16. Responses to Children's Sadness: Mothers' and Fathers' Unique Contributions and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.; Sanders, Wesley M.

    2014-01-01

    Parental socialization of children's sadness was examined through self-report, spouse report, and a parent-child sadness discussion task. A total of 79 two-parent, predominantly White, middle-class families participated with one child in grades 2-5 (44 sons; M = 9 years, 8 months). Analyses revealed that mothers and fathers respond differently to…

  17. S-SAD phasing of monoclinic histidine kinase from Brucella abortus combining data from multiple crystals and orientations: an example of data-collection strategy and a posteriori analysis of different data combinations.

    PubMed

    Klinke, Sebastián; Foos, Nicolas; Rinaldi, Jimena J; Paris, Gastón; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Legrand, Pierre; Guimarães, Beatriz G; Thompson, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    The histidine kinase (HK) domain belonging to the light-oxygen-voltage histidine kinase (LOV-HK) from Brucella abortus is a member of the HWE family, for which no structural information is available, and has low sequence identity (20%) to the closest HK present in the PDB. The `off-edge' S-SAD method in macromolecular X-ray crystallography was used to solve the structure of the HK domain from LOV-HK at low resolution from crystals in a low-symmetry space group (P21) and with four copies in the asymmetric unit (∼108 kDa). Data were collected both from multiple crystals (diffraction limit varying from 2.90 to 3.25 Å) and from multiple orientations of the same crystal, using the κ-geometry goniostat on SOLEIL beamline PROXIMA 1, to obtain `true redundancy'. Data from three different crystals were combined for structure determination. An optimized HK construct bearing a shorter cloning artifact yielded crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.51 Å resolution and that were used for final refinement of the model. Moreover, a thorough a posteriori analysis using several different combinations of data sets allowed us to investigate the impact of the data-collection strategy on the success of the structure determination.

  18. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; DeScioli, Peter

    2017-01-01

    What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it's unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional) video of the recipient's character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient's losses were uncertain (Experiment 1), the recipient's losses were certain (Experiment 2), or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3). Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  19. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Linda; Vrijsen, Janna N; Eling, Paul; van Oostrom, Iris; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally relevant stimuli (mood-congruence), and to determine whether this interference occurred for both valenced words and valenced faces. A mood induction procedure was administered to 116 undergraduate females divided into two equal groups for the sad and happy mood condition. This study employed three versions of the Stroop task: color, verbal-emotional, and a facial-emotional Stroop. The two mood groups did not differ on the color Stroop. Significant group differences were found on the verbal-emotional Stroop for sad words with longer latencies for sad-induced participants. Main findings for the facial-emotional Stroop were that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for angry-threatening faces as well as longer latencies for neutral faces. Group differences were not found for positive stimuli. These findings confirm that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for mood-congruent stimuli in the verbal domain (sad words), but this mood-congruent effect does not necessarily apply to the visual domain (sad faces). Attentional interference for neutral faces suggests sad mood participants did not necessarily see valence-free faces. Attentional interference for threatening stimuli is often associated with anxiety; however, the current results show that threat is not an attentional interference observed exclusively in states of anxiety but also in sad mood.

  20. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral.

  1. The error-related negativity relates to sadness following mood induction among individuals with high neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Hajcak, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential (ERP) that indexes error monitoring. Research suggests that the ERN is increased in internalizing disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Although studies indicate that the ERN is insensitive to state-related fluctuations in anxiety, few studies have carefully examined the effect of state-related changes in sadness on the ERN. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the ERN would be altered by a sad mood induction using a between-subjects design. Additionally, we explored if this relationship would be moderated by individual differences in neuroticism—a personality trait related to both anxiety and depression. Forty-seven undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to either a sad or neutral mood induction prior to performing an arrow version of the flanker task. Participants reported greater sadness following the sad than neutral mood induction; there were no significant group differences on behavioral or ERP measures. Across the entire sample, however, participants with a larger increase in sad mood from baseline to post-induction had a larger (i.e. more negative) ERN. Furthermore, this effect was larger among individuals reporting higher neuroticism. These data indicate that neuroticism moderates the relationship between the ERN and changes in sad mood. PMID:21382967

  2. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  3. Resolving Differences in Absolute Irradiance Measurements Between the SOHO/CELIAS/SEM and the SDO/EVE.

    PubMed

    Wieman, S R; Didkovsky, L V; Judge, D L

    The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) onboard SOHO has measured absolute extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray solar irradiance nearly continuously since January 1996. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on SDO, in operation since April of 2010, measures solar irradiance in a wide spectral range that encompasses the band passes (26 - 34 nm and 0.1 - 50 nm) measured by SOHO/SEM. However, throughout the mission overlap, irradiance values from these two instruments have differed by more than the combined stated uncertainties of the measurements. In an effort to identify the sources of these differences and eliminate them, we investigate in this work the effect of reprocessing the SEM data using a more accurate SEM response function (obtained from synchrotron measurements with a SEM sounding-rocket clone instrument taken after SOHO was already in orbit) and time-dependent, measured solar spectral distributions - i.e., solar reference spectra that were unavailable prior to the launch of the SDO. We find that recalculating the SEM data with these improved parameters reduces mean differences with the EVE measurements from about 20 % to less than 5 % in the 26 - 34 nm band, and from about 35 % to about 15 % for irradiances in the 0.1 - 7 nm band extracted from the SEM 0.1 - 50 nm channel.

  4. Effects of anger and sadness on attentional patterns in decision making: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Xing, Cai

    2014-02-01

    Past research examining the effect of anger and sadness on decision making has associated anger with a relatively more heuristic decision-making approach. However, it is unclear whether angry and sad individuals differ while attending to decision-relevant information. An eye-tracking experiment (N=87) was conducted to examine the role of attention in links between emotion and decision making. Angry individuals looked more and earlier toward heuristic cues while making decisions, whereas sad individuals did not show such bias. Implications for designing persuasive messages and studying motivated visual processing were discussed.

  5. Degree of extraversion and physiological responses to physical pain and sadness.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Sook; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Sohn, Sunju; Eom, Jin-Sup; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2014-10-01

    Extraversion is a personality frequently discussed as one of the strongest and most consistent factors that relates to individual subjective wellbeing. The goal of this study was to better understand how people with varying degrees of extraversion psychologically and physiologically respond differently to unpleasant circumstances. Emotional responses (e.g., levels of intensity, valence, and arousal) were assessed in determining the sensitivity level to negative stimuli that were specifically designed to provoke physical pain and sadness emotion. Physiological changes (e.g., heart rate (HR), blood volume pulse (BVP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) were also measured during pain and sadness to observe sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Our results showed that the degree of extraversion was associated with less unpleasant responses to sadness, less HR responses to both pain and sadness, and greater RSA responses to sadness. The findings suggest that the lower HR reactivity to painful and sad situations and greater RSA reactivity to sad situations in extraversion could be possibly due to increased parasympathetic activity. Additionally, enhanced parasympathetic activity to negative situations may explain an important mechanism underlying the positive connection between extraversion and subjective wellbeing.

  6. Prediction of Happy-Sad mood from daily behaviors and previous sleep history.

    PubMed

    Sano, Akane; Yu, Amy Z; McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew J K; Taylor, Sara; Jaques, Natasha; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Picard, Rosalind W

    2015-01-01

    We collected and analyzed subjective and objective data using surveys and wearable sensors worn day and night from 68 participants for ~30 days each, to address questions related to the relationships among sleep duration, sleep irregularity, self-reported Happy-Sad mood and other daily behavioral factors in college students. We analyzed this behavioral and physiological data to (i) identify factors that classified the participants into Happy-Sad mood using support vector machines (SVMs); and (ii) analyze how accurately sleep duration and sleep regularity for the past 1-5 days classified morning Happy-Sad mood. We found statistically significant associations amongst Sad mood and poor health-related factors. Behavioral factors including the frequency of negative social interactions, and negative emails, and total academic activity hours showed the best performance in separating the Happy-Sad mood groups. Sleep regularity and sleep duration predicted daily Happy-Sad mood with 65-80% accuracy. The number of nights giving the best prediction of Happy-Sad mood varied for different individuals.

  7. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  8. Implementation of an absolute brain 1H-MRS quantification method to assess different tissue alterations in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bagory, Matthieu; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cotton, François; Confavreux, Christian; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has emerged as a sensitive modality to detect early and diffuse alterations in multiple sclerosis. Recently, the hypothesis of neurodegenerative pathogenesis has highlightened the interest for measurement of metabolites concentrations, to gain specificity, in a large brain volume encompassing different tissue alterations. Therefore, we proposed in this paper the implementation of an absolute quantification method based on localized spectroscopy at short (30 ms) and long (135 ms) echo time of a volume including normal appearing white matter, cortical gray matter, and lesions. First, methodological developments were implemented including external calibration, and corrections of phased-array coil sensitivity and cerebrospinal fluid volume contribution. Second, these improvements were validated and optimized using an original methodology based on simulations of brain images with lesions. Finally, metabolic alterations were assessed in 65 patients including 26 relapsing-remitting, 17 primary-progressive (PP), 22 secondary-progressive (SP) patients, and in 23 normal subjects. Results showed increases of choline, creatine, and myo-inositol concentrations in PP and SP patients compared to controls, whereas the concentration of N-acetyl compounds remained constant. The major finding of this study was the identification of Cho concentration and Cho/tNA ratio as putative markers of progressive onset, suggesting interesting perspectives in detection and followup of neurodegenerative processes.

  9. Absolute binding-free energies between standard RNA/DNA nucleobases and amino-acid sidechain analogs in different environments.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Anita; Zagrovic, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the great importance of nucleic acid-protein interactions in the cell, our understanding of their physico-chemical basis remains incomplete. In order to address this challenge, we have for the first time determined potentials of mean force and the associated absolute binding free energies between all standard RNA/DNA nucleobases and amino-acid sidechain analogs in high- and low-dielectric environments using molecular dynamics simulations and umbrella sampling. A comparison against a limited set of available experimental values for analogous systems attests to the quality of the computational approach and the force field used. Overall, our analysis provides a microscopic picture behind nucleobase/sidechain interaction preferences and creates a unified framework for understanding and sculpting nucleic acid-protein interactions in different contexts. Here, we use this framework to demonstrate a strong relationship between nucleobase density profiles of mRNAs and nucleobase affinity profiles of their cognate proteins and critically analyze a recent hypothesis that the two may be capable of direct, complementary interactions.

  10. Data-collection strategy for challenging native SAD phasing

    PubMed Central

    Olieric, Vincent; Weinert, Tobias; Finke, Aaron D.; Anders, Carolin; Li, Dianfan; Olieric, Natacha; Borca, Camelia N.; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Caffrey, Martin; Jinek, Martin; Wang, Meitian

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements in data-collection strategies have pushed the limits of native SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing, a method that uses the weak anomalous signal of light elements naturally present in macromolecules. These involve the merging of multiple data sets from either multiple crystals or from a single crystal collected in multiple orientations at a low X-ray dose. Both approaches yield data of high multiplicity while minimizing radiation damage and systematic error, thus ensuring accurate measurements of the anomalous differences. Here, the combined use of these two strategies is described to solve cases of native SAD phasing that were particular challenges: the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) with a low Bijvoet ratio of 1% and the large 200 kDa complex of the CRISPR-associated endonuclease (Cas9) bound to guide RNA and target DNA crystallized in the low-symmetry space group C2. The optimal native SAD data-collection strategy based on systematic measurements performed on the 266 kDa multiprotein/multiligand tubulin complex is discussed. PMID:26960129

  11. Data-collection strategy for challenging native SAD phasing.

    PubMed

    Olieric, Vincent; Weinert, Tobias; Finke, Aaron D; Anders, Carolin; Li, Dianfan; Olieric, Natacha; Borca, Camelia N; Steinmetz, Michel O; Caffrey, Martin; Jinek, Martin; Wang, Meitian

    2016-03-01

    Recent improvements in data-collection strategies have pushed the limits of native SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing, a method that uses the weak anomalous signal of light elements naturally present in macromolecules. These involve the merging of multiple data sets from either multiple crystals or from a single crystal collected in multiple orientations at a low X-ray dose. Both approaches yield data of high multiplicity while minimizing radiation damage and systematic error, thus ensuring accurate measurements of the anomalous differences. Here, the combined use of these two strategies is described to solve cases of native SAD phasing that were particular challenges: the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase (DgkA) with a low Bijvoet ratio of 1% and the large 200 kDa complex of the CRISPR-associated endonuclease (Cas9) bound to guide RNA and target DNA crystallized in the low-symmetry space group C2. The optimal native SAD data-collection strategy based on systematic measurements performed on the 266 kDa multiprotein/multiligand tubulin complex is discussed.

  12. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  13. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li Wei; Zwart, Peter H; Smith, Janet L; Akey, David L; Adams, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016), Acta Cryst. D72, 346-358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.

  14. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal

    DOE PAGES

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; ...

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, we describe algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al.(2016),Acta Cryst.D72, 346–358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. Thephenix.plan_sad_experimenttool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimatemore » the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. Thephenix.scale_and_mergetool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and thephenix.anomalous_signaltool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.« less

  15. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, we describe algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al.(2016),Acta Cryst.D72, 346–358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. Thephenix.plan_sad_experimenttool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. Thephenix.scale_and_mergetool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and thephenix.anomalous_signaltool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing.

  16. Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Planning an experiment, scaling data and evaluating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li-Wei; Zwart, Peter H.; Smith, Janet L.; Akey, David L.; Adams, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. Here, algorithms and tools for evaluating and optimizing the useful anomalous correlation and the anomalous signal in a SAD experiment are described. A simple theoretical framework [Terwilliger et al. (2016 ▸), Acta Cryst. D72, 346–358] is used to develop methods for planning a SAD experiment, scaling SAD data sets and estimating the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD data set. The phenix.plan_sad_experiment tool uses a database of solved and unsolved SAD data sets and the expected characteristics of a SAD data set to estimate the probability that the anomalous substructure will be found in the SAD experiment and the expected map quality that would be obtained if the substructure were found. The phenix.scale_and_merge tool scales unmerged SAD data from one or more crystals using local scaling and optimizes the anomalous signal by identifying the systematic differences among data sets, and the phenix.anomalous_signal tool estimates the useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal after collecting SAD data and estimates the probability that the data set can be solved and the likely figure of merit of phasing. PMID:26960123

  17. Do you remember your sad face? The roles of negative cognitive style and sad mood.

    PubMed

    Caudek, Corrado; Monni, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of negative cognitive style, sad mood, and facial affect on the self-face advantage in a sample of 66 healthy individuals (mean age 26.5 years, range 19-47 years). The sample was subdivided into four groups according to inferential style and responsivity to sad mood induction. Following a sad mood induction, we examined the effect on working memory of an incidental association between facial affect, facial identity, and head-pose orientation. Overall, head-pose recognition was more accurate for the self-face than for nonself face (self-face advantage, SFA). However, participants high in negative cognitive style who experienced higher levels of sadness displayed a stronger SFA for sad expressions than happy expressions. The remaining participants displayed an opposite bias (a stronger SFA for happy expressions than sad expressions), or no bias. These findings highlight the importance of trait-vulnerability status in the working memory biases related to emotional facial expressions.

  18. Absolute Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartig, George

    1990-12-01

    The absolute sensitivity of the FOS will be determined in SV by observing 2 stars at 3 epochs, first in 3 apertures (1.0", 0.5", and 0.3" circular) and then in 1 aperture (1.0" circular). In cycle 1, one star, BD+28D4211 will be observed in the 1.0" aperture to establish the stability of the sensitivity and flat field characteristics and improve the accuracy obtained in SV. This star will also be observed through the paired apertures since these are not calibrated in SV. The stars will be observed in most detector/grating combinations. The data will be averaged to form the inverse sensitivity functions required by RSDP.

  19. Chocolate eating in healthy men during experimentally induced sadness and joy.

    PubMed

    Macht, M; Roth, S; Ellgring, H

    2002-10-01

    The study compared influences of qualitatively different emotions on eating. Motivation to eat, affective responses to chocolate and chewing of chocolate were investigated in healthy normal weight males during experimentally induced emotions. Subjects abstained from eating 2 h (n = 24) or 8 h (n = 24) before testing. They received pieces of chocolate after viewing film clips presented to induce anger, fear, sadness and joy. Motivation to eat and most affective responses to eating chocolate were higher after 8 h than after 2 h of deprivation. Sadness and joy affected motivation to eat in opposite directions: joy increased and sadness decreased appetite (p < 0.001). In joy, a higher tendency to eat more chocolate was reported (p < 0.001), and chocolate tasted more pleasant (p < 0.001) and was experienced as more "stimulating" than in sadness (p < 0.01). No effects of deprivation could be found for chewing time and number of chews. Results indicate that the quality of emotions can affect motivation to eat and affective responses to eating chocolate. Our findings on decreased eating responses to sadness in healthy males and the contradictory increased eating responses to sadness reported by others supports two types of emotion-induced changes of eating: emotion-congruent modulation of eating and eating to regulate emotions.

  20. PIPE-chipSAD: A Pipeline for the Analysis of High Density Arrays of Bacterial Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Silvia; Del Tordello, Elena; Fagnocchi, Luca; Donati, Claudio; Muzzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    PIPE-chipSAD is a pipeline for bacterial transcriptome studies based on high-density microarray experiments. The main algorithm chipSAD, integrates the analysis of the hybridization signal with the genomic position of probes and identifies portions of the genome transcribing for mRNAs. The pipeline includes a procedure, align-chipSAD, to build a multiple alignment of transcripts originating in the same locus in multiple experiments and provides a method to compare mRNA expression across different conditions. Finally, the pipeline includes anno-chipSAD a method to annotate the detected transcripts in comparison to the genome annotation. Overall, our pipeline allows transcriptional profile analysis of both coding and non-coding portions of the chromosome in a single framework. Importantly, due to its versatile characteristics, it will be of wide applicability to analyse, not only microarray signals, but also data from other high throughput technologies such as RNA-sequencing. The current PIPE-chipSAD implementation is written in Python programming language and is freely available at https://github.com/silviamicroarray/chipSAD.

  1. PIPE-chipSAD: A Pipeline for the Analysis of High Density Arrays of Bacterial Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Bottini, Silvia; Del Tordello, Elena; Fagnocchi, Luca; Donati, Claudio; Muzzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    PIPE-chipSAD is a pipeline for bacterial transcriptome studies based on high-density microarray experiments. The main algorithm chipSAD, integrates the analysis of the hybridization signal with the genomic position of probes and identifies portions of the genome transcribing for mRNAs. The pipeline includes a procedure, align-chipSAD, to build a multiple alignment of transcripts originating in the same locus in multiple experiments and provides a method to compare mRNA expression across different conditions. Finally, the pipeline includes anno-chipSAD a method to annotate the detected transcripts in comparison to the genome annotation. Overall, our pipeline allows transcriptional profile analysis of both coding and non-coding portions of the chromosome in a single framework. Importantly, due to its versatile characteristics, it will be of wide applicability to analyse, not only microarray signals, but also data from other high throughput technologies such as RNA-sequencing. The current PIPE-chipSAD implementation is written in Python programming language and is freely available at https://github.com/silviamicroarray/chipSAD. PMID:28066774

  2. A sad mood increases attention to unhealthy food images in women with food addiction.

    PubMed

    Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2016-05-01

    Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction.

  3. SAD-based stereo vision machine on a System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Zhangwei

    2013-03-04

    This paper, proposes a novel solution for a stereo vision machine based on the System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC) architecture. The SOPC technology provides great convenience for accessing many hardware devices such as DDRII, SSRAM, Flash, etc., by IP reuse. The system hardware is implemented in a single FPGA chip involving a 32-bit Nios II microprocessor, which is a configurable soft IP core in charge of managing the image buffer and users' configuration data. The Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD) algorithm is used for dense disparity map computation. The circuits of the algorithmic module are modeled by the Matlab-based DSP Builder. With a set of configuration interfaces, the machine can process many different sizes of stereo pair images. The maximum image size is up to 512 K pixels. This machine is designed to focus on real time stereo vision applications. The stereo vision machine offers good performance and high efficiency in real time. Considering a hardware FPGA clock of 90 MHz, 23 frames of 640 × 480 disparity maps can be obtained in one second with 5 × 5 matching window and maximum 64 disparity pixels.

  4. SAD-Based Stereo Vision Machine on a System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Zhangwei

    2013-01-01

    This paper, proposes a novel solution for a stereo vision machine based on the System-on-Programmable-Chip (SoPC) architecture. The SOPC technology provides great convenience for accessing many hardware devices such as DDRII, SSRAM, Flash, etc., by IP reuse. The system hardware is implemented in a single FPGA chip involving a 32-bit Nios II microprocessor, which is a configurable soft IP core in charge of managing the image buffer and users' configuration data. The Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD) algorithm is used for dense disparity map computation. The circuits of the algorithmic module are modeled by the Matlab-based DSP Builder. With a set of configuration interfaces, the machine can process many different sizes of stereo pair images. The maximum image size is up to 512 K pixels. This machine is designed to focus on real time stereo vision applications. The stereo vision machine offers good performance and high efficiency in real time. Considering a hardware FPGA clock of 90 MHz, 23 frames of 640 × 480 disparity maps can be obtained in one second with 5 × 5 matching window and maximum 64 disparity pixels. PMID:23459385

  5. Absolute and relative blindsight.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, absolute blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or absolute blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and absolute blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight.

  6. The Effects of Distraction and Reappraisal On Children's Parasympathetic Regulation of Sadness and Fear

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Quiñones-Camacho, Laura; Buss, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Children commonly experience negative emotions like sadness and fear, and much recent empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the factors supporting and predicting effective emotion regulation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a cardiac index of parasympathetic function, has emerged as a key physiological correlate of children's self-regulation. But, little is known about how children's use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies corresponds to concurrent parasympathetic regulation (i.e., RSA reactivity while watching an emotion-eliciting video). The current study describes an experimental paradigm in which 101 5- to 6-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of three different emotion regulation conditions (Control, Distraction, Reappraisal). All children watched a sad and a scary film (order counterbalanced), and children in the Distraction and Reappraisal conditions received instructions to deploy the target strategy to manage sadness/fear while they watched. Consistent with predictions, children assigned to use either emotion regulation strategy showed greater RSA augmentation from baseline than children in the Control condition (all children showed an overall increase in RSA levels from baseline), suggesting enhanced parasympathetic calming when children used Distraction or Reappraisal to regulate sadness and fear. But, this pattern was found only among children who viewed the sad film before the scary film. Among children who viewed the scary film first, Reappraisal promoted marginally better parasympathetic regulation of fear (no condition differences emerged for parasympathetic regulation of sadness when the sad film was viewed second). Results are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of children's emotion regulation and affective physiology. PMID:26601786

  7. Mona Lisa is always happy – and only sometimes sad

    PubMed Central

    Liaci, Emanuela; Fischer, Andreas; Heinrichs, Markus; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide fascination of da Vinci’s Mona Lisa has been dedicated to the emotional ambiguity of her face expression. In the present study we manipulated Mona Lisa’s mouth curvature as one potential source of ambiguity and studied how a range of happier and sadder face variants influences perception. In two experimental conditions we presented different stimulus ranges with different step sizes between stimuli along the happy-sad axis of emotional face expressions. Stimuli were presented in random order and participants indicated the perceived emotional face expression (first task) and the confidence of their response (second task). The probability of responding ‘happy’ to the original Mona Lisa was close to 100%. Furthermore, in both conditions the perceived happiness of Mona Lisa variants described sigmoidal functions of the mouth curvature. Participants’ confidence was weakest around the sigmoidal inflection points. Remarkably, the sigmoidal functions, as well as confidence values and reaction times, differed significantly between experimental conditions. Finally, participants responded generally faster to happy than to sad faces. Overall, the original Mona Lisa seems to be less ambiguous than expected. However, perception of and reaction to the emotional face content is relative and strongly depends on the used stimulus range. PMID:28281547

  8. Mona Lisa is always happy - and only sometimes sad.

    PubMed

    Liaci, Emanuela; Fischer, Andreas; Heinrichs, Markus; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Kornmeier, Jürgen

    2017-03-10

    The worldwide fascination of da Vinci's Mona Lisa has been dedicated to the emotional ambiguity of her face expression. In the present study we manipulated Mona Lisa's mouth curvature as one potential source of ambiguity and studied how a range of happier and sadder face variants influences perception. In two experimental conditions we presented different stimulus ranges with different step sizes between stimuli along the happy-sad axis of emotional face expressions. Stimuli were presented in random order and participants indicated the perceived emotional face expression (first task) and the confidence of their response (second task). The probability of responding 'happy' to the original Mona Lisa was close to 100%. Furthermore, in both conditions the perceived happiness of Mona Lisa variants described sigmoidal functions of the mouth curvature. Participants' confidence was weakest around the sigmoidal inflection points. Remarkably, the sigmoidal functions, as well as confidence values and reaction times, differed significantly between experimental conditions. Finally, participants responded generally faster to happy than to sad faces. Overall, the original Mona Lisa seems to be less ambiguous than expected. However, perception of and reaction to the emotional face content is relative and strongly depends on the used stimulus range.

  9. Male Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Risk in the Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors – Differences in Excess Relative and Absolute Risk from Female Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Little, Mark P.; McElvenny, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are well-known associations of ionizing radiation with female breast cancer, and emerging evidence also for male breast cancer. In the United Kingdom, female breast cancer following occupational radiation exposure is among that set of cancers eligible for state compensation and consideration is currently being given to an extension to include male breast cancer. Objectives: We compare radiation-associated excess relative and absolute risks of male and female breast cancers. Methods: Breast cancer incidence and mortality data in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors were analyzed using relative and absolute risk models via Poisson regression. Results: We observed significant (p ≤ 0.01) dose-related excess risk for male breast cancer incidence and mortality. For incidence and mortality data, there are elevations by factors of approximately 15 and 5, respectively, of relative risk for male compared with female breast cancer incidence, the former borderline significant (p = 0.050). In contrast, for incidence and mortality data, there are elevations by factors of approximately 20 and 10, respectively, of female absolute risk compared with male, both statistically significant (p < 0.001). There are no indications of differences between the sexes in age/time-since-exposure/age-at-exposure modifications to the relative or absolute excess risk. The probability of causation of male breast cancer following radiation exposure exceeds by at least a factor of 5 that of many other malignancies. Conclusions: There is evidence of much higher radiation-associated relative risk for male than for female breast cancer, although absolute excess risks for males are much less than for females. However, the small number of male cases and deaths suggests a degree of caution in interpretation of this finding. Citation: Little MP, McElvenny DM. 2017. Male breast cancer incidence and mortality risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors – differences in excess relative and

  10. Sadness is unique: neural processing of emotions in speech prosody in musicians and non-musicians

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Welker, Lorenz; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Meindl, Thomas; Blautzik, Janusch; Reiser, Maximilian; Bao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Musical training has been shown to have positive effects on several aspects of speech processing, however, the effects of musical training on the neural processing of speech prosody conveying distinct emotions are yet to be better understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the neural responses to speech prosody conveying happiness, sadness, and fear differ between musicians and non-musicians. Differences in processing of emotional speech prosody between the two groups were only observed when sadness was expressed. Musicians showed increased activation in the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the retrosplenial cortex. Our results suggest an increased sensitivity of emotional processing in musicians with respect to sadness expressed in speech, possibly reflecting empathic processes. PMID:25688196

  11. Prediction of Happy-Sad Mood from Daily Behaviors and Previous Sleep History

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Akane; Yu, Amy; McHill, Andrew W.; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Taylor, Sara; Jaques, Natasha; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Picard, Rosalind W.

    2016-01-01

    We collected and analyzed subjective and objective data using surveys and wearable sensors worn day and night from 68 participants, for 30 days each, to address questions related to the relationships among sleep duration, sleep irregularity, self-reported Happy-Sad mood and other factors in college students. We analyzed daily and monthly behavior and physiology and identified factors that affect mood, including how accurately sleep duration and sleep regularity for the past 1-5 days classified the participants into high/low mood using support vector machines. We found statistically significant associations among sad mood and poor health-related factors. Behavioral factors such as the percentage of neutral social interactions and the total academic activity hours showed the best performance in separating the Happy-Sad mood groups. Sleep regularity was a more important discriminator of mood than sleep duration for most participants, although both variables predicted happy/sad mood with from 70-82% accuracy. The number of nights giving the best prediction of happy/sad mood varied for different groups of individuals. PMID:26737854

  12. The performance of different propensity-score methods for estimating differences in proportions (risk differences or absolute risk reductions) in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C

    2010-09-10

    Propensity score methods are increasingly being used to estimate the effects of treatments on health outcomes using observational data. There are four methods for using the propensity score to estimate treatment effects: covariate adjustment using the propensity score, stratification on the propensity score, propensity-score matching, and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score. When outcomes are binary, the effect of treatment on the outcome can be described using odds ratios, relative risks, risk differences, or the number needed to treat. Several clinical commentators suggested that risk differences and numbers needed to treat are more meaningful for clinical decision making than are odds ratios or relative risks. However, there is a paucity of information about the relative performance of the different propensity-score methods for estimating risk differences. We conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations to examine this issue. We examined bias, variance estimation, coverage of confidence intervals, mean-squared error (MSE), and type I error rates. A doubly robust version of IPTW had superior performance compared with the other propensity-score methods. It resulted in unbiased estimation of risk differences, treatment effects with the lowest standard errors, confidence intervals with the correct coverage rates, and correct type I error rates. Stratification, matching on the propensity score, and covariate adjustment using the propensity score resulted in minor to modest bias in estimating risk differences. Estimators based on IPTW had lower MSE compared with other propensity-score methods. Differences between IPTW and propensity-score matching may reflect that these two methods estimate the average treatment effect and the average treatment effect for the treated, respectively.

  13. Temporal pole activity during perception of sad faces, but not happy faces, correlates with neuroticism trait.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2009-03-27

    It is known that the temporal cortex is involved in perception of emotional facial expressions, and the involvement is relatively independent of the emotional valence of those expressions. The present study revealed a valence-dependent aspect of the temporal cortex through individual differences analyses involving the neuroticism trait, one of the representative affective personality traits. Functional MRI was administered while subjects classified expressions of faces, and neuroticism scores were obtained from individual subjects. Significant brain activity was observed in the temporal pole (TP) during perception of both happy and sad expressions relative to neutral expressions. Correlational analyses revealed that TP activity during perception of sad expressions, but not happy expressions, correlated with the neuroticism scores. These results demonstrate differential roles for the temporal cortex in perception of happy and sad faces, and suggest that TP recruitment during understanding of negative emotions is dependent on the personality of the individuals.

  14. Do sadness-primes make me work harder because they make me sad?

    PubMed

    Lasauskaite, Ruta; Gendolla, Guido H E; Silvestrini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This experiment sought to clarify the potential role of emotional feelings in the systematic impact of implicitly processed affective stimuli on mental effort mobilisation. Participants worked on an attention task during which they were primed with suboptimally presented happiness versus sadness expressions. Before the task, half the participants received a cue for the possible affective influence of "flickers" to be presented during the task. This manipulation usually reduces the impact of conscious feelings on resource mobilisation. As anticipated, sadness primes resulted in higher experienced task demand and higher mental effort (stronger cardiac contractility assessed as shortened pre-ejection period) than happiness primes. Most importantly, instead of reducing the prime effects on mental effort, the cue manipulation significantly increased participants' effort in general, reflecting additional cognitive demand. The results speak against the idea that affect primes influence effort mobilisation by eliciting conscious emotional feelings.

  15. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing in later life.

  16. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  17. Ball driven type MEMS SAD for artillery fuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Jin Oh; Jeong, Ji-hun; Eom, Junseong; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Chun Jae; Ryu, Sung Moon; Oh, Jong Soo

    2017-01-01

    The SAD (safety and arming device) is an indispensable fuse component that ensures safe and reliable performance during the use of ammunition. Because the application of electronic devices for smart munitions is increasing, miniaturization of the SAD has become one of the key issues for next-generation artillery fuses. Based on MEMS technology, various types of miniaturized SADs have been proposed and fabricated. However, none of them have been reported to have been used in actual munitions due to their lack of high impact endurance and complicated explosive train arrangements. In this research, a new MEMS SAD using a ball driven mechanism, is successfully demonstrated based on a UV LIGA (lithography, electroplating and molding) process. Unlike other MEMS SADs, both high impact endurance and simple structure were achieved by using a ball driven mechanism. The simple structural design also simplified the fabrication process and increased the processing yield. The ball driven type MEMS SAD performed successfully under the desired safe and arming conditions of a spin test and showed fine agreement with the FEM simulation result, conducted prior to its fabrication. A field test was also performed with a grenade launcher to evaluate the SAD performance in the firing environment. All 30 of the grenade samples equipped with the proposed MEMS SAD operated successfully under the high-G setback condition.

  18. An update on safety studies of SAD B19 rabies virus vaccine in target and non-target species.

    PubMed Central

    Vos, A.; Neubert, A.; Aylan, O.; Schuster, P.; Pommerening, E.; Müller, T.; Chivatsi, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    SAD B19 is an attenuated vaccine virus for oral vaccination of carnivores against rabies. The safety of SAD B19 was investigated in 16 animal species by different routes of administration. During the observation period all animals given the vaccine virus, irrespective of the route of administration, did not show any clinical signs of rabies, with the exception of certain rodent species. In these animals a low residual pathogenicity was observed, however transmission of the vaccine virus to control animals was not demonstrable. No vaccine virus could be detected in the saliva of the six mammal species examined. Furthermore, the genetical stability was shown for SAD B19 through passaging in neural tissue of dogs, foxes and mice. From the results presented here on innocuity and stability, it can be concluded that SAD B19 rabies vaccine is suitable for oral vaccination campaigns for carnivores against rabies. PMID:10487653

  19. Predicting Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior from Young Children's Dispositional Sadness.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Alison; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Reiser, Mark; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior and if sympathy mediated this relation. Constructs were measured when children (N = 256 at Time 1) were 18-, 30-, and 42-months old. Mothers and non-parental caregivers rated children's sadness; mothers, caregivers, and fathers rated children's prosocial behavior; sympathy (concern and hypothesis testing) and prosocial behavior (indirect and direct, as well as verbal at older ages) were assessed with a task in which the experimenter feigned injury. In a panel path analysis, 30-month dispositional sadness predicted marginally higher 42-month sympathy; in addition, 30-month sympathy predicted 42-month sadness. Moreover, when controlling for prior levels of prosocial behavior, 30-month sympathy significantly predicted reported and observed prosocial behavior at 42 months. Sympathy did not mediate the relation between sadness and prosocial behavior (either reported or observed).

  20. Anticipated Coping with Interpersonal Stressors: Links with the Emotional Reactions of Sadness, Anger, and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.; Morris, Helen; Thomas, Rae

    2013-01-01

    The same stressor can evoke different emotions across individuals, and emotions can prompt certain coping responses. Responding to four videotaped interpersonal stressors, adolescents ("N" = 230, the average values of "X"[subscript age] = 10 years) reported their sadness, fear "and" anger, and 12 coping strategies.…

  1. Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

  2. Medical Physics Education at the University of Novi Sad - Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanković, Slobodanka; Vesković, Miroslav; Klisurić, Olivera; Spasić, Vesna

    2007-04-01

    Overview of new educational program and training in Medical Physics at the University of Novi Sad is presented, where the medical physics education from undergraduate to doctoral study is established in the last decade. Necessity for basic and additional education and hospital training for medical physicists becomes the evident subject in clinical practice in which physicists and physicians are in close collaboration to ensure high quality of patient care. Learning objectives: to incorporate the latest scientific and professional findings in the field of medical physics, medical diagnostics, therapy and instruments; to accomodate students' pursuits of individual fields by offering elective courses from different areas of current medical practice; to reflect the multidisciplinary spirit of the studies, since teaching is performed by experts from diverse fields.

  3. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  4. Electrical synaptic input to ganglion cells underlies differences in the output and absolute sensitivity of parallel retinal circuits.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gabe J; Rieke, Fred

    2011-08-24

    Parallel circuits throughout the CNS exhibit distinct sensitivities and responses to sensory stimuli. Ambiguities in the source and properties of signals elicited by physiological stimuli, however, frequently obscure the mechanisms underlying these distinctions. We found that differences in the degree to which activity in two classes of Off retinal ganglion cell (RGC) encode information about light stimuli near detection threshold were not due to obvious differences in the cells' intrinsic properties or the chemical synaptic input the cells received; indeed, differences in the cells' light responses were largely insensitive to block of fast ionotropic glutamate receptors. Instead, the distinct responses of the two types of RGCs likely reflect differences in light-evoked electrical synaptic input. These results highlight a surprising strategy by which the retina differentially processes and routes visual information and provide new insight into the circuits that underlie responses to stimuli near detection threshold.

  5. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort study quantifying age- and gender-specific differences in relative and absolute terms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR) of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.32 – 1.36) in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47) in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden of AMI was low. Absolute

  6. Sad and happy emotion discrimination in music by children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Hopyan, Talar; Manno, Francis A M; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Children using cochlear implants (CIs) develop speech perception but have difficulty perceiving complex acoustic signals. Mode and tempo are the two components used to recognize emotion in music. Based on CI limitations, we hypothesized children using CIs would have impaired perception of mode cues relative to their normal hearing peers and would rely more heavily on tempo cues to distinguish happy from sad music. Study participants were children with 13 right CIs and 3 left CIs (M = 12.7, SD = 2.6 years) and 16 normal hearing peers. Participants judged 96 brief piano excerpts from the classical genre as happy or sad in a forced-choice task. Music was randomly presented with alterations of transposed mode, tempo, or both. When music was presented in original form, children using CIs discriminated between happy and sad music with accuracy well above chance levels (87.5%) but significantly below those with normal hearing (98%). The CI group primarily used tempo cues, whereas normal hearing children relied more on mode cues. Transposing both mode and tempo cues in the same musical excerpt obliterated cues to emotion for both groups. Children using CIs showed significantly slower response times across all conditions. Children using CIs use tempo cues to discriminate happy versus sad music reflecting a very different hearing strategy than their normal hearing peers. Slower reaction times by children using CIs indicate that they found the task more difficult and support the possibility that they require different strategies to process emotion in music than normal.

  7. Absolute and relative dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film for high energy electron beams with different doses per pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Anglesio, Silvia; Giglioli, Francesca Romana

    2008-12-15

    The authors have evaluated the accuracy, in absolute and relative dose measurements, of the Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film in pulsed high-energy electron beams. Typically, the electron beams used in radiotherapy have a dose-per-pulse value of less than 0.1 mGy/pulse. However, very high dose-per-pulse electron beams are employed in certain linear accelerators dedicated to intraoperatory radiation therapy (IORT). In this study, the absorbed dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in both low (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high (30 and 70 mGy per pulse) dose-per-pulse electron beams were compared with ferrous sulfate chemical Fricke dosimetry (operated by the Italian Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory), a method independent of the dose per pulse. A summary of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in relative and absolute beam output determination is reported. This study demonstrates the independence of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT absorption as a function of dose per pulse at different dose levels. A good agreement (within 3%) was found with Fricke dosimeters for plane-base IORT applicators. Comparison with a diode detector is presented for relative dose measurements, showing acceptable agreement both in the steep dose falloff zone and in the homogeneous dose region. This work also provides experimental values for recombination correction factor (K{sub sat}) of a Roos (plane parallel) ionization chamber calculated on the basis of theoretical models for charge recombination.

  8. The pleasures of sad music: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Matthew E; Damasio, Antonio; Habibi, Assal

    2015-01-01

    Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated.

  9. The pleasures of sad music: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Matthew E.; Damasio, Antonio; Habibi, Assal

    2015-01-01

    Sadness is generally seen as a negative emotion, a response to distressing and adverse situations. In an aesthetic context, however, sadness is often associated with some degree of pleasure, as suggested by the ubiquity and popularity, throughout history, of music, plays, films and paintings with a sad content. Here, we focus on the fact that music regarded as sad is often experienced as pleasurable. Compared to other art forms, music has an exceptional ability to evoke a wide-range of feelings and is especially beguiling when it deals with grief and sorrow. Why is it, then, that while human survival depends on preventing painful experiences, mental pain often turns out to be explicitly sought through music? In this article we consider why and how sad music can become pleasurable. We offer a framework to account for how listening to sad music can lead to positive feelings, contending that this effect hinges on correcting an ongoing homeostatic imbalance. Sadness evoked by music is found pleasurable: (1) when it is perceived as non-threatening; (2) when it is aesthetically pleasing; and (3) when it produces psychological benefits such as mood regulation, and empathic feelings, caused, for example, by recollection of and reflection on past events. We also review neuroimaging studies related to music and emotion and focus on those that deal with sadness. Further exploration of the neural mechanisms through which stimuli that usually produce sadness can induce a positive affective state could help the development of effective therapies for disorders such as depression, in which the ability to experience pleasure is attenuated. PMID:26257625

  10. Native sulfur/chlorine SAD phasing for serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakane, Takanori; Song, Changyong; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nakatsu, Toru; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Sugahara, Michihiro

    2015-11-27

    Sulfur SAD phasing facilitates the structure determination of diverse native proteins using femtosecond X-rays from free-electron lasers via serial femtosecond crystallography. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) allows structures to be determined with minimal radiation damage. However, phasing native crystals in SFX is not very common. Here, the structure determination of native lysozyme from single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) by utilizing the anomalous signal of sulfur and chlorine at a wavelength of 1.77 Å is successfully demonstrated. This sulfur SAD method can be applied to a wide range of proteins, which will improve the determination of native crystal structures.

  11. Parental socialization of sadness regulation in middle childhood: the role of expectations and gender.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Michael C; Zeman, Janice L

    2010-09-01

    The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation of parent-child interactions in 62 families of White, middle-class children in 3rd and 4th grades. Families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions. After parents were provided with a description of normative child behavior on a sadness-induction task, feedback was manipulated such that parents in the control condition were told their child had demonstrated typical regulation while parents in the violated-expectancy condition were informed their child did not manage sadness as well as peers. The hypothesis that violated expectancies influence socialization processes was supported, with greater evidence emerging for fathers than mothers. In certain circumstances within the violated-expectancy condition, there was more parental similarity in socialization practices than in the control condition. Further, mother-father comparisons indicated differences in socialization as a function of parent and child gender that were generally consistent with gender stereotypes.

  12. The population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and SAD/height ratio among Finnish adults

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, H. S.; Rissanen, H.; Bullard, K. M.; Knekt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD; ‘abdominal height’ measured in supine position) may improve upon conventional anthropometry for predicting incident cardiometabolic diseases. However, the SAD is used infrequently by practitioners and epidemiologists. A representative survey of Finnish adults in 2000–2001 collected body measurements including SAD (by sliding-beam calliper) using standardized protocols. Sampled non-pregnant adults (ages 30+ years; 79% participation) provided 6123 SAD measurements from 80 health centre districts. Through stratified, complex survey design, these data represented 2.86 million adults at ages 30+ years. SAD ranged from 13.5 to 38.0 cm, with a population mean (standard error) of 21.7 (0.05) cm and median (interquartile range) of 21.0 (19.1–23.4). Median SAD was higher at ages 50+ years compared with ages 30–49 both for men (22.4 [20.5–24.6] vs. 20.8 [19.3–22.7]) and women (21.7 [19.6–23.9] vs. 19.4 [17.8–21.4]). The SAD/height ratio was similar (0.118) for both sexes at 30–39 years, rising more steeply with age for women than men. Attaining only a basic education, compared with a high level, was associated with increased mean (95% confidence interval) SADs for men (22.6 [22.3–22.8] vs. 22.0 [21.7–22.2]) and women (21.8 [21.5–22.0] vs. 20.6 [20.4–20.8]). Finland’s early experience with nationally representative SAD measurements provides normative reference values and physiological insights useful for investigations of cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25826163

  13. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  14. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics

    PubMed Central

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions

  15. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions.

  16. Sad man's nose: Emotion induction and olfactory perception.

    PubMed

    Flohr, Elena L R; Erwin, Elena; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Emotional and olfactory processing is frequently shown to be closely linked both anatomically and functionally. Depression, a disease closely related to the emotional state of sadness, has been shown to be associated with a decrease in olfactory sensitivity. The present study focuses on the state of sadness in n = 31 healthy subjects in order to investigate the specific contribution of this affective state in the modulation of olfactory processing. A sad or indifferent affective state was induced using 2 movies that were presented on 2 separate days. Afterward, chemosensory-evoked potentials were recorded after stimulation with an unpleasant (hydrogen sulfide: "rotten eggs") or a pleasant (phenyl ethyl alcohol: "rose") odorant. Latencies of N1 and P2 peaks were longer after induction of the sad affective state. Additionally, amplitudes were lower in a sad affective state when being stimulated with the unpleasant odorant. Processing of olfactory input has thus been reduced under conditions of the sad affective state. We argue that the affective state per se could at least partially account for the reduced olfactory sensitivity in depressed patients. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show influence of affective state on chemosensory event-related potentials. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Absolute-structure reports.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2013-08-01

    All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of absolute structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the absolute structure.

  18. Absolutely classical spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "absolutely classical" spin states, in analogy to absolutely separable states of bipartite quantum systems. Absolutely classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of absolutely classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of absolutely separable states.

  19. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  20. Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…

  1. Mitigation of Atmospheric Delay in SAR Absolute Ranging Using Global Numerical Weather Prediction Data: Corner Reflector Experiments at 3 Different Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Xiaoying; Balss, Ulrich; Eineder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric delay due to vertical stratification, the so-called stratified atmospheric delay, has a great impact on both interferometric and absolute range measurements. In our current researches [1][2][3], centimeter-range accuracy has been proven based on Corner Reflector (CR) based measurements by applying atmospheric delay correction using the Zenith Path Delay (ZPD) corrections derived from nearby Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. For a global usage, an effective method has been introduced to estimate the stratified delay based on global 4-dimensional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) products: the direct integration method [4][5]. Two products, ERA-Interim and operational data, provided by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) are used to integrate the stratified delay. In order to access the integration accuracy, a validation approach is investigated based on ZPD derived from six permanent GPS stations located in different meteorological conditions. Range accuracy at centimeter level is demonstrated using both ECMWF products. Further experiments have been carried out in order to determine the best interpolation method by analyzing the temporal and spatial correlation of atmospheric delay using both ECMWF and GPS ZPD. Finally, the integrated atmospheric delays in slant direction (Slant Path Delay, SPD) have been applied instead of the GPS ZPD for CR experiments at three different test sites with more than 200 TerraSAR-X High Resolution SpotLight (HRSL) images. The delay accuracy is around 1-3 cm depending on the location of test site due to the local water vapor variation and the acquisition time/date. [1] Eineder M., Minet C., Steigenberger P., et al. Imaging geodesy - Toward centimeter-level ranging accuracy with TerraSAR-X. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 2011, 49(2): 661-671. [2] Balss U., Gisinger C., Cong X. Y., et al. Precise Measurements on the Absolute Localization Accuracy of TerraSAR-X on the

  2. The Pleasure Evoked by Sad Music Is Mediated by Feelings of Being Moved.

    PubMed

    Vuoskoski, Jonna K; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Why do we enjoy listening to music that makes us sad? This question has puzzled music psychologists for decades, but the paradox of "pleasurable sadness" remains to be solved. Recent findings from a study investigating the enjoyment of sad films suggest that the positive relationship between felt sadness and enjoyment might be explained by feelings of being moved (Hanich et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feelings of being moved also mediated the enjoyment of sad music. In Experiment 1, 308 participants listened to five sad music excerpts and rated their liking and felt emotions. A multilevel mediation analysis revealed that the initial positive relationship between liking and felt sadness (r = 0.22) was fully mediated by feelings of being moved. Experiment 2 explored the interconnections of perceived sadness, beauty, and movingness in 27 short music excerpts that represented independently varying levels of sadness and beauty. Two multilevel mediation analyses were carried out to test competing hypotheses: (A) that movingness mediates the effect of perceived sadness on liking, or (B) that perceived beauty mediates the effect of sadness on liking. Stronger support was obtained for Hypothesis A. Our findings suggest that - similarly to the enjoyment of sad films - the aesthetic appreciation of sad music is mediated by being moved. We argue that felt sadness may contribute to the enjoyment of sad music by intensifying feelings of being moved.

  3. In-House Zinc SAD Phasing at Cu Kα Edge

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sangmin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Ji, Chang-Jun; Lee, Jin-Won; Cha, Sun-Shin

    2013-01-01

    De novo zinc single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (Zn-SAD) phasing has been demonstrated with the 1.9 Å resolution data of glucose isomerase and 2.6 Å resolution data of Staphylococcus aureus Fur (SaFur) collected using in-house Cu Kα X-ray source. The successful in-house Zn-SAD phasing of glucose isomerase, based on the anomalous signals of both zinc ions introduced to crystals by soaking and native sulfur atoms, drove us to determine the structure of SaFur, a zinc-containing transcription factor, by Zn-SAD phasing using in-house X-ray source. The abundance of zinc-containing proteins in nature, the easy zinc derivatization of the protein surface, no need of synchrotron access, and the successful experimental phasing with the modest 2.6 Å resolution SAD data indicate that in-house Zn-SAD phasing can be widely applicable to structure determination. PMID:23686432

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  6. It's Sad but I Like It: The Neural Dissociation Between Musical Emotions and Liking in Experts and Laypersons.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Alluri, Vinoo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Eerola, Tuomas; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians.

  7. It's Sad but I Like It: The Neural Dissociation Between Musical Emotions and Liking in Experts and Laypersons

    PubMed Central

    Brattico, Elvira; Bogert, Brigitte; Alluri, Vinoo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Eerola, Tuomas; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians. PMID:26778996

  8. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  9. [Diagnostic of ADHD in childhood and adolescence with the K-SADS-PL].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sören; Banaschewski, Tobias; Garbe, Edeltraut; Petermann, Franz; Petermann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence, often accompanied by comorbid disorders. A high standard of diagnostic assessment combined with a demand for valid diagnostic instruments is necessary. The K-SADS-PL is an established semi-structured interview, focusing on the categorical assessment of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the following study was to examine specific characteristics of ADHD symptomatology including functional and behavioral assessment. Therefore correlations between the result in a diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL) and different ADHD-specific instruments were performed. Groups were formed (exposed vs. unexposed), based on the diagnostic finding in the K-SADS-PL. Group-specific test score differences were calculated and compared by multivariate analyses of covariance. Children with ADHD showed a significantly higher impact of conduct and emotional problems than the unexposed group. Health related quality of life was more impaired in children and families suffering from ADHD which refers to the relevance of family-oriented psychotherapy.

  10. The Pleasure Evoked by Sad Music Is Mediated by Feelings of Being Moved

    PubMed Central

    Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Why do we enjoy listening to music that makes us sad? This question has puzzled music psychologists for decades, but the paradox of “pleasurable sadness” remains to be solved. Recent findings from a study investigating the enjoyment of sad films suggest that the positive relationship between felt sadness and enjoyment might be explained by feelings of being moved (Hanich et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feelings of being moved also mediated the enjoyment of sad music. In Experiment 1, 308 participants listened to five sad music excerpts and rated their liking and felt emotions. A multilevel mediation analysis revealed that the initial positive relationship between liking and felt sadness (r = 0.22) was fully mediated by feelings of being moved. Experiment 2 explored the interconnections of perceived sadness, beauty, and movingness in 27 short music excerpts that represented independently varying levels of sadness and beauty. Two multilevel mediation analyses were carried out to test competing hypotheses: (A) that movingness mediates the effect of perceived sadness on liking, or (B) that perceived beauty mediates the effect of sadness on liking. Stronger support was obtained for Hypothesis A. Our findings suggest that – similarly to the enjoyment of sad films – the aesthetic appreciation of sad music is mediated by being moved. We argue that felt sadness may contribute to the enjoyment of sad music by intensifying feelings of being moved. PMID:28377740

  11. Memorable Experiences with Sad Music—Reasons, Reactions and Mechanisms of Three Types of Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Henna-Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Reactions to memorable experiences of sad music were studied by means of a survey administered to a convenience (N = 1577), representative (N = 445), and quota sample (N = 414). The survey explored the reasons, mechanisms, and emotions of such experiences. Memorable experiences linked with sad music typically occurred in relation to extremely familiar music, caused intense and pleasurable experiences, which were accompanied by physiological reactions and positive mood changes in about a third of the participants. A consistent structure of reasons and emotions for these experiences was identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across the samples. Three types of sadness experiences were established, one that was genuinely negative (Grief-Stricken Sorrow) and two that were positive (Comforting Sorrow and Sweet Sorrow). Each type of emotion exhibited certain individual differences and had distinct profiles in terms of the underlying reasons, mechanisms, and elicited reactions. The prevalence of these broad types of emotional experiences suggested that positive experiences are the most frequent, but negative experiences were not uncommon in any of the samples. The findings have implications for measuring emotions induced by music and fiction in general, and call attention to the non-pleasurable aspects of these experiences. PMID:27300268

  12. Distinctive effects of fear and sadness induction on anger and aggressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Jun; Ren, Jun; Fan, Jin; Luo, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A recent study has reported that the successful implementation of cognitive regulation of emotion depends on higher-level cognitive functions, such as top-down control, which may be impaired in stressful situations. This calls for “cognition free” self-regulatory strategies that do not require top-down control. In contrast to the cognitive regulation of emotion that emphasizes the role of cognition, traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine views the relationship among different types of emotions as promoting or counteracting each other without the involvement of cognition, which provides an insightful perspective for developing “cognition free” regulatory strategies. In this study, we examined two hypotheses regarding the modulation of anger and aggressive behavior: sadness counteracts anger and aggressive behavior, whereas fear promotes anger and aggressive behavior. Participants were first provoked by reading extremely negative feedback on their viewpoints (Study 1) and by watching anger-inducing movie clips (Study 2). Then, these angry participants were assigned to three equivalent groups and viewed sad, fear-inducing, or neutral materials to evoke the corresponding emotions. The results showed that participants displayed a lower level of aggressive behavior when sadness was later induced and a higher level of anger when fear was later induced. These results provide evidence that supports the hypothesis of mutual promotion and counteraction relationships among these types of emotions and imply a “cognition free” approach to regulating anger and aggressive behavior. PMID:26124725

  13. Memorable Experiences with Sad Music-Reasons, Reactions and Mechanisms of Three Types of Experiences.

    PubMed

    Eerola, Tuomas; Peltola, Henna-Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Reactions to memorable experiences of sad music were studied by means of a survey administered to a convenience (N = 1577), representative (N = 445), and quota sample (N = 414). The survey explored the reasons, mechanisms, and emotions of such experiences. Memorable experiences linked with sad music typically occurred in relation to extremely familiar music, caused intense and pleasurable experiences, which were accompanied by physiological reactions and positive mood changes in about a third of the participants. A consistent structure of reasons and emotions for these experiences was identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across the samples. Three types of sadness experiences were established, one that was genuinely negative (Grief-Stricken Sorrow) and two that were positive (Comforting Sorrow and Sweet Sorrow). Each type of emotion exhibited certain individual differences and had distinct profiles in terms of the underlying reasons, mechanisms, and elicited reactions. The prevalence of these broad types of emotional experiences suggested that positive experiences are the most frequent, but negative experiences were not uncommon in any of the samples. The findings have implications for measuring emotions induced by music and fiction in general, and call attention to the non-pleasurable aspects of these experiences.

  14. A Season of Sadness--"Responding to Tragedy in School"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havlland, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    In January, four juniors died in an automobile accident; in February a member of the previous year's graduating class committed suicide; in March a member of the faculty died suddenly; and a crazed gunman killed three current and one former student. Spring 1999 was a season of sadness. Several Penncrest faculty meetings were devoted to reviewing…

  15. Do Poor Readers Feel Angry, Sad, and Unpopular?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether being poorly skilled in reading contributes to children's reported feelings of anger, distractibility, anxiety, sadness, loneliness, and social isolation. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal subsample of children (N = 3,308) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Multilevel logistic…

  16. Flexible parasympathetic responses to sadness facilitate spontaneous affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Fresco, David M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-03-23

    The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known. In a study of 178 undergraduate students, we evaluated whether parasympathetic flexibility in response to a sad film involving loss would enhance the effectiveness of regulatory strategies (reappraisal, distraction, and suppression) spontaneously employed to reduce negative affect during a 2-min uninstructed recovery period following the induction. Parasympathetic reactivity and recovery were indexed by fluctuations in respiratory sinus arrhythmia and high-frequency heart rate variability. Cognitive reappraisal and distraction were more effective in attenuating negative affect among individuals with more parasympathetic flexibility, particularly greater vagal augmentation during recovery, relative to individuals with less parasympathetic flexibility. In contrast, suppression was associated with less attenuation of negative affect, but only among individuals who also had less vagal withdrawal during the sad film. Alternative models provided partial support for reversed directionality, with reappraisal predicting greater parasympathetic recovery, but only when individuals also experienced greater reductions in negative affect. These results suggest that contextually appropriate parasympathetic reactivity and recovery may facilitate the success of affect regulation. Impairments in parasympathetic flexibility could confer risk for affective disorders due to attenuated capacity for effective self-regulation.

  17. Laughter exaggerates happy and sad faces depending on visual context.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Aleksandra; Sweeny, Timothy D; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-04-01

    Laughter is an auditory stimulus that powerfully conveys positive emotion. We investigated how laughter influenced the visual perception of facial expressions. We presented a sound clip of laughter simultaneously with a happy, a neutral, or a sad schematic face. The emotional face was briefly presented either alone or among a crowd of neutral faces. We used a matching method to determine how laughter influenced the perceived intensity of the happy, neutral, and sad expressions. For a single face, laughter increased the perceived intensity of a happy expression. Surprisingly, for a crowd of faces, laughter produced an opposite effect, increasing the perceived intensity of a sad expression in a crowd. A follow-up experiment revealed that this contrast effect may have occurred because laughter made the neutral distractor faces appear slightly happy, thereby making the deviant sad expression stand out in contrast. A control experiment ruled out semantic mediation of the laughter effects. Our demonstration of the strong context dependence of laughter effects on facial expression perception encourages a reexamination of the previously demonstrated effects of prosody, speech content, and mood on face perception, as they may be similarly context dependent.

  18. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutter, D J L G; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with DBD (with and without ADHD) (n = 67) and with ADHD only (n = 27) were compared to typically developing children (TD) (n = 37). Parents and teachers rated affective empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Children reported affective empathic ability in response to sad story vignettes. Empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress was assessed with a computer task, the Interpersonal Response Task (IRT). Compared to TD, children with DBD (with and without ADHD) and those with ADHD only were rated as less empathic by their teachers, but not by their parents. No differences between groups were observed in children who reported affect correspondence. Children with DBD (with and without ADHD) showed less prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress compared to TD. Children with ADHD only did not differ from TD. An additional analysis comparing all children with a diagnosis to the TD group revealed that the difference in prosocial behavior remained after controlling for ADHD symptoms, but not after controlling for DBD symptoms. These findings of impaired empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in young children with DBD suggest that interventions to ameliorate peer relationships may benefit from targeting on increasing prosocial behavior in these children.

  19. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  20. Genetic characterisation of attenuated SAD rabies virus strains used for oral vaccination of wildlife.

    PubMed

    Geue, Lutz; Schares, Susann; Schnick, Christina; Kliemt, Jeannette; Beckert, Aline; Freuling, Conrad; Conraths, Franz J; Hoffmann, Bernd; Zanoni, Reto; Marston, Denise; McElhinney, Lorraine; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Tordo, Noel; Müller, Thomas

    2008-06-19

    The elimination of rabies from the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Western Europe has been achieved by the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of wildlife with a range of attenuated rabies virus strains. With the exception of the vaccinia rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine (VRG), all strains were originally derived from a common ancestor; the Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) field strain. However, after more than 30 years of ORV it is still not possible to distinguish these vaccine strains and there is little information on the genetic basis for their attenuation. We therefore sequenced and compared the full-length genome of five commercially available SAD vaccine viruses (SAD B19, SAD P5/88, SAG2, SAD VA1 and SAD Bern) and four other SAD strains (the original SAD Bern, SAD VA1, ERA and SAD 1-3670 Wistar). Nucleotide sequencing allowed identifying each vaccine strain unambiguously. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the currently used commercial attenuated rabies virus vaccines appear to be derived from SAD B19 rather than from SAD Bern. One commercially available vaccine virus did not contain the SAD strain mentioned in the product information of the producer. Two SAD vaccine strains appeared to consist of mixed genomic sequences. Furthermore, in-del events targeting A-rich sequences (in positive strand) within the 3' non-coding regions of M and G genes were observed in SAD-derivates developed in Europe. Our data also supports the idea of a possible recombination that had occurred during the derivation of the European branch of SAD viruses. If confirmed, this recombination event would be the first one reported among RABV vaccine strains.

  1. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  2. Fast native-SAD phasing for routine macromolecular structure determination.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Tobias; Olieric, Vincent; Waltersperger, Sandro; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Dayong; Rose, John; Ebihara, Akio; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Li, Dianfan; Howe, Nicole; Schnapp, Gisela; Pautsch, Alexander; Bargsten, Katja; Prota, Andrea E; Surana, Parag; Kottur, Jithesh; Nair, Deepak T; Basilico, Federica; Cecatiello, Valentina; Pasqualato, Sebastiano; Boland, Andreas; Weichenrieder, Oliver; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Steinmetz, Michel O; Caffrey, Martin; Wang, Meitian

    2015-02-01

    We describe a data collection method that uses a single crystal to solve X-ray structures by native SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction). We solved the structures of 11 real-life examples, including a human membrane protein, a protein-DNA complex and a 266-kDa multiprotein-ligand complex, using this method. The data collection strategy is suitable for routine structure determination and can be implemented at most macromolecular crystallography synchrotron beamlines.

  3. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  4. The effect of sad facial expressions on weight judgment

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Trent D.; Hass, Norah C.; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2015-01-01

    Although the body weight evaluation (e.g., normal or overweight) of others relies on perceptual impressions, it also can be influenced by other psychosocial factors. In this study, we explored the effect of task-irrelevant emotional facial expressions on judgments of body weight and the relationship between emotion-induced weight judgment bias and other psychosocial variables including attitudes toward obese persons. Forty-four participants were asked to quickly make binary body weight decisions for 960 randomized sad and neutral faces of varying weight levels presented on a computer screen. The results showed that sad facial expressions systematically decreased the decision threshold of overweight judgments for male faces. This perceptual decision bias by emotional expressions was positively correlated with the belief that being overweight is not under the control of obese persons. Our results provide experimental evidence that task-irrelevant emotional expressions can systematically change the decision threshold for weight judgments, demonstrating that sad expressions can make faces appear more overweight than they would otherwise be judged. PMID:25914669

  5. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency) by removing the source spectrum (moment-rate spectrum) from

  6. Absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.

    2006-03-27

    As a step toward absolute calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.

  7. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  8. Absolute realization of low BRDF value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zilong; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu

    2010-10-01

    Low BRDF value is widespread used in many critical domains such as space and military fairs. These values below 0.1 Sr-1 . So the Absolute realization of these value is the most critical issue in the absolute measurement of BRDF. To develop the Absolute value realization theory of BRDF , defining an arithmetic operators of BRDF , achieving an absolute measurement Eq. of BRDF based on radiance. This is a new theory method to solve the realization problem of low BRDF value. This theory method is realized on a self-designed common double orientation structure in space. By designing an adding structure to extend the range of the measurement system and a control and processing software, Absolute realization of low BRDF value is achieved. A material of low BRDF value is measured in this measurement system and the spectral BRDF value are showed within different angles allover the space. All these values are below 0.4 Sr-1 . This process is a representative procedure about the measurement of low BRDF value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis of this measurement data is given depend on the new theory of absolute realization and the performance of the measurement system. The relative expand uncertainty of the measurement data is 0.078. This uncertainty analysis is suitable for all measurements using the new theory of absolute realization and the corresponding measurement system.

  9. Recognizing induced emotions of happiness and sadness from dance movement.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Edith; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30) watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement.

  10. Small angle neutron scattering on an absolute intensity scale and the internal surface of diatom frustules from three species of differing morphologies.

    PubMed

    Garvey, C J; Strobl, M; Percot, A; Saroun, J; Haug, J; Vyverman, W; Chepurnov, V A; Ferris, J M

    2013-05-01

    The internal nanostructure of the diatoms Cyclotella meneghiniana, Seminavis robusta and Achnanthes subsessilis was investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to examine thin biosilica samples, consisting of isotropic (powder) from their isolated cell walls. The interpretation of SANS data was assisted by several other measurements. The N2 adsorption, interpreted within the Branuer-Emmet-Teller isotherm, yielded the specific surface area of the material. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy indicates that the isolated material is amorphous silica with small amounts of organic cell wall materials acting as a filling material between the silica particles. A two-phase (air and amorphous silica) model was used to interpret small angle neutron scattering data. After correction for instrumental resolution, the measurements on two SANS instruments covered an extended range of scattering vectors 0.0011 nm(-1) < q < 5.6 nm(-1), giving an almost continuous SANS curve over a range of scattering vectors, q, on an absolute scale of intensity for each sample. Each of the samples gave a characteristic scattering curve where log (intensity) versus log (q) has a -4 dependence, with other features superimposed. In the high-q regime, departure from this behaviour was observed at a length-scales equivalent to the proposed unitary silica particle. The limiting Porod scattering law was used to determine the specific area per unit of volume of each sample illuminated by the neutron beam. The Porod behaviour, and divergence from this behaviour, is discussed in terms of various structural features and the proposed mechanisms for the bio-assembly of unitary silica particles in frustules.

  11. Regulating sadness and fear from outside and within: mothers' emotion socialization and adolescents' parasympathetic regulation predict the development of internalizing difficulties.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Kendziora, Kimberly T; Brand, Ann; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    Multilevel models of developmental psychopathology implicate both characteristics of the individual and their rearing environment in the etiology of internalizing problems and disorders. Maladaptive regulation of fear and sadness, the core of anxiety and depression, arises from the conjoint influences of ineffective parasympathetic regulation of emotion and ineffective emotion socialization experiences. In 171 youths (84 female, M = 13.69 years, SD = 1.84), we measured changes of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to sadness- and fear-inducing film clips and maternal supportive and punitive responses to youths' internalizing emotions. Youths and mothers reported on youths' internalizing problems and anxiety and depression symptoms concurrently and 2 years later at Time 2. Maternal supportive emotion socialization predicted fewer, and punitive socialization predicted more, mother-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 only for youths who showed RSA suppression to fear-inducing films. More RSA suppression to sadness-inducing films predicted more youth-reported internalizing problems at Time 2 in girls only. In addition, less supportive emotion socialization predicted more youth-reported depression symptoms at Time 2 only for girls who showed more RSA suppression to sadness. RSA suppression to sadness versus fear might reflect different patterns of atypical parasympathetic regulation of emotional arousal, both of which increase the risk for internalizing difficulties in youths, and especially girls, who lack maternal support for regulating emotions.

  12. Sad mood increases pain sensitivity upon thermal grill illusion stimulation: implications for central pain processing.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Schwier, Christiane; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In different fields of neuroscience research, illusions have successfully been used to unravel underlying mechanisms of stimulus processing. One such illusion existing for the field of pain research is the so-called thermal grill illusion. Here, painful sensations are elicited by interlacing warm and cold bars, with stimulus intensities (temperatures) of these bars being below the respective heat pain or cold pain thresholds. To date, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not completely understood. There is some agreement, however, that the sensation evoked by this stimulation is generated by central nervous interactions. Therefore, we followed two approaches in this study: firstly, we aimed at developing and validating a water-driven device which might be used in fMRI scanners in future studies - subject to minor adaptations. Secondly, we aimed to interfere with this illusion by induction of a sad mood state, a procedure which is suggested to influence central nervous structures that are also involved in pain processing. The newly developed device induced thermal grill sensations similar to those reported in the literature. Induction of sad, but not neutral mood states, resulted in higher pain and unpleasantness ratings of the painful illusion. These findings might be of importance for the understanding of pain processing in healthy volunteers, but putatively even more so in patients with major depressive disorder. Moreover, our results might indicate that central nervous structures involved in the affective domain or cognitive domain of pain processing might be involved in the perception of the illusion.

  13. Depression and the medicalization of sadness: Conceptualization and recommended help-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Roland; Leavey, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Critiques of the validity of the DSM diagnostic criteria for depressive disorder argue that it fails to differentiate between abnormal sadness due to internal dysfunction or depression (sadness without an identifiable cause), and normal sadness (sadness with a clear cause). Aims and Methods: A population survey was undertaken in adult education centres in Spain aiming to explore beliefs about depression and normal sadness. Two hypothetical case vignettes portrayed individuals experiencing deep sadness, both fulfilling criteria for major depressive disorder (DSM-IV), one with a clear cause, the other without an identifiable cause. Three hundred and forty-four (344) questionnaires were obtained (95% response rate). Results: Participants statistically significantly differentiated between the sadness-with-cause vignette, seen more frequently as a normal response, while the one without a cause was seen as pathological. Help-seeking behaviour recommendations followed this distinction: a medical option was statistically significantly more common when there was no cause for sadness. Socio-cultural variation in how people understand and deal with sadness was also found. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of taking into account the context in which depressive symptoms occur as it seems that the absence of an appropriate context is what makes people conceptualize them as abnormal. It also raises questions about the lack of face validity of the current diagnostic classification for depressive disorder that exclusively uses descriptive criteria. PMID:22187003

  14. SAD5 Stereo Correlation Line-Striping in an FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.

    2011-01-01

    High precision SAD5 stereo computations can be performed in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) at much higher speeds than possible in a conventional CPU (central processing unit), but this uses large amounts of FPGA resources that scale with image size. Of the two key resources in an FPGA, Slices and BRAM (block RAM), Slices scale linearly in the new algorithm with image size, and BRAM scales quadratically with image size. An approach was developed to trade latency for BRAM by sub-windowing the image vertically into overlapping strips and stitching the outputs together to create a single continuous disparity output. In stereo, the general rule of thumb is that the disparity search range must be 1/10 the image size. In the new algorithm, BRAM usage scales linearly with disparity search range and scales again linearly with line width. So a doubling of image size, say from 640 to 1,280, would in the previous design be an effective 4 of BRAM usage: 2 for line width, 2 again for disparity search range. The minimum strip size is twice the search range, and will produce an output strip width equal to the disparity search range. So assuming a disparity search range of 1/10 image width, 10 sequential runs of the minimum strip size would produce a full output image. This approach allowed the innovators to fit 1280 960 wide SAD5 stereo disparity in less than 80 BRAM, 52k Slices on a Virtex 5LX330T, 25% and 24% of resources, respectively. Using a 100-MHz clock, this build would perform stereo at 39 Hz. Of particular interest to JPL is that there is a flight qualified version of the Virtex 5: this could produce stereo results even for very large image sizes at 3 orders of magnitude faster than could be computed on the PowerPC 750 flight computer. The work covered in the report allows the stereo algorithm to run on much larger images than before, and using much less BRAM. This opens up choices for a smaller flight FPGA (which saves power and space), or for other algorithms

  15. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  16. Does sadness impair color perception? Flawed evidence and faulty methods

    PubMed Central

    Holcombe, Alex O.; Brown, Nicholas J. L.; Goodbourn, Patrick T.; Etz, Alexander; Geukes, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In their 2015 paper, Thorstenson, Pazda, and Elliot offered evidence from two experiments that perception of colors on the blue–yellow axis was impaired if the participants had watched a sad movie clip, compared to participants who watched clips designed to induce a happy or neutral mood. Subsequently, these authors retracted their article, citing a mistake in their statistical analyses and a problem with the data in one of their experiments. Here, we discuss a number of other methodological problems with Thorstenson et al.’s experimental design, and also demonstrate that the problems with the data go beyond what these authors reported. We conclude that repeating one of the two experiments, with the minor revisions proposed by Thorstenson et al., will not be sufficient to address the problems with this work. PMID:27606051

  17. On the interaction between sad mood and cognitive control: the effect of induced sadness on electrophysiological modulations underlying Stroop conflict processing.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Elena; Liddle, Peter F; Nixon, Neil L; Liotti, Mario

    2013-03-01

    The present study employed high-density ERPs to examine the effect of induced sad mood on the spatiotemporal correlates of conflict monitoring and resolution in a colour-word Stroop interference task. Neuroimaging evidence and dipole modelling implicates the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions in conflict-laden interference control. On the basis that these structures have been found to mediate emotion-cognition interactions in negative mood states, it was predicted that Stroop-related cognitive control, which relies heavily on anterior neural sources, would be affected by effective sad mood provocation. Healthy participants (N=14) were induced into transient sadness via use of autobiographical sad scripts, a well-validated mood induction technique (Liotti et al., 2000a, 2002). In accord with previous research, interference effects were shown at both baseline and sad states while Stroop conflict was associated with early (N450) and late (Late Positive Component; LPC) electrophysiological modulations at both states. Sad mood induction attenuated the N450 effect in line with our expectation that it would be susceptible to modulation by mood, given its purported anterior limbic source. The LPC effect was displayed at the typical posterior lateral sites but, as predicted, was not affected by sad mood. However, frontocentral LPC activity-presumably generated from an additional anterior limbic source-was affected at sad state, hinting a role in conflict monitoring. Although the neurophysiological underpinnings of interference control are yet to be clarified, this study provided further insight into emotion-cognition interactions as indexed by Stroop conflict-laden processing.

  18. Anger and sadness in response to an emotionally neutral film: evidence for age-specific associations with well-being.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claudia M; Seider, Benjamin H; Shiota, Michelle N; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-06-01

    When the association between emotion and well-being is being considered, positive emotions usually come to mind. However, negative emotions serve important adaptive functions and particular negative emotions may be especially adaptive at different stages of adult development. We examined the associations between self-reported negative emotions in response to an emotionally neutral, thematically ambiguous film and subjective well-being among 76 young (age 20-29), 73 middle-aged (age 40-49), and 73 older (age 60-69) adults. Results indicated that higher self-reported anger in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for middle-aged adults, but not for young and older adults. Higher self-reported sadness in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for older adults, but not for young and middle-aged adults. These findings were stronger for cognitive well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life) than for affective well-being (i.e., ratio of dispositional positive to negative affect) and were specific to these emotions (not found for self-reported disgust or fear) and to the emotionally neutral film (not found for sad or disgusting films). Results are discussed in terms of the functions that anger and sadness are thought to serve and the control opportunities afforded in midlife and late life that render these functions differentially adaptive.

  19. Anger and Sadness Perception in Clinically Referred Preschoolers: Emotion Processes and Externalizing Behavior Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sarah E.; Boekamp, John R.; McConville, David W.; Wheeler, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined emotion perception processes in preschool aged children presenting with clinically significant emotional and behavior problems, with emphasis on sadness perception accuracy (i.e., the ability to correctly identify sadness from expressive and situational cues) and anger perception bias (i.e., the tendency to perceive anger in…

  20. Parental Socialization of Sadness Regulation in Middle Childhood: The Role of Expectations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassano, Michael C.; Zeman, Janice L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study investigated mothers' and fathers' socialization of their children's sadness. The particular focus was an examination of how socialization practices changed when parents' expectancies concerning their child's sadness management abilities were violated. Methods included an experimental manipulation and direct observation…

  1. The Sad, the Angry, and the Asymmetrical Brain: Dichotic Listening Studies of Negative Affect and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadea, Marien; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia; Marti-Bonmati, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Dichotic Listening (DL) is a valuable tool to study emotional brain lateralization. Regarding the perception of sadness and anger through affective prosody, the main finding has been a left ear advantage (LEA) for the sad but contradictory data for the anger prosody. Regarding an induced mood in the laboratory, its consequences upon DL were a…

  2. Real-time RT-PCR for detection, identification and absolute quantification of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus using different types of standards.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vazquez, C; Bandín, I; Dopazo, C P

    2015-05-21

    In the present study, 2 systems of real-time RT-PCR-one based on SYBR Green and the other on TaqMan-were designed to detect strains from any genotype of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), with high sensitivity and repeatability/reproducibility. In addition, the method was optimized for quantitative purposes (qRT-PCR), and standard curves with different types of reference templates were constructed and compared. Specificity was tested against 26 isolates from 4 genotypes. The sensitivity of the procedures was first tested against cell culture isolation, obtaining a limit of detection (LD) of 100 TCID50 ml-1 (100-fold below the LD using cell culture), at a threshold cycle value (Ct) of 36. Sensitivity was also evaluated using RNA from crude (LD = 1 fg; 160 genome copies) and purified virus (100 ag; 16 copies), plasmid DNA (2 copies) and RNA transcript (15 copies). No differences between both chemistries were observed in sensitivity and dynamic range. To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility, all experiments were performed in triplicate and on 3 different days, by workers with different levels of experience, obtaining Ct values with coefficients of variation always <5. This fact, together with the high efficiency and R2 values of the standard curves, encouraged us to analyse the reliability of the method for viral quantification. The results not only demonstrated that the procedure can be used for detection, identification and quantification of this virus, but also demonstrated a clear correlation between the regression lines obtained with different standards, which will help scientists to compare sensitivity results between different studies.

  3. Structural insight into the mechanism of synergistic autoinhibition of SAD kinases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-Xiang; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Wang, Jue; Chen, Lei; Ding, Mei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The SAD/BRSK kinases participate in various important life processes, including neural development, cell cycle and energy metabolism. Like other members of the AMPK family, SAD contains an N-terminal kinase domain followed by the characteristic UBA and KA1 domains. Here we identify a unique autoinhibitory sequence (AIS) in SAD kinases, which exerts autoregulation in cooperation with UBA. Structural studies of mouse SAD-A revealed that UBA binds to the kinase domain in a distinct mode and, more importantly, AIS nestles specifically into the KD-UBA junction. The cooperative action of AIS and UBA results in an ‘αC-out' inactive kinase, which is conserved across species and essential for presynaptic vesicle clustering in C. elegans. In addition, the AIS, along with the KA1 domain, is indispensable for phospholipid binding. Taken together, these data suggest a model for synergistic autoinhibition and membrane activation of SAD kinases. PMID:26626945

  4. Structural insight into the mechanism of synergistic autoinhibition of SAD kinases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Xiang; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Wang, Jue; Chen, Lei; Ding, Mei; Wu, Jia-Wei

    2015-12-02

    The SAD/BRSK kinases participate in various important life processes, including neural development, cell cycle and energy metabolism. Like other members of the AMPK family, SAD contains an N-terminal kinase domain followed by the characteristic UBA and KA1 domains. Here we identify a unique autoinhibitory sequence (AIS) in SAD kinases, which exerts autoregulation in cooperation with UBA. Structural studies of mouse SAD-A revealed that UBA binds to the kinase domain in a distinct mode and, more importantly, AIS nestles specifically into the KD-UBA junction. The cooperative action of AIS and UBA results in an 'αC-out' inactive kinase, which is conserved across species and essential for presynaptic vesicle clustering in C. elegans. In addition, the AIS, along with the KA1 domain, is indispensable for phospholipid binding. Taken together, these data suggest a model for synergistic autoinhibition and membrane activation of SAD kinases.

  5. Can the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Report Version Be Used to Differentiate Clinical and Non-Clinical SAD Groups among Brazilians?

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Larissa F.; Loureiro, Sonia R.; Crippa, José A. S.; Osório, Flávia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) was the first evaluation instrument developed for screening for the signs and symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and is currently still the most used worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of the LSAS - self-report version (LSAS-SR) to discriminate different Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) clinical groups. Method The sample was composed of Brazilians university students, allocated into three different groups, i.e., cases (C=118), non-cases (NC=95) and subclinical cases (SC=39). To achieve the aim, calculations of the ROC Curve and ANOVA were performed. Results The results found were excellent regardless of the technique used, highlighting the discriminatory capacity of the LSAS-SR. The score equal to or greater than 32 is suggested as a cutoff score for the Brazilian population, since this presented balance between the standards evaluated and the ability to differentiate both clinical and subclinical SAD cases from non-cases. Conclusion Despite the specific sample used in this study being composed only of university students, the use of the LSAS-SR can be indicated, in the Brazilian setting, for SAD screening in both clinical and research contexts. PMID:25811489

  6. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  7. The Quantitative Relationship Between ISO 15197 Accuracy Criteria and Mean Absolute Relative Difference (MARD) in the Evaluation of Analytical Performance of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) Systems.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Scott; Simmons, David A

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between International Organization for Standardization (ISO) accuracy criteria and mean absolute relative difference (MARD), 2 methods for assessing the accuracy of blood glucose meters, is complex. While lower MARD values are generally better than higher MARD values, it is not possible to define a particular MARD value that ensures a blood glucose meter will satisfy the ISO accuracy criteria. The MARD value that ensures passing the ISO accuracy test can be described only as a probabilistic range. In this work, a Bayesian model is presented to represent the relationship between ISO accuracy criteria and MARD. Under the assumptions made in this work, there is nearly a 100% chance of satisfying ISO 15197:2013 accuracy requirements if the MARD value is between 3.25% and 5.25%.

  8. Modeling the two-locus architecture of divergent pollinator adaptation: how variation in SAD paralogs affects fitness and evolutionary divergence in sexually deceptive orchids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuqing; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2015-01-01

    Divergent selection by pollinators can bring about strong reproductive isolation via changes at few genes of large effect. This has recently been demonstrated in sexually deceptive orchids, where studies (1) quantified the strength of reproductive isolation in the field; (2) identified genes that appear to be causal for reproductive isolation; and (3) demonstrated selection by analysis of natural variation in gene sequence and expression. In a group of closely related Ophrys orchids, specific floral scent components, namely n-alkenes, are the key floral traits that control specific pollinator attraction by chemical mimicry of insect sex pheromones. The genetic basis of species-specific differences in alkene production mainly lies in two biosynthetic genes encoding stearoyl–acyl carrier protein desaturases (SAD) that are associated with floral scent variation and reproductive isolation between closely related species, and evolve under pollinator-mediated selection. However, the implications of this genetic architecture of key floral traits on the evolutionary processes of pollinator adaptation and speciation in this plant group remain unclear. Here, we expand on these recent findings to model scenarios of adaptive evolutionary change at SAD2 and SAD5, their effects on plant fitness (i.e., offspring number), and the dynamics of speciation. Our model suggests that the two-locus architecture of reproductive isolation allows for rapid sympatric speciation by pollinator shift; however, the likelihood of such pollinator-mediated speciation is asymmetric between the two orchid species O. sphegodes and O. exaltata due to different fitness effects of their predominant SAD2 and SAD5 alleles. Our study not only provides insight into pollinator adaptation and speciation mechanisms of sexually deceptive orchids but also demonstrates the power of applying a modeling approach to the study of pollinator-driven ecological speciation. PMID:25691974

  9. Modeling the two-locus architecture of divergent pollinator adaptation: how variation in SAD paralogs affects fitness and evolutionary divergence in sexually deceptive orchids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuqing; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2015-01-01

    Divergent selection by pollinators can bring about strong reproductive isolation via changes at few genes of large effect. This has recently been demonstrated in sexually deceptive orchids, where studies (1) quantified the strength of reproductive isolation in the field; (2) identified genes that appear to be causal for reproductive isolation; and (3) demonstrated selection by analysis of natural variation in gene sequence and expression. In a group of closely related Ophrys orchids, specific floral scent components, namely n-alkenes, are the key floral traits that control specific pollinator attraction by chemical mimicry of insect sex pheromones. The genetic basis of species-specific differences in alkene production mainly lies in two biosynthetic genes encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases (SAD) that are associated with floral scent variation and reproductive isolation between closely related species, and evolve under pollinator-mediated selection. However, the implications of this genetic architecture of key floral traits on the evolutionary processes of pollinator adaptation and speciation in this plant group remain unclear. Here, we expand on these recent findings to model scenarios of adaptive evolutionary change at SAD2 and SAD5, their effects on plant fitness (i.e., offspring number), and the dynamics of speciation. Our model suggests that the two-locus architecture of reproductive isolation allows for rapid sympatric speciation by pollinator shift; however, the likelihood of such pollinator-mediated speciation is asymmetric between the two orchid species O. sphegodes and O. exaltata due to different fitness effects of their predominant SAD2 and SAD5 alleles. Our study not only provides insight into pollinator adaptation and speciation mechanisms of sexually deceptive orchids but also demonstrates the power of applying a modeling approach to the study of pollinator-driven ecological speciation.

  10. Multi-crystal native SAD analysis at 6 keV

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qun; Guo, Youzhong; Chang, Yanqi; Cai, Zheng; Assur, Zahra; Mancia, Filippo; Greene, Mark I.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2014-01-01

    Anomalous diffraction signals from typical native macro­molecules are very weak, frustrating their use in de novo structure determination. Here, native SAD procedures are described to enhance signal to noise in anomalous diffraction by using multiple crystals in combination with synchrotron X-rays at 6 keV. Increased anomalous signals were obtained at 6 keV compared with 7 keV X-ray energy, which was used for previous native SAD analyses. A feasibility test of multi-crystal-based native SAD phasing was performed at 3.2 Å resolution for a known tyrosine protein kinase domain, and real-life applications were made to two novel membrane proteins at about 3.0 Å resolution. The three applications collectively serve to validate the robust feasibility of native SAD phasing at lower energy. PMID:25286840

  11. Intercellular adhesion molecule-4 and CD36 are implicated in the abnormal adhesiveness of sickle cell SAD mouse erythrocytes to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Trang-Tan, Marie-Marcelle; Vilela-Lamego, Camilo; Picot, Julien; Wautier, Marie-Paule; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormal adhesiveness of red blood cells to endothelium has been implicated in vaso-occlusive crisis of sickle cell disease. The present study examined whether the SAD mouse model exhibits the same abnormalities of red blood cell adhesion as those found in human sickle cell disease. Design and Methods The repertoire of adhesive molecules on murine erythrocytes and bEnd.3 microvascular endothelial cells was determined by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies or by western blotting. Adhesion was investigated in dynamic conditions and measured at different shear stresses. Results CD36, CD47 and intercellular adhesion molecular-4, but not Lutheran blood group antigen/basal cell adhesion molecule, are present on mouse mature erythrocytes. α4β1 are not expressed on SAD and wild type reticulocytes. Endothelial bEnd.3 cells express αVβ3, α4β1, CD47, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and Lutheran blood group antigen/basal cell adhesion molecule, but not CD36. Adhesion of SAD red cells is: (i) 2- to 3-fold higher than that of wild type red cells; (ii) further increased on platelet activating factor-activated endothelium; (iii) not stimulated by epinephrine; (iv) inhibited after treating the endothelium with a peptide reproducing one of the binding sequences of mouse intercellular adhesion molecular-4, or with mon-oclonal antibody against murine αv integrin; and (v) inhibited after pretreatment of red blood cells with anti-mouse CD36 monoclonal antibodies. The combination of treatments with intercellular adhesion molecular-4 peptide and anti-CD36 monoclonal antibodies eliminates excess adhesion of SAD red cells. The phosphorylation state of intercellular adhesion molecular-4 and CD36 is probably not involved in the over-adhesiveness of SAD erythrocytes. Conclusions Intercellular adhesion molecular-4/αvβ3 and CD36/thrombospondin interactions might contribute to the abnormally high adhesiveness of SAD red cells. The SAD mouse is a valuable animal model

  12. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  13. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    ... or 0.50 x 10^9/L. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results. The example above shows the common measurements for results of these tests. Some laboratories use ...

  14. The minor third communicates sadness in speech, mirroring its use in music.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Meagan E; Bharucha, Jamshed J

    2010-06-01

    There is a long history of attempts to explain why music is perceived as expressing emotion. The relationship between pitches serves as an important cue for conveying emotion in music. The musical interval referred to as the minor third is generally thought to convey sadness. We reveal that the minor third also occurs in the pitch contour of speech conveying sadness. Bisyllabic speech samples conveying four emotions were recorded by 9 actresses. Acoustic analyses revealed that the relationship between the 2 salient pitches of the sad speech samples tended to approximate a minor third. Participants rated the speech samples for perceived emotion, and the use of numerous acoustic parameters as cues for emotional identification was modeled using regression analysis. The minor third was the most reliable cue for identifying sadness. Additional participants rated musical intervals for emotion, and their ratings verified the historical association between the musical minor third and sadness. These findings support the theory that human vocal expressions and music share an acoustic code for communicating sadness.

  15. Effects of mindfulness, reappraisal, and suppression on sad mood and cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Elysia Li Yan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smoski, Moria J

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation.

  16. Regulation of sadness via acceptance or suppression in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Sadohara, Chiharu; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-12-15

    Emotion dysregulation is a recognized symptom of adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study is to induce sadness in adults suffering from ADHD and to investigate the impact of emotion regulation strategies on sadness intensity, and psychophysiological measures. Thirty-six adults diagnosed with ADHD were randomly assigned to either expressive suppression (SUPP) or acceptance (ACC) of emotion. Sadness was induced using a film clip. Participants estimated the intensity of sadness and the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion before (T1), immediately after (T2) and 2 min after the film (T3). Physiological measures were obtained. Sadness induction was effective in both conditions. The perception of being overwhelmed with emotion increased between T1 and T2 in both conditions, but persisted until T3 only in the expressive suppression condition whereas a decrease was observed in the acceptance condition. In ADHD expressive suppression of sadness seems to be associated to a prolonged recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. Emotion-regulation via acceptance in contrast appears to allow faster recovery from the perception of being overwhelmed with emotion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify suppression as a critical mediator between an induced emotion and delayed recovery from emotional reactions in adult ADHD.

  17. Madness or sadness? Local concepts of mental illness in four conflict-affected African communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concepts of ‘what constitutes mental illness’, the presumed aetiology and preferred treatment options, vary considerably from one cultural context to another. Knowledge and understanding of these local conceptualisations is essential to inform public mental health programming and policy. Methods Participants from four locations in Burundi, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were invited to describe ‘problems they knew of that related to thinking, feeling and behaviour?’ Data were collected over 31 focus groups discussions (251 participants) and key informant interviews with traditional healers and health workers. Results While remarkable similarities occurred across all settings, there were also striking differences. In all areas, participants were able to describe localized syndromes characterized by severe behavioural and cognitive disturbances with considerable resemblance to psychotic disorders. Additionally, respondents throughout all settings described local syndromes that included sadness and social withdrawal as core features. These syndromes had some similarities with nonpsychotic mental disorders, such as major depression or anxiety disorders, but also differed significantly. Aetiological concepts varied a great deal within each setting, and attributed causes varied from supernatural to psychosocial and natural. Local syndromes resembling psychotic disorders were seen as an abnormality in need of treatment, although people did not really know where to go. Local syndromes resembling nonpsychotic mental disorders were not regarded as a ‘medical’ disorder, and were therefore also not seen as a condition for which help should be sought within the biomedical health-care system. Rather, such conditions were expected to improve through social and emotional support from relatives, traditional healers and community members. Conclusions Local conceptualizations have significant implications for the planning of mental

  18. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

    2002-12-01

    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  19. The role of automaticity and attention in neural processes underlying empathy for happiness, sadness, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sylvia A; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the neural basis of empathy, relatively little is known about how empathic processes are affected by different attentional conditions. Thus, we examined whether instructions to empathize might amplify responses in empathy-related regions and whether cognitive load would diminish the involvement of these regions. Thirty-two participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing happy, sad, and anxious events. Stimuli were presented under three conditions: watching naturally, actively empathizing, and under cognitive load. Across analyses, we found evidence for a core set of neural regions that support empathic processes (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DMPFC; medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC; temporoparietal junction, TPJ; amygdala; ventral anterior insula, AI; and septal area, SA). Two key regions-the ventral AI and SA-were consistently active across all attentional conditions, suggesting that they are automatically engaged during empathy. In addition, watching vs. empathizing with targets was not markedly different and instead led to similar subjective and neural responses to others' emotional experiences. In contrast, cognitive load reduced the subjective experience of empathy and diminished neural responses in several regions related to empathy and social cognition (DMPFC, MPFC, TPJ, and amygdala). The results reveal how attention impacts empathic processes and provides insight into how empathy may unfold in everyday interactions.

  20. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

  1. Silicon Absolute X-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie

    2010-06-23

    The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as absolute x-ray detectors.

  2. De novo calcium/sulfur SAD phasing of the human formylglycine-generating enzyme using in-house data.

    PubMed

    Roeser, Dirk; Dickmanns, Achim; Gasow, Kathrin; Rudolph, Markus G

    2005-08-01

    Sulfatases are a family of enzymes essential for the degradation of sulfate esters. Formylglycine is the key catalytic residue in the active site of sulfatases and is generated from a cysteine residue by FGE, the formylglycine-generating enzyme. Inactivity of FGE owing to inherited mutations in the FGE gene results in multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), which leads to early death in infants. Human FGE was crystallized in the presence of traces of the protease elastase, which was absolutely essential for crystal growth, and the structure of FGE was determined by molecular replacement. Before this model was completed, the FGE structure was re-determined by SAD phasing using in-house data based on the anomalous signal of two calcium ions bound to the native enzyme and intrinsic S atoms. A 14-atom substructure was determined at 1.8 A resolution by SHELXD; SHELXE was used for density modification and phase extension to 1.54 A resolution. Automated model building with ARP/wARP and refinement with REFMAC5 yielded a virtually complete model without manual intervention. The minimal data requirements for successful phasing and the relative contributions of the Ca and S atoms are discussed and compared with the related FGE paralogue, pFGE. This work emphasizes the usefulness of de novo phasing using weak anomalous scatterers and in-house data.

  3. Implicit happiness and sadness are associated with ease and difficulty: evidence from sequential priming.

    PubMed

    Lasauskaite, Ruta; Gendolla, Guido H E; Bolmont, Mylène; Freydefont, Laure

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis of implicit associations between happiness and the performance ease concept and between sadness and the performance difficulty concept. All three studies applied a sequential priming paradigm: participants categorized emotion words (Experiment 1) or facial expressions (Experiment 2) as positive or negative or as referring to ease or difficulty (Experiment 3). These targets were preceded by briefly flashed ease- or difficulty-related words or neutral non-words (Experiments 1 and 2) or by happy, sad, or neutral facial expressions (Experiment 3) as primes. As predicted, all three experiments revealed increases in reaction times in the sequential priming task from congruent trials (happiness/ease and sadness/difficulty) over neutral trials to incongruent trials (sadness/ease and happiness/difficulty). The findings provide evidence for implicit associative links of happiness with ease and sadness with difficulty, as posited by the implicit-affect-primes-effort model (Gendolla, Int J Psychophysiol 86:123-135, 2012; Soc Pers Psychol Compass 9:606-619, 2015).

  4. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD.

  5. Role of tempo entrainment in psychophysiological differentiation of happy and sad music?

    PubMed

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Roy, Mathieu; Rainville, Pierre; Dalla Bella, Simone; Peretz, Isabelle

    2008-04-01

    Respiration rate allows to differentiate between happy and sad excerpts which may be attributable to entrainment of respiration to the rhythm or the tempo rather than to emotions [Etzel, J.A., Johnsen, E.L., Dickerson, J., Tranel, D., Adolphs, R., 2006. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses during musical mood induction. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61(1), 57-69]. In order to test for this hypothesis, this study intended to verify whether fast and slow rhythm, and/or tempo alone are sufficient to induce differential physiological effects. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal responses, facial muscles activity, blood pressure, heart and respiration rate) were then measured in fifty young adults listening to fast/happy and slow/sad music, and to two control versions of these excerpts created by removing pitch variations (rhythmic version) and both pitch and temporal variations (beat-alone). The results indicate that happy and sad music are significantly differentiated (happy>sad) by diastolic blood pressure, electrodermal activity, and zygomatic activity, while the fast and slow rhythmic and tempo control versions did not elicit such differentiations. In contrast, respiration rate was faster with stimuli presented at fast tempi relative to slow stimuli in the beat-alone condition. It was thus demonstrated that the psychophysiological happy/sad distinction requires the tonal variations and cannot be explained solely by entrainment to tempo and rhythm. The tempo entrainment exists in the tempo alone condition but our results suggest this effect may disappear when embedded in music or with rhythm.

  6. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  7. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  8. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckey, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  9. "I felt sad and did not enjoy life": Cultural context and the associations between anhedonia, depressed mood, and momentary emotions.

    PubMed

    Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Choi, Eunsoo; Ryder, Andrew G; Reyes, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    The meanings of "anhedonia" and "depressed mood," the cardinal emotional symptoms of major depression, may be shaped by cultural norms regarding pleasure and sadness. Thirty-two European Americans, 26 Hispanic Americans, 33 Asian Americans, and 20 Russian Americans provided reports of (a) depressive symptoms, (b) momentary emotions and pleasure, and (c) global subjective well-being. Momentary reports were collected over 10 days using handheld personal digital assistants. Reports of anhedonia were associated with heightened levels of momentary low arousal negative emotions (e.g., sadness), whereas reports of depressed mood were associated with dampened levels of momentary positive emotions (e.g., happiness). Symptoms of anhedonia and depressed mood interacted in their associations with momentary pleasure. In addition, the associations of anhedonia and depressed mood with positive emotions and life satisfaction differed across cultural groups. Specifically, these symptoms were associated with dampened positive emotions in the Asian American group only. Additionally, anhedonia was associated with dampened global life satisfaction in the European American group only. These results suggest that reports of anhedonia and depressed mood cannot be interpreted at face value as specific and culture-free indicators of emotional deficits. Instead, they appear to signal changes in the balance of positive and negative emotions, with the exact nature of these signals shaped at least in part by cultural context. This conclusion has important consequences for the clinical interpretation of depressive symptoms in multicultural societies.

  10. Test-retest reliability of regional electroencephalogram (EEG) and cardiovascular measures in social anxiety disorder (SAD).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Louis A; Santesso, Diane L; Miskovic, Vladimir; Mathewson, Karen J; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A

    2012-04-01

    Although the search for psychophysiological manifestations of social anxiety has a rich history, there appear to be no published reports examining the reliability of continuous electrocortical measures that putatively index stress vulnerability and stress reactivity in socially anxious individuals. We examined the 1-week test-retest reliability of regional electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry and power, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), heart period, and heart period variability measures at rest and during anticipation of an impromptu speech in 26 adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Across the 1-week time period, we found medium-to-large correlations for regional EEG asymmetry and large correlations for regional EEG alpha power, RSA, heart period, and heart period variability measures at rest and during speech anticipation, before and after accounting for age and medication status. These results are similar to patterns observed in nonclinical samples and appear to provide the first documented evidence of test-retest reliability of psychophysiological measures that index central nervous system activity in socially anxious individuals. These findings also provide support for the notion that resting frontal EEG asymmetry and RSA constitute relatively stable individual differences in this clinical population.

  11. Quantification and assessment of heat and cold waves in Novi Sad, Northern Serbia.

    PubMed

    Basarin, Biljana; Lukić, Tin; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been applied to the analysis of heat and cold waves and human thermal conditions in Novi Sad, Serbia. A series of daily minimum and maximum air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and cloud cover was used to calculate PET for the investigated period 1949-2012. The heat and cold wave analysis was carried out on days with PET values exceeding defined thresholds. Additionally, the acclimatization approach was introduced to evaluate human adaptation to interannual thermal perception. Trend analysis has revealed the presence of increasing trend in summer PET anomalies, number of days above defined threshold, number of heat waves, and average duration of heat waves per year since 1981. Moreover, winter PET anomaly as well as the number of days below certain threshold and number of cold waves per year until 1980 was decreasing, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The highest number of heat waves during summer was registered in the last two decades, but also in the first decade of the investigated period. On the other hand, the number of cold waves during six decades is quite similar and the differences are very small.

  12. Age-Related Response Bias in the Decoding of Sad Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Fölster, Mara; Hess, Ursula; Hühnel, Isabell; Werheid, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that age is negatively associated with the accuracy of decoding emotional facial expressions; this effect of age was found for actors as well as for raters. Given that motivational differences and stereotypes may bias the attribution of emotion, the aim of the present study was to explore whether these age effects are due to response bias, that is, the unbalanced use of response categories. Thirty younger raters (19–30 years) and thirty older raters (65–81 years) viewed video clips of younger and older actors representing the same age ranges, and decoded their facial expressions. We computed both raw hit rates and bias-corrected hit rates to assess the influence of potential age-related response bias on decoding accuracy. Whereas raw hit rates indicated significant effects of both the actors’ and the raters’ ages on decoding accuracy for sadness, these age effects were no longer significant when response bias was corrected. Our results suggest that age effects on the accuracy of decoding facial expressions may be due, at least in part, to age-related response bias. PMID:26516920

  13. A Computational Shape-based Model of Anger and Sadness Justifies a Configural Representation of Faces

    PubMed Central

    Neth, Donald; Martinez, Aleix M.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that configural cues (second-order relations) play a major role in the representation and classification of face images; making faces a “special” class of objects, since object recognition seems to use different encoding mechanisms. It is less clear, however, how this representation emerges and whether this representation is also used in the recognition of facial expressions of emotion. In this paper, we show how configural cues emerge naturally from a classical analysis of shape in the recognition of anger and sadness. In particular our results suggest that at least two of the dimensions of the computational (cognitive) space of facial expressions of emotion correspond to pure configural changes. The first of these dimensions measures the distance between the eyebrows and the mouth, while the second is concerned with the height-width ratio of the face. Under this proposed model, becoming a face “expert” would mean to move from the generic shape representation to that based on configural cues. These results suggest that the recognition of facial expressions of emotion shares this expertise property with the other processes of face processing. PMID:20510267

  14. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum.

  15. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  16. Biased processing of sad faces: an ERP marker candidate for depression susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bistricky, Steven L; Atchley, Ruth Ann; Ingram, Rick; O'Hare, Aminda

    2014-04-01

    Depression has been associated with task-relevant increased attention toward negative information, reduced attention toward positive information, or reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant negative information. This study employed behavioural and psychophysiological measures (event-related potentials; ERP) to examine whether groups with risk factors for depression (past depression, current dysphoria) would show attentional biases or inhibitory deficits related to viewing facial expressions. In oddball task blocks, young adult participants responded to an infrequently presented target emotion (e.g., sad) and inhibited responses to an infrequently presented distracter emotion (e.g., happy) in the context of frequently presented neutral stimuli. Previous depression was uniquely associated with greater P3 ERP amplitude following sad targets, reflecting a selective attention bias. Also, dysphoric individuals less effectively inhibited responses to sad distracters than non-dysphoric individuals according to behavioural data, but not psychophysiological data. Results suggest that depression risk may be most reliably characterised by increased attention toward others' depressive facial emotion.

  17. Together we cry: Social motives and preferences for group-based sadness.

    PubMed

    Porat, Roni; Halperin, Eran; Mannheim, Ittay; Tamir, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Group-based emotions play an important role in helping people feel that they belong to their group. People are motivated to belong, but does this mean that they actively try to experience group-based emotions to increase their sense of belonging? In this investigation, we propose that people may be motivated to experience even group-based emotions that are typically considered unpleasant to satisfy their need to belong. To test this hypothesis, we examined people's preferences for group-based sadness in the context of the Israeli National Memorial Day. In two correlational (Studies 1a and 1b) and two experimental (Studies 2 and 3) studies, we demonstrate that people with a stronger need to belong have a stronger preference to experience group-based sadness. This effect was mediated by the expectation that experiencing sadness would be socially beneficial (Studies 1 and 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding motivated emotion regulation and intergroup relations.

  18. Heterogeneity of Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: SAD, a novel developmentally regulated alpha-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Sawruk, E; Schloss, P; Betz, H; Schmitt, B

    1990-01-01

    Two genes, ard and als, are known to encode subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in Drosophila. Here we describe the isolation of cDNA clones encoding a novel member (SAD, or alpha 2) of this receptor protein family. The deduced amino acid sequence displays high homology to the ALS protein and shares structural features with ligand binding nAChR alpha-subunits. Sad transcripts accumulate during major periods of neuronal differentiation and, in embryos, are localized in the central nervous system. Expression of SAD cRNA in Xenopus oocytes generates cation channels that are gated by nicotine. These data indicate heterogeneity of nAChRs in Drosophila. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1697262

  19. Anger and sadness as adaptive emotion expression strategies in response to negative competence and warmth evaluations.

    PubMed

    Celik, Pinar; Storme, Martin; Myszkowski, Nils

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature suggested that anger and sadness may be necessary to restore social bonds in the face of immediate relationship threat. The present research compared the social effectiveness of expressing anger and sadness in response to a negative personal evaluation. Results indicated that target anger in response to a negative competence evaluation, and target sadness in response to a negative warmth evaluation, had the most positive effects on the evaluators' subjectively perceived persuasiveness of the targets' communication (Study 1) and on the subjectively perceived fluency of the interaction by both interaction partners (Study 2). Results are discussed in light of the social functionality of emotion expression and the importance of interpersonal emotion congruency with evaluation content.

  20. Coping with the 10th anniversary of 9/11: Muslim Americans' sadness, fear, and anger.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M; Khan, Tasmiha; Selya, Arielle

    2013-01-01

    The events of 9/11 marked an increase in prejudice, discrimination, and other forms of unfair treatment toward Muslim Americans. We present a study that examined the emotions of Muslim Americans in the days preceding the ten-year 9/11 anniversary. We measured the antecedents (concerns) and consequences (coping) of sadness, fear, and anger. The 9/11 anniversary precipitated intense concerns with loss and discrimination, and intense feelings of sadness, fear, and anger. We measured three coping responses: rumination, avoidance of public places, and religious coping. Participants engaged in all three coping responses, with seeking solace in one's religion being the most frequent response. Moreover, emotions mediated the relationship between concerns and coping responses. Sadness accounted for the association between concern with loss and rumination. Fear explained the association between concern with discrimination and avoidance. Anger accounted for the association between concern with discrimination and religious coping.

  1. System for absolute measurements by interferometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Douglas A.

    1993-03-01

    The most common problem of interferometric sensors is their inability to measure absolute path imbalance. Presented in this paper is a signal processing system that gives absolute, unambiguous reading of optical path difference for almost any style of interferometric sensor. Key components are a wide band (incoherent) optical source, a polychromator, and FFT electronics. Advantages include no moving parts in the signal processor, no active components at the sensor location, and the use of standard single mode fiber for sensor illumination and signal transmission. Actual absolute path imbalance of the interferometer is determined without using fringe counting or other inferential techniques. The polychromator extracts the interference information that occurs at each discrete wavelength within the spectral band of the optical source. The signal processing consists of analog and digital filtering, Fast Fourier analysis, and a peak detection and interpolation algorithm. This system was originally designed for use in a remote pressure sensing application that employed a totally passive fiber optic interferometer. A performance qualification was made using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercially available laser interferometer to measure the reference displacement.

  2. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  3. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  4. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  5. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  6. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  7. SU-E-T-804: Verification of the BJR-25 Method of KQ Determination for CyberKnife Absolute Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, J; Willett, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Absolute calibration of the CyberKnife is performed using a 6cm-diameter cone defined at 80cm SAD. Since kQ is defined using PDD values determined using 10×10 cm fields at 100cm SSD, the PDD must be corrected in order to correctly apply the quality conversion factor. The accepted method is based on equivalent field-size conversions of PDD values using BJR25. Using the new InCise MLC system, the CK is capable of generating a rectangular field equivalent to 10×10 cm square field. In this study, a comparison is made between kQ values determined using the traditional BJR25 method and the MLC method introduced herein. Methods: First, kQ(BJR) is determined: a PDD is acquired using a 6cm circular field at 100cm SSD, its field size converted to an equivalent square, and PDD converted to a 10×10cm field using the appropriate BJR25 table. Maintaining a consistent setup, the collimator is changed, and the MLC method is used. Finally, kQ is determined using PDDs acquired with a 9.71×10.31cm at 100cm SSD. This field is produced by setting the field to a size of 7.77×8.25cm (since it is defined at 80cm SAD). An exact 10×10cm field since field size is relegated to increments of its leaf width (0.25cm). This comparison is made using an Exradin A1SL, IBA CC08, IBA CC13, and an Exradin A19. For each detector and collimator type, the beam injector was adjusted to give 5 different beam qualities; representing a range of clinical systems. Results: Averaging across all beam qualities, kQ(MLC) differed from kQ(BJR) by less than 0.15%. The difference between the values increased with detector volume. Conclusion: For CK users with standard cone collimators, the BJR25 method has been verified. For CK users the MLC system, a technique is described to determine kQ. Primary author is the President/Owner of Spectrum Medical Physics, LLC, a company which maintains contracts with Siemens Healthcare and Standard Imaging, Inc.

  8. Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from India and China--geographic variations.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Sim, Sherina

    2012-05-01

    Seven Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from different locations in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Focus was placed on 41 key ingredients to investigate geographic variations in this species. These seven absolutes were compared with an Indian bud absolute and commercially available J. sambac flower absolutes from India and China. All absolutes showed broad variations for the 10 main ingredients between 8% and 96%. In addition, the odor of Indian and Chinese J. sambac flower absolutes were assessed.

  9. Fuzzy Random λ-Mean SAD Portfolio Selection Problem: An Ant Colony Optimization Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Gour Sundar Mitra; Bhattacharyya, Rupak; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2010-10-01

    To reach the investment goal, one has to select a combination of securities among different portfolios containing large number of securities. Only the past records of each security do not guarantee the future return. As there are many uncertain factors which directly or indirectly influence the stock market and there are also some newer stock markets which do not have enough historical data, experts' expectation and experience must be combined with the past records to generate an effective portfolio selection model. In this paper the return of security is assumed to be Fuzzy Random Variable Set (FRVS), where returns are set of random numbers which are in turn fuzzy numbers. A new λ-Mean Semi Absolute Deviation (λ-MSAD) portfolio selection model is developed. The subjective opinions of the investors to the rate of returns of each security are taken into consideration by introducing a pessimistic-optimistic parameter vector λ. λ-Mean Semi Absolute Deviation (λ-MSAD) model is preferred as it follows absolute deviation of the rate of returns of a portfolio instead of the variance as the measure of the risk. As this model can be reduced to Linear Programming Problem (LPP) it can be solved much faster than quadratic programming problems. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is used for solving the portfolio selection problem. ACO is a paradigm for designing meta-heuristic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problem. Data from BSE is used for illustration.

  10. “Aren’t you supposed to be sad?” Infants do not treat a stoic person as an unreliable emoter

    PubMed Central

    Chiarella, Sabrina S.; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how 18-month-old infants react to a “stoic” person, that is, someone who displays a neutral facial expression following negative experiences. Infants first watched a series of events during which an actor had an object stolen from her. In one condition, infants then saw the actor display sadness, while she remained neutral in the other condition. Then, all infants interacted with the actor in emotional referencing, instrumental helping, empathic helping, and imitation tasks. Results revealed that during the exposure phase, infants in both groups looked an equal amount of time at the scene and engaged in similar levels of hypothesis testing. However, infants in the sad group expressed more concern towards the actor than those in the neutral group. No differences were found between the two groups on the interactive tasks. This conservative test of selective learning and altruism shows that, at 18 months, infants are sensitive to the valence of emotional expressions following negative events but also consider an actor’s neutral expression just as appropriate as a sad expression following a negative experience. These findings represent an important contribution to research on the emergence of selective trust during infancy. PMID:25636027

  11. Influence of trait empathy on the emotion evoked by sad music and on the preference for it.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Katahira, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals' trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years) listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking toward them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy (FS). We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that FS, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music.

  12. Influence of trait empathy on the emotion evoked by sad music and on the preference for it

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Katahira, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals’ trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years) listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking toward them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy (FS). We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that FS, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music. PMID:26578992

  13. Parental Personality and Its Relationship to Socialization of Sadness in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race, Eleanor; Brand, Ann E.

    The relationship between parental personality traits and how parents socialize their children's emotions is largely unexplored. This study examined the association of personality traits such as Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and emotion traits such as Anxiety and Trait Depression to the strategies parents use to socialize their children's sadness,…

  14. The Influence of Mother-Child Emotion Regulation Strategies on Children's Expression of Anger and Sadness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Silk, Jennifer S.; Morris, Michael D. S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Keyes, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 153 children from preschool through second grade, relations between the use of emotion regulation strategy and children's expression of anger and sadness were coded during an observational task in which children were intentionally disappointed in the presence of the mother. Multilevel modeling was used to examine strategy use and…

  15. The Sad, the Mad and the Bad: Co-Existing Discourses of Girlhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Three significant, prevailing and overlapping narratives of teenage girls have dominated North American popular consciousness since the early 1990s: the sad girl, victimized by male privilege and misogyny of adolescence and beyond; the mad grrrls who rejected this vulnerability through music and media; and the bad girls of much current popular…

  16. The relationship between coping style and loneliness in adolescents: can "sad passivity" be adaptive?

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, A M; Duke, M P

    1991-06-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper was to examine how the use of the "sad passive" coping style may be related to adolescent self-reported loneliness. Subjects were asked to complete the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980) to determine self-reported loneliness and the Coping with Loneliness Questionnaire (CLQ; Rubenstein & Shaver, 1980) in order to examine coping styles. We hypothesized that those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into the category of sad passivity described by Rubenstein and Shaver would indicate greater loneliness than those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into other categories. Results indicated that sad passivity was used by both lonely and nonlonely adolescents, but that nonlonely youngsters resorted to this method only temporarily and in preparation for a more active coping style. Lonely teens, on the other hand, appeared to remain in the sad-passive mode to a maladaptive degree. These results were discussed in terms of their importance for theories of adolescent loneliness and for possible intervention strategies.

  17. Use of europium ions for SAD phasing of lysozyme at the Cu Kα wavelength.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Balakrishnan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2013-01-01

    Europium is shown to be a good anomalous scatterer in SAD phasing for solving the structure of biological macromolecules. The large value of the anomalous contribution of europium, f'' = 11.17 e(-), at the Cu Kα wavelength is an advantage in de novo phasing and automated model building. Tetragonal crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) incorporating europium(III) chloride (50 mM) were obtained which diffracted to a resolution of 2.3 Å at a wavelength of 1.54 Å (Cu Kα). The master data set (360° frames) was split and analyzed for anomalous signal-to-noise ratio, multiplicity, completeness, SAD phasing and automated building. The structure solution and model building of the split data sets were carried out using phenix.autosol and phenix.autobuild. The contributions of the Eu ions to SAD phasing using in-house data collection are discussed. This study revealed successful lysozyme phasing by SAD using laboratory-source data involving Eu ions, which are mainly coordinated by the side chains of Asn46, Asp52 and Asp101 together with some water molecules.

  18. Scaffolding Young Children's Prosocial Responsiveness: Preschoolers' Responses to Adult Sadness, Anger, and Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; And Others

    Two studies investigated children's responsiveness to an adult's negative emotions (anger, sadness, and pain). The studies also evaluated effects of adult scaffolding (labeling and explaining negative emotions, and requesting help). In the first study, subjects were 55 preschool children between the ages of 33 and 56 months. During individual play…

  19. The moderating role of personal relevance on differential priming of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk: a replication.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Chien-Lung

    2009-04-01

    Raghunathan and Pham conducted a pioneer study in 1999 on the motivational influences of anxiety and sadness on decision making and indicated that anxiety would motivate individuals to be risk averse, whereas sadness would motivate individuals to be risk taking. A replication study was employed in the domain of perceived travel risk. Compared to participants in a neutral mood, anxious participants showed higher perceived travel risk than sad participants. Moreover, the differential effect of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk was only pronounced under the high personal relevance condition, in which participants made personal decisions and expected that they would be affected by the outcomes. In general, the results extend the notion proposed by Raghunathan and Pham suggesting that travelers' implicit goals primed by anxiety or sadness used for mood-repair purposes appear to be moderated by personal relevance.

  20. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.

  1. Absolute Rate Theories of Epigenetic Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, Jose N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2006-03-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape, and the transmission factor, depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates.

  2. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  3. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Heekyung

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  4. A Special Application of Absolute Value Techniques in Authentic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value…

  5. Investigation of the Frequency Shift of a SAD Circuit Loop and the Internal Micro-Cantilever in a Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Liu; Zhao, Jiahao; Yu, Shijie; Li, Peng; You, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Micro-cantilever sensors for mass detection using resonance frequency have attracted considerable attention over the last decade in the field of gas sensing. For such a sensing system, an oscillator circuit loop is conventionally used to actuate the micro-cantilever, and trace the frequency shifts. In this paper, gas experiments are introduced to investigate the mechanical resonance frequency shifts of the micro-cantilever within the circuit loop(mechanical resonance frequency, MRF) and resonating frequency shifts of the electric signal in the oscillator circuit (system working frequency, SWF). A silicon beam with a piezoelectric zinc oxide layer is employed in the experiment, and a Self-Actuating-Detecting (SAD) circuit loop is built to drive the micro-cantilever and to follow the frequency shifts. The differences between the two resonating frequencies and their shifts are discussed and analyzed, and a coefficient α related to the two frequency shifts is confirmed. PMID:22163588

  6. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  7. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  8. Comparative Autonomic Responses to Diagnostic Interviewing between Individuals with GAD, MDD, SAD and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Allison E.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been well documented in individuals diagnosed with a range of psychological disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, these disorders both confer an increased risk of cardiovascular disease—which may relate to increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic tone. Extant research has indicated a reduction in autonomic flexibility in GAD, and while reduced flexibility has also been seen in MDD, the specific physiological alterations have been more difficult to categorize due to methodological limitations, including high co-morbidity rates with anxiety disorders. Prior studies have largely assessed autonomic functioning in stress paradigms or at the trait level, yet to date, no research has investigated the ANS during a diagnostic interview, a ubiquitous task employed in both research and clinical settings. In this study we sought to identify physiological differences in both branches of the ANS across diagnostic categories in the context of a diagnostic interview. Participants (n = 82) were administered a structured clinical interview, during which heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP) were recorded in participants carrying a diagnosis of GAD (n = 34), MDD (n = 22), Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD; n = 15) and healthy controls (n = 27). Person-specific linear regression models were employed to assess the level and slope for HR, RSA and PEP throughout the course of the interview. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) model was conducted to baseline differences in HR, RSA and PEP between diagnostic groups. Multiple regression models were then conducted to differences in slope of HR, RSA and PEP throughout the course of the interview amongst diagnostic groups, including both suppression and worry as moderators. Results indicated significant increases in RSA throughout the interview in MDD (p = 0

  9. SAD phasing with in-house cu Ka radiation using barium as anomalous scatterer.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, V; Velmurugan, D

    2011-12-01

    Phasing of lysozyme crystals using co-crystallized barium ions was performed using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) method using Cu Ka radiation with in-house source of data collection. As the ion binding sites vary with respect to the pH of the buffer during crystallization, the highly isomorphic forms of lysozyme crystals grown at acidic and alkaline pH were used for the study. Intrinsic sulphur anomalous signal was also utilized with anomalous signal from lower occupancy ions for phasing. The study showed that to solve the structure by SAD technique, 2.8-fold data redundancy was sufficient when barium was used as an anomalous marker in the in-house copper X-ray radiation source for data collection. Therefore, co-crystallization of proteins with barium containing salt can be a powerful tool for structure determination using lab source.

  10. Genetic stability (in vivo) of the attenuated oral rabies virus vaccine SAD B19.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Aline; Geue, Lutz; Vos, Ad; Neubert, Andreas; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of oral rabies vaccine baits containing replication-competent live viruses poses certain environmental safety risks; among others, the possibility of reversion to or an increase in virulence. Hence, the genetic stability of the complete genome of the most widely used oral rabies vaccine virus, SAD B19, was examined after four and 10 serial i.c. passages in foxes and mice, respectively. It was shown that the consensus strain of SAD B19 was extremely stable in vivo. After 10 consecutive passages in mice not a single mutation was observed. In foxes, seven single nucleotide exchanges were found between the first and fourth passage, of which only one resulted in an amino acid exchange at position 9240 of the L-gene. This mutation was not observed during the first three passages and, furthermore, it was shown that this mutation was not linked to enhanced virulence.

  11. Sadness shifts to anxiety over time and distance from the national tragedy in Newtown, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Doré, Bruce; Ort, Leonard; Braverman, Ofir; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-04-01

    How do increasing temporal and spatial distance affect the emotions people feel and express in response to tragic events? Standard views suggest that emotional intensity should decrease but are silent on changes in emotional quality. Using a large Twitter data set, we identified temporal and spatial patterns in use of emotional and cognitive words in tweets about the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Although use of sadness words decreased with time and spatial distance, use of anxiety words showed the opposite pattern and was associated with concurrent increases in language reflecting causal thinking. In a follow-up experiment, we found that thinking about abstract causes (as opposed to concrete details) of this event similarly evoked decreased sadness but increased anxiety, which was associated with perceptions that a similar event might occur in the future. These data challenge current theories of emotional reactivity and identify time, space, and abstract causal thinking as factors that elicit categorical shifts in emotional responses to tragedy.

  12. Brain regions involved in the recognition of happiness and sadness in music.

    PubMed

    Khalfa, Stéphanie; Schon, Daniele; Anton, Jean-Luc; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2005-12-19

    Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test for the lateralization of the brain regions specifically involved in the recognition of negatively and positively valenced musical emotions. The manipulation of two major musical features (mode and tempo), resulting in the variation of emotional perception along the happiness-sadness axis, was shown to principally involve subcortical and neocortical brain structures, which are known to intervene in emotion processing in other modalities. In particular, the minor mode (sad excerpts) involved the left orbito and mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex, which does not confirm the valence lateralization model. We also show that the recognition of emotions elicited by variations of the two perceptual determinants rely on both common (BA 9) and distinct neural mechanisms.

  13. Direct-method SAD phasing with partial-structure iteration: towards automation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J W; Chen, J R; Gu, Y X; Zheng, C D; Fan, H F

    2004-11-01

    The probability formula of direct-method SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) phasing proposed by Fan & Gu (1985, Acta Cryst. A41, 280-284) contains partial-structure information in the form of a Sim-weighting term. Previously, only the substructure of anomalous scatterers has been included in this term. In the case that the subsequent density modification and model building yields only structure fragments, which do not straightforwardly lead to the complete solution, the partial structure can be fed back into the Sim-weighting term of the probability formula in order to strengthen its phasing power and to benefit the subsequent automatic model building. The procedure has been tested with experimental SAD data from two known proteins with copper and sulfur as the anomalous scatterers.

  14. Safety studies of the oral rabies vaccine SAD B19 in striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Vos, A; Pommerening, E; Neubert, L; Kachel, S; Neubert, A

    2002-04-01

    Safety of the modified live rabies virus vaccine, SAD B19, was studied in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Seven skunks received 10(7.9) foci formatting units by direct oral administration. In four cages, a vaccinated animal was placed with a control animal, the other three vaccinated skunks were housed individually. Saliva and nasal swabs were collected 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 hr post-vaccination. From all vaccinated and control animals (n = 11) blood samples were collected 0, 28, 56, 84, and 296 days post-vaccination. Three of seven vaccinated skunks seroconverted. None of the control animals had detectable levels of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Also no vaccine virus was isolated from the nasal and saliva swabs collected from any animal. Thus, SAD B19 was innocuous for skunks in our study after direct oral administration at field concentration.

  15. The Unique and Shared Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Fear, Anger, and Sadness in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Sierra; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which subordinate dimensions of negative emotionality were genetically and environmentally distinct in a sample of 1316 twins (51% female, 85.8% Caucasian, primarily middle class, mean age = 7.87 years, SD = .93), recruited from Wisconsin hospital birth records between 1989 and 2004. Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models were fitted for mother-report, father-report, and in-home observation of temperament. Although findings support the use of negative emotionality, there were heritable aspects of anger and fear not explained by a common genetic factor, and shared environmental influences common to anger and sadness but not fear. Observed fear was independent from observed anger and sadness. Distinctions support specificity in measurement when considering implications for child development. PMID:26182850

  16. Absolute Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.

    1994-12-01

    We present absolute spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in absolute calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).

  17. American Muslims’ Anger and Sadness about In-group Social Image

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M.; Khan, Tasmiha; Selya, Arielle

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel study on the role of gender in perceptions of and emotions about in-group social image among American Muslims. Two hundred and five (147 females, 58 males) American Muslims completed a questionnaire on how Muslims feel in U.S. society. The study measured both stereotypical (i.e., ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed’) as well as non-stereotypical in-group social images (i.e., ‘powerful,’ ‘honorable’). In particular, participants were asked how much they believe Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed,’ ‘honorable,’ and ‘powerful’ in U.S. society, and how much anger and sadness they feel about the way U.S. society views Muslims. Participants believed Muslims are seen in stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘frightening’ and ‘oppressed’) more than in non-stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘powerful’ and ‘honorable’). Moreover, perceived in-group social image as ‘powerful’ or ‘honorable’ did not predict the intensity of felt anger or sadness. In contrast, the more participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ the more intense their anger and sadness. Furthermore, responses to perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ were moderated by gender. American Muslim female participants believed that Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed’ in U.S. society to a greater extent than male participants did. In addition, perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ only predicted anger for female participants: the more female participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed,’ the more intense their anger. This study contributes to the scarce literature on American Muslims in psychology, and shows that both anger and sadness are relevant to the study of perceived social image. PMID:28123374

  18. In vivo absorption spectroscopy for absolute measurement.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    In in vivo spectroscopy, there are differences between individual subjects in parameters such as tissue scattering and sample concentration. We propose a method that can provide the absolute value of a particular substance concentration, independent of these individual differences. Thus, it is not necessary to use the typical statistical calibration curve, which assumes an average level of scattering and an averaged concentration over individual subjects. This method is expected to greatly reduce the difficulties encountered during in vivo measurements. As an example, for in vivo absorption spectroscopy, the method was applied to the reflectance measurement in retinal vessels to monitor their oxygen saturation levels. This method was then validated by applying it to the tissue phantom under a variety of absorbance values and scattering efficiencies.

  19. Absolute and relative family affluence and psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; De Clercq, Bart; Schnohr, Christina W; Bird, Phillippa; Pickett, Kate E; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Hofmann, Felix; Currie, Candace

    2013-08-01

    Previous research on the links between income inequality and health and socioeconomic differences in health suggests that relative differences in affluence impact health and well-being more than absolute affluence. This study explored whether self-reported psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents relate more closely to relative affluence (i.e., relative deprivation or rank affluence within regions or schools) than to absolute affluence. Data on family material assets and psychosomatic symptoms were collected from 48,523 adolescents in eight countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Norway, Scotland, Poland, Turkey, and Ukraine) as part of the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Multilevel regression analyses of the data showed that relative deprivation (Yitzhaki Index, calculated in regions and in schools) and rank affluence (in regions) (1) related more closely to symptoms than absolute affluence, and (2) related to symptoms after differences in absolute affluence were held constant. However, differences in family material assets, whether they are measured in absolute or relative terms, account for a significant variation in adolescent psychosomatic symptoms. Conceptual and empirical issues relating to the use of material affluence indices to estimate socioeconomic position are discussed.

  20. Emotional expressions in antismoking television advertisements: consequences of anger and sadness framing on pathways to persuasion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted an experiment among U.S. college students (N = 115) to assess the effects of anger- and sadness-framed television antismoking advertisements on viewers' emotional response, impressions of the speaker, source likability, and empathy toward the speaker. The study was based on the fundamental assumptions of discrete emotions and was operationalized using the principles of universal facial expressions. The authors also constructed a path model to investigate how these variables predicted one's attitude toward smoking, attitude toward the tobacco industry, and intentions to smoke. Supporting study hypotheses, the anger-framed message increased the perceived dominance of the speaker relative to the other conditions. Perceived dominance, in turn, was negatively associated with smoking attitudes and, indirectly, smoking intentions. Contrary to study hypotheses, the sadness-framed message did not increase sad emotional responses, source likability, or empathy relative to the no emotion-framed message. The anger-framed message unexpectedly appeared to decrease these outcomes. Empathy and source likability were associated with positive attitudes toward the tobacco industry, but these attitudes did not predict intentions to smoke. The authors discuss the implications of these findings.

  1. Relaxation of purifying selection on the SAD lineage of live attenuated oral vaccines for rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2009-09-01

    Analysis of patterns of nucleotide sequence diversity in wild-type rabies virus (RABV) genomes and in the SAD live attenuated oral vaccine lineage was used to test for the relaxation of purifying selection in the latter and provide evidence regarding the genomic regions where such relaxation of selection occurs. The wild-type sequences showed evidence of strong past and ongoing purifying selection both on nonsynonymous sites in coding regions and on non-coding regions, particularly the start, end and 5' UTR regions. SAD vaccine sequences showed a relaxation of purifying selection at nonsynonymous sites in coding regions, resulting a substantial number of amino acid sequence polymorphisms at sites that were invariant in the wild-type sequences. Moreover, SAD vaccine sequences showed high levels of mutation accumulation in the non-coding regions that were most conserved in the wild-type sequences. Understanding the biological effects of the unique mutations accumulated in the vaccine lineage is important because of their potential effects on antigenicity and effectiveness of the vaccine.

  2. Lost or fond? Effects of nostalgia on sad mood recovery vary by attachment insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Sarah R.; Glode, Ryan J.; Opitz, Philipp C.

    2015-01-01

    Nostalgia involves a fond recollection of people and events lost to time. Growing evidence indicates that nostalgia may ameliorate negative affective states such as loneliness and boredom. However, the effect of nostalgia on sadness is unknown, and there is little research on how social connectedness might impact nostalgia's effects. Grounded in a theoretical framework whereby people with lower levels of attachment insecurity benefit more from nostalgia, we exposed participants to a mortality-related sad mood and then randomly assigned them to reflect on a nostalgic or an ordinary event memory. We examined changes in mood and electrodermal activity (EDA) and found that nostalgic versus ordinary event memories led to a blunted recovery from sad mood, but that this effect was moderated by degree of attachment insecurity, such that participants with low insecurity benefited from nostalgia whereas people with high insecurity did not. These findings suggest that nostalgia's benefits may be tied to the degree of confidence one has in one's social relationships. PMID:26113829

  3. S-SAD phasing study of death receptor 6 and its solution conformation revealed by SAXS

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Heng; Zhao, Lixia; Ding, Wei; Jiao, Lianying; Shaw, Neil; Liang, Wenguang; Zhang, Liguo; Hung, Li-Wei; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2012-01-01

    A subset of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members contain death domains in their cytoplasmic tails. Death receptor 6 (DR6) is one such member and can trigger apoptosis upon the binding of a ligand by its cysteine-rich domains (CRDs). The crystal structure of the ectodomain (amino acids 1–348) of human death receptor 6 (DR6) encompassing the CRD region was phased using the anomalous signal from S atoms. In order to explore the feasibility of S-SAD phasing at longer wavelengths (beyond 2.5 Å), a comparative study was performed on data collected at wavelengths of 2.0 and 2.7 Å. In spite of sub-optimal experimental conditions, the 2.7 Å wavelength used for data collection showed potential for S-SAD phasing. The results showed that the R ano/R p.i.m. ratio is a good indicator for monitoring the anomalous data quality when the anomalous signal is relatively strong, while d′′/sig(d′′) calculated by SHELXC is a more sensitive and stable indicator applicable for grading a wider range of anomalous data qualities. The use of the ‘parameter-space screening method’ for S-SAD phasing resulted in solutions for data sets that failed during manual attempts. SAXS measurements on the ectodomain suggested that a dimer defines the minimal physical unit of an unliganded DR6 molecule in solution. PMID:22525750

  4. Side effects of being blue: influence of sad mood on visual statistical learning.

    PubMed

    Bertels, Julie; Demoulin, Catherine; Franco, Ana; Destrebecqz, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that mood influences many cognitive processes, such as learning and executive functions. Although statistical learning is assumed to be part of our daily life, as mood does, the influence of mood on statistical learning has never been investigated before. In the present study, a sad vs. neutral mood was induced to the participants through the listening of stories while they were exposed to a stream of visual shapes made up of the repeated presentation of four triplets, namely sequences of three shapes presented in a fixed order. Given that the inter-stimulus interval was held constant within and between triplets, the only cues available for triplet segmentation were the transitional probabilities between shapes. Direct and indirect measures of learning taken either immediately or 20 minutes after the exposure/mood induction phase revealed that participants learned the statistical regularities between shapes. Interestingly, although participants from the sad and neutral groups performed similarly in these tasks, subjective measures (confidence judgments taken after each trial) revealed that participants who experienced the sad mood induction showed increased conscious access to their statistical knowledge. These effects were not modulated by the time delay between the exposure/mood induction and the test phases. These results are discussed within the scope of the robustness principle and the influence of negative affects on processing style.

  5. Absolute bioavailability of quinine formulations in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Babalola, C P; Bolaji, O O; Ogunbona, F A; Ezeomah, E

    2004-09-01

    This study compared the absolute bioavailability of quinine sulphate as capsule and as tablet against the intravenous (i.v.) infusion of the drug in twelve male volunteers. Six of the volunteers received intravenous infusion over 4 h as well as the capsule formulation of the drug in a cross-over manner, while the other six received the tablet formulation. Blood samples were taken at predetermined time intervals and plasma analysed for quinine (QN) using reversed-phase HPLC method. QN was rapidly absorbed after the two oral formulations with average t(max) of 2.67 h for both capsule and tablet. The mean elimination half-life of QN from the i.v. and oral dosage forms varied between 10 and 13.5 hr and were not statistically different (P > 0.05). On the contrary, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC) from capsule were comparable to those from i.v. (P > 0.05), while these values were markedly higher than values from tablet formulation (P < 0.05). The therapeutic QN plasma levels were not achieved with the tablet formulation. The absolute bioavailability (F) were 73% (C.l., 53.3 - 92.4%) and 39 % (C.I., 21.7 - 56.6%) for the capsule and tablet respectively and the difference was significant (P < 0.05). The subtherapeutic levels obtained from the tablet form used in this study may cause treatment failure during malaria and caution should be taken when predictions are made from results obtained from different formulations of QN.

  6. From MAD to SAD: The Italian experience for the low-frequency aperture array of SKA1-LOW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolli, P.; Pupillo, G.; Virone, G.; Farooqui, M. Z.; Lingua, A.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Murgia, M.; Naldi, G.; Paonessa, F.; Perini, F.; Pluchino, S.; Rusticelli, S.; Schiaffino, M.; Schillirò, F.; Tartarini, G.; Tibaldi, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes two small aperture array demonstrators called Medicina and Sardinia Array Demonstrators (MAD and SAD, respectively). The objectives of these instruments are to acquire experience and test new technologies for a possible application to the low-frequency aperture array of the low-frequency telescope of the Square Kilometer Array phase 1 (SKA1-LOW). The MAD experience was concluded in 2014, and it turned out to be an important test bench for implementing calibration techniques based on an artificial source mounted in an aerial vehicle. SAD is based on 128 dual-polarized Vivaldi antennas and is 1 order of magnitude larger than MAD. The architecture and the station size of SAD, which is along the construction phase, are more similar to those under evaluation for SKA1-LOW, and therefore, SAD is expected to provide useful hints for SKA1-LOW.

  7. A new measure for assessing executive function across a wide age range: children and adults find happy-sad more difficult than day-night.

    PubMed

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Monsour, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments examined 4- to 11-year-olds' and adults' performance (N = 350) on two variants of a Stroop-like card task: the day-night task (say 'day' when shown a moon and 'night' when shown a sun) and a new happy-sad task (say 'happy' for a sad face and 'sad' for a happy face). Experiment 1 featured colored cartoon drawings. In Experiment 2, the happy-sad task featured photographs, and pictures for both measures were gray scale. All age groups made more errors and took longer to respond to the happy-sad versus the day-night versions. Unlike the day-night task, the happy-sad task did not suffer from ceiling effects, even in adults. The happy-sad task provides a methodological advance for measuring executive function across a wide age range.

  8. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.

    2008-04-01

    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1°C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273°C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales using a simple, well-known physics experiment. By making multiple measurements of the speed of sound at different temperatures, using the classic physics experiment of determining the speed of sound with a tuning fork and variable-length tube, they can determine the temperature at which the speed of sound is zero—absolute zero.

  9. Sad Dads

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-01-01

    The postpartum period is associated with many adjustments to fathers that pose risks for depression. Estimates of the prevalence of paternal postpartum depression (PPD) in the first two months postpartum vary in the postpartum period from 4 to 25 percent. Paternal PPD has high comorbidity with maternal PPD and might also be associated with other postpartum psychiatric disorders. Studies so far have only used diagnostic criteria for maternal PPD to investigate paternal PPD, so there is an urgent need to study the validity of these scales for men and develop accurate diagnostic tools for paternal PPD. Paternal PPD has negative impacts on family, including increasing emotional and behavioral problems among their children (either directly or through the mother) and increasing conflicts in the marital relationship. Changes in hormones, including testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, vasopressin, and prolactin, during the postpartum period in fathers may be biological risk factors in paternal PPD. Fathers who have ecological risk factors, such as excessive stress from becoming a parent, lack of social supports for parenting, and feeling excluded from mother-infant bonding, may be more likely to develop paternal PPD. Support from their partner, educational programs, policy for paid paternal leave, as well as consideration of psychiatric care may help fathers cope with stressful experiences during the postpartum period. PMID:20805898

  10. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-29

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  11. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term. PMID:26729175

  12. Accurate absolute GPS positioning through satellite clock error estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.-C.; Kwon, J. H.; Jekeli, C.

    2001-05-01

    An algorithm for very accurate absolute positioning through Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite clock estimation has been developed. Using International GPS Service (IGS) precise orbits and measurements, GPS clock errors were estimated at 30-s intervals. Compared to values determined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the agreement was at the level of about 0.1 ns (3 cm). The clock error estimates were then applied to an absolute positioning algorithm in both static and kinematic modes. For the static case, an IGS station was selected and the coordinates were estimated every 30 s. The estimated absolute position coordinates and the known values had a mean difference of up to 18 cm with standard deviation less than 2 cm. For the kinematic case, data obtained every second from a GPS buoy were tested and the result from the absolute positioning was compared to a differential GPS (DGPS) solution. The mean differences between the coordinates estimated by the two methods are less than 40 cm and the standard deviations are less than 25 cm. It was verified that this poorer standard deviation on 1-s position results is due to the clock error interpolation from 30-s estimates with Selective Availability (SA). After SA was turned off, higher-rate clock error estimates (such as 1 s) could be obtained by a simple interpolation with negligible corruption. Therefore, the proposed absolute positioning technique can be used to within a few centimeters' precision at any rate by estimating 30-s satellite clock errors and interpolating them.

  13. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  14. ON A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The formulation of a condition which yields absolute continuity when combined with continuity and bounded variation is the problem considered in the...Briefly, the formulation is achieved through a discussion which develops a proof by contradiction of a sufficiently theorem for absolute continuity which uses in its hypothesis the condition of continuity and bounded variation .

  15. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  16. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  17. Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.

  18. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  19. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  20. A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical music.

    PubMed

    Mitterschiffthaler, Martina T; Fu, Cynthia H Y; Dalton, Jeffrey A; Andrew, Christopher M; Williams, Steven C R

    2007-11-01

    The present study investigated the functional neuroanatomy of transient mood changes in response to Western classical music. In a pilot experiment, 53 healthy volunteers (mean age: 32.0; SD = 9.6) evaluated their emotional responses to 60 classical musical pieces using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 (sad) through 50 (neutral) to 100 (happy). Twenty pieces were found to accurately induce the intended emotional states with good reliability, consisting of 5 happy, 5 sad, and 10 emotionally unevocative, neutral musical pieces. In a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast was measured in response to the mood state induced by each musical stimulus in a separate group of 16 healthy participants (mean age: 29.5; SD = 5.5). Mood state ratings during scanning were made by a VAS, which confirmed the emotional valence of the selected stimuli. Increased BOLD signal contrast during presentation of happy music was found in the ventral and dorsal striatum, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, and auditory association areas. With sad music, increased BOLD signal responses were noted in the hippocampus/amygdala and auditory association areas. Presentation of neutral music was associated with increased BOLD signal responses in the insula and auditory association areas. Our findings suggest that an emotion processing network in response to music integrates the ventral and dorsal striatum, areas involved in reward experience and movement; the anterior cingulate, which is important for targeting attention; and medial temporal areas, traditionally found in the appraisal and processing of emotions.

  1. Sadness might isolate you in a non-smelling world: olfactory perception and depression

    PubMed Central

    Schablitzky, Sylvia; Pause, Bettina M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs with a high prevalence among mental illnesses. MDD patients experience sadness and hopelessness, with blunted affective reactivity. However, such depressive episodes are also key symptoms in other depressive disorders, like Bipolar Disorder (BPD) or Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Moreover, depressive symptoms can also be found in healthy individuals, but are experienced as less severe or for a shorter duration than in patients. Here, it is aimed to summarize studies investigating odor perception in depression, including depressive states in healthy individuals and patient populations. Odor perception in depression has been assessed with psychophysical methods (olfactory sensitivity, odor identification, and discrimination), and odor ratings (intensity, emotional valence, familiarity). In addition, some studies investigated affective reactions to odors, and physiological and anatomical correlates of odor perception in depression. The summary reveals that MDD is associated with reduced olfactory sensitivity. However, odor identification and discrimination scores seem to be unaffected by depression. The reduced olfactory sensitivity might be associated with a reduced ability to encode olfactory information and a reduced volume of the olfactory bulb. While similar processes seem to occur in healthy individuals experiencing depressive states, they have not been observed in BPD or SAD patients. However, in order to conclude that the reduced olfactory sensitivity is directly linked to depression, it is suggested that studies should implement control measures of cognitive performances or perceptual abilities in other stimulus modalities. It is concluded that the reduced olfactory performance in MDD patients seems to be disorder-, modality-, and test-specific, and that the application of an appropriate olfactory and cognitive test-battery might be highly useful in the differential diagnosis of MDD. PMID:24570666

  2. Challenges of sulfur SAD phasing as a routine method in macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Doutch, James; Hough, Michael A.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Strange, Richard W.

    2011-11-29

    The sulfur SAD phasing method allows the determination of protein structuresde novowithout reference to derivatives such as Se-methionine. The feasibility for routine automated sulfur SAD phasing using a number of current protein crystallography beamlines at several synchrotrons was examined using crystals of trimericAchromobacter cycloclastesnitrite reductase (AcNiR), which contains a near average proportion of sulfur-containing residues and two Cu atoms per subunit. Experiments using X-ray wavelengths in the range 1.9–2.4 Å show that we are not yet at the level where sulfur SAD is routinely successful forautomatedstructure solution and model building using existing beamlines and current software tools. On the other hand, experiments using the shortest X-ray wavelengths available on existing beamlines could be routinely exploited to solve and produce unbiased structural models using the similarly weak anomalous scattering signals from the intrinsic metal atoms in proteins. The comparison of long-wavelength phasing (the Bijvoet ratio for nine S atoms and two Cu atoms is ~1.25% at ~2 Å) and copper phasing (the Bijvoet ratio for two Cu atoms is 0.81% at ~0.75Å) forAcNiR suggests that lower data multiplicity than is currently required for success should in general be possible for sulfur phasing if appropriate improvements to beamlines and data collection strategies can be implemented.

  3. Absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry.

    PubMed

    Thurner, Klaus; Braun, Pierre-François; Karrai, Khaled

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a method for absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry. A particularity of this technique is that a target distance is determined in absolute and is no longer limited to within an ambiguity range affecting usually multiple wavelength interferometers. We implemented the technique in a low-finesse Fabry-Pérot miniature fiber based interferometer. We used two diode lasers, both operating in the 1550 nm wavelength range. The wavelength difference is chosen to create a 25 μm long periodic beating interferometric pattern allowing a nanometer precise position measurement but limited to within an ambiguity range of 25 μm. The ambiguity is then eliminated by scanning one of the wavelengths over a small range (3.4 nm). We measured absolute distances in the sub-meter range and this with just few nanometer repeatability.

  4. Use of iterative OASIS with low resolution SAD laboratory X-ray source (Cr Kα) data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvanayagam, S.; Velmurugan, D.; Yamane, T.; Suzuki, A.

    2009-12-01

    Anomalous scattering methods are widely used for phasing macromolecular structures. OASIS program works on a direct methods procedure and is used to break the phase ambiguity intrinsic in a single wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) experiment. An iterative phasing/model-building procedure for processing SAD data includes the initial direct method phasing of SAD data, density modification, automatic model building and direct methods phasing of SAD data with feed back from partial structure information. This dual-space procedure has been tested on two experimental Cr Kα SAD data sets, 2.3 Å for S-SAD and 2.4 Å for I-SAD, of an enzyme glucose isomerase with an approximate molecular weight of 44 kDa (388 residues). HYSS in PHENIX was used to locate the anomalous scatterers for both the data sets (11 sulfurs for 2.3 Å data and 9 iodines for 2.4 Å data). Phasing and density modification were carried out using OASIS, DM and model building was then carried out using ARP/wARP. Two iterative cycles were necessary for the successful structure solution and refinement of the 2.3 Å data set which built 384 residues out of 388. Regular ARP/wARP failed for the 2.4 Å resolution data and hence the modified version of REFMAC5 was used in ARP/wARP. A successful model could be built after three iterative cycles of OASIS using this modified version which built 382 residues out of 388 residues. Minimal manual model building was required at this stage and the structure determination was completed using regular REFMAC5. All the computations mentioned here were carried out using Pentium IV PC.

  5. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  6. Ophthalmoplegic migraine. Two patients with an absolute response to indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Pareja, J A; Churruca, J; de la Casa Fages, B; de Silanes, C López; Sánchez, C; Barriga, F J

    2010-06-01

    Two patients suffering from ophthalmoplegic migraine had a strictly unilateral headache absolutely responsive to indomethacin, but not to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics or corticosteroids. Such observations raise a therapeutic alternative and suggest that ophthalmoplegic migraine may present with different headache phenotypes.

  7. Analysis of standard reference materials by absolute INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1981-07-01

    Three standard reference materials, flyash, soil, and ASI 4340 steel, were analyzed by a method of absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Two different light water pool-type reactors were used to produce equivalent analytical results even though the epithermal to thermal flux ratio in one reactor was higher than that in the other by a factor of two.

  8. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  9. Oxygen-dependent regulation of c-di-GMP synthesis by SadC controls alginate production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annika; Hammerbacher, Anna Silke; Bastian, Mike; Nieken, Karen Jule; Klockgether, Jens; Merighi, Massimo; Lapouge, Karine; Poschgan, Claudia; Kölle, Julia; Acharya, K Ravi; Ulrich, Martina; Tümmler, Burkhard; Unden, Gottfried; Kaever, Volkhard; Lory, Stephen; Haas, Dieter; Schwarz, Sandra; Döring, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces increased levels of alginate in response to oxygen-deprived conditions. The regulatory pathway(s) that links oxygen limitation to increased synthesis of alginate has remained elusive. In the present study, using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that anaerobiosis-induced alginate production by planktonic PAO1 requires the diguanylate cyclase (DGC) SadC, previously identified as a regulator of surface-associated lifestyles. Furthermore, we found that the gene products of PA4330 and PA4331, located in a predicted operon with sadC, have a major impact on alginate production: deletion of PA4330 (odaA, for oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis activator) caused an alginate production defect under anaerobic conditions, whereas a PA4331 (odaI, for oxygen-dependent alginate synthesis inhibitor) deletion mutant produced alginate also in the presence of oxygen, which would normally inhibit alginate synthesis. Based on their sequence, OdaA and OdaI have predicted hydratase and dioxygenase reductase activities, respectively. Enzymatic assays using purified protein showed that unlike OdaA, which did not significantly affect DGC activity of SadC, OdaI inhibited c-di-GMP production by SadC. Our data indicate that SadC, OdaA and OdaI are components of a novel response pathway of P. aeruginosa that regulates alginate synthesis in an oxygen-dependent manner.

  10. Be Happy Not Sad for Your Youth: The Effect of Emotional Expression on Age Perception.

    PubMed

    Hass, Norah C; Weston, Trent D; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-01-01

    Perceived age is a psychosocial factor that can influence both with whom and how we choose to interact socially. Though intuition tells us that a smile makes us look younger, surprisingly little empirical evidence exists to explain how age-irrelevant emotional expressions bias the subjective decision threshold for age. We examined the role that emotional expression plays in the process of judging one's age from a face. College-aged participants were asked to sort the emotional and neutral expressions of male facial stimuli that had been morphed across eight age levels into categories of either "young" or "old." Our results indicated that faces at the lower age levels were more likely to be categorized as old when they showed a sad facial expression compared to neutral expressions. Mirroring that, happy faces were more often judged as young at higher age levels than neutral faces. Our findings suggest that emotion interacts with age perception such that happy expression increases the threshold for an old decision, while sad expression decreases the threshold for an old decision in a young adult sample.

  11. Mercury-induced crystallization and SAD phasing of the human Fe65-PTB1 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-05-01

    Crystals of the phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of the neuronal adaptor protein Fe65 grown in the presence of a mercury derivative show a dramatic improvement in resolution, permitting SAD phasing. Fe65 is a three-domain neuronal adaptor protein involved in brain development and amyloid precursor protein (APP) signalling. The phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of human Fe65 has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Native crystals belong to the space group R3 and diffract to 2.6 Å resolution. This crystal form suffered from high thermal B factors and pseudo-symmetry, resulting in a bisection of the c axis. Co-crystallization with a mercury compound under similar conditions induced an orthorhombic crystal form in the space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} diffracting to 2.2 Å resolution. SAD phases have been computed to the diffraction limit at the wavelength of maximum absorption (L{sub III} edge)

  12. Calculation of radiation hazard connected with the SAD spallation target replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorecki, Władysław

    2007-09-01

    The Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is a device coupled with existing 660 MeV proton accelerator (max beam current 3.2 μA). The main characteristic parameters of the core are: MOX fuel, keff=0.95, fission power 27.6 kW, Pb reflector. The SAD target consists of one central and 18 hexagonal (36 mm pitch) Pb prisms in two concentric layers. The main goal of the calculations, is the evaluation of the radiation hazard connected with replacement of the target elements after planned six months working period. The total induced radioactivity and its spatial distributions in the target elements were presented elsewhere. Here the longitudinal distribution and the time evolution of the gamma/beta emmiters activity, their spectra in the most active central target element and adequate radiation exposure are shown. The attenuation factors for these gamma ray spectra for commonly used shielding materials (Pb, Fe) are calculated as well. The MCNPX code is used for radioisotope production calculations. Gamma and beta spectra are calculated using modified EvIzo program and TORI database. Methods and tools used for gamma spectra simulation are checked using the results obtained in the experiment with bare Pb cylindrical target.

  13. Be Happy Not Sad for Your Youth: The Effect of Emotional Expression on Age Perception

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Norah C.; Weston, Trent D.; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-01-01

    Perceived age is a psychosocial factor that can influence both with whom and how we choose to interact socially. Though intuition tells us that a smile makes us look younger, surprisingly little empirical evidence exists to explain how age-irrelevant emotional expressions bias the subjective decision threshold for age. We examined the role that emotional expression plays in the process of judging one’s age from a face. College-aged participants were asked to sort the emotional and neutral expressions of male facial stimuli that had been morphed across eight age levels into categories of either “young” or “old.” Our results indicated that faces at the lower age levels were more likely to be categorized as old when they showed a sad facial expression compared to neutral expressions. Mirroring that, happy faces were more often judged as young at higher age levels than neutral faces. Our findings suggest that emotion interacts with age perception such that happy expression increases the threshold for an old decision, while sad expression decreases the threshold for an old decision in a young adult sample. PMID:27028300

  14. Increased involvement of the parahippocampal gyri in a sad mood predicts future depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Kuehner, Christine; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest a relationship between autobiographical memory, rumination and depression. The objective of this study was to determine whether remitted depressed patients show alterations in connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, a node in the default mode network) with the parahippocampal gyri (PHG, a region associated with autobiographical memory) while intensively recalling negative memories and whether this is related to daily life symptoms and to the further course of depression. Sad mood was induced with keywords of personal negative life events in participants with remitted depression (n = 29) and matched healthy controls (n = 29) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, daily life assessments of mood and rumination and a 6-month follow-up were conducted. Remitted depressed participants showed greater connectivity than healthy controls of the PCC with the PHG, which was even stronger in patients with more previous episodes. Furthermore, patients with increased PCC–PHG connectivity showed a sadder mood and more rumination in daily life and a worsening of rumination and depression scores during follow-up. A relationship of negative autobiographical memory processing, rumination, sad mood and depression on a neural level seems likely. The identified increased connectivity probably indicates a ‘scar’ of recurrent depression and may represent a prognostic factor for future depression. PMID:24493842

  15. A New Measure for Assessing Executive Function across a Wide Age Range: Children and Adults Find "Happy-Sad" More Difficult than "Day-Night"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Monsour, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined 4- to 11-year-olds' and adults' performance (N = 350) on two variants of a Stroop-like card task: the "day-night task" (say "day" when shown a moon and "night" when shown a sun) and a new "happy-sad task" (say "happy" for a sad face and "sad" for a happy face). Experiment 1 featured colored cartoon drawings. In Experiment…

  16. Phosphates in the Z-DNA dodecamer are flexible, but their P-SAD signal is sufficient for structure solution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhipu; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2014-07-01

    A large number of Z-DNA hexamer duplex structures and a few oligomers of different lengths are available, but here the first crystal structure of the d(CGCGCGCGCGCG)2 dodecameric duplex is presented. Two synchrotron data sets were collected; one was used to solve the structure by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) approach based on the anomalous signal of P atoms, the other set, extending to an ultrahigh resolution of 0.75 Å, served to refine the atomic model to an R factor of 12.2% and an R(free) of 13.4%. The structure consists of parallel duplexes arranged into practically infinitely long helices packed in a hexagonal fashion, analogous to all other known structures of Z-DNA oligomers. However, the dodecamer molecule shows a high level of flexibility, especially of the backbone phosphate groups, with six out of 11 phosphates modeled in double orientations corresponding to the two previously observed Z-DNA conformations: Z(I), with the phosphate groups inclined towards the inside of the helix, and Z(II), with the phosphate groups rotated towards the outside of the helix.

  17. Life history interviews with 11 boys diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who had sexually offended: a sad storyline.

    PubMed

    Tidefors, Inga; Strand, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Little is known of the possible relationship between a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sexually offensive behavior in adolescents. Our aim was to understand how adolescents with ADHD who had sexually offended described their childhood experiences and spoke about their diagnostic symptoms. The boys' early lives and relations were unpredictable, and emotional, physical, and sexual limits had been crossed. However, many boys saw themselves or their diagnosis, rather than their parents, school, or "society," as the underlying cause of their behavior. They used different strategies, for example repressing memories or regarding traumatic experiences as normal, to manage their lives. Most boys had difficulty with emotions and expressed sadness or frustration through anger. They spoke of being inattentive and restless in school and impulsive before and during their sexual offenses. The psychiatric assessment was described as a "messy" experience that strengthened their belief that something was wrong with them. Some had incorporated neuropsychiatric language into otherwise limited vocabularies and tended to use their diagnostic symptoms to excuse their offenses. The focus in the assessment on the boys themselves and their behaviors may darken their understandings of themselves, their experiences of abuse, and the offenses they have committed. Further research is needed into the possible consequences of a diagnosis of ADHD on adolescents' self-image and sense of self-control.

  18. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  19. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-09-15

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  20. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  1. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  2. Kelvin and the absolute temperature scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlichson, Herman

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the absolute temperature scale of Kelvin (William Thomson). Kelvin found that Carnot's axiom about heat being a conserved quantity had to be abandoned. Nevertheless, he found that Carnot's fundamental work on heat engines was correct. Using the concept of a Carnot engine Kelvin found that Q1/Q2 = T1/T2. Thermometers are not used to obtain absolute temperatures since they are calculated temperatures.

  3. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  4. Anger and advancement versus sadness and subjugation: the effect of negative emotion expressions on social status conferral.

    PubMed

    Tiedens, L Z

    2001-01-01

    Four studies examined status conferral (decisions about who should be granted status). The studies show that people confer more status to targets who express anger than to targets who express sadness. In the 1st study, participants supported President Clinton more when they viewed him expressing anger about the Monica Lewinsky scandal than when they saw him expressing sadness about the scandal. This effect was replicated with an unknown politician in Study 2. The 3rd study showed that status conferral in a company was correlated with peers' ratings of the workers' anger. In the final study, participants assigned a higher status position and a higher salary to a job candidate who described himself as angry as opposed to sad. Furthermore, Studies 2-4 showed that anger expressions created the impression that the expresser was competent and that these perceptions mediated the relationship between emotional expressions and status conferral.

  5. Stimulus-Driven Attention, Threat Bias, and Sad Bias in Youth with a History of an Anxiety Disorder or Depression.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Chad M; Hudziak, James J; Gaffrey, Michael S; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L

    2016-02-01

    Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are associated with pediatric anxiety and depression, respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. We collected measures of stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, sad bias, and current clinical symptoms in youth with a history of an anxiety disorder and/or depression (ANX/DEP; n = 40) as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 33). Stimulus-driven attention was measured with a non-emotional spatial orienting task, while threat bias and sad bias were measured at a short time interval (150 ms) with a spatial orienting task using emotional faces and at a longer time interval (500 ms) using a dot-probe task. In ANX/DEP but not HC, early attention bias towards threat was negatively correlated with later attention bias to threat, suggesting that early threat vigilance was associated with later threat avoidance. Across all subjects, stimulus-driven orienting was not correlated with early threat bias but was negatively correlated with later threat bias, indicating that rapid stimulus-driven orienting is linked to later threat avoidance. No parallel relationships were detected for sad bias. Current symptoms of depression but not anxiety were related to decreased stimulus-driven attention. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that threat bias but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. These results inform the design of attention bias modification programs that aim to reverse threat biases and reduce symptoms associated with pediatric anxiety and depression.

  6. Absolute calibration of forces in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.

    2014-07-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.

  7. Parent-child discussions of anger and sadness: the importance of parent and child gender during middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Janice; Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Cassano, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides conceptual background and empirical evidence that parental emotion socialization continues well into middle childhood and is influenced by the social context. Data are presented to illustrate the influence of parent and child gender on parental socialization of emotion in 113 Caucasian, middle-class children. Mothers and fathers discussed historical sadness- and anger-eliciting events with their sons and daughters. Fathers appear to play a unique role in sadness socialization whereas mothers' influence seems distinctive for the socialization of anger. Socialization of emotion is a transactional process in which parents and children are both socializing agents and emotion regulators.

  8. A mathematical biologist's guide to absolute and convective instability.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Jonathan A; Dagbovie, Ayawoa S; Hilker, Frank M

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models have been highly successful at reproducing the complex spatiotemporal phenomena seen in many biological systems. However, the ability to numerically simulate such phenomena currently far outstrips detailed mathematical understanding. This paper reviews the theory of absolute and convective instability, which has the potential to redress this inbalance in some cases. In spatiotemporal systems, unstable steady states subdivide into two categories. Those that are absolutely unstable are not relevant in applications except as generators of spatial or spatiotemporal patterns, but convectively unstable steady states can occur as persistent features of solutions. The authors explain the concepts of absolute and convective instability, and also the related concepts of remnant and transient instability. They give examples of their use in explaining qualitative transitions in solution behaviour. They then describe how to distinguish different types of instability, focussing on the relatively new approach of the absolute spectrum. They also discuss the use of the theory for making quantitative predictions on how spatiotemporal solutions change with model parameters. The discussion is illustrated throughout by numerical simulations of a model for river-based predator-prey systems.

  9. Absolute calibration in the 1750 - 3350 A region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strongylis, G. J.; Bohlin, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute flux measurements in the rocket ultraviolet made by Bohlin, Frimout, and Lillie (BFL) are revised using a more correct treatment of the air extinction that enters the air calibration of their instrument. The absorption by molecular oxygen and ozone, Rayleigh scattering, and extinction by aerosols is tabulated for general use in ultraviolet calibrations performed in air. The revised absolute flux of eta UMa and final fluxes for alpha Lyr and zeta Oph are presented in the 1750-3350 A region. The absolute flux of the star eta UMa is compared to four other independent determinations in the 1200-3400 A region and a maximum difference of 35% is found near 1500 A between the OAO-2 and Apollo 17 fluxes. The rocket measurements of BFL, the ANS and TD-1 satellite data, and the Apollo 17 data are compared to the ultraviolet fluxes from the OAO-2, demonstrating a photometric reproducibility of about + or - 3 percent. Therefore, all four sets of spectrophotometry can be reduced to a common absolute scale.

  10. Automated absolute phase retrieval in across-track interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed is a key element in the processing of topographic radar maps acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar configured as an across-track interferometer (TOPSAR). TOPSAR utilizes a single transmit and two receive antennas; the three-dimensional target location is determined by triangulation based on a known baseline and two measured slant ranges. The slant range difference is determined very accurately from the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. This phase is measured modulo 2pi, whereas it is the absolute phase which relates directly to the difference in slant range. It is shown that splitting the range bandwidth into two subbands in the processor and processing each individually allows for the absolute phase. The underlying principles and system errors which must be considered are discussed, together with the implementation and results from processing data acquired during the summer of 1991.

  11. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  12. An Integrated Model of Choices and Response Times in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Marley, A. A. J.; Donkin, Christopher; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments in the field of absolute identification have stressed differences between relative and absolute processes, that is, whether stimulus magnitudes are judged relative to a shorter term context provided by recently presented stimuli or a longer term context provided by the entire set of stimuli. The authors developed a…

  13. The Relation between the Absolute Level of Parenting and Differential Parental Treatment with Adolescent Siblings' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamrouti-Makkink, Ilse D.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The present study extends existing studies on the role of differential parental treatment in explaining individual differences in adolescent problem behaviors above the absolute level of parenting and clarifies the function of gender of the child, birth rank and gender constellation of the sibling dyads. Method: The absolute level of…

  14. Mercury-induced crystallization and SAD phasing of the human Fe65-PTB1 domain.

    PubMed

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Ravaud, Stéphanie; Beyreuther, Konrad; Sinning, Irmgard; Wild, Klemens

    2008-05-01

    Fe65 is a three-domain neuronal adaptor protein involved in brain development and amyloid precursor protein (APP) signalling. The phosphotyrosine-binding domain 1 (PTB1) of human Fe65 has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Native crystals belong to the space group R3 and diffract to 2.6 A resolution. This crystal form suffered from high thermal B factors and pseudo-symmetry, resulting in a bisection of the c axis. Co-crystallization with a mercury compound under similar conditions induced an orthorhombic crystal form in the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) diffracting to 2.2 A resolution. SAD phases have been computed to the diffraction limit at the wavelength of maximum absorption (L(III) edge).

  15. Ending aging in the Shteyngart of Eden: biogerontological discourse in a Super Sad True Love Story.

    PubMed

    Kriebernegg, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    This article broaches the topic of biogerontology as presented in Gary Shteyngart's dystopic novel Super Sad True Love Story(2010) from the perspective of cultural and literary gerontology and examines how the novel manages to challenge predominant discourses in the field of scientific anti-aging studies, especially the notion that old age is a disease that can be cured. It compares the novel's presentation of biogerontological knowledge to current developments in the field, using Cambridge biogerontologist and immortality prophet Aubrey de Grey's book Ending Aging(2007) as an example. Based on the assumption that cultural criticism can and should impact scientific and medical research on aging, this paper asks whether (the analysis of) fictional texts can be seen as a cultural critical intervention into the ageism so often openly displayed in scientific discourses.

  16. What is in the feedback? Effect of induced happiness vs. sadness on probabilistic learning with vs. without exploration.

    PubMed

    Bakic, Jasmina; De Raedt, Rudi; Jepma, Marieke; Pourtois, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    According to dominant neuropsychological theories of affect, emotions signal salience of events and in turn facilitate a wide spectrum of response options or action tendencies. Valence of an emotional experience is pivotal here, as it alters reward and punishment processing, as well as the balance between safety and risk taking, which can be translated into changes in the exploration-exploitation trade-off during reinforcement learning (RL). To test this idea, we compared the behavioral performance of three groups of participants that all completed a variant of a standard probabilistic learning task, but who differed regarding which mood state was actually induced and maintained (happy, sad or neutral). To foster a change from an exploration to an exploitation-based mode, we removed feedback information once learning was reliably established. Although changes in mood were successful, learning performance was balanced between the three groups. Critically, when focusing on exploitation-driven learning only, they did not differ either. Moreover, mood valence did not alter the learning rate or exploration per se, when titrated using complementing computational modeling. By comparing systematically these results to our previous study (Bakic et al., 2014), we found that arousal levels did differ between studies, which might account for limited modulatory effects of (positive) mood on RL in the present case. These results challenge the assumption that mood valence alone is enough to create strong shifts in the way exploitation or exploration is eventually carried out during (probabilistic) learning. In this context, we discuss the possibility that both valence and arousal are actually necessary components of the emotional mood state to yield changes in the use and exploration of incentives cues during RL.

  17. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  18. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  19. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  20. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    increase in accuracy. Our presentation will also explore the impact of such an instrument on our theory of how to constrain the gravity datum and on how to ensure stability, repeatability, and reproducibility across different absolute gravimeter systems.

  1. The EM-POGO: A simple, absolute velocity profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terker, S. R.; Sanford, T. B.; Dunlap, J. H.; Girton, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic current instrumentation has been added to the Bathy Systems, Inc. POGO transport sondes to produce a free-falling absolute velocity profiler called EM-POGO. The POGO is a free-fall profiler that measures a depth-averaged velocity using GPS fixes at the beginning and end of a round trip to the ocean floor (or a preset depth). The EM-POGO adds a velocity profile determined from measurements of motionally induced electric fields generated by the ocean current moving through the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field. In addition to providing information about the vertical structure of the velocity, the depth-dependent measurements improve transport measurements by correcting for the non-constant fall-rate. Neglecting the variable fall rate results in errors O (1 cm s-1). The transition from POGO to EM-POGO included electrically isolating the POGO and electric-field-measuring circuits, installing a functional GPS receiver, finding a pressure case that provided an optimal balance among crush-depth, price and size, and incorporating the electrodes, electrode collar, and the circuitry required for the electric field measurement. The first EM-POGO sea-trial was in July 1999. In August 2006 a refurbished EM-POGO collected 15 absolute velocity profiles; relative and absolute velocity uncertainty was ˜1cms-1 and 0.5-5 cm s-1, respectively, at a vertical resolution of 25 m. Absolute velocity from the EM-POGO compared to shipboard ADCP measurements differed by ˜ 1-2 cm s-1, comparable to the uncertainty in absolute velocity from the ADCP. The EM-POGO is thus a low-cost, easy to deploy and recover, and accurate velocity profiler.

  2. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  3. Usage tests of oak moss absolutes containing high and low levels of atranol and chloroatranol.

    PubMed

    Mowitz, Martin; Svedman, Cecilia; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-07-01

    Atranol and chloroatranol are strong contact allergens in oak moss absolute, a lichen extract used in perfumery. Fifteen subjects with contact allergy to oak moss absolute underwent a repeated open application test (ROAT) using solutions of an untreated oak moss absolute (sample A) and an oak moss absolute with reduced content of atranol and chloroatranol (sample B). All subjects were in addition patch-tested with serial dilutions of samples A and B. Statistically significantly more subjects reacted to sample A than to sample B in the patch tests. No corresponding difference was observed in the ROAT, though there was a significant difference in the time required to elicit a positive reaction. Still, the ROAT indicates that the use of a cosmetic product containing oak moss absolute with reduced levels of atranol and chloroatranol is capable of eliciting an allergic reaction in previously sensitised individuals.

  4. Absolute Gravity Measurements with the FG5#215 in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálinkás, V.; Kostelecký, J.; Lederer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the absolute gravimeter FG5#215 has been used for modernization of national gravity networks in Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Altogether 37 absolute sites were measured at least once. In case of 29 sites, the absolute gravity has been determined prior to the FG5#215 by other accurate absolute meters (FG5 or JILA-g). Differences between gravity results, which reach up to 25 microgal, are caused by random and systematic errors of measurements, variations of environmental effects (mainly hydrological effects) and by geodynamics. The set of achieved differences is analyzed for potential hydrological effects based on global hydrology models and systematic errors of instrumental origin. Systematic instrumental errors are evaluated in context with accomplished international comparison measurements of absolute gravimeters in Sèvres and Walferdange organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures and European Center for Geodynamics and Seismology, respectively.

  5. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  6. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  7. The Influence of Stimulus Discriminability on Young Children's Interference Control in the Stroop-Like Happy-Sad Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluell, Alexandra M.; Montgomery, Derek E.

    2014-01-01

    The day-night paradigm, where children respond to a pair of pictures with opposite labels for a series of trials, is a widely used measure of interference control. Recent research has shown that a happy-sad variant of the day-night task was significantly more difficult than the standard day-night task. The present research examined whether the…

  8. [The foundation and development of the Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad (2000-2007)].

    PubMed

    Popović, Jovan

    2007-01-01

    THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The first 50 pharmacy students were enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad in the academic year 2000/2001. The Institute of Pharmacy was established on July 10, 2001. The Department of Pharmacy was established on December 18, 2001, with more than 150 faculty members. Since then, 82 students have graduated with honours. Visiting professors from Athens, Skopje, Reading (Great Britain) and Banja Luka, and professors of the Faculty of Science and Mathematics and the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, together with the professors and associates of the the Faculty of Medicine, are members of the Faculty of the Department of Pharmacy. ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The Department offers a 5-year undergraduate program in pharmacy, practical courses in pharmacy, takes part in higher education reform in accordance with the Bologna objectives, organizes visits to Europen centers of the pharmaceutical industry, and provides mentoring activities in relation to writing a graduation paper. The First Balkan Congress of Phramacy Students was held March 7-12, 2006 in Novi Sad. The Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad has achieved the objectives set for it when it was established.

  9. Progress Report of CNES Activities Regarding the Absolute Calibration Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    several receivers (Ashtech Z12-T, Septentrio PolaRx2, and Dicom GTR50) and a GNSS signal simulator (Spirent 4760) according to the temperature and...laboratories, Ashtech Z12- T, Septentrio PolaRx2, and Dicom GTR50, can be calibrated with the absolute method [6,8]. The last works concerned the...Ashtech, Septentrio, and Dicom receiver calibrations. Table 2. Uncertainty of the different receiver calibrations. Uncertainty Source

  10. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  11. Ratios of dijet production cross sections as a function of the absolute difference in rapidity between jets in proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hoch, M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Teischinger, F.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Benucci, L.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hammad, G. H.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wickens, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Ceard, L.; De Favereau De Jeneret, J.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Grégoire, G.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Silva Do Amaral, S. M.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Karadzhinova, A.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, S.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Cabrera, A.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Dzelalija, M.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Czellar, S.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Sillou, D.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Elgammal, S.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Thiebaux, C.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Karim, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Baty, C.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bedjidian, M.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Boumediene, D.; Brun, H.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Falkiewicz, A.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Le Grand, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.

    2012-11-01

    A study of dijet production in proton-proton collisions was performed at sqrt{s}=7 TeV for jets with p T>35 GeV and | y|<4.7 using data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2010. Events with at least one pair of jets are denoted as "inclusive". Events with exactly one pair of jets are called "exclusive". The ratio of the cross section of all pairwise combinations of jets to the exclusive dijet cross section as a function of the rapidity difference between jets |Δ y| is measured for the first time up to |Δ y|=9.2. The ratio of the cross section for the pair consisting of the most forward and the most backward jet from the inclusive sample to the exclusive dijet cross section is also presented. The predictions of the Monte Carlo event generators pythia6 and pythia8 agree with the measurements. In both ratios the herwig++ generator exhibits a more pronounced rise versus |Δ y| than observed in the data. The BFKL-motivated generators cascade and hej+ariadne predict for these ratios a significantly stronger rise than observed.

  12. The use of X-ray crystallography to determine absolute configuration.

    PubMed

    Flack, H D; Bernardinelli, G

    2008-05-15

    Essential background on the determination of absolute configuration by way of single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) is presented. The use and limitations of an internal chiral reference are described. The physical model underlying the Flack parameter is explained. Absolute structure and absolute configuration are defined and their similarities and differences are highlighted. The necessary conditions on the Flack parameter for satisfactory absolute-structure determination are detailed. The symmetry and purity conditions for absolute-configuration determination are discussed. The physical basis of resonant scattering is briefly presented and the insights obtained from a complete derivation of a Bijvoet intensity ratio by way of the mean-square Friedel difference are exposed. The requirements on least-squares refinement are emphasized. The topics of right-handed axes, XRD intensity measurement, software, crystal-structure evaluation, errors in crystal structures, and compatibility of data in their relation to absolute-configuration determination are described. Characterization of the compounds and crystals by the physicochemical measurement of optical rotation, CD spectra, and enantioselective chromatography are presented. Some simple and some complex examples of absolute-configuration determination using combined XRD and CD measurements, using XRD and enantioselective chromatography, and in multiply-twinned crystals clarify the technique. The review concludes with comments on absolute-configuration determination from light-atom structures.

  13. Crystal structure of meteoritic schreibersites: determination of absolute structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, Roman; Císařová, Ivana

    Minerals of the schreibersite nickelphosphide series (Fe,Ni)3P crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group Ibar 4. As a consequence, they can possess two different spatial arrangements of the constituting atoms within the unit cell, related by the inversion symmetry operation. Here, we present the crystal structure refinements from single crystal X-ray diffraction data for schreibersite grains from iron meteorites Acuña, Carlton, Hex River Mts. (three different crystals), Odessa (two different crystals), Sikhote Alin, and Toluca aiming for the determination of the absolute structure of the examined crystals. The crystals studied cover the composition range from 58 mol% to 80 mol% Fe3P end-member. Unit-cell parameter a and volume of the unit cell V, as well as certain topological structural parameters tightly correlate with Fe3P content. Unit-cell parameter c, on the other hand, does not show such strong correlation. Eight of the nine crystal structure refinements allowed unambiguous absolute structure assignment. The single crystal extracted from Toluca is, however, of poor quality and consequently the structure refinement did not provide as good results as the rest of the materials. Also, this crystal has only weak inversion distinguishing power to provide unequivocal absolute structure determination. Six of the eight unambiguous absolute structure determinations indicated inverted atomic arrangement compared to that reported in earlier structure refinements (here called standard). Only two grains, one taken from Odessa iron and the other from the Hex River Mts. meteorite, reveal the dominance of standard crystal structure setting.

  14. [Effects of finitude salience and social value intention on emotional responses of "kandoh" (the state of being emotionally moved) associated with sadness].

    PubMed

    Kato, Juri; Murata, Koji

    2013-06-01

    Two experiments investigated whether emotional responses of "kandoh" (the state of being emotionally moved) associated with sadness were facilitated by the factors of "finitude salience" and "social value intention". We predicted that participants who strongly intended social value would be more strongly moved by movies that portrayed social values than participants who weakly intended social value. Furthermore we predicted that this difference would increase in the finitude salience condition. In both experiments, participants assigned to the finitude salience condition subtracted the years of the person's birth from death. In the control condition, participants performed the same task in the form of simple numerical calculations. Then all participants watched a movie that portrayed family love and death in Experiment 1 (N = 88). We used another movie that described friendship and separation in Experiment 2 (N = 82). The results supported the two hypotheses that social value intention facilitated emotional responses of "kandoh" and this effect increased under finitude salience.

  15. Comparative vs. Absolute Judgments of Trait Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstee, Willem K. B.

    1970-01-01

    Reversals of trait desirability are studied. Terms indicating conservativw behavior appeared to be judged relatively desirable in comparative judgement, while traits indicating dynamic and expansive behavior benefited from absolute judgement. The reversal effect was shown to be a general one, i.e. reversals were not dependent upon the specific…

  16. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-07

    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  17. An Absolute Electrometer for the Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Cartacci, A.

    2009-01-01

    A low-cost, easy-to-use absolute electrometer is presented: two thin metallic plates and an electronic balance, usually available in a laboratory, are used. We report on the very good performance of the device that allows precise measurements of the force acting between two charged plates. (Contains 5 footnotes, 2 tables, and 6 figures.)

  18. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  19. Absolute Positioning Using the Global Positioning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has becom a useful tool In providing relativ survey...Includes the development of a low cost navigator for wheeled vehicles. ABSTRACT The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has become a useful tool In providing...technique of absolute or point positioning involves the use of a single Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver to determine the three-dimenslonal

  20. Crystal structure of a triacylglycerol lipase from Penicillium expansum at 1.3 A determined by sulfur SAD

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Chuanbing; Yuan, Cai; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Jiang, Longguang; Huang, Zixiang; Lin, Lin; Huang, Mingdong

    2010-04-05

    Triacylglycerol lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) are present in many different organisms including animals, plants, and microbes. Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol at the interface between the water insoluble substrate and the aqueous phase. Lipases can also catalyze the reverse esterification reaction to form glycerides under certain conditions. Lipases of microbial origin are of considerable commercial interest for wide variety of biotechnological applications in industries, including detergent, food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals, and biodiesel. Nowadays, microbial lipases have become one of the most important industrial enzymes. PEL (Penicillium expansum lipase) is a fungal lipase from Penicillium expansum strain PF898 isolated from Chinese soil that has been subjected to several generations of mutagenesis to increase its enzymatic activity. PEL belongs to the triacylglycerol lipases family, and its catalytic characteristics have been studied. The enzyme has been used in Chinese laundry detergent industry for several years (http://www.leveking.com). However, the poor thermal stability of the enzyme limits its application. To further study and improve this enzyme, PEL was cloned and sequenced. Furthermore, it was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris. PEL contains GHSLG sequence, which is the lipase consensus sequence Gly-X1-Ser-X2-Gly, but has a low amino acid sequence identities to other lipases. The most similar lipases are Rhizomucor miehei (PML) and Rhizopus niveus (PNL) with a 21% and 20% sequence identities to PEL, respectively. Interestingly, the similarity of PEL with the known esterases is somewhat higher with 24% sequence identity to feruloyl esterase A. Here, we report the 1.3 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of PEL determined by sulfur SAD phasing. This structure not only presents a new lipase structure at high resolution, but also provides a structural platform to analyze the published

  1. Membrane protein structure determination by SAD, SIR, or SIRAS phasing in serial femtosecond crystallography using an iododetergent

    PubMed Central

    Nakane, Takanori; Hanashima, Shinya; Suzuki, Mamoru; Saiki, Haruka; Hayashi, Taichi; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kawatake, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Matsumori, Nobuaki; Nango, Eriko; Kobayashi, Jun; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Kimura, Kanako; Mori, Chihiro; Kunishima, Naoki; Sugahara, Michihiro; Takakyu, Yoko; Inoue, Shigeyuki; Masuda, Tetsuya; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Tono, Kensuke; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Nureki, Osamu; Iwata, So; Murata, Michio; Mizohata, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    The 3D structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray crystallography suffers from a phase problem: to perform Fourier transformation to calculate real space density maps, both intensities and phases of structure factors are necessary; however, measured diffraction patterns give only intensities. Although serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has been steadily developed since 2009, experimental phasing still remains challenging. Here, using 7.0-keV (1.771 Å) X-ray pulses from the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser (SACLA), iodine single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD), single isomorphous replacement (SIR), and single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS) phasing were performed in an SFX regime for a model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR). The crystals grown in bicelles were derivatized with an iodine-labeled detergent heavy-atom additive 13a (HAD13a), which contains the magic triangle, I3C head group with three iodine atoms. The alkyl tail was essential for binding of the detergent to the surface of bR. Strong anomalous and isomorphous difference signals from HAD13a enabled successful phasing using reflections up to 2.1-Å resolution from only 3,000 and 4,000 indexed images from native and derivative crystals, respectively. When more images were merged, structure solution was possible with data truncated at 3.3-Å resolution, which is the lowest resolution among the reported cases of SFX phasing. Moreover, preliminary SFX experiment showed that HAD13a successfully derivatized the G protein-coupled A2a adenosine receptor crystallized in lipidic cubic phases. These results pave the way for de novo structure determination of membrane proteins, which often diffract poorly, even with the brightest XFEL beams. PMID:27799539

  2. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

    2017-04-01

    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  3. Enantiomers of a nonylphenol isomer: absolute configurations and estrogenic potencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Oppel, Iris M; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian

    2009-02-01

    Enantiomers of 4-(1,1,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol, a chiral isomer of the endocrine disrupting chemical nonylphenol, have been resolved and isolated by preparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were then determined by an X-ray crystallographic study of the (-)-camphanoyl derivative of the first eluted enantiomer NP(35)E1. The first enantiomer (NP(35)E1) and the second enantiomer (NP(35)E2) eluted were found to have the S and R absolute configurations, respectively. The estrogenic potencies of the S and R enantiomers were tested by the E-screen assay. A slight difference was observed in the relative proliferative effect between the S enantiomer and R enantiomer in the E-screen assay.

  4. Absolute concentration measurements inside a jet plume using video digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauquelin, O.

    An experimental system based on digitized video image analysis is used to measure the local value of the concentration inside a plume. Experiments are carried out in a wind-tunnel for a smoke-seeded turbulent jet plume illuminated with a laser beam. Each test is filmed, subsequently video images are digitized and analysed in order to determine the smoke absolute concentration corresponding to each pixel gray level. This non-intrusive measurement technique is first calibrated and different laws connecting gray level to concentration are established. As a first application, concentration measurements are made inside a turbulent jet plume and compared with measurements conducted using a classic gas analysis method. We finally present and discuss the possibilities offered for the measurements of absolute concentration fluctuations.

  5. Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang

    2014-03-24

    A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.

  6. Absolute pitch and pupillary response: effects of timbre and key color.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, Kathrin B; Kulke, Franziska; Kuchinke, Lars; Van Der Meer, Elke

    2005-07-01

    The pitch identification performance of absolute pitch possessors has previously been shown to depend on pitch range, key color, and timbre of presented tones. In the present study, the dependence of pitch identification performance on key color and timbre of musical tones was examined by analyzing hit rates, reaction times, and pupillary responses of absolute pitch possessors (n = 9) and nonpossessors (n = 12) during a pitch identification task. Results revealed a significant dependence of pitch identification hit rate but not reaction time on timbre and key color in both groups. Among absolute pitch possessors, peak dilation of the pupil was significantly dependent on key color whereas the effect of timbre was marginally significant. Peak dilation of the pupil differed significantly between absolute pitch possessors and nonpossessors. The observed effects point to the importance of learning factors in the acquisition of absolute pitch.

  7. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-10-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1{sub rc} covering {approx}2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u {approx} 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 {approx}2000-2400 A). The uvw1{sub rc} - b colors show a scatter of {approx}0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, {approx}1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  8. Absolute versus temporal anomaly and percent of saturation soil moisture spatial variability for six networks worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Zucco, G.; Mittelbach, H.; Moramarco, T.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2014-07-01

    The analysis of the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture can be carried out considering the absolute (original) soil moisture values or relative values, such as the percent of saturation or temporal anomalies. Over large areas, soil moisture data measured at different sites can be characterized by large differences in their minimum, mean, and maximum absolute values, even though in relative terms their temporal patterns are very similar. In these cases, the analysis considering absolute compared with percent of saturation or temporal anomaly soil moisture values can provide very different results with significant consequences for their use in hydrological applications and climate science. In this study, in situ observations from six soil moisture networks in Italy, Spain, France, Switzerland, Australia, and United States are collected and analyzed to investigate the spatial soil moisture variability over large areas (250-150,000 km2). Specifically, the statistical and temporal stability analyses of soil moisture have been carried out for absolute, temporal anomaly, and percent of saturation values (using two different formulations for temporal anomalies). The results highlight that the spatial variability of the soil moisture dynamic (i.e., temporal anomalies) is significantly lower than that of the absolute soil moisture values. The spatial variance of the time-invariant component (temporal mean of each site) is the predominant contribution to the total spatial variance of absolute soil moisture data. Moreover, half of the networks show a minimum in the spatial variability for intermediate conditions when the temporal anomalies are considered, in contrast with the widely recognized behavior of absolute soil moisture data. The analyses with percent saturation data show qualitatively similar results as those for the temporal anomalies because of the applied normalization which reduces spatial variability induced by differences in mean absolute soil moisture

  9. Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the absolute method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation cross sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated cross section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the absolute method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the cross section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the absolute method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the absolute method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.

  10. Inducing Sadness and Anxiousness through Visual Media: Measurement Techniques and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Kuijsters, Andre; Redi, Judith; de Ruyter, Boris; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness) induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP) was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 min with the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; every 2 min) and with recordings of skin conductance level (SCL) and electrocardiography (ECG). The SAM pleasure ratings showed that short and longer film fragments were effective in inducing a longer lasting negative mood, whereas the negative mood induced by the IAPS slideshow was short lived. The induced arousal during the anxious MIPs diminished quickly after the mood induction; nevertheless, the SCL data suggest longer lasting arousal effects for both movies. The decay of the induced mood follows a logarithmic function; diminishing quickly in the first minutes, thereafter returning slowly back to baseline. These results reveal that caution is needed when investigating the effects of the induced mood on a task or the effect of interventions on induced moods, because the induced mood diminishes quickly after the mood induction. PMID:27536260

  11. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    PubMed

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  12. Sadness as a passion of the soul: a psychopathological consideration of the Cartesian concept of melancholy.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Rubio, Gabriel; Molina, Juan D; Alamo, Cecilio

    2011-04-25

    The relationship between the "passions" (emotions or feelings) and psychopathology has been a constant throughout the history of medicine. In this context, melancholy was considered a perversion of the soul (corruption of the passions). One of the most influential authors on this subject was René Descartes, who discussed it in his work The Treatise on the Passions of the Soul (1649). Descartes believed that "passions" were sensitive movements that the soul experienced due to its union with the body (res extensa). According to this theory, the soul was located in the pineal gland, where it was actively involved in overseeing the functions of the "human machine" and kept its dysfunctions under control, by circulating animal spirits. Descartes described sadness as one of "the six primitive passions of the soul", which leads to melancholy if not remedied. Cartesian theories had a great deal of influence on the way that mental pathologies were considered throughout the entire 17th century (Spinoza, Willis, Pitcairn) and during much of the 18th century (Le Cat, Tissot). From the 19th century onwards, emotional symptomatology finally began to be used in diagnostic criteria for mood disorders.

  13. Emotion in speech: the acoustic attributes of fear, anger, sadness, and joy.

    PubMed

    Sobin, C; Alpert, M

    1999-07-01

    Decoders can detect emotion in voice with much greater accuracy than can be achieved by objective acoustic analysis. Studies that have established this advantage, however, used methods that may have favored decoders and disadvantaged acoustic analysis. In this study, we applied several methodologic modifications for the analysis of the acoustic differentiation of fear, anger, sadness, and joy. Thirty-one female subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 (encoders) were audio-recorded during an emotion-induction procedure and produced a total of 620 emotion-laden sentences. Twelve female judges (decoders), three for each of the four emotions, were assigned to rate the intensity of one emotion each. Their combined ratings were used to select 38 prototype samples per emotion. Past acoustic findings were replicated, and increased acoustic differentiation among the emotions was achieved. Multiple regression analysis suggested that some, although not all, of the acoustic variables were associated with decoders' ratings. Signal detection analysis gave some insight into this disparity. However, the analysis of the classic constellation of acoustic variables may not completely capture the acoustic features that influence decoders' ratings. Future analyses would likely benefit from the parallel assessment of respiration, phonation, and articulation.

  14. What else do you feel when you feel sad? Emotional overproduction, neuroticism and rumination.

    PubMed

    Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2011-08-01

    Numerous experimental and naturalistic studies have shown the relevant role of ruminative styles in the onset, duration and severity of depressive episodes. Recent research has increasingly focused on the precursors of these ruminative responses. Neuroticism has been found to be closely related to ruminative styles, but the nature of this relationship is unknown. Across three studies, we explored the role of emotional overproduction, conceptualized as the tendency to simultaneously experience an elevated number of negative emotions and feelings during sad episodes. Study 1 showed that emotional overproduction is independently and strongly associated with ruminative styles. Furthermore, emotional overproduction was found to mediate the relationship between neuroticism and ruminative styles. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large community sample even after controlling for mood, personality, and other emotion-related variables. In Study 3, we conducted a laboratory study to increase the internal and external validity of our findings. Implications for personality, for coping and stress literature, and for clinical research and treatment are suggested.

  15. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  16. Consistent thermostatistics forbids negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Jörn; Hilbert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, a considerable number of theories and experiments have claimed the existence of negative absolute temperature in spin systems and ultracold quantum gases. This has led to speculation that ultracold gases may be dark-energy analogues and also suggests the feasibility of heat engines with efficiencies larger than one. Here, we prove that all previous negative temperature claims and their implications are invalid as they arise from the use of an entropy definition that is inconsistent both mathematically and thermodynamically. We show that the underlying conceptual deficiencies can be overcome if one adopts a microcanonical entropy functional originally derived by Gibbs. The resulting thermodynamic framework is self-consistent and implies that absolute temperature remains positive even for systems with a bounded spectrum. In addition, we propose a minimal quantum thermometer that can be implemented with available experimental techniques.

  17. Absolute measurement of length with nanometric resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, D.; Garoi, F.; Timcu, A.; Damian, V.; Logofatu, P. C.; Nascov, V.

    2005-08-01

    Laser interferometer displacement measuring transducers have a well-defined traceability route to the definition of the meter. The laser interferometer is de-facto length scale for applications in micro and nano technologies. However their physical unit -half lambda is too large for nanometric resolution. Fringe interpolation-usual technique to improve the resolution-lack of reproducibility could be avoided using the principles of absolute distance measurement. Absolute distance refers to the use of interferometric techniques for determining the position of an object without the necessity of measuring continuous displacements between points. The interference pattern as produced by the interference of two point-like coherent sources is fitted to a geometric model so as to determine the longitudinal location of the target by minimizing least square errors. The longitudinal coordinate of the target was measured with accuracy better than 1 nm, for a target position range of 0.4μm.

  18. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  19. Computer processing of spectrograms for absolute intensities.

    PubMed

    Guttman, A; Golden, J; Galbraith, H J

    1967-09-01

    A computer program was developed to process photographically recorded spectra for absolute intensity. Test and calibration films are subjected to densitometric scans that provide digitally recorded densities on magnetic tapes. The nonlinear calibration data are fitted by least-squares cubic polynomials to yield a good approximation to the monochromatic H&D curves for commonly used emulsions (2475 recording film, Royal-X, Tri-X, 4-X). Several test cases were made. Results of these cases show that the machine processed absolute intensities are accurate to within 15%o. Arbitrarily raising the sensitivity threshold by 0.1 density units above gross fog yields cubic polynomial fits to the H&D curves that are radiometrically accurate within 10%. In addition, curves of gamma vs wavelength for 2475, Tri-X, and 4-X emulsions were made. These data show slight evidence of the photographic Purkinje effect in the 2475 emulsion.

  20. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  1. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  2. Negative absolute temperature for mobile particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Simon; Ronzheimer, Philipp; Schreiber, Michael; Hodgman, Sean; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    Absolute temperature is usually bound to be strictly positive. However, negative absolute temperature states, where the occupation probability of states increases with their energy, are possible in systems with an upper energy bound. So far, such states have only been demonstrated in localized spin systems with finite, discrete spectra. We realized a negative absolute temperature state for motional degrees of freedom with ultracold bosonic 39K atoms in an optical lattice, by implementing the attractive Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. This new state strikingly revealed itself by a quasimomentum distribution that is peaked at maximum kinetic energy. The measured kinetic energy distribution and the extracted negative temperature indicate that the ensemble is close to degeneracy, with coherence over several lattice sites. The state is as stable as a corresponding positive temperature state: The negative temperature stabilizes the system against mean-field collapse driven by negative pressure. Negative temperatures open up new parameter regimes for cold atoms, enabling fundamentally new many-body states. Additionally, they give rise to several counterintuitive effects such as heat engines with above unity efficiency.

  3. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  4. Constrained Least Absolute Deviation Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that least absolute deviation (LAD) criterion or L1-norm used for estimation of parameters is characterized by robustness, i.e., the estimated parameters are totally resistant (insensitive) to large changes in the sampled data. This is an extremely useful feature, especially, when the sampled data are known to be contaminated by occasionally occurring outliers or by spiky noise. In our previous works, we have proposed the least absolute deviation neural network (LADNN) to solve unconstrained LAD problems. The theoretical proofs and numerical simulations have shown that the LADNN is Lyapunov-stable and it can globally converge to the exact solution to a given unconstrained LAD problem. We have also demonstrated its excellent application value in time-delay estimation. More generally, a practical LAD application problem may contain some linear constraints, such as a set of equalities and/or inequalities, which is called constrained LAD problem, whereas the unconstrained LAD can be considered as a special form of the constrained LAD. In this paper, we present a new neural network called constrained least absolute deviation neural network (CLADNN) to solve general constrained LAD problems. Theoretical proofs and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed CLADNN is Lyapunov stable and globally converges to the exact solution to a given constrained LAD problem, independent of initial values. The numerical simulations have also illustrated that the proposed CLADNN can be used to robustly estimate parameters for nonlinear curve fitting, which is extensively used in signal and image processing. PMID:18269958

  5. Absolute value equations - what can we learn from their graphical representation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupel, Moshe; Ben-Chaim, David

    2014-08-01

    Understanding graphical representations of algebraic equations, particularly graphical representations of absolute value equations, significantly improves students' mathematical comprehension and ignites within them an appreciation of the beauty and aesthetics of mathematics. In this paper, we focus on absolute value equations of linear and quadratic expressions, by examining various cases, presenting different methods of solving them by graphical representation, exhibiting the advantage of using dynamic software such as GeoGebra in solving them, and illustrating some examples of interesting graphical solutions. We recommend that teachers take advantage of the rapid development in technology to help learners tangibly visualize the solutions of absolute value equations before proceeding to the analytical solutions.

  6. Temporal changes in attention to sad and happy faces distinguish currently and remitted depressed individuals from never depressed individuals.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Sabine; Newman, Kristin; Quigley, Leanne; Fernandez, Amanda; Dobson, Keith; Sears, Christopher

    2015-12-15

    Depression is associated with attentional biases for emotional information that are proposed to reflect stable vulnerability factors for the development and recurrence of depression. A key question for researchers is whether those who have recovered from depression also exhibit attentional biases, and if so, how similar these biases are to those who are currently depressed. To address this question, the present study examined attention to emotional faces in remitted depressed (N=26), currently depressed (N=16), and never depressed (N=33) individuals. Participants viewed sets of four face images (happy, sad, threatening, and neutral) while their eye movements were tracked throughout an 8-s presentation. Like currently depressed participants, remitted depressed participants attended to sad faces significantly more than never depressed participants and attended to happy faces significantly less. Analyzing temporal changes in attention revealed that currently and remitted depressed participants did not reduce their attention to sad faces over the 8-s presentation, unlike never depressed participants. In contrast, remitted depressed participants attended to happy faces similarly to never depressed participants, increasing their attention to happy faces over the 8-s presentation. The implications for cognitive theories of depression and depression vulnerability are discussed.

  7. Fatty acid-induced gut-brain signaling attenuates neural and behavioral effects of sad emotion in humans.

    PubMed

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; McKie, Shane; Lassman, Daniel; Uddin, Bilal; Paine, Peter; Coen, Steven; Gregory, Lloyd; Tack, Jan; Aziz, Qasim

    2011-08-01

    Although a relationship between emotional state and feeding behavior is known to exist, the interactions between signaling initiated by stimuli in the gut and exteroceptively generated emotions remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the interaction between nutrient-induced gut-brain signaling and sad emotion induced by musical and visual cues at the behavioral and neural level in healthy nonobese subjects undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects received an intragastric infusion of fatty acid solution or saline during neutral or sad emotion induction and rated sensations of hunger, fullness, and mood. We found an interaction between fatty acid infusion and emotion induction both in the behavioral readouts (hunger, mood) and at the level of neural activity in multiple pre-hypothesized regions of interest. Specifically, the behavioral and neural responses to sad emotion induction were attenuated by fatty acid infusion. These findings increase our understanding of the interplay among emotions, hunger, food intake, and meal-induced sensations in health, which may have important implications for a wide range of disorders, including obesity, eating disorders, and depression.

  8. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  9. The most appropriate position and number for absolute anchorages for orthodontic tooth movements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Takakuda, Kazuo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Soma, Kunimichi

    2003-04-01

    Absolute anchorages proved to be very effective for orthodontic tooth movements. We used a 3D digitizer to record each tooth on pre-treatment diagnostic and post-treatment predictive setup models and then 3D coordinate system conversion was performed to make the coordinate values comparable. An arithmetic calculation of vector and moment based on the orthodontic forces and the tooth displacement under preliminary premises undertaken to decide the most favorable position and number for absolute anchorages. Position--For two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, the most appropriate positions for absolute anchorages should theoretically be on the line of resultant force (2D) and the plane (3D) where the total moment effect tends to be zero. Number--As for the number of the absolute anchorages needed, it depends on the number of target teeth. Different combinations of target teeth provide different sets of results.

  10. Automatic section thickness determination using an absolute gradient focus function.

    PubMed

    Elozory, D T; Kramer, K A; Chaudhuri, B; Bonam, O P; Goldgof, D B; Hall, L O; Mouton, P R

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative analysis of microstructures using computerized stereology systems is an essential tool in many disciplines of bioscience research. Section thickness determination in current nonautomated approaches requires manual location of upper and lower surfaces of tissue sections. In contrast to conventional autofocus functions that locate the optimally focused optical plane using the global maximum on a focus curve, this study identified by two sharp 'knees' on the focus curve as the transition from unfocused to focused optical planes. Analysis of 14 grey-scale focus functions showed, the thresholded absolute gradient function, was best for finding detectable bends that closely correspond to the bounding optical planes at the upper and lower tissue surfaces. Modifications to this function generated four novel functions that outperformed the original. The 'modified absolute gradient count' function outperformed all others with an average error of 0.56 μm on a test set of images similar to the training set; and, an average error of 0.39 μm on a test set comprised of images captured from a different case, that is, different staining methods on a different brain region from a different subject rat. We describe a novel algorithm that allows for automatic section thickness determination based on just out-of-focus planes, a prerequisite for fully automatic computerized stereology.

  11. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  12. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  13. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  14. Absolute distance measurement based on multiple self-mixing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhiwei; Yu, Yangyang; Gao, Bingkun; Jiang, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    To improve the precision of distance measurement using laser Self-Mixing Interferometry (SMI) and compute short distance, we propose a method of Multiple Self-Mixing Interferometry (MSMI) that is modulated with a triangular wave. The principle of this method has been described in this paper. Experiments at different distances and amplitudes of modulation current are based on the proposed method. Low-priced and easily operated experimental devices are built. Experimental results show that a resolution of 2.7 mm can be achieved for absolute distance ranging from 2.2 to 23 cm.

  15. Absolute cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J M

    2013-08-01

    We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform absolute normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the dynamic spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the dynamic susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.

  16. Absolute cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform absolute normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the dynamic spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the dynamic susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.

  17. Brownian motion: Absolute negative particle mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario

    2005-08-01

    Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force (`absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells.

  18. Arbitrary segments of absolute negative mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruyin; Nie, Linru; Chen, Chongyang; Wang, Chaojie

    2017-01-01

    In previous research work, investigators have reported only one or two segments of absolute negative mobility (ANM) in a periodic potential. In fact, many segments of ANM also occur in the system considered here. We investigate transport of an inertial particle in a gating ratchet periodic potential subjected to a constant bias force. Our numerical results show that its mean velocity can decrease with the bias force increasing, i.e. ANM phenomenon. Furthermore, the ANM can take place arbitrary segments, even up to more than thirty. Intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for arbitrary segments of ANM to occur are discussed in detail.

  19. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara

    2016-07-21

    With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.

  20. An absolute radius scale for Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily

    1990-01-01

    Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised absolute radii are in error by no more than 2 km.

  1. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  2. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  3. A method to estimate the absolute ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter from relative measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongbeom; Song, Dong-Gi; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2017-02-17

    The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter, β, is determined from the displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic frequency component generated during the propagation of ultrasonic waves through a material. This parameter is generally referred to as the absolute parameter. Meanwhile, it is difficult to measure the small displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic component; therefore, most studies measure the relative parameter determined from the detected signal amplitude. However, for quantitative assessment of material degradation, the absolute parameter is still required. This study proposes a method to estimate the absolute parameter for damaged material by measuring the relative parameter. This method is based on the fact that the fractional ratio of the relative parameters between different materials is identical to that of the absolute parameters after compensation for material dependent differences such as the wavenumber and detection-sensitivity. In order to experimentally verify the method, the relative parameters of heat-treated Al6061-T6 alloy specimens with different aging times were measured to compare with absolute parameters directly measured by piezo-electric detection. The results show that the fluctuations of both parameters with respect to aging time were very similar to each other, and that the absolute parameters estimated by the proposed method were in good agreement with those measured directly.

  4. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-02-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters.

  5. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  6. [Estimation of absolute risk for fracture].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2009-03-01

    Osteoporosis treatment aims to prevent fractures and maintain the QOL of the elderly. However, persons at high risk of future fracture cannot be effectively identified on the basis of bone density (BMD) alone, although BMD is used as an diagnostic criterion. Therefore, the WHO recommended that absolute risk for fracture (10-year probability of fracture) for each individual be evaluated and used as an index for intervention threshold. The 10-year probability of fracture is calculated based on age, sex, BMD at the femoral neck (body mass index if BMD is not available), history of previous fractures, parental hip fracture history, smoking, steroid use, rheumatoid arthritis, secondary osteoporosis and alcohol consumption. The WHO has just announced the development of a calculation tool (FRAX: WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) in February this year. Fractures could be prevented more effectively if, based on each country's medical circumstances, an absolute risk value for fracture to determine when to start medical treatment is established and persons at high risk of fracture are identified and treated accordingly.

  7. Absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A and alterporriols.

    PubMed

    Kanamaru, Saki; Honma, Miho; Murakami, Takanori; Tsushima, Taro; Kudo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Nihei, Ken-Ichi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A (1) was established by observing a positive exciton couplet in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the C3,C4-O-bis(2-naphthoyl) derivative 10 and by chemical correlations with known compound 8. Before the discussion, the relative stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The shielding effect at C7'-OMe group by C1-O-benzoylation established the relative stereochemical relationship between the C8-C8' axial bonding and the C1-C4/C1'-C4' polyol moieties of alterporriols E (3), an atropisomer of the C8-C8' dimer of 1. As 3 could be obtained by dimerization of 1 in vitro, the absolute configuration of its central chirality elements (C1-C4) must be identical to those of 1. Spectral comparison between the experimental and theoretical CD spectra supported the above conclusion. Axial stereochemistry of novel C4-O-deoxy dimeric derivatives, alterporriols F (4) and G (5), were also revealed by comparison of their CD spectra to those of 2 and 3.

  8. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  9. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. )

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.

  10. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.

    2014-12-01

    Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide absolute scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.

  11. Extracting infrared absolute reflectance from relative reflectance measurements.

    PubMed

    Berets, Susan L; Milosevic, Milan

    2012-06-01

    Absolute reflectance measurements are valuable to the optics industry for development of new materials and optical coatings. Yet, absolute reflectance measurements are notoriously difficult to make. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of extracting the absolute reflectance from a relative reflectance measurement using a reference material with known refractive index.

  12. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  13. Absolute Measurements of Radiation Damage in Nanometer Thick Films

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of absolute measurements of radiation damage in films of nanometer thicknesses. Thin films of DNA (~ 2–160nm) are deposited onto glass substrates and irradiated with varying doses of 1.5 keV X-rays under dry N2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For each different thickness, the damage is assessed by measuring the loss of the supercoiled configuration as a function of incident photon fluence. From the exposure curves, the G-values are deduced, assuming that X-ray photons interacting with DNA, deposit all of their energy in the film. The results show that the G-value (i.e., damage per unit of deposited energy) increases with film thickness and reaches a plateau at 30±5 nm. This thickness dependence provides a correction factor to estimate the actual G-value for films with thicknesses below 30nm thickness. Thus, the absolute values of damage can be compared with that of films of any thickness under different experimental conditions. PMID:22562941

  14. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  15. Absolute nonlocality via distributed computing without communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: absolute nonlocality.

  16. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  17. An estimate of global absolute dynamic topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, C.-K.; Wunsch, C.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute dynamic topography of the world ocean is estimated from the largest scales to a short-wavelength cutoff of about 6700 km for the period July through September, 1978. The data base consisted of the time-averaged sea-surface topography determined by Seasat and geoid estimates made at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The issues are those of accuracy and resolution. Use of the altimetric surface as a geoid estimate beyond the short-wavelength cutoff reduces the spectral leakage in the estimated dynamic topography from erroneous small-scale geoid estimates without contaminating the low wavenumbers. Comparison of the result with a similarly filtered version of Levitus' (1982) historical average dynamic topography shows good qualitative agreement. There is quantitative disagreement, but it is within the estimated errors of both methods of calculation.

  18. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  19. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.

    PubMed

    Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M

    2010-08-01

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.

  20. Absolute magnetic helicity and the cylindrical magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Low, B. C.

    2011-05-15

    The different magnetic helicities conserved under conditions of perfect electrical conductivity are expressions of the fundamental property that every evolving fluid surface conserves its net magnetic flux. This basic hydromagnetic point unifies the well known Eulerian helicities with the Lagrangian helicity defined by the conserved fluxes frozen into a prescribed set of disjoint toroidal tubes of fluid flowing as a permanent partition of the entire fluid [B. C. Low, Astrophys. J. 649, 1064 (2006)]. This unifying theory is constructed from first principles, beginning with an analysis of the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluids, separating the ideas of fluid and magnetic-flux tubes and removing the complication of the magnetic vector potential's free gauge from the concept of helicity. The analysis prepares for the construction of a conserved Eulerian helicity, without that gauge complication, to describe a 3D anchored flux in an upright cylindrical domain, this helicity called absolute to distinguish it from the well known relative helicity. In a version of the Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation, the evolving field at any instant is a unique superposition of a writhed, untwisted axial flux with a circulating flux of field lines all closed and unlinked within the cylindrical domain. The absolute helicity is then a flux-weighted sum of the writhe of that axial flux and its mutual linkage with the circulating flux. The absolute helicity is also conserved if the frozen-in field and its domain are continuously deformed by changing the separation between the rigid cylinder-ends with no change of cylinder radius. This hitherto intractable cylindrical construction closes a crucial conceptual gap for the fundamentals to be complete at last. The concluding discussion shows the impact of this development on our understanding of helicity, covering (i) the helicities of wholly contained and anchored fields; (ii) the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of field

  1. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens.

  2. Absolute stress measurements at the rangely anticline, Northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, R. V.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1972-01-01

    Five different methods of measuring absolute state of stress in rocks in situ were used at sites near Rangely, Colorado, and the results compared. For near-surface measurements, overcoring of the borehole-deformation gage is the most convenient and rapid means of obtaining reliable values for the magnitude and direction of the state of stress in rocks in situ. The magnitudes and directions of the principal stresses are compared to the geologic features of the different areas of measurement. The in situ stresses are consistent in orientation with the stress direction inferred from the earthquake focal-plane solutions and existing joint patterns but inconsistent with stress directions likely to have produced the Rangely anticline. ?? 1972.

  3. What is Needed for Absolute Paleointensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Many alternative approaches to the Thellier and Thellier technique for absolute paleointensity have been proposed during the past twenty years. One reason is the time consuming aspect of the experiments. Another reason is to avoid uncertainties in determinations of the paleofield which are mostly linked to the presence of multidomain grains. Despite great care taken by these new techniques, there is no indication that they always provide the right answer and in fact sometimes fail. We are convinced that the most valid approach remains the original double heating Thellier protocol provided that natural remanence is controlled by pure magnetite with a narrow distribution of small grain sizes, mostly single domains. The presence of titanium, even in small amount generates biases which yield incorrect field values. Single domain grains frequently dominate the magnetization of glass samples, which explains the success of this selective approach. They are also present in volcanic lava flows but much less frequently, and therefore contribute to the low success rate of most experiments. However the loss of at least 70% of the magnetization at very high temperatures prior to the Curie point appears to be an essential prerequisite that increases the success rate to almost 100% and has been validated from historical flows and from recent studies. This requirement can easily be tested by thermal demagnetization while low temperature experiments can document the detection of single domain magnetite using the δFC/δZFC parameter as suggested (Moskowitz et al, 1993) for biogenic magnetite.

  4. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  5. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  6. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, F.; Distefano, C.; Antares Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  10. Absolute and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. P.; Hudman, M.; Chen, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    The existence of absolute instability in a liquid jet has been predicted for some time. The disturbance grows in time and propagates both upstream and downstream in an absolutely unstable liquid jet. The image of absolute instability is captured in the NASA 2.2 sec drop tower and reported here. The transition from convective to absolute instability is observed experimentally. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions on the transition Weber number as functions of the Reynolds number. The role of interfacial shear relative to all other relevant forces which cause the onset of jet breakup is explained.

  11. Partial avoidance contingencies: Absolute omission and punishment probabilities1

    PubMed Central

    Flye, Barbaba L.; Gibbon, John

    1979-01-01

    Avoidance contingencies were defined by the absolute probability of the conjunction of responding or not responding with shock or no shock. The “omission” probability (ρ00) is the probability of no response and no shock. The “punishment” probability (ρ11) is the probability of both a response and a shock. The traditional avoidance contingency never omits shock on nonresponse trials (ρ00=0) and never presents shock on response trials (ρ11=0). Rats were trained on a discrete-trial paradigm with no intertrial interval. The first lever response changed an auditory stimulus for the remainder of the trial. Shocks were delivered only at the end of each trial cycle. After initial training under the traditional avoidance contingency, one group of rats experienced changes in omission probability (ρ00>0), holding punishment probability at zero. The second group of rats were studied under different punishment probability values (ρ11>0), holding omission probability at zero. Data from subjects in the omission group looked similar, showing graded decrements in responding with increasing probability of omission. These subjects approximately “matched” their nonresponse frequencies to the programmed probability of shock omission on nonresponse trials, producing a very low and approximately constant conditional probability of shock given no response. Subjects in the punishment group showed different sensitivity to increasing absolute punishment probability. Some subjects decreased responding to low values as punishment probability increased, while others continued to respond at substantial levels even when shock was inevitable on all trials (noncontingent shock schedule). These results confirm an asymmetry between two dimensions of partial avoidance contingencies. When the consequences of not responding included occasional omission of shock, all subjects showed graded sensitivity to changes in omission frequency. When the consequences of responding included

  12. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  13. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  14. Pixel-by-pixel absolute phase retrieval using three phase-shifted fringe patterns without markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chufan; Li, Beiwen; Zhang, Song

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a method that can recover absolute phase pixel by pixel without embedding markers on three phase-shifted fringe patterns, acquiring additional images, or introducing additional hardware component(s). The proposed three-dimensional (3D) absolute shape measurement technique includes the following major steps: (1) segment the measured object into different regions using rough priori knowledge of surface geometry; (2) artificially create phase maps at different z planes using geometric constraints of structured light system; (3) unwrap the phase pixel by pixel for each region by properly referring to the artificially created phase map; and (4) merge unwrapped phases from all regions into a complete absolute phase map for 3D reconstruction. We demonstrate that conventional three-step phase-shifted fringe patterns can be used to create absolute phase map pixel by pixel even for large depth range objects. We have successfully implemented our proposed computational framework to achieve absolute 3D shape measurement at 40 Hz.

  15. Direct phase selection of initial phases from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) for the improvement of electron density and ab initio structure determination

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chung-De; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Chiang, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-09-01

    A novel direct phase-selection method to select optimized phases from the ambiguous phases of a subset of reflections to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases has been developed. With the improved phases, the completeness of built residues of protein molecules is enhanced for efficient structure determination. Optimization of the initial phasing has been a decisive factor in the success of the subsequent electron-density modification, model building and structure determination of biological macromolecules using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method. Two possible phase solutions (ϕ{sub 1} and ϕ{sub 2}) generated from two symmetric phase triangles in the Harker construction for the SAD method cause the well known phase ambiguity. A novel direct phase-selection method utilizing the θ{sub DS} list as a criterion to select optimized phases ϕ{sub am} from ϕ{sub 1} or ϕ{sub 2} of a subset of reflections with a high percentage of correct phases to replace the corresponding initial SAD phases ϕ{sub SAD} has been developed. Based on this work, reflections with an angle θ{sub DS} in the range 35–145° are selected for an optimized improvement, where θ{sub DS} is the angle between the initial phase ϕ{sub SAD} and a preliminary density-modification (DM) phase ϕ{sub DM}{sup NHL}. The results show that utilizing the additional direct phase-selection step prior to simple solvent flattening without phase combination using existing DM programs, such as RESOLVE or DM from CCP4, significantly improves the final phases in terms of increased correlation coefficients of electron-density maps and diminished mean phase errors. With the improved phases and density maps from the direct phase-selection method, the completeness of residues of protein molecules built with main chains and side chains is enhanced for efficient structure determination.

  16. Swarm Absolute Scalar Magnetometers first in-orbit results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratter, Isabelle; Léger, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, François; Jager, Thomas; Hulot, Gauthier; Brocco, Laura; Vigneron, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The ESA Swarm mission will provide the best ever survey of the Earth's magnetic field and its temporal evolution. This will be achieved by a constellation of three identical satellites, launched together on the 22nd of November 2013. In order to observe the magnetic field thoroughly, each satellite carries two magnetometers: a Vector Field Magnetometer (VFM) coupled with a star tracker camera, to measure the direction of the magnetic field in space, and an Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM), to measure its intensity. The ASM is the French contribution to the Swarm mission. This new generation instrument was designed by CEA-Leti and developed in close partnership with CNES, with scientific support from IPGP. Its operating principle is based on the atomic spectroscopy of the helium 4 metastable state. It makes use of the Zeeman's effect to transduce the magnetic field into a frequency, the signal being amplified by optical pumping. The primary role of the ASM is to provide absolute measurements of the magnetic field's strength at 1 Hz, for the in-flight calibration of the VFM. As the Swarm magnetic reference, the ASM scalar performance is crucial for the mission's success. Thanks to its innovative design, the ASM offers the best precision, resolution and absolute accuracy ever attained in space, with similar performance all along the orbit. In addition, thanks to an original architecture, the ASM implements on an experimental basis a capacity for providing simultaneously vector measurements at 1 Hz. This new feature makes it the first instrument capable of delivering both scalar and vector measurements simultaneously at the same point. Swarm offers a unique opportunity to validate the ASM vector data in orbit by comparison with the VFM's. Furthermore, the ASM can provide scalar data at a much higher sampling rate, when run in "burst" mode at 250 Hz, with a 100 Hz measurement bandwidth. An analysis of the spectral content of the magnetic field above 1 Hz becomes thus

  17. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  18. A Global Forecast of Absolute Poverty and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, M. J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates are made of absolute poverty and employment under the hypothesis that existing trends continue. Concludes that while the number of people in absolute poverty is not likely to decline by 2000, the proportion will fall. Jobs will have to grow 3.9% per year in developing countries to achieve full employment. (JOW)

  19. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  20. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  1. Absolute calibration of the EnviSat-1 radar altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Monica; Francis, Richard

    1998-12-01

    The EnviSat-1 satellite will embark an innovative radar altimeter. The calibration of the measurements of range from this instrument will be performed using novel techniques. The range measurement will be calibrated absolutely by establishing the actual geocentric sea-level along the sub- satellite tracks. These tracks are located in a limited and well-controlled region in the western Mediterranean and will include a number of fully-equipped individual sites which will provide higher confidence in the overall analysis, combined with data from the whole area at lower weight. The determination of the geocentric sea-level is performed using tide gauges and geodetic means such as leveling and floating GPS receivers. The altimeter sea-level is derived from the altimeter range corrected for propagation effects and sea- state bias, and a precise restitution of the trajectory of the satellite. These measurements comprise three vectors: range, orbital height and sea-surface height. The difference between orbital-height minus range, and sea-surface height provides the bias. The backscatter coefficient measured by previous altimeters has not been absolutely calibrated. An emerging application of the RA-2 in investigation of surface properties has identified the need to perform this calibration. A number of techniques are under study to determine the feasibility of meeting this need, including the use of well-controlled natural targets, the use of the altimeter receiver as a passive radiometer in order to determine its gain and the use of a transponder to return a precisely known return echo power to the radar.

  2. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  3. A special application of absolute value techniques in authentic problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-06-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value expressions are involved, the definition that is most helpful is the one involving solving by intervals and evaluating critical points. In point of fact, application of this technique is one reason that the topic of absolute value is important in mathematics in general and in mathematics teaching in particular. We present here an authentic practical problem that is solved using absolute values and the 'intervals' method, after which the solution is generalized with surprising results. This authentic problem also lends itself to investigation using educational technological tools such as GeoGebra dynamic geometry software: mathematics teachers can allow their students to initially cope with the problem by working in an inductive environment in which they conduct virtual experiments until a solid conjecture has been reached, after which they should prove the conjecture deductively, using classic theoretical mathematical tools.

  4. He throws like a girl (but only when he's sad): emotion affects sex-decoding of biological motion displays.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kerri L; McKay, Lawrie S; Pollick, Frank E

    2011-05-01

    Gender stereotypes have been implicated in sex-typed perceptions of facial emotion. Such interpretations were recently called into question because facial cues of emotion are confounded with sexually dimorphic facial cues. Here we examine the role of visual cues and gender stereotypes in perceptions of biological motion displays, thus overcoming the morphological confounding inherent in facial displays. In four studies, participants' judgments revealed gender stereotyping. Observers accurately perceived emotion from biological motion displays (Study 1), and this affected sex categorizations. Angry displays were overwhelmingly judged to be men; sad displays were judged to be women (Studies 2-4). Moreover, this pattern remained strong when stimuli were equated for velocity (Study 3). We argue that these results were obtained because perceivers applied gender stereotypes of emotion to infer sex category (Study 4). Implications for both vision sciences and social psychology are discussed.

  5. Lower body weight is associated with less negative emotions in sad autobiographical memories of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Food restriction and weight-loss have been proposed to represent pathogenic mechanisms of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is a lack of studies empirically examining this hypothesis. Therefore, the present study compared 25 women with AN and 25 healthy control women (HC) regarding spontaneous emotional processing of autobiographic memories. Participants' idiographic memories of sad autobiographic events were analyzed using computerized, quantitative text analysis as an unobtrusive approach of nonreactive assessment. Compared to HC, AN patients retrieved more negative but a comparable number of positive emotions. Moreover, the lesser the body weight in AN patients, the lesser negative emotions they retrieved, irrespective of current levels of depressive symptoms and duration of illness. No such association was found in HC. These preliminary findings are in line with models of AN proposing that food restriction and weight-loss may be negatively reinforced by the alleviation of aversive emotional responses.

  6. Validation of the Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale to predict repeated self-harm in emergency attendees in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Past and repeated self-harm are long-term risks to completed suicide. A brief rating scale to assess repetition risk of self-harm is important for high-risk identification and early interventions in suicide prevention. The study aimed to examine the validity of the Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale (CSPS) and to evaluate its feasibility in clinical settings. Methods One hundred and forty-seven patients with self-harm were recruited from the Emergency Department and assessed at baseline and the sixth month. The controls, 284 people without self-harm from the Family Medicine Department in the same hospital were recruited and assessed concurrently. The psychometric properties of the CSPS were examined using baseline and follow-up measurements that assessed a variety of suicide risk factors. Clinical feasibility and applicability of the CSPS were further evaluated by a group of general nurses who used case vignette approach in CSPS risk assessment in clinical settings. An open-ended question inquiring their opinions of scale adaptation to hospital inpatient assessment for suicide risks were also analyzed using content analysis. Results The CSPS was significantly correlated with other scales measuring depression, hopelessness and suicide ideation. A cut-off point of the scale was at 4/5 in predicting 6-month self-harm repetition with the sensitivity and specificity being 65.4% and 58.1%, respectively. Based on the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, the predictive validity of the scale showed a better performance than the other scales. Fifty-four nurses, evaluating the scale using case vignette found it a useful tool to raise the awareness of suicide risk and a considerable tool to be adopted into nursing care. Conclusions The Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale is a brief instrument with acceptable psychometric properties for self-harm prediction. However, cautions should be paid to level of therapeutic relationships during assessment, staff workload and

  7. Structure of D-tyrosyl-tRNATyr deacylase using home-source Cu Kalpha and moderate-quality iodide-SAD data: structural polymorphism and HEPES-bound enzyme states.

    PubMed

    Yogavel, Manickam; Khan, Sameena; Bhatt, Tarun Kumar; Sharma, Amit

    2010-05-01

    D-Tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase (DTD) is an editing enzyme that removes D-amino acids from mischarged tRNAs. The crystal structure of Plasmodium falciparum DTD (PfDTD) was determined using the iodide-SAD phasing method. Iodide-derivatized PfDTD crystals were obtained using the quick cryo-soaking procedure in which native crystals were soaked for a short period of 10-30 s in cryoprotectant solution containing 0.2-1 M NaI. Iodide-SAD data sets were collected to 3.3 and 2.74 A resolution from PfDTD crystals that belonged to two different space groups, P4(3) and P1, using an in-house X-ray copper-anode source. This is the first report to detail structure solution using low iodide anomalous signal, modest resolution and redundancy and average solvent content for SAD phasing of 984 and 1312 amino acids in the triclinic P1 and tetragonal P4(3) space groups, respectively. A total of 85% and 56% of the residues were automatically built into the iodide-phased electron-density maps using PHENIX AutoBuild. The structure of HEPES-bound PfDTD was subsequently determined by molecular replacement and refined to 2.83 A resolution. The crystals obtained from various batches of crystallization trials of PfDTD exhibited polymorphism in terms of belonging to different crystal forms and space groups. Even within a given crystal system the unit-cell parameters showed high non-isomorphism. These packing variations were exploited in order to conduct a systematic study of conformational changes in PfDTD. It is shown that the disposition of a ten-residue insertion loop affects packing within the PfDTD crystals and seems to determine the non-isomorphism in unit-cell parameters. By tracking the changes in PfDTD unit cells, it was possible to map conformational differences within PfDTD that may be of significance for enzyme activity.

  8. Independent coding of absolute duration and distance magnitudes in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Encarni; Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Genovesio, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    The estimation of space and time can interfere with each other, and neuroimaging studies have shown overlapping activation in the parietal and prefrontal cortical areas. We used duration and distance discrimination tasks to determine whether space and time share resources in prefrontal cortex (PF) neurons. Monkeys were required to report which of two stimuli, a red circle or blue square, presented sequentially, were longer and farther, respectively, in the duration and distance tasks. In a previous study, we showed that relative duration and distance are coded by different populations of neurons and that the only common representation is related to goal coding. Here, we examined the coding of absolute duration and distance. Our results support a model of independent coding of absolute duration and distance metrics by demonstrating that not only relative magnitude but also absolute magnitude are independently coded in the PF.

  9. Absolute memory for musical pitch: evidence from the production of learned melodies.

    PubMed

    Levitin, D J

    1994-10-01

    Evidence for the absolute nature of long-term auditory memory is provided by analyzing the production of familiar melodies. Additionally, a two-component theory of absolute pitch is presented, in which this rare ability is conceived as consisting of a more common ability, pitch memory, and a separate, less common ability, pitch labeling. Forty-six subjects sang two different popular songs, and their productions were compared with the actual pitches used in recordings of those songs. Forty percent of the subjects sang the correct pitch on at least one trial; 12% of the subjects hit the correct pitch on both trials, and 44% came within two semitones of the correct pitch on both trials. The results show a convergence with previous studies on the stability of auditory imagery and latent absolute pitch ability; the results further suggest that individuals might possess representations of pitch that are more stable and accurate than previously recognized.

  10. An integrated model of choices and response times in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott D; Marley, A A J; Donkin, Christopher; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Recent theoretical developments in the field of absolute identification have stressed differences between relative and absolute processes, that is, whether stimulus magnitudes are judged relative to a shorter term context provided by recently presented stimuli or a longer term context provided by the entire set of stimuli. The authors developed a model (SAMBA: selective attention, mapping, and ballistic accumulation) that integrates shorter and longer term memory processes and accounts for both the choices made and the associated response time distributions, including sequential effects in each. The model's predictions arise as a consequence of its architecture and require estimation of only a few parameters with values that are consistent across numerous data sets. The authors show that SAMBA provides a quantitative account of benchmark choice phenomena in classical absolute identification experiments and in contemporary data involving both choice and response time.

  11. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  12. Absolute calibration of a soft X-ray spectrograph for X-ray laser research using white beam.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, C; Kawachi, T; Ando, K; Yamaguchi, N; Hara, T

    1998-05-01

    Absolute calibration of a soft X-ray spectrograph has been performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The calibrated spectrograph was a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrograph with an X-ray CCD detector for X-ray laser research. Absolute sensitivity of the spectrograph system can be obtained from transmitted spectra using filters made of several different materials, each providing an absorption-edge wavelength standard. The absolute sensitivity determined in this work shows nearly the same behaviour with wavelength as that in another calibration experiment using a laser-produced plasma as an X-ray source.

  13. Children's Emotional-Expressive Behaviors as Regulators of Others' Happy and Sad Emotional States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Carolyn

    1992-01-01

    A study found that differences in children's ability to regulate their emotional responses, and in their social and cognitive development, are implicated in developmental differences in children's strategies for influencing others' mood states. (BB)

  14. Developing the Social Avoidance and Distressed (SAD) Scale and Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) Scale for Application to Thai University Students in the Northern Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowsilpa, Siriperm

    The reliability and validity of the Social Avoidance and Distress (SAD) and Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scales developed by D. Watson and R. Friend (1969) were tested for their use with university students in Thailand. Thai translations of both tests were administered to 176 university students on two occasions, with a month between…

  15. The Effect of "Sad" and "Happy" Background Music on the Interpretation of a Story in 5 to 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Goshen, Maya

    2006-01-01

    Children hear music in the background of a large variety of situations and activities. Throughout development, they acquire knowledge both about the syntactical norms of tonal music, and about the relationship between musical form and emotion. Five to six-year-old children heard a story, with a background "happy", "sad" or no…

  16. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces. Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  17. Absolute surface metrology with a phase-shifting interferometer for incommensurate transverse spatial shifts.

    PubMed

    Bloemhof, E E

    2014-02-10

    We consider the detailed implementation and practical utility of a novel absolute optical metrology scheme recently proposed for use with a phase-shifting interferometer (PSI). This scheme extracts absolute phase differences between points on the surface of the optic under test by differencing phase maps made with slightly different transverse spatial shifts of that optic. These absolute phase (or height) differences, which for single-pixel shifts are automatically obtained in the well-known Hudgin geometry, yield the underlying absolute surface map by standard wavefront reconstruction techniques. The PSI by itself maps surface height only relative to that of a separate reference optic known or assumed to be flat. In practice, even relatively high-quality (and expensive) transmission flats or spheres used to reference a PSI are flat or spherical only to a few dozen nanometers peak to valley (P-V) over typical 4 in. apertures. The new technique for removing the effects of the reference surface is in principle accurate as well as simple, and may represent a significant advance in optical metrology. Here it is shown that transverse shifts need not match the pixel size; somewhat counterintuitively, the single-pixel spatial resolution of the PSI is retained even when transverse shifts are much coarser. Practical considerations for shifts not necessarily commensurate with pixel size, and broader applications, are discussed.

  18. Absolute dose verifications in small photon fields using BANGTM gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheib, S. G.; Schenkel, Y.; Gianolini, S.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters change their magnetic resonance (MR) and optical properties with the absorbed dose when irradiated and are suitable for narrow photon beam dosimetry in radiosurgery. Such dosimeters enable relative and absolute 3D dose verifications in order to check the entire treatment chain from imaging to dose application during commissioning and quality assurance. For absolute 3D dose verifications in radiosurgery using Gamma Knife B, commercially available BANGTM Gels (BANG 25 Gy and BANG 3 Gy) together with dedicated phantoms were chosen in order to determine the potential of absolute gel dosimetry in radiosurgery.

  19. Measuring the absolute magnetic field using high-Tc SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D. F.; Itozaki, H.

    2006-06-01

    SQUID normally can only measure the change of magnetic field instead of the absolute value of magnetic field. Using a compensation method, a mobile SQUID, which could keep locked when moving in the earth's magnetic field, was developed. Using the mobile SQUID, it was possible to measure the absolute magnetic field. The absolute value of magnetic field could be calculated from the change of the compensation output when changing the direction of the SQUID in a magnetic field. Using this method and the mobile SQUID, we successfully measured the earth's magnetic field in our laboratory.

  20. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability.

  1. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  2. Droplet digital PCR for absolute quantification of pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Rački, Nejc; Dreo, Tanja; Ravnikar, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The recent advent of different digital PCR (dPCR) platforms is enabling the expansion of this technology for research and diagnostic applications worldwide. The main principle of dPCR, as in other PCR-based methods including quantitative PCR (qPCR), is the specific amplification of a nucleic acid target. The distinctive feature of dPCR is the separation of the reaction mixture into thousands to millions of partitions which is followed by a real time or end point detection of the amplification. The distribution of target sequences into partitions is described by the Poisson distribution, thus allowing accurate and absolute quantification of the target from the ratio of positive against all partitions at the end of the reaction. This omits the need to use reference materials with known target concentrations and increases the accuracy of quantification at low target concentrations compared to qPCR. dPCR has also shown higher resilience to inhibitors in a number of different types of samples. In this chapter we describe the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) workflow for the detection and quantification of pathogens using the droplet digital Bio-Rad platform QX100. We present as an example the quantification of the quarantine plant pathogenic bacterium, Erwinia amylovora.

  3. HST Stellar Standards with 1% Accuracy in Absolute Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, R. C.

    2007-04-01

    Free of any atmospheric contamination, the {Hubble Space Telescope} provides the best available spectrophotometry from the far-UV to the near-IR for stars as faint as V˜16. The HST CALSPEC standard star network is based on three standard candles: the hot, pure hydrogen white dwarf (WD) stars G 191B2B, GD 153, and GD 71, which have Hubeny NLTE flux calculations that require the atomic physics for only one atom. These model flux distributions are normalized to the absolute flux for Vega of 3.46×10-9 erg cm-2 s-1 Å-1 at 5556 Å using precise Landolt V band photometry and the V bandpass function corrected for atmospheric transmission by M. Cohen. The three primary WD standards provide absolute flux calibrations for FOS, STIS and NICMOS spectrophotometry from these instruments on the HST. About 32 stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) have been constructed with a primary pedigree from the STIS data, which extends from 1150 Å for the hot stars to a long wavelength limit of 1 μm. NICMOS grism spectrophotometry provides an extension to 1.9 μm in the IR for 17 of the HST standards and longward to 2.5 μm for a few of the brighter stars. Included among these HST standards are Vega, the Sloan standard BD+17 4708, three bright solar analog candidates, three cool stars of type M or later, and five hot WDs. In addition, four K giants and four main sequence A-stars have NICMOS spectrophotometry from 0.8-2.5 μm. The WD fluxes are compared to their modeled SEDs and demonstrate an internal precision of 1-2%, while the A-stars agree with the Cohen IR fluxes to ˜2%. Three solar analog candidate stars differ from the solar spectrum by up to 10% in the region of heavy line blanketing from 3000-4000 Å and show differences in shape of ˜5% in the IR around 1.8 μm.

  4. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.

    2011-08-01

    A monochromator integrating-sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been developed to calibrate standard radiation thermometers in terms of the absolute spectral radiance responsivity, traceable to the PTB cryogenic radiometer. The absolute responsivity calibration has been improved using a 75 W xenon lamp with a reflective mirror and imaging optics to a relative standard uncertainty at the peak wavelength of approximately 0.17 % ( k = 1). Via a relative measurement of the out-of-band responsivity, the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers can be fully characterized. To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer is used to measure Au and Cu freezing-point temperatures and then to compare the obtained results with the values obtained by absolute methods, resulting in T - T 90 values of +52 mK and -50 mK for the gold and copper fixed points, respectively.

  5. Gibbs Paradox Revisited from the Fluctuation Theorem with Absolute Irreversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito

    2017-02-01

    The inclusion of the factor ln (1 /N !) in the thermodynamic entropy proposed by Gibbs is shown to be equivalent to the validity of the fluctuation theorem with absolute irreversibility for gas mixing.

  6. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  7. Absolute flux calibration of optical spectrophotometric standard stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colina, Luis; Bohlin, Ralph C.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on Landolt photometry in B and V is developed to correct for a wavelength independent offset of the absolute flux level of optical spectrophotometric standards. The method is based on synthetic photometry techniques in B and V and is accurate to approximately 1%. The correction method is verified by Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph absolute fluxes for five calibration stars, which agree with Landolt photometry to 0.5% in B and V.

  8. On the calculation of the absolute grand potential of confined smectic-A phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Baus, Marc; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    We determine the absolute grand potential Λ along a confined smectic-A branch of a calamitic liquid crystal system enclosed in a slit pore of transverse area A and width L, using the rod-rod Gay-Berne potential and a rod-wall potential favouring perpendicular orientation at the walls. For a confined phase with an integer number of smectic layers sandwiched between the opposite walls, we obtain the excess properties (excess grand potential Λexc, solvation force fs and adsorption Γ) with respect to the bulk phase at the same μ (chemical potential) and T (temperature) state point. While usual thermodynamic integration methods are used along the confined smectic branch to estimate the grand potential difference as μ is varied at fixed L, T, the absolute grand potential at one reference state point is obtained via the evaluation of the absolute Helmholtz free energy in the (N, L, A, T) canonical ensemble. It proceeds via a sequence of free energy difference estimations involving successively the cost of localising rods on layers and the switching on of a one-dimensional harmonic field to keep layers integrity coupled to the elimination of inter-layers and wall interactions. The absolute free energy of the resulting set of fully independent layers of interacting rods is finally estimated via the existing procedures. This work opens the way to the computer simulation study of phase transitions implying confined layered phases.

  9. A highly accurate absolute gravimetric network for Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Christian; Ruess, Diethard; Butta, Hubert; Qirko, Kristaq; Pavicevic, Bozidar; Murat, Meha

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a basic gravity network in Albania, Kosovo and Montenegro to enable further investigations in geodetic and geophysical issues. Therefore the first time in history absolute gravity measurements were performed in these countries. The Norwegian mapping authority Kartverket is assisting the national mapping authorities in Kosovo (KCA) (Kosovo Cadastral Agency - Agjencia Kadastrale e Kosovës), Albania (ASIG) (Autoriteti Shtetëror i Informacionit Gjeohapësinor) and in Montenegro (REA) (Real Estate Administration of Montenegro - Uprava za nekretnine Crne Gore) in improving the geodetic frameworks. The gravity measurements are funded by Kartverket. The absolute gravimetric measurements were performed from BEV (Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying) with the absolute gravimeter FG5-242. As a national metrology institute (NMI) the Metrology Service of the BEV maintains the national standards for the realisation of the legal units of measurement and ensures their international equivalence and recognition. Laser and clock of the absolute gravimeter were calibrated before and after the measurements. The absolute gravimetric survey was carried out from September to October 2015. Finally all 8 scheduled stations were successfully measured: there are three stations located in Montenegro, two stations in Kosovo and three stations in Albania. The stations are distributed over the countries to establish a gravity network for each country. The vertical gradients were measured at all 8 stations with the relative gravimeter Scintrex CG5. The high class quality of some absolute gravity stations can be used for gravity monitoring activities in future. The measurement uncertainties of the absolute gravity measurements range around 2.5 micro Gal at all stations (1 microgal = 10-8 m/s2). In Montenegro the large gravity difference of 200 MilliGal between station Zabljak and Podgorica can be even used for calibration of relative gravimeters

  10. The 1H NMR method for the determination of the absolute configuration of 1,2,3-prim,sec,sec-triols.

    PubMed

    Lallana, Enrique; Freire, Félix; Seco, José Manuel; Quiñoa, Emilio; Riguera, Ricardo

    2006-09-28

    The absolute configuration of 1,2,3-prim,sec,sec-triols can be assigned by comparison of the 1H NMR spectra of the tris-(R)- and the tris-(S)-MPA ester derivatives. An experimental demonstration of this correlation with 24 triols of known absolute configuration and a protocol using two parameters-Deltadelta(RS)(H3) and the difference between Deltadelta RS (H2) and Deltadelta RS (H3) = absolute value (Delta(Deltadelta RS))-for its application to the determination of the absolute configuration of other triols are presented.

  11. Both Perelmans Thrown Down Gauntlets Versus Would-Be ``Science'' But Alas Sadly Mere ``SEANCES'' Put Jargonial-Obfuscation Sociological-Dysfunctionality(S-D) Ridden/Dominated Would-Be ``Sciences'' But Alas Sadly Mere SEANCES in ``Peril, Man''!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J.; Young, F.; Clay, London; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig (Physical-Mathematicist/Mathsicist)

    2011-03-01

    Both Perelman (Grigory[Poincare-conjecture: partial(with Richard Hamilton!!!)-"sole"-prover: by turning down first the Fields Medal at International Congress of [S-D right there: not mathematICS, but mathematicIANS!!!] Mathematicians (2007: Madrid); then the million-dollar Clay-Institute of Mathemat"ICS" (but really mathematicIANS POLITICIANS: Carlson, Yau,...et. al.) millennium-problem prize, revealing that it and its INSIDER POLITICS/POLITICIANS has/have "Feet of Clay"!!!], as sumarized by Naser-Gruber[Manfold-Destiny, The New Yorker, (August, 2007)] and separately Carlos Castro[with Corredoira: Against the Tid (2008)] put, by revealing the Jargonial-Obfuscation(J.-O.) (Bradshaw[Healing the SHAME that BINDS You, Hazelden(1980s)]-Martin[Brian, Wollongong University]-...ad INFINITUM (i.e. most if not all scientists), ad NAUSEUM!!! (disgusted with "games people play!!!)) S-D ridden/ dominated "games people play" would-be "sciences" (maths, physics,...: ad infinitum; ad NAUSEUM!!!) but alas sadly only mere Bradshaw-Martin S-D DOMINATED "SEANCES"!!!, in "peril, man"!!!

  12. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  13. Precision absolute value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, William E.; Rondeau, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resister is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resister. The output current through the load resister is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resister. A second gain determining resister is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  14. Precision absolute-value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, W.E.; Rondeau, D.J.

    1982-10-19

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resistor is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resistor. The output current through the load resistor is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resistor. A second gain determining resistor is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  15. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Naomi; Radin, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing.

  16. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent BICEP2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid or from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequency uncertainties. The limits on the cosmic graviton backgrounds coming from wide-band interferometers (such as LIGO/Virgo, LISA and BBO/DECIGO) together with a more accurate scrutiny of the tensor B-mode polarization at low frequencies will set direct bounds on the post-inflationary evolution and on other unconventional completions of the standard lore.

  17. On the calculation of absolute macromolecular binding free energies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hengbin; Sharp, Kim

    2002-01-01

    The standard framework for calculating the absolute binding free energy of a macromolecular association reaction A + B → AB with an association constant KAB is to equate chemical potentials of the species on the left- and right-hand sides of this reaction and evaluate the chemical potentials from theory. This theory involves (usually hidden) assumptions about what constitutes the bound species, AB, and where the contribution of the solvent appears. We present here an alternative derivation that can be traced back to Bjerrum, in which the expectation value of KAB is obtained directly through the statistical mechanical method of evaluating its ensemble (Boltzmann-weighted) average. The generalized Bjerrum approach more clearly delineates: (i) the different contributions to binding; (ii) the origin of the much-discussed and somewhat controversial association entropy term; and (iii) where the solvent contribution appears. This approach also allows approximations required for practical evaluation of the binding constant in complex macromolecular systems, to be introduced in a well defined way. We provide an example, with application to test cases that illustrate a range of binding behavior. PMID:12149474

  18. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Naomi; Radin, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing. PMID:24855499

  19. Stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks with absolute concentration robustness

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, David F.; Enciso, Germán A.; Johnston, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been shown that structural conditions on the reaction network, rather than a ‘fine-tuning’ of system parameters, often suffice to impart ‘absolute concentration robustness’ (ACR) on a wide class of biologically relevant, deterministically modelled mass-action systems. We show here that fundamentally different conclusions about the long-term behaviour of such systems are reached if the systems are instead modelled with stochastic dynamics and a discrete state space. Specifically, we characterize a large class of models that exhibit convergence to a positive robust equilibrium in the deterministic setting, whereas trajectories of the corresponding stochastic models are necessarily absorbed by a set of states that reside on the boundary of the state space, i.e. the system undergoes an extinction event. If the time to extinction is large relative to the relevant timescales of the system, the process will appear to settle down to a stationary distribution long before the inevitable extinction will occur. This quasi-stationary distribution is considered for two systems taken from the literature, and results consistent with ACR are recovered by showing that the quasi-stationary distribution of the robust species approaches a Poisson distribution. PMID:24522780

  20. Absolutely nondestructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile species with miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer engine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tian; Yang, Hai-Long; Tang, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Nie, Lei; Li, Lian; Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Dong-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Zang, Heng-Chang

    2014-10-01

    As one very precious traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Huoshan Dendrobium has not only high price, but also significant pharmaceutical efficacy. However, different species of Huoshan Dendrobium exhibit considerable difference in pharmaceutical efficacy, so rapid and absolutely non-destructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile according to different species is crucial to quality control and pharmaceutical effect. In this study, as one type of miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer, MicroNIR 1700 was used for absolutely nondestructive determination of NIR spectra of 90 batches of Dendrobium from five species of differ- ent commodity grades. The samples were intact and not smashed. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify and recognize different species of Dendrobium samples. The results indicated that the SIMCA qualitative models established with pretreatment method of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) in the spectra range selected by Qs method had 100% recognition rates and 100% rejection rates. This study demonstrated that a rapid and absolutely non-destructive analytical technique based on MicroNIR 1700 spectrometer was developed for successful discrimination of five different species of Huoshan Dendrobium with acceptable accuracy.

  1. Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27

    SciTech Connect

    Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1981-10-01

    This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

  2. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of the reflective bands on the LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the absolute radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper, as determined during pre-launch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere, are presented. Detailed results for the best calibration of the protoflight TM are given, as well as summaries of other tests performed on the sensor. The dynamic range of the TM is within a few per cent of that required in all bands, except bands 1 and 3. Three detectors failed to pass the minimum SNR specified for their respective bands: band 5, channel 3 (dead), band 2, and channels 2 and 4 (noisy or slow response). Estimates of the absolute calibration accuracy for the TM show that the detectors are typically calibrated to 5% absolute error for the reflective bands; 10% full-scale accuracy was specified. Ten tests performed to transfer the detector absolute calibration to the internal calibrator show a 5% range at full scale in the transfer calibration; however, in two cases band 5 showed a 10% and a 7% difference.

  3. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365

  4. The dynamic control ratio at the equilibrium point (DCRe): introducing relative and absolute reliability scores.

    PubMed

    Alt, Tobias; Knicker, Axel J; Strüder, Heiko K

    2017-04-01

    Analytical methods to assess thigh muscle balance need to provide reliable data to allow meaningful interpretation. However, reproducibility of the dynamic control ratio at the equilibrium point has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare relative and absolute reliability indices of its angle and moment values with conventional and functional hamstring-quadriceps ratios. Furthermore, effects of familiarisation and angular velocity on reproducibility were analysed. A number of 33 male volunteers participated in 3 identical test sessions. Peak moments (PMs) were determined unilaterally during maximum concentric and eccentric knee flexion (prone) and extension (supine position) at 0.53, 1.57 and 2.62 rad · s(-1). A repeated measure, ANOVA, confirmed systematic bias. Intra-class correlation coefficients and standard errors of measurement indicated relative and absolute reliability. Correlation coefficients were averaged over respective factors and tested for significant differences. All balance scores showed comparable low-to-moderate relative (<0.8-0.9) and good absolute reliability (<10%). Relative reproducibility of dynamic control equilibrium parameters augmented with increasing angular velocity, but not with familiarisation. At 2.62 rad · s(-1), high (moment: 0.906) to moderate (angle: 0.833) relative reliability scores with accordingly high absolute indices (4.9% and 6.4%) became apparent. Thus, the dynamic control equilibrium is an equivalent method for the reliable assessment of thigh muscle balance.

  5. Structure of Sad1-UNC84 homology (SUN) domain defines features of molecular bridge in nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhaocai; Du, Xiulian; Cai, Zheng; Song, Xiaomin; Zhang, Hongtao; Mizuno, Takako; Suzuki, Emi; Yee, Marla Rosanne; Berezov, Alan; Murali, Ramachandran; Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Karger, Barry L; Greene, Mark I; Wang, Qiang

    2012-02-17

    The SUN (Sad1-UNC-84 homology) domain is conserved in a number of nuclear envelope proteins involved in nuclear migration, meiotic telomere tethering, and antiviral responses. The LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex, formed by the SUN and the nesprin proteins at the nuclear envelope, serves as a mechanical linkage across the nuclear envelope. Here we report the crystal structure of the SUN2 protein SUN domain, which reveals a homotrimer. The SUN domain is sufficient to mediate binding to the KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology) domain of nesprin 2, and the regions involved in the interaction have been identified. Binding of the SUN domain to the KASH domain is abolished by deletion of a region important for trimerization or by point mutations associated with nuclear migration failure. We propose a model of the LINC complex, where the SUN and the KASH domains form a higher ordered oligomeric network in the nuclear envelope. These findings provide the structural basis for understanding the function and the regulation of the LINC complex.

  6. Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mageean, Craig J.; Griffiths, John R.; Smith, Duncan L.; Clague, Michael J.; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ≥260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS≥HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data. PMID:26560143

  7. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, M.; Gumbel, J.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2001-05-01

    In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N) to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

  8. High speed image acquisition system of absolute encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jianxiang; Chen, Xin; Chen, Xindu; Zhang, Fangjian; Wang, Han

    2017-01-01

    Absolute optical encoder as a product of optical, mechanical and electronic integration has been widely used in displacement measuring fields. However, how to improve the measurement velocity and reduce the manufacturing cost of absolute optical encoder is the key problem to be solved. To improve the measurement speed, a novel absolute optical encoder image acquisition system is proposed. The proposed acquisition system includes a linear CCD sensor is applied for capturing coding pattern images, an optical magnifying system is used for enlarging the grating stripes, an analog-digital conversion(ADC) module is used for processing the CCD analogy signal, a field programmable gate array(FPGA) device and other peripherals perform driving task. An absolute position measurement experiment was set up to verify and evaluate the proposed image acquisition system. The experimental result indicates that the proposed absolute optical encoder image acquisition system has the image acquisition speed of more than 9500fp/s with well reliability and lower manufacture cost.

  9. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  10. Absolute Instability in Swept Leading-Edge Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R.-S.; Li, F.; Malik, M. R.

    1997-11-01

    Absolute instabilities in the swept Hiemenz flow and flows over Poll's swept cylinder are studied. It is assumed that the span is infinite and the laminar flow field is subjected to a line impulsive excitation so that the spanwise wavenumber (β) is taken to be real, which is akin to the rotating disk study made by Lingwood.footnote Lingwood, R. J., J. Fluid Mech., 299, 17, 1995. We found that these flows can be absolutely unstable in the chordwise (x) direction. The pinch-point singularities formed by the coalescence of two distinct spatial branches can lie either below or above the real α-axis. The pinch points with a positive αi imply the existence of an unstable disturbance propagating against the mainstream, which has never been observed before. It is found that singularities of pinch type occur in a region very close to the leading edge, therefore the attachment-line Reynolds number is used to correlate the onset of absolute instability. The critical Reynolds number for absolute instability is found to be about R=540 compared to 583 for the attachment-line instability. Provided the non-linear behavior of this absolute instability is sufficient to trigger the laminar to turbulent transition, then it would cause a complete loss of laminar flow on a swept wing as does the attachment-line instability.

  11. Getting the best out of long-wavelength X-rays: de novo chlorine/sulfur SAD phasing of a structural protein from ATV.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Adeline; Vestergaard, Gisle; Felisberto-Rodrigues, Catarina; Campanacci, Valérie; Garrett, Roger A; Cambillau, Christian; Ortiz-Lombardía, Miguel

    2010-03-01

    The structure of a 14 kDa structural protein from Acidianus two-tailed virus (ATV) was solved by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing using X-ray data collected at 2.0 A wavelength. Although the anomalous signal from methionine sulfurs was expected to suffice to solve the structure, one chloride ion turned out to be essential to achieve phasing. The minimal data requirements and the relative contributions of the Cl and S atoms to phasing are discussed. This work supports the feasibility of a systematic approach for the solution of protein crystal structures by SAD based on intrinsic protein light atoms along with associated chloride ions from the solvent. In such cases, data collection at long wavelengths may be a time-efficient alternative to selenomethionine substitution and heavy-atom derivatization.

  12. Dr. Max King: the sad life and early death of Mackenzie King's physician brother

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    While researching her best-selling biography, Mrs. King: The Life and Times of Isabel Mackenzie King, CMAJ contributing editor Charlotte Gray discovered a wealth of information about Dr. Dougal Macdougall (Max) King. Although he never became as famous as his older brother Mackenzie, Gray presents a convincing argument that Dr. Max King's life and early death speak volumes about medicine and the medical profession at the turn of the century. She also argues that Mackenzie King's own life would have been much different had his brother not died at the too young age of 42. Gray's book was nominated for the Viacom Award, which honours the best nonfiction book published annually in Canada. PMID:9580741

  13. The impact of early parenting bonding on young adults' internet addiction, through the mediation effects of negative relating to others and sadness.

    PubMed

    Kalaitzaki, Argyroula E; Birtchnell, John

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study is the investigation of the potential role of negative relating to others, perceived loneliness, sadness, and anxiety, as mediators of the association between early parental bonding and adult Internet Addiction (IA). The factorial structure of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the prevalence rates of it in a Greek sample will also be investigated. A total of 774 participants were recruited from a Technological Education Institute (mean age=20.2, SD=2.8) and from high school technical schools (mean age=19.9, SD=7.4). The IAT was used to measure the degree of problematic Internet use behaviors; the Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess one's recalled parenting experiences during the first 16years of life; the shortened Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire was used to assess one's negative (i.e. maladaptive) relating to others (NRO). Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure of the IAT. Only 1.0% of the sample was severely addicted to the Internet. The mediated effects of only the NRO and sadness were confirmed. Negative relating to others was found to fully mediate the effect of both the father's optimal parenting and affectionless control on IA, whereas sadness was found to fully mediate the effect of the mother's optimal parenting on IA. Overall, the results suggest that parenting style has an indirect impact on IA, through the mediating role of negative relating to others or sadness in later life. Both family-based and individual-based prevention and intervention efforts may reduce the incidence of IA.

  14. Prospects for the Moon as an SI-Traceable Absolute Spectroradiometric Standard for Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, C. E.; Stone, T. C.; Lykke, K.; Woodward, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's Moon has many physical properties that make it suitable for use as a reference light source for radiometric calibration of remote sensing satellite instruments. Lunar calibration has been successfully applied to many imagers in orbit, including both MODIS instruments and NPP-VIIRS, using the USGS ROLO model to predict the reference exoatmospheric lunar irradiance. Sensor response trending was developed for SeaWIFS with a relative accuracy better than 0.1 % per year with lunar calibration techniques. However, the Moon rarely is used as an absolute reference for on-orbit calibration, primarily due to uncertainties in the ROLO model absolute scale of 5%-10%. But this limitation lies only with the models - the Moon itself is radiometrically stable, and development of a high-accuracy absolute lunar reference is inherently feasible. A program has been undertaken by NIST to collect absolute measurements of the lunar spectral irradiance with absolute accuracy <1 % (k=2), traceable to SI radiometric units. Initial Moon observations were acquired from the Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, elevation 2367 meters, with continuous spectral coverage from 380 nm to 1040 nm at ~3 nm resolution. The lunar spectrometer acquired calibration measurements several times each observing night by pointing to a calibrated integrating sphere source. The lunar spectral irradiance at the top of the atmosphere was derived from a time series of ground-based measurements by a Langley analysis that incorporated measured atmospheric conditions and ROLO model predictions for the change in irradiance resulting from the changing Sun-Moon-Observer geometry throughout each night. Two nights were selected for further study. An extensive error analysis, which includes instrument calibration and atmospheric correction terms, shows a combined standard uncertainty under 1 % over most of the spectral range. Comparison of these two nights' spectral irradiance measurements with predictions

  15. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  16. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  17. Quantifying discipline practices using absolute versus relative frequencies: clinical and research implications for child welfare.

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Shaffer, Anne; Kolko, David J

    2014-01-01

    In the parent intervention outcome literatures, discipline practices are generally quantified as absolute frequencies or, less commonly, as relative frequencies. These differences in methodology warrant direct comparison as they have critical implications for study results and conclusions among treatments targeted at reducing parental aggression and harsh discipline. In this study, we directly compared the absolute frequency method and the relative frequency method for quantifying physically aggressive, psychologically aggressive, and nonaggressive discipline practices. Longitudinal data over a 3-year period came from an existing data set of a clinical trial examining the effectiveness of a psychosocial treatment in reducing parental physical and psychological aggression and improving child behavior (N = 139). Discipline practices (aggressive and nonaggressive) were assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale. The two methods yielded different patterns of results, particularly for nonaggressive discipline strategies. We suggest that each method makes its own unique contribution to a more complete understanding of the association between parental aggression and intervention effects.

  18. Absolute distance measurement using frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer calibrated by an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ren, Libing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jitao

    2013-04-01

    We present a frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer to measure an absolute distance based on a frequency-tunable diode laser calibrated by an optical frequency comb (OFC) and an interferometric phase measurement system. The laser frequency-sweeping process is calibrated by the OFC within a range of 200 GHz and an accuracy of 1.3 kHz, which brings about a precise temporal synthetic wavelength of 1.499 mm. The interferometric phase measurement system consisting of the analog signal processing circuit and the digital phase meter achieves a phase difference resolution better than 0.1 deg. As the laser frequency is sweeping, the absolute distance can be determined by measuring the phase difference variation of the interference signals. In the laboratory condition, our experimental scheme realizes micrometer accuracy over meter distance.

  19. Spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars - Intrinsic colors and absolute magnitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Dodgen, Ana V.; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Absolute spectrophotometry of about 10-A resolution in the range 3400-7300 A have been obtained for southern Wolf-Rayet stars, and line-free magnitudes and colors have been constructed. The emission-line contamination in the narrow-band ubvr systems of Westerlund (1966) and Smith (1968) is shown to be small for most WN stars, but to be quite significant for WC stars. It is suggested that the more severe differences in intrinsic color from star to star of the same spectral subtype noted at shorter wavelengths are due to differences in atmospheric extent. True continuum absolute visual magnitudes and intrinsic colors are obtained for the LMC WR stars. The most visually luminous WN6-WN7 stars are found to be located in the core of the 30 Doradus region.

  20. Estimation of the absolute position of mobile systems by an optoelectronic processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Liqiang; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Koren, Yoram

    1992-01-01

    A method that determine the absolute position of a mobile system with a hybrid optoelectronic processor has been developed. Position estimates are based on an analysis of circular landmarks that are detected by a TV camera attached to the mobile system. The difference between the known shape of the landmark and its image provides the information needed to determine the absolute position of the mobile system. For robust operation, the parameters of the landmark image are extracted at high speeds using an optical processor that performs an optical Hough transform. The coordinates of the mobile system are computed from these parameters in a digital co-processor using fast algorithms. Different sources of position estimation errors have also been analyzed, and consequent algorithms to improve the navigation performance of the mobile system have been developed and evaluated by both computer simulation and experiments.

  1. Sensitive and absolute absorption measurements in optical materials and coatings by laser-induced deflection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, Christian; Bublitz, Simon

    2012-12-01

    The laser-induced deflection (LID) technique, a photo-thermal deflection setup with transversal pump-probe-beam arrangement, is applied for sensitive and absolute absorption measurements of optical materials and coatings. Different LID concepts for bulk and transparent coating absorption measurements, respectively, are explained, focusing on providing accurate absorption data with only one measurement and one sample. Furthermore, a new sandwich concept is introduced that allows transferring the LID technique to very small sample geometries and to significantly increase the sensitivity for materials with weak photo-thermal responses. For each of the different concepts, a representative application example is given. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of the calibration procedure for providing absolute absorption data. The validity of an electrical calibration procedure for the LID setup is proven using specially engineered surface absorbing samples. The electrical calibration procedure is then applied to evaluate two other approaches that use either doped samples or highly absorptive reference samples.

  2. The Absolute Gravimeter FG5 - Adjustment and Residual Data Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlob, M.; Braun, A.; Henton, J.; Courtier, N.; Liard, J.

    2009-05-01

    The most widely used method of direct terrestrial gravity determination is performed by using a ballistic absolute gravimeter. Today, the FG5 (Micro-g LaCoste; Lafayette, CO) is the most common free-fall absolute gravimeter. It uses the Michelson-type interferometer to determine the absolute gravity value with accuracies up to one part- per-billion of g. Furthermore, absolute gravimeter measurements can be used to assist in the validation and interpretation of temporal variations of the global gravity field, e.g. from the GRACE mission. In addition, absolute gravimetry allows for monitoring gravity changes which are caused by subsurface mass redistributions and/or vertical displacements. In this study,adjustment software was developed and applied to the raw data sets of FG5#106 and FG5#236, made available by Natural Resources Canada. Both data sets have been collected at the same time and place which leads to an intercomparison of the instruments performance. The adjustment software was validated against the official FG5 software package developed by Micro-g Lacoste. In order to identify potential environmental or instrument disturbances in the observed time series, a Lomb- Scargle periodogram analysis was employed. The absolute gravimeter FG5 is particularly sensitive to low frequencies between 0-3Hz. Hence, the focus of the analysis is to detect signals in the band of 0-100 Hz. An artificial signal was added to the measurements for demonstration purposes. Both the performance of the adjustment software and the Lomb-Scargle analysis will be discussed.

  3. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  4. STS-9 Shuttle grow - Ram angle effect and absolute intensities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    Visible imagery from Space Shuttle mission STS-9 (Spacelab 1) has been analyzed for the ram angle effect and the absolute intensity of glow. The data are compared with earlier measurements and the anomalous high intensities at large ram angles are confirmed. Absolute intensities of the ram glow on the shuttle tile, at 6563 A, are observed to be about 20 times more intense than those measured on the AE-E spacecraft. Implications of these observations for an existing theory of glow involving NO2 are presented.

  5. Absolute integrated intensity for the nu-1 sulfur dioxide band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilon, P. J.; Young, C.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute integrated intensity of the IR vibration-rotation nu-1 SO2 band was measured using the linear portion of the curve of growth. Infrared spectroscopic-absorption cell measurements were performed on sulfur dioxide at partial pressures less than 0.15 torr with nitrogen added to give a total pressure of 705 torr, the path length being 4 mm. The absolute integrated intensity was determined to be 112.0 plus or minus 2.6/cm/sq (atm cm) at 296 K at the 95% confidence level.

  6. From Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lindler, D.

    2016-05-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R˜1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.03 μ. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsl/. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We have therefore developed an observing procedure, data-reduction procedure, and correction algorithms that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1%.

  7. Absolute configuration determination of angular dihydrocoumarins from Peucedanum praeruptorum.

    PubMed

    Lou, Hong-Xiang; Sun, Long-Ru; Yu, Wen-Tao; Fan, Pei-Hong; Cui, Lei; Gao, Yan-Hui; Ma, Bin; Ren, Dong-Mei; Ji, Mei

    2004-09-01

    From Peucedanum praeruptorum, one new khellactone ester (3'R)-O-acetyl-(4'S)-O-angeloylkhellactone (3), as well as four known angular dihydropyranocoumarins (1, 2, 4, 5) have been isolated. On the basis of NMR spectra and X-ray crystallography, their structures were determined. We have elucidated their absolute configuration by either chiral separation of their alkaline hydrolysis products with Rp-18 HPLC eluted with 5% hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (beta-HCD) or by measurement of their CD spectra. A general rule relating the position and absolute streochemistry of the khellactone esters to the sign of their Cotton effects in CD curves is proposed.

  8. Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor (AESSIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Kuehne, M.; Kock, M.

    1988-01-01

    AESSIM, the Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor, is designed to measure the absolute solar spectral irradiance at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. The data are required for studies of the processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere and for predictions of atmospheric drag on space vehicles. AESSIM is comprised of sun-pointed spectrometers and newly-developed, secondary standards of spectral irradiance for the EUV. Use of the in-orbit standard sources will eliminate the uncertainties caused by changes in spectrometer efficiency that have plagued all previous measurements of the solar spectral EUV flux.

  9. Large-Scale Measurement of Absolute Protein Glycosylation Stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shisheng; Zhang, Hui

    2015-07-07

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important protein modifications. Glycosylation site occupancy alteration has been implicated in human diseases and cancers. However, current glycoproteomic methods focus on the identification and quantification of glycosylated peptides and glycosylation sites but not glycosylation occupancy or glycoform stoichiometry. Here we describe a method for large-scale determination of the absolute glycosylation stoichiometry using three independent relative ratios. Using this method, we determined 117 absolute N-glycosylation occupancies in OVCAR-3 cells. Finally, we investigated the possible functions and the determinants for partial glycosylation.

  10. Non-Invasive Method of Determining Absolute Intracranial Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented for determining absolute intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The absolute ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.

  11. Absolute gain measurement by the image method under mismatched condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Baddour, Maurice F.

    1987-01-01

    Purcell's image method for measuring the absolute gain of an antenna is particularly attractive for small test antennas. The method is simple to use and utilizes only one antenna with a reflecting plane to provide an image for the receiving antenna. However, the method provides accurate results only if the antenna is matched to its waveguide. In this paper, a waveguide junction analysis is developed to determine the gain of an antenna under mismatched condition. Absolute gain measurements for two standard gain horn antennas have been carried out. Experimental results agree closely with published data.

  12. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  13. Nonexistence of equilibrium states at absolute negative temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Rochín, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    We show that states of macroscopic systems with purported absolute negative temperatures are not stable under small, yet arbitrary, perturbations. We prove the previous statement using the fact that, in equilibrium, the entropy takes its maximum value. We discuss that, while Ramsey theoretical reformulation of the second law for systems with negative temperatures is logically correct, it must be a priori assumed that those states are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Since we argue that those states cannot occur, reversible processes are impossible, and, thus, Ramsey identification of absolute negative temperatures is untenable.

  14. Absolute Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. Absolute stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. Absolute stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.

  15. New enantiomeric fluorine-containing derivatives of sulforaphane: synthesis, absolute configurations and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kiełbasiński, Piotr; Łuczak, Jerzy; Cierpiał, Tomasz; Błaszczyk, Jarosław; Sieroń, Lesław; Wiktorska, Katarzyna; Lubelska, Katarzyna; Milczarek, Małgorzata; Chilmończyk, Zdzisław

    2014-04-09

    Three pairs of enantiomers of the unknown sulforaphane analogs bearing organofluorine substituents bonded to the sulfinyl sulfur atom and having different number of methylene groups in the central carbon chain were synthesized and fully characterized, including determination of their absolute configurations. All the new compounds were tested in vitro for their cytotoxicity against melanoma cells to show increased activity in comparison with the natural sulforaphane. The influence of the particular structural changes in the molecule on the cytotoxicity is discussed.

  16. Measurement of absolute displacement by a double-modulation technique based on a Michelson interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chang, L W; Chien, P Y; Lee, C T

    1999-05-01

    A novel method is presented for of measuring absolute displacement with a synthesized wavelength interferometer. The optical phase of the interferometer is simultaneously modulated with a frequency-modulated laser diode and optical path-length difference. The error signal originating from the intensity modulation of the source is eliminated by a signal processing circuit. In addition, a lock-in technique is used to demodulate the envelope of the interferometric signal. The displacement signal is derived by the self-mixing technique.

  17. Realtime Absolute Orientation with Outlier Rejection for Visual Odometry and Mesh Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandari, Esfandiar; Goldstein, Norman; Nesnas, Issa; Bajracharya, Max

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a high level spatio-temporal problem, namely "absolute orientation", which arises in visual-odometry (using stereo), or registering two models created by different Structure from Motion (SFM) reconstructions. We compare the very popular method due to Horn using quaternions and our own independently derive method using the orthonormal rotation matrix R. We also introduce a novel approach for outlier rejection using spectral clustering.

  18. Absolute determination of cross sections for resonant Raman scattering on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Matthias; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Ulm, Gerhard; Kanngießer, Birgit

    2006-07-01

    We studied the resonant Raman scattering of x rays in the vicinity of the K absorption edge of silicon. The investigation was carried out at the plane grating monochromator beamline for undulator radiation of the PTB laboratory at BESSY II in Berlin. Cross sections were determined absolutely for a wide energy range of incident photons with small relative uncertainties employing calibrated instrumentation avoiding any reference samples. The experimentally determined values differ clearly from the theoretical ones found in the literature.

  19. Grasping a 2D object: terminal haptic feedback supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration.

    PubMed

    Hosang, Stephanie; Chan, Jillian; Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Grasping a three-dimensional (3D) object results in the specification of motor output via absolute size information. In contrast, the impoverished visual cues (e.g., binocular and vergence) associated with grasping a two-dimensional (2D) object are reported to render aperture formation via an object's perceptual and relative visual features. It is, however, important to recognize that 3D and 2D grasping differ not only in terms of their visual properties, but also because the latter does not entail the provision of haptic feedback. As such, the present work examined whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting 2D grasping. Participants grasped differently sized 3D objects (i.e., 3D task) and completed a 'traditional' 2D grasping task to line drawings without receiving haptic feedback (i.e., 2DH- task). As well, we included a separate condition using the same objects as the 2DH- task; however, the experimenter placed a 3D object (i.e., one corresponding to the size of the 2D object) between the thumb and forefinger of participants' grasping limb once they completed their response (i.e., 2DH+ task). Thus, the 2DH+ task provided haptic feedback related to absolute object size. Notably, we computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) scores to determine whether the different tasks adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber's law. JNDs for the 2DH- task adhered to Weber's law, whereas 3D and 2DH+ tasks violated the law. Thus, results evince that 2DH- and 2DH+ tasks are specified via relative and absolute object size information, respectively. Accordingly, we propose that haptic feedback supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration and contend that our results highlight the importance of multi-sensory cue integration in goal-directed grasping.

  20. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  1. Development of a graphite probe calorimeter for absolute clinical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, James; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchington, David

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this work is to present the numerical design optimization, construction, and experimental proof of concept of a graphite probe calorimeter (GPC) conceived for dose measurement in the clinical environment (U.S. provisional patent 61/652,540). A finite element method (FEM) based numerical heat transfer study was conducted using a commercial software package to explore the feasibility of the GPC and to optimize the shape, dimensions, and materials used in its design. A functioning prototype was constructed inhouse and used to perform dose to water measurements under a 6 MV photon beam at 400 and 1000 MU/min, in a thermally insulated water phantom. Heat loss correction factors were determined using FEM analysis while the radiation field perturbation and the graphite to water absorbed dose conversion factors were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The difference in the average measured dose to water for the 400 and 1000 MU/min runs using the TG-51 protocol and the GPC was 0.2% and 1.2%, respectively. Heat loss correction factors ranged from 1.001 to 1.002, while the product of the perturbation and dose conversion factors was calculated to be 1.130. The combined relative uncertainty was estimated to be 1.4%, with the largest contributors being the specific heat capacity of the graphite (type B, 0.8%) and the reproducibility, defined as the standard deviation of the mean measured dose (type A, 0.6%). By establishing the feasibility of using the GPC as a practical clinical absolute photon dosimeter, this work lays the foundation for further device enhancements, including the development of an isothermal mode of operation and an overall miniaturization, making it potentially suitable for use in small and composite radiation fields. It is anticipated that, through the incorporation of isothermal stabilization provided by temperature controllers, a subpercent overall uncertainty will be achieved.

  2. Predictions of Ligand Selectivity from Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Binding selectivity is a requirement for the development of a safe drug, and it is a critical property for chemical probes used in preclinical target validation. Engineering selectivity adds considerable complexity to the rational design of new drugs, as it involves the optimization of multiple binding affinities. Computationally, the prediction of binding selectivity is a challenge, and generally applicable methodologies are still not available to the computational and medicinal chemistry communities. Absolute binding free energy calculations based on alchemical pathways provide a rigorous framework for affinity predictions and could thus offer a general approach to the problem. We evaluated the performance of free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics for the prediction of selectivity by estimating the affinity profile of three bromodomain inhibitors across multiple bromodomain families, and by comparing the results to isothermal titration calorimetry data. Two case studies were considered. In the first one, the affinities of two similar ligands for seven bromodomains were calculated and returned excellent agreement with experiment (mean unsigned error of 0.81 kcal/mol and Pearson correlation of 0.75). In this test case, we also show how the preferred binding orientation of a ligand for different proteins can be estimated via free energy calculations. In the second case, the affinities of a broad-spectrum inhibitor for 22 bromodomains were calculated and returned a more modest accuracy (mean unsigned error of 1.76 kcal/mol and Pearson correlation of 0.48); however, the reparametrization of a sulfonamide moiety improved the agreement with experiment. PMID:28009512

  3. Embedded north-seeker for automatic absolute magnetic DI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsette, Alexandre; Rasson, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In magnetic observatory Earth magnetic field is recorded with a resolution of 0.1nT for 1min sampling (new standards impose 1pT for 1s sampling). The method universally adopted for measuring it is a combination of three instruments. Vectorial magnetometer (variometer) records variations of the three components around a reference value or a baseline. A proton or an overhauser magnetometer is an absolute instrument able to measure the modulus of the field and used to determine the F component baseline of the variometer. The declination and inclination baselines require a manual procedure to be computed. An operator manipulates a non-magnetic theodolite (also called a DIFlux) to measure the D and I angles in different configurations with a resolution of a few arcsec. The AutoDIF is a non-magnetic automatic DIFlux using the same protocol as the manual procedure. The declination defined according to the true north is determined by means of a target pointing system. Even if the technique is fast and accurate, it becomes problematic in case of unmanned deployment. In particular the area between the target and the DIFlux is out of control. Snow storm, fog, vegetation or condensation on windows are examples of perturbation preventing for finding the target. It is obvious in case of (future) seafloor observatories. A FOG based north-seeker has been implemented and mounted on the AutoDIF. The first results using a low cost gyro don't meet the Intermagnet specifications yet but are however hopeful. A 0.1° standard deviation has been reached and statistically reduced to 0.01° after less than two days in laboratory. The magnetic disturbance of the sensor is taken into account and compensated by the measurement protocol.

  4. The absolute magnitude distribution of cold classical Kuiper belt objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Jean-Marc; Bannister, Michele T.; Alexandersen, Mike; Chen, Ying-Tung; Gladman, Brett; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, JJ; Volk, Kathryn

    2016-10-01

    We report measurements of the low inclination component of the main Kuiper Belt showing a size freqency distribution very steep for sizes larger than H_r ~ 6.5-7.0 and then a flattening to shallower slope that is still steeper than the collisional equilibrium slope.The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) is ongoing and is expected to detect over 500 TNOs in a precisely calibrated and characterized survey. Combining our current sample with CFEPS and the Alexandersen et al. (2015) survey, we analyse a sample of ~180 low inclination main classical (cold) TNOs, with absolute magnitude H_r (SDSS r' like flter) in the range 5 to 8.8. We confirm that the H_r distribution can be approximated by an exponential with a very steep slope (>1) at the bright end of the distribution, as has been recognized long ago. A transition to a shallower slope occurs around H_r ~ 6.5 - 7.0, an H_r mag identified by Fraster et al (2014). Faintward of this transition, we find a second exponential to be a good approximation at least until H_r ~ 8.5, but with a slope significantly steeper than the one proposed by Fraser et al. (2014) or even the collisional equilibrium value of 0.5.The transition in the cold TNO H_r distribution thus appears to occur at larger sizes than is observed in the high inclination main classical (hot) belt, an important indicator of a different cosmogony for these two sub-components of the main classical Kuiper belt. Given the largish slope faintward of the transition, the cold population with ~100 km diameter may dominate the mass of the Kuiper belt in the 40 AU < a < 47 au region.

  5. Absolute Timing of the Crab Pulsar with RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Jahoda, Keith; Lyne, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    We have monitored the phase of the main X-ray pulse of the Crab pulsar with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for almost eight years, since the start of the mission in January 1996. The absolute time of RXTE's clock is sufficiently accurate to allow this phase to be compared directly with the radio profile. Our monitoring observations of the pulsar took place bi-weekly (during the periods when it was at least 30 degrees from the Sun) and we correlated the data with radio timing ephemerides derived from observations made at Jodrell Bank. We have determined the phase of the X-ray main pulse for each observation with a typical error in the individual data points of 50 microseconds. The total ensemble is consistent with a phase that is constant over the monitoring period, with the X-ray pulse leading the radio pulse by 0.01025 plus or minus 0.00120 period in phase, or 344 plus or minus 40 microseconds in time. The error estimate is dominated by a systematic error of 40 microseconds, most likely constant, arising from uncertainties in the instrumental calibration of the radio data. The statistical error is 0.00015 period, or 5 microseconds. The separation of the main pulse and interpulse appears to be unchanging at time scales of a year or less, with an average value of 0.4001 plus or minus 0.0002 period. There is no apparent variation in these values with energy over the 2-30 keV range. The lag between the radio and X-ray pulses ma be constant in phase (i.e., rotational in nature) or constant in time (i.e., due to a pathlength difference). We are not (yet) able to distinguish between these two interpretations.

  6. Using AIRS and IASI Data to Evaluate Absolute Radiometric Accuracy and Stability for Climate Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Pagano, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The creation of multi-decadal data sets for climate research requires better than 100 mK absolute calibration accuracy for the full range of spectral temperatures encountered under global conditions. Validation that this accuracy is achieved by the operational hyperspectral sounders from polar orbit is facilitated by comparing data from two instruments. Extreme radiometric calibration stability is critical to allow a long time series of noisy, but presumably long-term accurate truth measurements to be used for the validation of absolute accuracy at the 100 mK level. We use the RTGSST in the tropical oceans as ground truth. The difference between the AIRS derived sst2616 and the RTGSST based on six years of data shows a systematic cold bias of about 250 mK, but better than 4 mK/year stability. The double difference between AIRS and the RTGSST and IASI and the RTGSST with less than one year of data already allows statements at the 100 mK absolute level. It shows a 60 mK difference between the AIRS and the IASI calibration at 2616 cm-(sup 1) and 300 K, with a statistically insignificant 20 mK shift in six months.

  7. Two methods for absolute calibration of dynamic pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, G. W.; Migliori, A.; Garrett, S. L.; Wheatley, J. C.

    1982-12-01

    Two techniques are described for absolute calibration of a dynamic pressure transducer from 0 to 400 Hz in 1-MPa helium gas. One technique is based on a comparison to a mercury manometer; the other is based on the principle of reciprocity. The two techniques agree within the instrumental uncertainties of 1%.

  8. Toward The Absolute Age of M92 With MIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie; Dotter, Aaron; Weisz, Daniel; Rosenfield, Philip; Dolphin, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Globular clusters provide a fundamental link between stars and galaxies. For example, it has been suggested that ultra faint dwarf galaxies formed all of their stars prior to the epoch of reionization, but this conclusion hinges entirely on the striking similarity of their stellar populations to the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster M92. The accurate measurement of absolute ages of ancient globular clusters therefore has direct implications for the formation histories of the smallest galaxies in the Universe. However, a reliable determination of the absolute ages of globular clusters has proven to be a challenge due to uncertainties in stellar physics and complications in how the models are compared to observations. I will present preliminary results from a comprehensive study to measure the absolute age of M92 using high-quality HST archival imaging data. We pair our new MESA Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) models with a full CMD fitting framework to jointly fit multi-color CMDs, taking into account the uncertainties in abundances, distance, and stellar physics. The goal of this project is two-fold. First, we aim to provide the most secure absolute age of M92 to date with robustly estimated uncertainties. Second, we explore and quantify the degeneracies between uncertain physical quantities and model variables, such as the distance, mixing-length-alpha parameter, and helium abundance, with the ultimate goal of better constraining these unknowns with data from ongoing and future surveys such as K2, Gaia, TESS, JWST, and WFIRST.

  9. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  10. Is There a Rule of Absolute Neutralization in Nupe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Robert

    1975-01-01

    A previously prosed rule of absolute neutralization (merging underlying low vowels) is eliminated in an alternative analysis including instead a rule that "breaks" the feature matrix of certain low vowels and redistributes the features of each vowel as a sequence of vowel-like transition plus (a). (Author/RM)

  11. Absolute Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su Ar

    2010-01-01

    In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an absolute interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. …

  12. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  13. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  14. Urey: to measure the absolute age of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; Herring, M.; Javadi, H.; Johnson, D. W.; Larson, T.; Malaviarachchi, K.; Sherrit, S.; Stride, S.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Warwick, R.

    2003-01-01

    UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the absolute age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.

  15. Relative versus Absolute Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando

    2012-01-01

    When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (absolute hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…

  16. Mechanism for an absolute parametric instability of an inhomogeneous plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.

    1984-05-01

    The structure of plasma oscillations in a region of parametric spatial amplification has been studied experimentally for the first time. A new mechanism for an absolute parametric instability has been observed. This mechanism operates when a pump wave with a spatial structure more complicated than a plane wave propagates through a plasma which is inhomogeneous along more than one dimension.

  17. Series that Converge Absolutely but Don't Converge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Robert; Schramm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    If a series of real numbers converges absolutely, then it converges. The usual proof requires completeness in the form of the Cauchy criterion. Failing completeness, the result is false. We provide examples of rational series that illustrate this point. The Cantor set appears in connection with one of the examples.

  18. Networks of Absolute Calibration Stars for SST, AKARI, and WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M.

    2007-04-01

    I describe the Cohen-Walker-Witteborn (CWW) network of absolute calibration stars built to support ground-based, airborne, and space-based sensors, and how they are used to calibrate instruments on the SPITZER Space Telescope (SST and Japan's AKARI (formerly ASTRO-F), and to support NASA's planned MidEx WISE (the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer). All missions using this common calibration share a self-consistent framework embracing photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. CWW also underpins COBE/DIRBE several instruments used on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory ({KAO}), the joint Japan-USA ``IR Telescope in Space" (IRTS) Near-IR and Mid-IR spectrometers, the European Space Agency's IR Space Observatory (ISO), and the US Department of Defense's Midcourse Space eXperiment (MSX). This calibration now spans the far-UV to mid-infrared range with Sirius (one specific Kurucz synthetic spectrum) as basis, and zero magnitude defined from another Kurucz spectrum intended to represent an ideal Vega (not the actual star with its pole-on orientation and mid-infrared dust excess emission). Precision 4-29 μm radiometric measurements on MSX validate CWW's absolute Kurucz spectrum of Sirius, the primary, and a set of bright K/MIII secondary standards. Sirius is measured to be 1.0% higher than predicted. CWW's definitions of IR zero magnitudes lie within 1.1% absolute of MSX measurements. The US Air Force Research Laboratory's independent analysis of on-orbit {MSX} stellar observations compared with emissive reference spheres show CWW primary and empirical secondary spectra lie well within the ±1.45% absolute uncertainty associated with this 15-year effort. Our associated absolute calibration for the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the SST lies within ˜2% of the recent extension of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS instrument to NICMOS (Bohlin, these Proceedings), showing the closeness of these two independent approaches to calibration.

  19. Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to NH3 and CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Prashant; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Rahman, M. A.; Ram, N. Bhargava; Krishnakumar, E.

    2008-11-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross sections for NH3 and CH4 are measured in a crossed beam apparatus with special care to eliminate discrimination due to kinetic energy and angular distribution of the fragment ions. The cross sections are put on absolute scale using the relative flow technique. The absolute cross sections for the formation of H- and NH2- from ammonia and H- and CH2- from methane are compared with available data from literature. It is seen that the present results are considerably different 6rom what has been reported before. We also compare the cross sections of the H- channel from these molecules along with that from H2O to those from organic molecules containing alkyl, amino and hydroxyl groups to examine the extent to which the recently observed functional group dependence in the DEA contributes.

  20. Absolute positioning by multi-wavelength interferometry referenced to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guochao; Jang, Yoon-Soo; Hyun, Sangwon; Chun, Byung Jae; Kang, Hyun Jay; Yan, Shuhua; Kim, Seung-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-04-06

    A multi-wavelength interferometer utilizing the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser as the wavelength ruler is tested for its capability of ultra-precision positioning for machine axis control. The interferometer uses four different wavelengths phase-locked to the frequency comb and then determines the absolute position through a multi-channel scheme of detecting interference phases in parallel so as to enable fast, precise and stable measurements continuously over a few meters of axis-travel. Test results show that the proposed interferometer proves itself as a potential candidate of absolute-type position transducer needed for next-generation ultra-precision machine axis control, demonstrating linear errors of less than 61.9 nm in peak-to-valley over a 1-meter travel with an update rate of 100 Hz when compared to an incremental-type He-Ne laser interferometer.