Science.gov

Sample records for absolute dose calibration

  1. Absolute dose calibration of EBT3 Gafchromic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campajola, L.; Casolaro, P.; Di Capua, F.

    2017-08-01

    Radiochromic films are a commercial product available in a large number of different types. They can be used in a wide range of doses and fluence for different radiation types. The application in different fields such as photon and ion radiotherapy, industrial irradiations for modification of materials, sterilization and radiation hardness, makes very interesting to study the response of the films to more radiation types and energies. The aim of this work is to define the characteristics and dynamic range of EBT3 Gafchromic films for some specific applications. To this end the behaviour of EBT3 Gafchromic films has been studied in depth by comparing the films response to different radiation types. In particular, this work has been carried out to establish a useful procedure to monitor the electronic device's irradiations for radiation hardness applications. The dynamic range of EBT3 films has been found to be compatible with the typically demanded fluences and the calibration has been found to be absolute, namely independent of the incident radiation type. The easy handling, the possibility of replacement of the films and high resolution power allow the monitoring of irradiations with a high range of doses.

  2. Absolute calibration of the Gamma Knife{sup ®} Perfexion™ and delivered dose verification using EPR/alanine dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbeck, Amaury E-mail: tristan.garcia@cea.fr; Garcia, Tristan E-mail: tristan.garcia@cea.fr; Cuttat, Marguerite; Jenny, Catherine

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Elekta Leksell Gamma Knife{sup ®} (LGK) is a radiotherapy beam machine whose features are not compliant with the international calibration protocols for radiotherapy. In this scope, the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel and the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital decided to conceive a new LKG dose calibration method and to compare it with the currently used one. Furthermore, the accuracy of the dose delivered by the LGK machine was checked using an “end-to-end” test. This study also aims to compare doses delivered by the two latest software versions of the Gammaplan treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The dosimetric method chosen is the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of alanine. Dose rate (calibration) verification was done without TPS using a spherical phantom. Absolute calibration was done with factors calculated by Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP-X). For “end-to-end” test, irradiations in an anthropomorphic head phantom, close to real treatment conditions, are done using the TPS in order to verify the delivered dose. Results: The comparison of the currently used calibration method with the new one revealed a deviation of +0.8% between the dose rates measured by ion chamber and EPR/alanine. For simple fields configuration (less than 16 mm diameter), the “end-to-end” tests showed out average deviations of −1.7% and −0.9% between the measured dose and the calculated dose by Gammaplan v9 and v10, respectively. Conclusions: This paper shows there is a good agreement between the new calibration method and the currently used one. There is also a good agreement between the calculated and delivered doses especially for Gammaplan v10.

  3. Absolute calibration of the Gamma Knife® Perfexion™ and delivered dose verification using EPR/alanine dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hornbeck, Amaury; Garcia, Tristan; Cuttat, Marguerite; Jenny, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Elekta Leksell Gamma Knife(®) (LGK) is a radiotherapy beam machine whose features are not compliant with the international calibration protocols for radiotherapy. In this scope, the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel and the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital decided to conceive a new LKG dose calibration method and to compare it with the currently used one. Furthermore, the accuracy of the dose delivered by the LGK machine was checked using an "end-to-end" test. This study also aims to compare doses delivered by the two latest software versions of the Gammaplan treatment planning system (TPS). The dosimetric method chosen is the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of alanine. Dose rate (calibration) verification was done without TPS using a spherical phantom. Absolute calibration was done with factors calculated by Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP-X). For "end-to-end" test, irradiations in an anthropomorphic head phantom, close to real treatment conditions, are done using the TPS in order to verify the delivered dose. The comparison of the currently used calibration method with the new one revealed a deviation of +0.8% between the dose rates measured by ion chamber and EPR/alanine. For simple fields configuration (less than 16 mm diameter), the "end-to-end" tests showed out average deviations of -1.7% and -0.9% between the measured dose and the calculated dose by Gammaplan v9 and v10, respectively. This paper shows there is a good agreement between the new calibration method and the currently used one. There is also a good agreement between the calculated and delivered doses especially for Gammaplan v10.

  4. SU-E-J-85: Leave-One-Out Perturbation (LOOP) Fitting Algorithm for Absolute Dose Film Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, A; Ahmad, M; Chen, Z; Nath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce an outliers-recognition fitting routine for film dosimetry. It cannot only be flexible with any linear and non-linear regression but also can provide information for the minimal number of sampling points, critical sampling distributions and evaluating analytical functions for absolute film-dose calibration. Methods: The technique, leave-one-out (LOO) cross validation, is often used for statistical analyses on model performance. We used LOO analyses with perturbed bootstrap fitting called leave-one-out perturbation (LOOP) for film-dose calibration . Given a threshold, the LOO process detects unfit points (“outliers”) compared to other cohorts, and a bootstrap fitting process follows to seek any possibilities of using perturbations for further improvement. After that outliers were reconfirmed by a traditional t-test statistics and eliminated, then another LOOP feedback resulted in the final. An over-sampled film-dose- calibration dataset was collected as a reference (dose range: 0-800cGy), and various simulated conditions for outliers and sampling distributions were derived from the reference. Comparisons over the various conditions were made, and the performance of fitting functions, polynomial and rational functions, were evaluated. Results: (1) LOOP can prove its sensitive outlier-recognition by its statistical correlation to an exceptional better goodness-of-fit as outliers being left-out. (2) With sufficient statistical information, the LOOP can correct outliers under some low-sampling conditions that other “robust fits”, e.g. Least Absolute Residuals, cannot. (3) Complete cross-validated analyses of LOOP indicate that the function of rational type demonstrates a much superior performance compared to the polynomial. Even with 5 data points including one outlier, using LOOP with rational function can restore more than a 95% value back to its reference values, while the polynomial fitting completely failed under the same conditions

  5. Absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.

    2006-03-27

    As a step toward absolute calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.

  6. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    SciTech Connect

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  7. Pleiades Absolute Calibration : Inflight Calibration Sites and Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachérade, S.; Fourest, S.; Gamet, P.; Lebègue, L.

    2012-07-01

    In-flight calibration of space sensors once in orbit is a decisive step to be able to fulfil the mission objectives. This article presents the methods of the in-flight absolute calibration processed during the commissioning phase. Four In-flight calibration methods are used: absolute calibration, cross-calibration with reference sensors such as PARASOL or MERIS, multi-temporal monitoring and inter-bands calibration. These algorithms are based on acquisitions over natural targets such as African deserts, Antarctic sites, La Crau (Automatic calibration station) and Oceans (Calibration over molecular scattering) or also new extra-terrestrial sites such as the Moon and selected stars. After an overview of the instrument and a description of the calibration sites, it is pointed out how each method is able to address one or several aspects of the calibration. We focus on how these methods complete each other in their operational use, and how they help building a coherent set of information that addresses all aspects of in-orbit calibration. Finally, we present the perspectives that the high level of agility of PLEIADES offers for the improvement of its calibration and a better characterization of the calibration sites.

  8. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  9. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  10. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  11. Absolute calibration of forces in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.

    2014-07-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.

  12. Issues in Absolute Spectral Radiometric Calibration: Intercomparison of Eight Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Kindel, Bruce; Pilewskie, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The application of atmospheric models to AVIRIS and other spectral imaging data to derive surface reflectance requires that the sensor output be calibrated to absolute radiance. Uncertainties in absolute calibration are to be expected, and claims of 92% accuracy have been published. Measurements of accurate surface albedos and cloud absorption to be used in radiative balance calculations depend critically on knowing the absolute spectral-radiometric response of the sensor. The Earth Observing System project is implementing a rigorous program of absolute radiometric calibration for all optical sensors. Since a number of imaging instruments that provide output in terms of absolute radiance are calibrated at different sites, it is important to determine the errors that can be expected among calibration sites. Another question exists about the errors in the absolute knowledge of the exoatmospheric spectral solar irradiance.

  13. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  14. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect

    Moseev, D. Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-15

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m{sup 2} per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m{sup 2} per MW injected beam power is measured.

  15. Absolute Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to absolute calibrations - the IGS adopted absolute antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using absolute antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to absolute, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an absolute sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an absolute calibration system. These absolute antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO

  16. Absolute sensitivity calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Juanita; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Aquila, Andrew; George, Simi; Niakoula, Dimitra

    2008-05-16

    One of the major challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography remains simultaneously achieving resist sensitivity, line-edge roughness, and resolution requirement. Sensitivity is of particular concern owing to its direct impact on source power requirements. Most current EUV exposure tools have been calibrated against a resist standard with the actual calibration of the standard resist dating back to EUV exposures at Sandia National Laboratories in the mid 1990s. Here they report on an independent sensitivity calibration of two baseline resists from the SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool performed at the Advanced Light Source Calibrations and Standards beamline. The results show the baseline resists to be approximately 1.9 times faster than previously thought based on calibration against the long standing resist standard.

  17. Absolute sensitivity calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists.

    PubMed

    Naulleau, Patrick P; Gullikson, Eric M; Aquila, Andrew; George, Simi; Niakoula, Dimitra

    2008-07-21

    One of the major challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography remains simultaneously achieving resist sensitivity, line-edge roughness, and resolution requirement. Sensitivity is of particular concern owing to its direct impact on source power requirements. Most current EUV exposure tools have been calibrated against a resist standard with the actual calibration of the standard resist dating back to EUV exposures at Sandia National Laboratories in the mid 1990s. Here we report on an independent sensitivity calibration of two baseline resists from the SEMATECH Berkeley MET tool performed at the Advanced Light Source Calibrations and Standards beamline. The results show the baseline resists to be approximately 1.9 times faster than previously thought based on calibration against the long standing resist standard.

  18. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  19. Absolute flux density calibrations: Receiver saturation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freiley, A. J.; Ohlson, J. E.; Seidel, B. L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of receiver saturation was examined for a total power radiometer which uses an ambient load for calibration. Extension to other calibration schemes is indicated. The analysis shows that a monotonic receiver saturation characteristic could cause either positive or negative measurement errors, with polarity depending upon operating conditions. A realistic model of the receiver was made by using a linear-cubic voltage transfer characteristic. The evaluation of measurement error for this model provided a means for correcting radio source measurements.

  20. Retinal vessel oximetry: toward absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew H.; Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Lompado, Arthur; Hillman, Lloyd W.

    2000-06-01

    Accurately measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within retinal arteries and veins has proven to be a deceptively difficult task. Despite the excellent optical accessibility of the vessels and a wide range of reported instrumentation, we are unaware of any measurement technique that has proven to be calibrated across wide ranges of vessel diameter and fundus pigmentation. We present an overview of our retinal oximetry technique, present the results of an in vitro calibration experiment, and present preliminary human data.

  1. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.

    2011-08-01

    A monochromator integrating-sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been developed to calibrate standard radiation thermometers in terms of the absolute spectral radiance responsivity, traceable to the PTB cryogenic radiometer. The absolute responsivity calibration has been improved using a 75 W xenon lamp with a reflective mirror and imaging optics to a relative standard uncertainty at the peak wavelength of approximately 0.17 % ( k = 1). Via a relative measurement of the out-of-band responsivity, the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers can be fully characterized. To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer is used to measure Au and Cu freezing-point temperatures and then to compare the obtained results with the values obtained by absolute methods, resulting in T - T 90 values of +52 mK and -50 mK for the gold and copper fixed points, respectively.

  2. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the use of permanent radioactive source implants in the treatment of prostate cancer. A small radioactive source encapsulated in a titanium shell is used in this type of treatment. The radioisotopes used are generally 125I or 103Pd. Both of these isotopes have relatively short half-lives, 59.4 days and 16.99 days, respectively, and have low-energy emissions and a low dose rate. These factors make these sources well suited for this application, but the calibration of these sources poses significant metrological challenges. The current standard calibration technique involves the measurement of ionization in air to determine the source air-kerma strength. While this has proved to be an improvement over previous techniques, the method has been shown to be metrologically impure and may not be the ideal means of calbrating these sources. Calorimetric methods have long been viewed to be the most fundamental means of determining source strength for a radiation source. This is because calorimetry provides a direct measurement of source energy. However, due to the low energy and low power of the sources described above, current calorimetric methods are inadequate. This thesis presents work oriented toward developing novel methods to provide direct and absolute measurements of source power for low-energy low dose rate brachytherapy sources. The method is the first use of an actively temperature-controlled radiation absorber using the electrical substitution method to determine total contained source power of these sources. The instrument described operates at cryogenic temperatures. The method employed provides a direct measurement of source power. The work presented here is focused upon building a metrological foundation upon which to establish power-based calibrations of clinical-strength sources. To that end instrument performance has been assessed for these source strengths. The intent is to establish the limits of

  3. Progress Report of CNES Activities Regarding the Absolute Calibration Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    several receivers (Ashtech Z12-T, Septentrio PolaRx2, and Dicom GTR50) and a GNSS signal simulator (Spirent 4760) according to the temperature and...laboratories, Ashtech Z12- T, Septentrio PolaRx2, and Dicom GTR50, can be calibrated with the absolute method [6,8]. The last works concerned the...Ashtech, Septentrio, and Dicom receiver calibrations. Table 2. Uncertainty of the different receiver calibrations. Uncertainty Source

  4. Absolute calibration of 10Be AMS standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Imamura, Mineo; Caffee, Marc W.; Southon, John R.; Finkel, Robert C.; McAninch, Jeffrey

    2007-05-01

    The increased detection sensitivity offered by AMS has dramatically expanded the utility of 10Be. As these applications become more sophisticated attention has focused on the accuracy of the 10Be standards used to calibrate the AMS measurements. In recent years it has become apparent that there is a discrepancy between two of the most widely used 10Be AMS standards, the ICN 10Be standard and the NIST 10Be standard. The ICN (ICN Chemical & Radioisotope Division) 10Be AMS standard was calibrated by radioactive decay counting. Dilutions, ranging from 5 × 10 -13 to 3 × 10 -1110Be/Be, have been prepared and are extensively used in many AMS laboratories. The NIST 10Be standard, prepared at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), is calibrated by mass spectrometric isotope ratio measurements. To provide an independent calibration of the 10Be standards we implanted a known number of 10Be atoms in both Si detectors and Be foil targets. The 10Be concentrations in these targets were measured by AMS. The results were compared with both the ICN and NIST AMS standards. Our 10Be measurements indicate that the 10Be/ 9Be isotopic ratio of the ICN AMS standard, which is based on a 10Be half-life of 1.5 × 10 6 yr, is 1.106 ± 0.012 times lower than the nominal value. Since the decay rate of the ICN standard is well determined, the decrease in 10Be/ 9Be ratio requires that the 10Be half-life be reduced to (1.36 ± 0.07) × 10 6 yr. The quoted uncertainty includes a ±5% uncertainty in the activity measurement carried out by ICN. In a similar fashion, we determined that the value of the NIST 10Be standard (SRM4325) is (2.79 ± 0.03) × 10 -1110Be/ 9Be, within error of the certified value of (2.68 ± 0.14) × 10 -11. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) internal standards were also included in this study. We conclude that the 9Be(n, γ) neutron cross section is 7.8 ± 0.23 mb, without taking into account the uncertainty in the neutron irradiation.

  5. Absolute flux calibration of optical spectrophotometric standard stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colina, Luis; Bohlin, Ralph C.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on Landolt photometry in B and V is developed to correct for a wavelength independent offset of the absolute flux level of optical spectrophotometric standards. The method is based on synthetic photometry techniques in B and V and is accurate to approximately 1%. The correction method is verified by Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph absolute fluxes for five calibration stars, which agree with Landolt photometry to 0.5% in B and V.

  6. Networks of Absolute Calibration Stars for SST, AKARI, and WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M.

    2007-04-01

    I describe the Cohen-Walker-Witteborn (CWW) network of absolute calibration stars built to support ground-based, airborne, and space-based sensors, and how they are used to calibrate instruments on the SPITZER Space Telescope (SST and Japan's AKARI (formerly ASTRO-F), and to support NASA's planned MidEx WISE (the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer). All missions using this common calibration share a self-consistent framework embracing photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. CWW also underpins COBE/DIRBE several instruments used on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory ({KAO}), the joint Japan-USA ``IR Telescope in Space" (IRTS) Near-IR and Mid-IR spectrometers, the European Space Agency's IR Space Observatory (ISO), and the US Department of Defense's Midcourse Space eXperiment (MSX). This calibration now spans the far-UV to mid-infrared range with Sirius (one specific Kurucz synthetic spectrum) as basis, and zero magnitude defined from another Kurucz spectrum intended to represent an ideal Vega (not the actual star with its pole-on orientation and mid-infrared dust excess emission). Precision 4-29 μm radiometric measurements on MSX validate CWW's absolute Kurucz spectrum of Sirius, the primary, and a set of bright K/MIII secondary standards. Sirius is measured to be 1.0% higher than predicted. CWW's definitions of IR zero magnitudes lie within 1.1% absolute of MSX measurements. The US Air Force Research Laboratory's independent analysis of on-orbit {MSX} stellar observations compared with emissive reference spheres show CWW primary and empirical secondary spectra lie well within the ±1.45% absolute uncertainty associated with this 15-year effort. Our associated absolute calibration for the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the SST lies within ˜2% of the recent extension of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS instrument to NICMOS (Bohlin, these Proceedings), showing the closeness of these two independent approaches to calibration.

  7. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  8. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Cameron, P.R.; Shea, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment.

  9. An absolute sensitivity calibration of the JET VUV SPRED spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, K. D.; Coffey, I. H.; Zacks, J.; Stamp, M. F.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2009-04-01

    The determination of a good relative and absolute sensitivity calibration for wideband VUV spectrometers is challenging. On JET, the possible T and Be contamination of the VUV spectrometer precludes its removal to a synchrotron source and, consequently, a range of alternative in situ techniques have been investigated in depth. This has resulted in a reliable calibration for the complete spectral range, the relative calibration at short wavelengths being particularly accurate. At these wavelengths, a novel approach is used, in which the calibration is extended using a number of Na- and Li-like metal doublets. At longer wavelengths, the Li-like doublets of Ar and Ne have been used in conjunction with CII, CIII and CIV line intensity ratios. Unexplained discrepancies between the measured and modelled C results have meant that the exceptional short wavelength accuracy has not be repeated at these longer wavelengths. The absolute sensitivity has been determined from branching ratios to an absolutely calibrated visible spectrometer. The long term stability of the calibration is discussed.

  10. The Spectrophotometric Standard Stars Grid for the Gaia Absolute Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavilla, Giuseppe; CU5 Bologna Gaia Team

    2017-09-01

    "The ESA Gaia mission is starting a new era in astrophysics, and not only, thanks to its unprecedented astrometric precision coupled with spectrophotometric measurements. After a brief introduction of the scientific instruments located in the Gaia focal plane, I will present the spectro-photometric standard stars grid for their absolute calibration."

  11. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  12. Two methods for absolute calibration of dynamic pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, G. W.; Migliori, A.; Garrett, S. L.; Wheatley, J. C.

    1982-12-01

    Two techniques are described for absolute calibration of a dynamic pressure transducer from 0 to 400 Hz in 1-MPa helium gas. One technique is based on a comparison to a mercury manometer; the other is based on the principle of reciprocity. The two techniques agree within the instrumental uncertainties of 1%.

  13. Absolute calibration of Landsat instruments using the moon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric calibration of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of absolute radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors

  14. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  15. Self consistent, absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors.

    PubMed

    Avella, A; Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M; Gramegna, M; Lolli, L; Monticone, E; Portesi, C; Rajteri, M; Rastello, M L; Taralli, E; Traina, P; White, M

    2011-11-07

    Well characterized photon number resolving detectors are a requirement for many applications ranging from quantum information and quantum metrology to the foundations of quantum mechanics. This prompts the necessity for reliable calibration techniques at the single photon level. In this paper we propose an innovative absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors, using a pulsed heralded photon source based on parametric down conversion. The technique, being absolute, does not require reference standards and is independent upon the performances of the heralding detector. The method provides the results of quantum efficiency for the heralded detector as a function of detected photon numbers. Furthermore, we prove its validity by performing the calibration of a Transition Edge Sensor based detector, a real photon number resolving detector that has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in various quantum information protocols.

  16. The importance and attainment of accurate absolute radiometric calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of accurate absolute radiometric calibration is discussed by reference to the needs of those wishing to validate or use models describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the atmosphere and earth surface features. The in-flight calibration methods used for the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre, Haute Resolution visible (SPOT/HRV) systems are described and their limitations discussed. The questionable stability of in-flight absolute calibration methods suggests the use of a radiative transfer program to predict the apparent radiance, at the entrance pupil of the sensor, of a ground site of measured reflectance imaged through a well characterized atmosphere. The uncertainties of such a method are discussed.

  17. Improved Absolute Radiometric Calibration of a UHF Airborne Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Hawkins, Brian P.; Harcke, Leif; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Michel, Thierry R.; Moreira, Laila; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Shimada, Joanne G.; Tham, Kean W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The AirMOSS airborne SAR operates at UHF and produces fully polarimetric imagery. The AirMOSS radar data are used to produce Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) depth profiles. The absolute radiometric accuracy of the imagery, ideally of better than 0.5 dB, is key to retrieving RZSM, especially in wet soils where the backscatter as a function of soil moisture function tends to flatten out. In this paper we assess the absolute radiometric uncertainty in previously delivered data, describe a method to utilize Built In Test (BIT) data to improve the radiometric calibration, and evaluate the improvement from applying the method.

  18. Absolute Calibration of the AXAF Telescope Effective Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, E.; Cohen, L.; Edgar, R.; Evans, I.; Freeman, M.; Gaetz, T.; Jerius, D.; McDermott, W. C.; McKinnon, P.; Murray, S.; Podgorski, W.; Schwartz, D.; VanSpeybroeck, L.; Wargelin, B.; Zombeck, M.; Weisskopf, M.; Elsner, R.; ODell, S.; Tennant, A.; Kolodziejczak, J.

    1997-01-01

    The prelaunch calibration of AXAF encompasses many aspects of the telescope. In principle, all that is needed is the complete point response function. This is, however, a function of energy, off-axis angle of the source, and operating mode of the facility. No single measurement would yield the entire result. Also, any calibration made prior to launch will be affected by changes in conditions after launch, such as the change from one g to zero g. The reflectivity of the mirror and perhaps even the detectors can change as well, for example by addition or removal of small amounts of material deposited on their surfaces. In this paper, we give a broad view of the issues in performing such a calibration, and discuss how they are being addressed in prelaunch preparation of AXAF. As our title indicates, we concentrate here on the total throughput of the observatory. This can be thought of as the integral of the point response function, i.e. the encircled energy, out ot the largest practical solid angle for an observation. Since there is no standard x-ray source in the sky whose flux is known to the -1% accuracy we are trying to achieve, we must do this calibration on the ground. we also must provide a means for monitoring any possible changes in this calibration from pre-launch until on-orbit operation can transfer the calibration to a celestial x-ray source whose emission is stable. In this paper, we analyze the elements of the absolute throughput calibration, which we call Effective Area. We review the requirements for calibrations of components or subsystems of the AXAF facility, including mirror, detectors, and gratings. We show how it is necessary to calibrate this ground-based detection system at standard man-made x-ray sources, such as electron storage rings. We present the status of all these calibrations, with indications of the measurements remaining to be done, even though the measurements on the AXAF flight optics and detectors will have been completed by the

  19. Absolute indoor calibration of large area solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzdorf, J.; Wittchen, T.; Kaase, H.

    1986-11-01

    Equipment for the calibration of reference solar cells which is traceable back to their primary radiometric standards is presented. The apparatus, based on the differential spectral responsivity method is an absolute indoor procedure without reference solar cells, and needs no solar simulator. The method is applicable to all kinds of test devices up to solar cell areas of 10 x 10 cm without any requirements on linearity and spectral responsivity of the cells.

  20. Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, P.; ,

    2002-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

  1. Absolute calibration in the 1750 - 3350 A region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strongylis, G. J.; Bohlin, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute flux measurements in the rocket ultraviolet made by Bohlin, Frimout, and Lillie (BFL) are revised using a more correct treatment of the air extinction that enters the air calibration of their instrument. The absorption by molecular oxygen and ozone, Rayleigh scattering, and extinction by aerosols is tabulated for general use in ultraviolet calibrations performed in air. The revised absolute flux of eta UMa and final fluxes for alpha Lyr and zeta Oph are presented in the 1750-3350 A region. The absolute flux of the star eta UMa is compared to four other independent determinations in the 1200-3400 A region and a maximum difference of 35% is found near 1500 A between the OAO-2 and Apollo 17 fluxes. The rocket measurements of BFL, the ANS and TD-1 satellite data, and the Apollo 17 data are compared to the ultraviolet fluxes from the OAO-2, demonstrating a photometric reproducibility of about + or - 3 percent. Therefore, all four sets of spectrophotometry can be reduced to a common absolute scale.

  2. Calibration method of absolute orientation of camera optical axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong; Guo, Pengyu; Zhang, Xiaohu; Ding, Shaowen; Su, Ang; Li, Lichun

    2013-08-01

    Camera calibration is one of the most basic and important processes in optical measuring field. Generally, the objective of camera calibration is to estimate the internal and external parameters of object cameras, while the orientation error of optical axis is not included yet. Orientation error of optical axis is a important factor, which seriously affects measuring precision in high-precision measurement field, especially for those distant aerospace measurement in which object distance is much longer than focal length, that lead to magnifying the orientation errors to thousands times. In order to eliminate the influence of orientation error of camera optical axis, the imaging model of camera is analysed and established in this paper, and the calibration method is also introduced: Firstly, we analyse the reasons that cause optical axis error and its influence. Then, we find the model of optical axis orientation error and imaging model of camera basing on it's practical physical meaning. Furthermore, we derive the bundle adjustment algorithm which could compute the internal and external camera parameters and absolute orientation of camera optical axis simultaneously at high precision. In numeric simulation, we solve the camera parameters by using bundle adjustment optimization algorithm, then we correct the image points by calibration results according to the model of optical axis error, and the simulation result shows that our calibration model is reliable, effective and precise.

  3. Absolute calibration for complex-geometry biomedical diffuse optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; El-Ghussein, Fadi; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-03-01

    We have presented methodology to calibrate data in NIRS/MRI imaging versus an absolute reference phantom and results in both phantoms and healthy volunteers. This method directly calibrates data to a diffusion-based model, takes advantage of patient specific geometry from MRI prior information, and generates an initial guess without the need for a large data set. This method of calibration allows for more accurate quantification of total hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, water content, scattering, and lipid concentration as compared with other, slope-based methods. We found the main source of error in the method to be derived from incorrect assignment of reference phantom optical properties rather than initial guess in reconstruction. We also present examples of phantom and breast images from a combined frequency domain and continuous wave MRI-coupled NIRS system. We were able to recover phantom data within 10% of expected contrast and within 10% of the actual value using this method and compare these results with slope-based calibration methods. Finally, we were able to use this technique to calibrate and reconstruct images from healthy volunteers. Representative images are shown and discussion is provided for comparison with existing literature. These methods work towards fully combining the synergistic attributes of MRI and NIRS for in-vivo imaging of breast cancer. Complete software and hardware integration in dual modality instruments is especially important due to the complexity of the technology and success will contribute to complex anatomical and molecular prognostic information that can be readily obtained in clinical use.

  4. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  5. Absolute calibration of vacuum ultraviolet spectrograph system for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Kubota, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Numada, N.; Nakashima, Y.; Cho, T.; Koguchi, H.; Yagi, Y.; Yamaguchi, N.

    2004-10-01

    A space- and time-resolving vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrograph system has been applied to diagnose impurity ions behavior in plasmas produced in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10 and the reversed field pinch TPE-RX. We have carried out ray tracing calculations for obtaining the characteristics of the VUV spectrograph and calibration experiments to measure the absolute sensitivities of the VUV spectrograph system for the wavelength range from 100 to 1100 A. By changing the incident angle, 50.6 deg. -51.4 deg., to the spectrograph whose nominal incident angle is 51 deg., we can change the observing spectral range of the VUV spectrograph. In this article, we show the ray tracing calculation results and absolute sensitivities when the angle of incidence into the VUV spectrograph is changed, and the results of VUV spectroscopic measurement in both GAMMA 10 and TPE-RX plasmas.

  6. Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat using a pseudo invariant calibration site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.; Thome, K.J.; Mishra, N.; Chander, G.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Choi, Tae-young

    2013-01-01

    Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been used for on-orbit radiometric trending of optical satellite systems for more than 15 years. This approach to vicarious calibration has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and repeatability at the level of 1-3% depending on the site, spectral channel, and imaging geometries. A variety of sensors have used this approach for trending because it is broadly applicable and easy to implement. Models to describe the surface reflectance properties, as well as the intervening atmosphere have also been developed to improve the precision of the method. However, one limiting factor of using PICS is that an absolute calibration capability has not yet been fully developed. Because of this, PICS are primarily limited to providing only long term trending information for individual sensors or cross-calibration opportunities between two sensors. This paper builds an argument that PICS can be used more extensively for absolute calibration. To illustrate this, a simple empirical model is developed for the well-known Libya 4 PICS based on observations by Terra MODIS and EO-1 Hyperion. The model is validated by comparing model predicted top-of-atmosphere reflectance values to actual measurements made by the Landsat ETM+ sensor reflective bands. Following this, an outline is presented to develop a more comprehensive and accurate PICS absolute calibration model that can be Système international d'unités (SI) traceable. These initial concepts suggest that absolute calibration using PICS is possible on a broad scale and can lead to improved on-orbit calibration capabilities for optical satellite sensors.

  7. Absolute calibration in grazing incidence interferometry via rotational averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mantel, Klaus; Lamprecht, Juergen; Lindlein, Norbert; Schwider, Johannes

    2006-06-01

    Interferometry in grazing incidence can be used to test cylindrical mantle surfaces. The absolute accuracy of the resulting surface profiles is limited by systematic wavefront aberrations caused in the interferometer, in particular due to an inversion of the test wavefront in an interferometer using diffractive beam splitters. For cylindrical specimens, a calibration method using four positions has therefore been investigated. This test is combined with another method of optical metrology: the rotational averaging procedure. The implementation for grazing incidence is described and measurement results for hollow cylinders are presented. The gain in accuracy is demonstrated.

  8. Absolute calibration in grazing incidence interferometry via rotational averaging.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Klaus; Lamprecht, Jürgen; Lindlein, Norbert; Schwider, Johannes

    2006-06-01

    Interferometry in grazing incidence can be used to test cylindrical mantle surfaces. The absolute accuracy of the resulting surface profiles is limited by systematic wavefront aberrations caused in the interferometer, in particular due to an inversion of the test wavefront in an interferometer using diffractive beam splitters. For cylindrical specimens, a calibration method using four positions has therefore been investigated. This test is combined with another method of optical metrology: the rotational averaging procedure. The implementation for grazing incidence is described and measurement results for hollow cylinders are presented. The gain in accuracy is demonstrated.

  9. Absolute intensity calibrations of solar K line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasachoff, J., M.

    1971-01-01

    Individual K-line profiles from elements of fine structure on the surface of the sun are calibrated absolutely. The continuum calibrations of Labs and Neckel and of Houtgast and Namba are considered, and the average K-profile is scaled to that of White and Suemoto. The ranges of intensities across a high-resolution spectrogram are tabulated for various parts of the line profile. Although the spatially-averaged value for K3 of 4.2% of the continuum corresponds to a brightness temperature of 4155 deg K, minimum and maximum values were 3980 and 4360 K, respectively. Similarly, K2v ranges from 4200 to 4560 K, and K2r from 4180 to 4460 K in small elements about 1 arc sec across.

  10. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  11. Absolute calibration of the EnviSat-1 radar altimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Monica; Francis, Richard

    1998-12-01

    The EnviSat-1 satellite will embark an innovative radar altimeter. The calibration of the measurements of range from this instrument will be performed using novel techniques. The range measurement will be calibrated absolutely by establishing the actual geocentric sea-level along the sub- satellite tracks. These tracks are located in a limited and well-controlled region in the western Mediterranean and will include a number of fully-equipped individual sites which will provide higher confidence in the overall analysis, combined with data from the whole area at lower weight. The determination of the geocentric sea-level is performed using tide gauges and geodetic means such as leveling and floating GPS receivers. The altimeter sea-level is derived from the altimeter range corrected for propagation effects and sea- state bias, and a precise restitution of the trajectory of the satellite. These measurements comprise three vectors: range, orbital height and sea-surface height. The difference between orbital-height minus range, and sea-surface height provides the bias. The backscatter coefficient measured by previous altimeters has not been absolutely calibrated. An emerging application of the RA-2 in investigation of surface properties has identified the need to perform this calibration. A number of techniques are under study to determine the feasibility of meeting this need, including the use of well-controlled natural targets, the use of the altimeter receiver as a passive radiometer in order to determine its gain and the use of a transponder to return a precisely known return echo power to the radar.

  12. Absolute dose verifications in small photon fields using BANGTM gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheib, S. G.; Schenkel, Y.; Gianolini, S.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters change their magnetic resonance (MR) and optical properties with the absorbed dose when irradiated and are suitable for narrow photon beam dosimetry in radiosurgery. Such dosimeters enable relative and absolute 3D dose verifications in order to check the entire treatment chain from imaging to dose application during commissioning and quality assurance. For absolute 3D dose verifications in radiosurgery using Gamma Knife B, commercially available BANGTM Gels (BANG 25 Gy and BANG 3 Gy) together with dedicated phantoms were chosen in order to determine the potential of absolute gel dosimetry in radiosurgery.

  13. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  14. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübcke, P.; Bobrowski, N.; Illing, S.; Kern, C.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Vogel, L.; Zielcke, J.; Delgado Granados, H.; Platt, U.

    2012-09-01

    Sulphur dioxide emission flux measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic emissions by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 305 nm and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. While this approach is simple and delivers valuable insights into the two-dimensional SO2 distribution, absolute calibration has proven to be difficult. An accurate calibration of the SO2 camera (i.e., conversion from optical density to SO2 column density, CD) is crucial to obtain correct SO2 CDs and flux measurements that are comparable to other measurement techniques and can be used for volcanological applications. The most common approach for calibrating SO2 camera measurements is based on inserting quartz cells (cuvettes) containing known amounts of SO2 into the light path. It has been found, however, that reflections from the windows of the calibration cell can considerably affect the signal measured by the camera. Another possibility for calibration relies on performing simultaneous measurements in a small area of the camera's field-of-view (FOV) by a narrow-field-of-view Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (NFOV-DOAS) system. This procedure combines the very good spatial and temporal resolution of the SO2 camera technique with the more accurate column densities obtainable from DOAS measurements. This work investigates the uncertainty of results gained through the two commonly used, but quite different calibration methods (DOAS and calibration cells). Measurements with three different instruments, an SO2 camera, a NFOV-DOAS system and an Imaging DOAS (IDOAS), are presented. We compare the calibration-cell approach with the calibration from the NFOV-DOAS system. The respective

  15. Absolute calibration of Apollo lunar orbital mass spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, P. R.; Smith, A.; Jackson, J. J.; Hoffman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Recent experiments were conducted in Langley Research Center's molecular beam system to perform an absolute calibration of the lunar orbital mass spectrometer which was flown on the Apollo 15 and 16 missions. Tests were performed with several models of the instrument using two test gases, argon and neon, in the 1 ntorr to .1 picotorr range. Sensitivity to argon at spacecraft orbital velocity was .00028 A/torr enabling partial pressures in the .01-picotorr range to be measured at the spacecraft altitude. Neon sensitivity was nearly a factor of 5 less. Test data support the feasibility of using the lunar orbital mass spectrometer as a tool to gather information about the lunar atmosphere.

  16. Absolute Calibration of Optical Satellite Sensors Using Libya 4 Pseudo Invariant Calibration Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, Nischal; Helder, Dennis; Angal, Amit; Choi, Jason; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the improvements in an empirical absolute calibration model developed at South Dakota State University using Libya 4 (+28.55 deg, +23.39 deg) pseudo invariant calibration site (PICS). The approach was based on use of the Terra MODIS as the radiometer to develop an absolute calibration model for the spectral channels covered by this instrument from visible to shortwave infrared. Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion, with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, was used to extend the model to cover visible and near-infrared regions. A simple Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution function (BRDF) model was generated using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations over Libya 4 and the resulting model was validated with nadir data acquired from satellite sensors such as Aqua MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). The improvements in the absolute calibration model to account for the BRDF due to off-nadir measurements and annual variations in the atmosphere are summarized. BRDF models due to off-nadir viewing angles have been derived using the measurements from EO-1 Hyperion. In addition to L7 ETM+, measurements from other sensors such as Aqua MODIS, UK-2 Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), ENVISAT Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard Landsat 8 (L8), which was launched in February 2013, were employed to validate the model. These satellite sensors differ in terms of the width of their spectral bandpasses, overpass time, off-nadir-viewing capabilities, spatial resolution and temporal revisit time, etc. The results demonstrate that the proposed empirical calibration model has accuracy of the order of 3% with an uncertainty of about 2% for the sensors used in the study.

  17. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Absolute Calibration of Stellar Spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The machine-readable data file of The Absolute Calibration of Stellar Spectrophotometry as distributed by the Astronomical Data Center is described. The data file contains the absolute fluxes for 16 stars published in Tables 1 and 2 of Johnson (1980). The absolute calibrations were accomplished by combining the 13-color photometry calibrations of Johnson and Mitchell (1975) with spectra obtained with a Michelson spectrophotometer and covering the wavelength range 4000 to 10300 A (Johnson 1977). The agreement between this absolute calibration and another recent one based upon data for a Lyr and 109 Vir by Tug, White and Lockwood (1977) is shown by Johnson (1980) to be quite good.

  18. Alignment and absolute wavelength calibration of imaging Bragg spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertschinger, G.; Marchuk, O.; Barnsley, R.

    2016-11-01

    In the present and the next generation of fusion devices, imaging Bragg spectrometers are key diagnostics to measure plasma parameters in the hot core, especially ion temperature and plasma rotation. The latter quantities are routinely obtained using the Doppler-width and -shift of the emitted spectral lines, respectively. Line shift measurements require absolute accuracies Δλ/λ of about 10 ppm, where λ-is the observed wavelength. For ITER and the present fusion devices, spectral lines of He-and H-like argon, iron, and krypton as well as Ne-like tungsten are foreseen for the measurements. For these lines, Kα lines can be found, some in higher order, which fit into the narrow energy window of the spectrometers. For arbitrary wavelength settings, Kα lines are also used to measure the miscut of the spherical crystals; afterwards the spectrometers can be set according to the geometrical imaging properties using coordinate measurement machines. For the spectrometers measuring Lyα lines of H-like ions, fluorescence targets can provide in situ localized calibration lines on the spectra. The fluorescence targets are used best in transmission and are excited by the thermal x-ray radiation of the plasma. An analytic theory of fluorescence is worked out.

  19. Methods to calibrate the absolute receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers.

    PubMed

    Rich, Kyle T; Mast, T Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Absolute pressure measurements of acoustic emissions by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the absolute, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the absolute pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here.

  20. [Study on the absolute spectral irradiation calibration method for far ultraviolet spectrometer in remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Lin, Guan-Yu; Chen, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper studied spectral irradiation responsivities calibration method which can be applied to the far ultraviolet spectrometer for upper atmosphere remote sensing. It is difficult to realize the calibration for far ultraviolet spectrometer for many reasons. Standard instruments for far ultraviolet waveband calibration are few, the degree of the vacuum experiment system is required to be high, the stabilities of the experiment are hardly maintained, and the limitation of the far ultraviolet waveband makes traditional diffuser and the integrating sphere radiance calibration method difficult to be used. To solve these problems, a new absolute spectral irradiance calibration method was studied, which can be applied to the far ultraviolet calibration. We build a corresponding special vacuum experiment system to verify the calibration method. The light source system consists of a calibrated deuterium lamp, a vacuum ultraviolet monochromater and a collimating system. We used the calibrated detector to obtain the irradiance responsivities of it. The three instruments compose the calibration irradiance source. We used the "calibration irradiance source" to illuminate the spectrometer prototype and obtained the spectral irradiance responsivities. It realized the absolute spectral irradiance calibration for the far ultraviolet spectrometer utilizing the calibrated detector. The absolute uncertainty of the calibration is 7.7%. The method is significant for the ground irradiation calibration of the far ultraviolet spectrometer in upper atmosphere remote sensing.

  1. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters.

  2. Absolute Calibration Accuracy for Hyperspectral Imagers in the Solar Reflective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis

    2009-01-01

    The characterization and calibration of hyperspectral imagers is a challenging one that is expected to become even more challenging as needs increase for highly-accurate radiometric data from such systems. The preflight calibration of the Advanced Responsive Tactically Effective Military Imaging Spectrometer (ARTEMIS) is used as an example of the difficulties to calibrate hyperspectrally. Results from a preflight solar radiation-based calibration are presented with a discussion of the uncertainties in such a method including the NISI-traceable and SItraceable aspects. Expansion on the concept of solar-based calibration is given with descriptions of methods that view the solar disk directly, illuminate a solar diffuser that is part of the sensor's inflight calibration, and illuminate an external diffuser that is imaged by the sensor. The results of error analysis show that it is feasible to achieve preflight calibration using the sun as a source at the same level of uncertainty as those of lamp-based approaches. The error analysis is evaluated and verified through the solar-radiation-based calibration of several of laboratory grade radiometers. Application of these approaches to NASA's upcoming CLARREO mission are discussed including proposed methods for significantly reducing the uncertainties to allow CLARREO data to be used for climate data records.

  3. Absolute Calibration Accuracy for Hyperspectral Imagers in the Solar Reflective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis

    2009-01-01

    The characterization and calibration of hyperspectral imagers is a challenging one that is expected to become even more challenging as needs increase for highly-accurate radiometric data from such systems. The preflight calibration of the Advanced Responsive Tactically Effective Military Imaging Spectrometer (ARTEMIS) is used as an example of the difficulties to calibrate hyperspectrally. Results from a preflight solar radiation-based calibration are presented with a discussion of the uncertainties in such a method including the NISI-traceable and SItraceable aspects. Expansion on the concept of solar-based calibration is given with descriptions of methods that view the solar disk directly, illuminate a solar diffuser that is part of the sensor's inflight calibration, and illuminate an external diffuser that is imaged by the sensor. The results of error analysis show that it is feasible to achieve preflight calibration using the sun as a source at the same level of uncertainty as those of lamp-based approaches. The error analysis is evaluated and verified through the solar-radiation-based calibration of several of laboratory grade radiometers. Application of these approaches to NASA's upcoming CLARREO mission are discussed including proposed methods for significantly reducing the uncertainties to allow CLARREO data to be used for climate data records.

  4. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lübcke, Peter; Bobrowski, Nicole; Illing, Sebastian; Kern, Christoph; Alvarez Nieves, Jose Manuel; Vogel, Leif; Zielcke, Johannes; Delgados Granados, Hugo; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the uncertainty of results gained through the two commonly used, but quite different, calibration methods (DOAS and calibration cells). Measurements with three different instruments, an SO2 camera, a NFOVDOAS system and an Imaging DOAS (I-DOAS), are presented. We compare the calibration-cell approach with the calibration from the NFOV-DOAS system. The respective results are compared with measurements from an I-DOAS to verify the calibration curve over the spatial extent of the image. The results show that calibration cells, while working fine in some cases, can lead to an overestimation of the SO2 CD by up to 60% compared with CDs from the DOAS measurements. Besides these errors of calibration, radiative transfer effects (e.g. light dilution, multiple scattering) can significantly influence the results of both instrument types. The measurements presented in this work were taken at Popocatepetl, Mexico, between 1 March 2011 and 4 March 2011. Average SO2 emission rates between 4.00 and 14.34 kg s−1 were observed.

  5. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.

    2012-10-15

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  6. Quantum Efficient Detectors for Use in Absolute Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, Jessica; Eastwood, Michael; Pavri, Betina; Raney, James

    1998-01-01

    The trap or quantum efficient detector has a quantum efficiency of greater than 0.98 for the region from 450 to 900 nm. The region of flattest response is from 600 to 900 nm. The QED consists of three windowless Hamamatsu silicon detectors. The QED was mounted below AVIRIS to monitor the Spectralon panel for changes in radiance during radiometric calibration. The next step is to permanently mount the detector to AVIRIS and monitor the overall radiance of scenes along with calibration.

  7. Quantum Efficient Detectors for Use in Absolute Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, Jessica; Eastwood, Michael; Pavri, Betina; Raney, James

    1998-01-01

    The trap or quantum efficient detector has a quantum efficiency of greater than 0.98 for the region from 450 to 900 nm. The region of flattest response is from 600 to 900 nm. The QED consists of three windowless Hamamatsu silicon detectors. The QED was mounted below AVIRIS to monitor the Spectralon panel for changes in radiance during radiometric calibration. The next step is to permanently mount the detector to AVIRIS and monitor the overall radiance of scenes along with calibration.

  8. Pretreatment verification of IMRT absolute dose distributions using a commercial a-Si EPID

    SciTech Connect

    Talamonti, C.; Casati, M.; Bucciolini, M.

    2006-11-15

    A commercial amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been studied to investigate its potential in the field of pretreatment verifications of step and shoot, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 6 MV photon beams. The EPID was calibrated to measure absolute exit dose in a water-equivalent phantom at patient level, following an experimental approach, which does not require sophisticated calculation algorithms. The procedure presented was specifically intended to replace the time-consuming in-phantom film dosimetry. The dosimetric response was characterized on the central axis in terms of stability, linearity, and pulse repetition frequency dependence. The a-Si EPID demonstrated a good linearity with dose (within 2% from 1 monitor unit), which represent a prerequisite for the application in IMRT. A series of measurements, in which phantom thickness, air gap between the phantom and the EPID, field size and position of measurement of dose in the phantom (entrance or exit) varied, was performed to find the optimal calibration conditions, for which the field size dependence is minimized. In these conditions (20 cm phantom thickness, 56 cm air gap, exit dose measured at the isocenter), the introduction of a filter for the low-energy scattered radiation allowed us to define a universal calibration factor, independent of field size. The off-axis extension of the dose calibration was performed by applying a radial correction for the beam profile, distorted due to the standard flood field calibration of the device. For the acquisition of IMRT fields, it was necessary to employ home-made software and a specific procedure. This method was applied for the measurement of the dose distributions for 15 clinical IMRT fields. The agreement between the dose distributions, quantified by the gamma index, was found, on average, in 97.6% and 98.3% of the analyzed points for EPID versus TPS and for EPID versus FILM, respectively, thus suggesting a great

  9. Simple and accurate empirical absolute volume calibration of a multi-sensor fringe projection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gdeisat, Munther; Qudeisat, Mohammad; AlSa`d, Mohammed; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Ammous, Marwan M. M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper suggests a novel absolute empirical calibration method for a multi-sensor fringe projection system. The optical setup of the projector-camera sensor can be arbitrary. The term absolute calibration here means that the centre of the three dimensional coordinates in the resultant calibrated volume coincides with a preset centre to the three-dimensional real-world coordinate system. The use of a zero-phase fringe marking spot is proposed to increase depth calibration accuracy, where the spot centre is determined with sub-pixel accuracy. Also, a new method is proposed for transversal calibration. Depth and transversal calibration methods have been tested using both single sensor and three-sensor fringe projection systems. The standard deviation of the error produced by this system is 0.25 mm. The calibrated volume produced by this method is 400 mm×400 mm×140 mm.

  10. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The need for independent, redundant absolute radiometric calibration methods is discussed with reference to the Thematic Mapper. Uncertainty requirements for absolute calibration of between 0.5 and 4 percent are defined based on the accuracy of reflectance retrievals at an agricultural site. It is shown that even very approximate atmospheric corrections can reduce the error in reflectance retrieval to 0.02 over the reflectance range 0 to 0.4.

  11. On the absolute calibration of SO2 cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübcke, P.; Bobrowski, N.; Illing, S.; Kern, C.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Vogel, L.; Zielcke, J.; Delgado Granados, H.; Platt, U.

    2013-03-01

    Sulphur dioxide emission rate measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic emissions by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 300 and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. One important step for correct SO2 emission rate measurements that can be compared with other measurement techniques is a correct calibration. This requires conversion from the measured optical density to the desired SO2 column density (CD). The conversion factor is most commonly determined by inserting quartz cells (cuvettes) with known amounts of SO2 into the light path. Another calibration method uses an additional narrow field-of-view Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy system (NFOV-DOAS), which measures the column density simultaneously in a small area of the camera's field-of-view. This procedure combines the very good spatial and temporal resolution of the SO2 camera technique with the more accurate column densities obtainable from DOAS measurements. This work investigates the uncertainty of results gained through the two commonly used, but quite different, calibration methods (DOAS and calibration cells). Measurements with three different instruments, an SO2 camera, a NFOV-DOAS system and an Imaging DOAS (I-DOAS), are presented. We compare the calibration-cell approach with the calibration from the NFOV-DOAS system. The respective results are compared with measurements from an I-DOAS to verify the calibration curve over the spatial extent of the image. The results show that calibration cells, while working fine in some cases, can lead to an overestimation of the SO2 CD by up to 60% compared with CDs from the DOAS measurements. Besides these errors of calibration, radiative transfer

  12. Absolute calibration of fusion gamma ray detector on TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Cecil, F. E.

    1992-10-01

    An in situ measurement of the absolute detection efficiency of the fusion gamma ray detector on TFTR has been completed. The efficiency was determined by measuring the yield of the 4.44 MeV gamma ray from a plutonium-berrylium source situated within the vacuum vessel. The absolute detection efficiency at 4.44 MeV is extended to higher energies using the known energy dependence of the gamma ray attenuation coefficients in the vessel port cover, the detector neutron moderator, and the scintillator. The absolute detection efficiency (full energy peak detected gamma rays per source gamma ray) varies from 8.6E-9 at 4.44 MeV to 1.1E-8 at 17 MeV and is insensitive at the few percent level to relatively large variations in the radial profile of the gamma ray source distribution in the plasma. The absolute detection efficiency is used to determine the total d-3He reaction rate during recent deuterium neutral beam heated 3He plasmas on TFTR.

  13. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapp, J. V.; Warrington, A. P.; Partridge, M.; Philps, A.; Leach, M. O.; Webb, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry.

  14. First Absolutely Calibrated Localized Measurements of Ion Velocity in the MST in Locked and Rotating Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Munaretto, S.

    2015-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used on MST for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometer records data within 0.3 nm of the C+5 line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . A novel optical system was designed to absolutely calibrate the IDS. The device uses an UV LED to produce a broad emission curve in the desired region. A Fabry-Perot etalon filters this light, cutting transmittance peaks into the pattern of the LED emission. An optical train of fused silica lenses focuses the light into the IDS with f/4. A holographic diffuser blurs the light cone to increase homogeneity. Using this light source, the absolute Doppler shift of ion emissions can be measured in MST plasmas. In combination with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, localized ion velocities can now be measured. Previously, a time-averaged measurement along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was used to calibrate the IDS; the quality of these central chord calibrations can be characterized with our absolute calibration. Calibration errors may also be quantified and minimized by optimizing the curve-fitting process. Preliminary measurements of toroidal velocity in locked and rotating plasmas will be shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE.

  15. Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of the reflective bands on the LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the absolute radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper, as determined during pre-launch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere, are presented. Detailed results for the best calibration of the protoflight TM are given, as well as summaries of other tests performed on the sensor. The dynamic range of the TM is within a few per cent of that required in all bands, except bands 1 and 3. Three detectors failed to pass the minimum SNR specified for their respective bands: band 5, channel 3 (dead), band 2, and channels 2 and 4 (noisy or slow response). Estimates of the absolute calibration accuracy for the TM show that the detectors are typically calibrated to 5% absolute error for the reflective bands; 10% full-scale accuracy was specified. Ten tests performed to transfer the detector absolute calibration to the internal calibrator show a 5% range at full scale in the transfer calibration; however, in two cases band 5 showed a 10% and a 7% difference.

  16. Absolute dose determination in high-energy electron beams: Comparison of IAEA dosimetry protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sathiyan, S.; Ravikumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, absorbed doses were measured and compared for high-energy electrons (6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV) using International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Technical Reports Series No. 277 (TRS), TRS 381, and TRS 398 dosimetry protocols. Absolute dose measurements were carried out using FC65-G Farmer chamber and Nordic Association of Clinical Physicists (NACP) parallel plate chamber with DOSE1 electrometer in WP1-D water phantom for reference field size of 15 × 15 cm2 at 100 cm source-to-surface distance. The results show that the difference between TRS 398 and TRS 381 was about 0.24% to 1.3% depending upon the energy, and the maximum difference between TRS 398 and TRS 277 was 1.5%. The use of cylindrical chamber in electron beam gives the maximum dose difference between the TRS 398 and TRS 277 in the order of 1.4% for energies above 10 MeV (R50 > 4 g/cm2). It was observed that the accuracy of dose estimation was better with the protocols based on the water calibration procedures, as no conversion quantities are involved for conversion of dose from air to water. The cross-calibration procedure of parallel plate chamber with high-energy electron beams is recommended as it avoids pwall correction factor entering into the determination of kQ,Qo. PMID:19893700

  17. Absolutely calibrated soft-X-ray streak camera for laser-fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, R. L.; Medecki, H.; Stradling, G.

    1982-05-01

    The intensity output of a soft-X-ray stream camera was calibrated (SXRSC) in order to make absolute flux measurements of X rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas. The SXRSC developed at LLNL is used to time-resolve X-ray pulses to better than 20 ps. The SXRSC uses a Au photocathode on a thin carbon substrate which is sensitive to X-rays from 100 eV to greater than 10 keV. Calibrations are done in the dynamic mode using a small laser-produced X-ray source. The SXRSC is calibrated by comparing its integrated signal to the output of calibrated X-ray diodes monitoring the source strength. The measured SXRSC response is linear over greater than two orders of magnitude. Using these calibrations, absolute intensities can be measured to an accuracy of + -30%.

  18. Absolutely Calibrated Soft X-Ray Streak Camera For Laser Fusion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Robert L.; Stradling, Gary; Medecki, Hector

    1983-03-01

    We have calibrated, the intensity output of a soft x ray streak camera (SXRSC) in order to make absolute flux measurements of x rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas. The SXRSC developed at LLNL is used to time-resolve x-ray pulses to better than 20 ps. The SXRSC uses a Au photocathode on a thin carbon substrate which is sensitive to x rays from 100 eV to greater than 10 keV. Calibrations are done in the dynamic mode using a small laser-produced x-ray source. The SXRSC is calibrated by comparing its integrated signal to the output of calibrated x-ray diodes monitoring the source strength. The measured SXRSC response is linear over greater than two orders of magnitude. Using these calibrations, absolute intensities can be measured to an accuracy of +30%."

  19. Absolutely calibrated soft-x-ray streak camera for laser-fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.L.; Medecki, H.; Stradling, G.

    1982-01-01

    The intensity output of a soft-x-ray streak camera was calibrated (SXRSC) in order to make absolute flux measurements of x rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas. The SXRSC developed at LLNL is used to time-resolve x-ray pulses to better than 20 ps. The SXRSC uses a Au photocathode on a thin carbon substrate which is sensitive to x rays from 100 eV to greater than 10 keV. Calibrations are done in the dynamic mode using a small laser-produced x-ray source. The SXRSC is calibrated by comparing its integrated signal to the output of calibrated x-ray diodes monitoring the source strength. The measured SXRSC response is linear over greater than two orders of magnitude. Using these calibrations, absolute intensities can be measured to an accuracy of +-30%.

  20. A Laser Frequency Comb System for Absolute Calibration of the VTT Echelle Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, H.-P.; Steinmetz, T.; Holzwarth, R.; Kentischer, T.; Schmidt, W.

    2012-10-01

    A wavelength calibration system based on a laser frequency comb (LFC) was developed in a co-operation between the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Freiburg, Germany and the Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany for permanent installation at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife, Canary Islands. The system was installed successfully in October 2011. By simultaneously recording the spectra from the Sun and the LFC, for each exposure a calibration curve can be derived from the known frequencies of the comb modes that is suitable for absolute calibration at the meters per second level. We briefly summarize some topics in solar physics that benefit from absolute spectroscopy and point out the advantages of LFC compared to traditional calibration techniques. We also sketch the basic setup of the VTT calibration system and its integration with the existing echelle spectrograph.

  1. Calibration of the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Barnes, Robert; Baize, Rosemary; O'Connell, Joseph; Hair, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar instrument retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a calibration approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The calibration is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based calibration standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory calibration including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements.

  2. Absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for tokamak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirlet, R.; Schwob, J. L.; Meyer, O.; Vartanian, S.

    2017-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet spectrometer installed on the Tore Supra tokamak has been calibrated in absolute units of brightness in the range 10-340 Å. This has been performed by means of a combination of techniques. The range 10-113 Å was absolutely calibrated by using an ultrasoft-X ray source emitting six spectral lines in this range. The calibration transfer to the range 113-182 Å was performed using the spectral line intensity branching ratio method. The range 182-340 Å was calibrated thanks to radiative-collisional modelling of spectral line intensity ratios. The maximum sensitivity of the spectrometer was found to lie around 100 Å. Around this wavelength, the sensitivity is fairly flat in a 80 Å wide interval. The spatial variations of sensitivity along the detector assembly were also measured. The observed trend is related to the quantum efficiency decrease as the angle of the incoming photon trajectories becomes more grazing.

  3. Artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques employed in the Landsat 7 image assessment system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boncyk, Wayne C.; Markham, Brian L.; Barker, John L.; Helder, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    The Landsat-7 Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the Landsat-7 Ground System, will calibrate and evaluate the radiometric and geometric performance of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) instrument. The IAS incorporates new instrument radiometric artifact correction and absolute radiometric calibration techniques which overcome some limitations to calibration accuracy inherent in historical calibration methods. Knowledge of ETM + instrument characteristics gleaned from analysis of archival Thematic Mapper in-flight data and from ETM + prelaunch tests allow the determination and quantification of the sources of instrument artifacts. This a priori knowledge will be utilized in IAS algorithms designed to minimize the effects of the noise sources before calibration, in both ETM + image and calibration data.

  4. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  5. Vicarious absolute radiometric calibration of GF-2 PMS2 sensor using permanent artificial targets in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaokai; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Ning; Qian, Yonggang; Tang, Lingli

    2016-10-01

    GF-2, launched on August 19 2014, is one of the high-resolution land resource observing satellite of the China GF series satellites plan. The radiometric performance evaluation of the onboard optical pan and multispectral (PMS2) sensor of GF-2 satellite is very important for the further application of the data. And, the vicarious absolute radiometric calibration approach is one of the most useful way to monitor the radiometric performance of the onboard optical sensors. In this study, the traditional reflectance-based method is used to vicarious radiometrically calibrate the onboard PMS2 sensor of GF-2 satellite using three black, gray and white reflected permanent artificial targets located in the AOE Baotou site in China. Vicarious field calibration campaign were carried out in the AOE-Baotou calibration site on 22 April 2016. And, the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients were determined with in situ measured atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance of the permanent artificial calibration targets. The predicted TOA radiance of a selected desert area with our determined calibrated coefficients were compared with the official distributed calibration coefficients. Comparison results show a good consistent and the mean relative difference of the multispectral channels is less than 5%. Uncertainty analysis was also carried out and a total uncertainty with 3.87% is determined of the TOA radiance.

  6. Pre-Launch Absolute Calibration of CCD/CBERS-2B Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Flávio Jorge; Albuquerque, Bráulio Fonseca Carneiro

    2008-10-23

    Pre-launch absolute calibration coefficients for the CCD/CBERS-2B sensor have been calculated from radiometric measurements performed in a satellite integration and test hall in the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) headquarters, located in Beijing, China. An illuminated integrating sphere was positioned in the test hall facilities to allow the CCD/CBERS-2B imagery of the entire sphere aperture. Calibration images were recorded and a relative calibration procedure adopted exclusively in Brazil was applied to equalize the detectors responses. Averages of digital numbers (DN) from these images were determined and correlated to their respective radiance levels in order to calculate the absolute calibration coefficients. It has been the first time these pre-launch absolute calibration coefficients have been calculated considering the Brazilian image processing criteria. Now it will be possible to compare them to those that will be calculated from vicarious calibration campaigns. This comparison will permit the CCD/CBERS-2B monitoring and the frequently data updating to the user community.

  7. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

  8. A new method to calibrate the absolute sensitivity of a soft X-ray streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; Liu, Shenye; Li, Jin; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Ming; Guo, Luting; Yao, Li; Xiao, Shali

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new method to calibrate the absolute sensitivity of a soft X-ray streak camera (SXRSC). The calibrations are done in the static mode by using a small laser-produced X-ray source. A calibrated X-ray CCD is used as a secondary standard detector to monitor the X-ray source intensity. In addition, two sets of holographic flat-field grating spectrometers are chosen as the spectral discrimination systems of the SXRSC and the X-ray CCD. The absolute sensitivity of the SXRSC is obtained by comparing the signal counts of the SXRSC to the output counts of the X-ray CCD. Results show that the calibrated spectrum covers the range from 200 eV to 1040 eV. The change of the absolute sensitivity in the vicinity of the K-edge of the carbon can also be clearly seen. The experimental values agree with the calculated values to within 29% error. Compared with previous calibration methods, the proposed method has several advantages: a wide spectral range, high accuracy, and simple data processing. Our calibration results can be used to make quantitative X-ray flux measurements in laser fusion research.

  9. Pre-Launch Absolute Calibration of CCD/CBERS-2B Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ponzoni, Flávio Jorge; Albuquerque, Bráulio Fonseca Carneiro

    2008-01-01

    Pre-launch absolute calibration coefficients for the CCD/CBERS-2B sensor have been calculated from radiometric measurements performed in a satellite integration and test hall in the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) headquarters, located in Beijing, China. An illuminated integrating sphere was positioned in the test hall facilities to allow the CCD/CBERS-2B imagery of the entire sphere aperture. Calibration images were recorded and a relative calibration procedure adopted exclusively in Brazil was applied to equalize the detectors responses. Averages of digital numbers (DN) from these images were determined and correlated to their respective radiance levels in order to calculate the absolute calibration coefficients. It has been the first time these pre-launch absolute calibration coefficients have been calculated considering the Brazilian image processing criteria. Now it will be possible to compare them to those that will be calculated from vicarious calibration campaigns. This comparison will permit the CCD/CBERS-2B monitoring and the frequently data updating to the user community. PMID:27873886

  10. Glassy carbon as an absolute intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Ilavsky, J.; Long, G.; Allen, A.; Quintana, J.; Jemian, P.; NIST

    2010-05-01

    Absolute calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering cross section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, absolute intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for absolute intensity calibration of SAS data.

  11. Image plate characterization and absolute calibration to low kilo-electron-volt electrons.

    PubMed

    Busold, S; Philipp, K; Otten, A; Roth, M

    2014-11-01

    We report on the characterization of an image plate and its absolute calibration to electrons in the low keV energy range (1-30 keV). In our case, an Agfa MD4.0 without protection layer was used in combination with a Fuji FLA7000 scanner. The calibration data are compared to other published data and a consistent picture of the sensitivity of image plates to electrons is obtained, which suggests a validity of the obtained calibration up to 100 keV.

  12. Image plate characterization and absolute calibration to low kilo-electron-volt electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busold, S.; Philipp, K.; Otten, A.; Roth, M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on the characterization of an image plate and its absolute calibration to electrons in the low keV energy range (1-30 keV). In our case, an Agfa MD4.0 without protection layer was used in combination with a Fuji FLA7000 scanner. The calibration data are compared to other published data and a consistent picture of the sensitivity of image plates to electrons is obtained, which suggests a validity of the obtained calibration up to 100 keV.

  13. Image plate characterization and absolute calibration to low kilo-electron-volt electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Busold, S.; Philipp, K.; Otten, A.; Roth, M.

    2014-11-15

    We report on the characterization of an image plate and its absolute calibration to electrons in the low keV energy range (1–30 keV). In our case, an Agfa MD4.0 without protection layer was used in combination with a Fuji FLA7000 scanner. The calibration data are compared to other published data and a consistent picture of the sensitivity of image plates to electrons is obtained, which suggests a validity of the obtained calibration up to 100 keV.

  14. Absolute flux density calibrations of radio sources: 2.3 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freiley, A. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Bathker, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed description of a NASA/JPL Deep Space Network program to improve S-band gain calibrations of large aperture antennas is reported. The program is considered unique in at least three ways; first, absolute gain calibrations of high quality suppressed-sidelobe dual mode horns first provide a high accuracy foundation to the foundation to the program. Second, a very careful transfer calibration technique using an artificial far-field coherent-wave source was used to accurately obtain the gain of one large (26 m) aperture. Third, using the calibrated large aperture directly, the absolute flux density of five selected galactic and extragalactic natural radio sources was determined with an absolute accuracy better than 2 percent, now quoted at the familiar 1 sigma confidence level. The follow-on considerations to apply these results to an operational network of ground antennas are discussed. It is concluded that absolute gain accuracies within + or - 0.30 to 0.40 db are possible, depending primarily on the repeatability (scatter) in the field data from Deep Space Network user stations.

  15. Possibility of absolute calibration of analog detectors by using parametric downconversion: a systematic study

    SciTech Connect

    Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco; Ruo-Berchera, Ivano; Chekhova, Maria; Penin, Alexander

    2006-10-15

    Prompted by the need for various studies ranging from quantum information to foundations of quantum mechanics, we systematically study the possibility of the absolute calibration of analog photodetectors based on the properties of parametric amplifiers. Our results show that such a method can be effectively developed with interesting possible applications in metrology.

  16. New PTB Setup for the Absolute Calibration of the Spectral Responsivity of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhalt, K.; Zelenjuk, A.; Taubert, D. R.; Keawprasert, T.; Hartmann, J.

    2009-02-01

    The paper describes the new experimental setup assembled at the PTB for the absolute spectral responsivity measurement of radiation thermometers. The concept of this setup is to measure the relative spectral responsivity of the radiation thermometer using the conventional monochromator-based spectral comparator facility also used for the calibration of filter radiometers. The absolute spectral responsivity is subsequently measured at one wavelength, supplied by the radiation of a diode laser, using the new setup. The radiation of the diode laser is guided with an optical fiber into an integrating sphere source that is equipped with an aperture of absolutely known area. The spectral radiance of this integrating sphere source is determined via the spectral irradiance measured by a trap detector with an absolutely calibrated spectral responsivity traceable to the primary detector standard of the PTB, the cryogenic radiometer. First results of the spectral responsivity calibration of the radiation thermometer LP3 are presented, and a provisional uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity is given.

  17. A new determination of the Geneva photometric passbands and their absolute calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufener, F.; Nicolet, B.

    The consensus regarding the absolute calibrations of the spectra of alpha Lyr and subdwarfs provoked a revision of the calibration of the Geneva photometric system passbands. The alterations made to the earlier version by Rufener and Maeder (1971) are smaller than plus or minus -5 percent. The new response functions are presented in tabular form for an equiphotonic flux. An absolute spectrophotometric adjustment allows to obtain for each entry of the Geneva catalog (28,000 stars) a corresponding spectrophotometric description in SI units. The definition and the means of computing the necessary quasi-isophotal frequencies or wavelengths are given. The coherence of the Geneva catalog with several sets of absolute spectrophotometric data is examined. A correction for the entire Gunn and Stryker (1983) catalog is proposed.

  18. Absolute calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer using a stabilized laser and a cryogenic cavity radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauniskis, L.; Foukal, P.; Kochling, H.

    1992-01-01

    We carry out the calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer by using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer and intensity-stabilized laser sources. A comparison of the error budgets for the laser-based calibration described here and for a calibration using a type-FEL tungsten spectral-irradiance standard indicates that this technique could provide an improvement of a factor of about three in the uncertainty of the spectrometer calibration, resulting in an absolute accuracy (standard deviation of three) of about 1 percent at 257 nm. The technique described here might significantly improve the accuracy of calibrations on NASA ozone-monitoring and solar ultraviolet-monitoring spectrophotometers when used to complement present procedures that employ lamps and the SURF II synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  19. Absolute calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer using a stabilized laser and a cryogenic cavity radiometer.

    PubMed

    Jauniskis, L; Foukal, P; Kochling, H

    1992-09-20

    We carry out the calibration of an ultraviolet spectrometer by using a cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer and intensity-stabilized laser sources. A comparison of the error budgets for the laser-based calibration described here and for a calibration using a type-FEL tungsten spectral-irradiance standard indicates that this technique could provide an improvement of a factor of ~3 in the uncertainty of the spectrometer calibration, resulting in an absolute accuracy (standard deviation of 3) of ~1% at 257 nm. The technique described here might significantly improve the accuracy of calibrations on NASA ozone-monitoring and solar ultraviolet-monitoring spectrophotometers when used to complement present procedures that employ lamps and the SURF II synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  20. Radiochromic film calibration for low-energy seed brachytherapy dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Hali; Menon, Geetha; Sloboda, Ron S

    2014-07-01

    Radiochromic film dosimetry is typically performed for high energy photons and moderate doses characterizing external beam radiotherapy (XRT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of previously established film calibration procedures used in XRT when applied to low-energy, seed-based brachytherapy at higher doses, and to determine necessary modifications to achieve similar accuracy in absolute dose measurements. Gafchromic EBT3 film was used to measure radiation doses upwards of 35 Gy from 75 kVp, 200 kVp, 6 MV, and (∼28 keV) I-125 photon sources. For the latter irradiations a custom phantom was built to hold a single I-125 seed. Film pieces were scanned with an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner and the resulting 48-bit RGB TIFF images were analyzed using both FilmQA Pro software andMATLAB. Calibration curves relating dose and optical density via a rational functional form for all three color channels at each irradiation energy were determined with and without the inclusion of uncertainties in the measured optical densities and dose values. The accuracy of calibration curve variations obtained using piecewise fitting, a reduced film measurement area for I-125 irradiation, and a reduced number of dose levels was also investigated. The energy dependence of the film lot used was also analyzed by calculating normalized optical density values. Slight differences were found in the resulting calibration curves for the various fitting methods used. The accuracy of the calibration curves was found to improve at low doses and worsen at high doses when including uncertainties in optical densities and doses, which may better represent the variability that could be seen in film optical density measurements. When exposing the films to doses > 8 Gy, two-segment piecewise fitting was found to be necessary to achieve similar accuracies in absolute dose measurements as when using smaller dose ranges. When reducing the film measurement area for the I-125

  1. Absolute x-ray energy calibration and monitoring using a diffraction-based method

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Xinguo Weidner, Donald J.; Duffy, Thomas S.; Ehm, Lars

    2016-07-27

    In this paper, we report some recent developments of the diffraction-based absolute X-ray energy calibration method. In this calibration method, high spatial resolution of the measured detector offset is essential. To this end, a remotely controlled long-translation motorized stage was employed instead of the less convenient gauge blocks. It is found that the precision of absolute X-ray energy calibration (ΔE/E) is readily achieved down to the level of 10{sup −4} for high-energy monochromatic X-rays (e.g. 80 keV). Examples of applications to pair distribution function (PDF) measurements and energy monitoring for high-energy X-rays are presented.

  2. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  3. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  4. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  5. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  6. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  7. Absolute calibration of optical streak cameras on picosecond time scales using supercontinuum generation

    DOE PAGES

    Patankar, S.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Robinson, T. S.; ...

    2017-08-17

    Here we report a new method using high stability, laser-driven supercontinuum generation in a liquid cell to calibrate the absolute photon response of fast optical streak cameras as a function of wavelength when operating at fastest sweep speeds. A stable, pulsed white light source based around the use of self-phase modulation in a salt solution was developed to provide the required brightness on picosecond timescales, enabling streak camera calibration in fully dynamic operation. The measured spectral brightness allowed for absolute photon response calibration over a broad spectral range (425-650nm). Calibrations performed with two Axis Photonique streak cameras using the Photonismore » P820PSU streak tube demonstrated responses which qualitatively follow the photocathode response. Peak sensitivities were 1 photon/count above background. The absolute dynamic sensitivity is less than the static by up to an order of magnitude. We attribute this to the dynamic response of the phosphor being lower.« less

  8. Four Years of Absolutely Calibrated Hyperspectral Data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the Eos Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Broberg, Steve; Elliott, Denis; Gregorich, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews four years of absolute calibration of hyperspectral data from the AIRS instrument located on the EOS AQUA spacecraft. The following topics are discussed: 1) A quick overview of AIRS; 2) What absolute calibration accuracy and stability are required for climate applications?; 3) Validating of radiance accuracy and stability: Results from four years of AIRS data; and 4) Conclusions.

  9. Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry-Perot optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M. M.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used for fast measurements of C VI line emission (343.4 nm) in the Madison Symmetric Torus. Absolutely calibrated flow measurements are difficult because the IDS records data within 0.25 nm of the line. Commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range. A light source using an ultraviolet LED and etalon was designed to provide a fiducial marker 0.08 nm wide. The light is coupled into the IDS at f/4, and a holographic diffuser increases homogeneity of the final image. Random and systematic errors in data analysis were assessed. The calibration is accurate to 0.003 nm, allowing for flow measurements accurate to 3 km/s. This calibration is superior to the previous method which used a time-averaged measurement along a chord believed to have zero net Doppler shift.

  10. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, R. M. Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Jauregui, F.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Valentine, T.; Smirnov, A.

    2016-11-15

    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 10{sup 7} n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each method are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.

  11. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, R. M.; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Jauregui, F.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Valentine, T.; Smirnov, A.

    2016-11-01

    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 107 n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each method are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.

  12. Absolute wavelength calibration of a Doppler spectrometer with a custom Fabry-Perot optical system.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, M M; Craig, D; Den Hartog, D J; Nishizawa, T; Nornberg, M D

    2016-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used for fast measurements of C VI line emission (343.4 nm) in the Madison Symmetric Torus. Absolutely calibrated flow measurements are difficult because the IDS records data within 0.25 nm of the line. Commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range. A light source using an ultraviolet LED and etalon was designed to provide a fiducial marker 0.08 nm wide. The light is coupled into the IDS at f/4, and a holographic diffuser increases homogeneity of the final image. Random and systematic errors in data analysis were assessed. The calibration is accurate to 0.003 nm, allowing for flow measurements accurate to 3 km/s. This calibration is superior to the previous method which used a time-averaged measurement along a chord believed to have zero net Doppler shift.

  13. Study of Fricke-gel dosimeter calibration for attaining precise measurements of the absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Liosi, Giulia Maria; Benedini, Sara; Giacobbo, Francesca; Mariani, Mario; Gambarini, Grazia; Artuso, Emanuele; Gargano, Marco; Ludwig, Nicola; Carrara, Mauro; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2015-07-01

    A method has been studied for attaining, with good precision, absolute measurements of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose by means of the Fricke gelatin Xylenol Orange dosimetric system. With this aim, the dose response to subsequent irradiations was analyzed. In fact, the proposed modality is based on a pre-irradiation of each single dosimeter in a uniform field with a known dose, in order to extrapolate a calibration image for a subsequent non-uniform irradiation with an un-known dose to be measured. (authors)

  14. Rapid, Absolute Calibration of X-ray Filters Employed By Laser-Produced Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Emig, J; Frankel, M; Gu, M F; Heeter, R F; Magee, E; Thorn, D B; Widmann, K; . Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S

    2008-05-11

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to absolutely calibrate the transmission efficiency of X-ray filters employed by diodes and spectrometers used to diagnose laser-produced plasmas. EBIT emits strong, discrete monoenergetic lines at appropriately chosen X-ray energies. X-rays are detected using the high-resolution EBIT calorimeter spectrometer (ECS), developed for LLNL at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. X-ray filter transmission efficiency is determined by dividing the X-ray counts detected when the filter is in the line of sight by those detected when out of the line of sight. Verification of filter thickness can be completed in only a few hours, and absolute efficiencies can be calibrated in a single day over a broad range from about 0.1 to 15 keV. The EBIT calibration lab has been used to field diagnostics (e.g., the OZSPEC instrument) with fully calibrated X-ray filters at the OMEGA laser. Extensions to use the capability for calibrating filter transmission for the DANTE instrument on the National Ignition Facility are discussed.

  15. Absolute Time Error Calibration of GPS Receivers Using Advanced GPS Simulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    29th Annual Precise Time a d Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting ABSOLUTE TIME ERROR CALIBRATION OF GPS RECEIVERS USING ADVANCED GPS SIMULATORS E.D...DC 20375 USA Abstract Preche time transfer eq)er&nen& using GPS with t h e stabd?v’s under ten nanoseconh are common& being reported willrbr the... time transfer communily. Relarive calibrations are done by naeasurhg the time error of one GPS receiver versus a “known master refmence receiver.” Z?t

  16. An absolute dose determination of helical tomotherapy accelerator, TomoTherapy High-Art II.

    PubMed

    Bailat, Claude J; Buchillier, Thierry; Pachoud, Marc; Moeckli, Raphaël; Bochud, François O

    2009-09-01

    A helical tomotherapy accelerator presents a dosimetric challenge because, to this day, there is no internationally accepted protocol for the determination of the absolute dose. Because of this reality, we investigated the different alternatives for characterizing and measuring the absolute dose of such an accelerator. We tested several dosimetric techniques with various metrological traceabilities as well as using a number of phantoms in static and helical modes. Firstly, the relationship between the reading of ionization chambers and the absorbed dose is dependent on the beam quality value of the photon beam. For high energy photons, the beam quality is specified by the tissue phantom ratio (TPR20,10) and it is therefore necessary to know the TPR20,10 to calculate the dose delivered by a given accelerator. This parameter is obtained through the ratio of the absorbed dose at 20 and 10 cm depths in water and was measured in the particular conditions of the tomotherapy accelerator. Afterward, measurements were performed using the ionization chamber (model A1SL) delivered as a reference instrument by the vendor. This chamber is traceable in absorbed dose to water in a Co-60 beam to a water calorimeter of the American metrology institute (NIST). Similarly, in Switzerland, each radiotherapy department is directly traceable to the Swiss metrology institute (METAS) in absorbed dose to water based on a water calorimeter. For our research, this traceability was obtained by using an ionization chamber traceable to METAS (model NE 2611A), which is the secondary standard of our institute. Furthermore, in order to have another fully independent measurement method, we determined the dose using alanine dosimeters provided by and traceable to the British metrology institute (NPL); they are calibrated in absorbed dose to water using a graphite calorimeter. And finally, we wanted to take into account the type of chamber routinely used in clinical practice and therefore measured the

  17. An absolute dose determination of helical tomotherapy accelerator, TomoTherapy High-Art II

    SciTech Connect

    Bailat, Claude J.; Buchillier, Thierry; Pachoud, Marc; Moeckli, Raphaeel; Bochud, Francois O.

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: A helical tomotherapy accelerator presents a dosimetric challenge because, to this day, there is no internationally accepted protocol for the determination of the absolute dose. Because of this reality, we investigated the different alternatives for characterizing and measuring the absolute dose of such an accelerator. We tested several dosimetric techniques with various metrological traceabilities as well as using a number of phantoms in static and helical modes. Methods: Firstly, the relationship between the reading of ionization chambers and the absorbed dose is dependent on the beam quality value of the photon beam. For high energy photons, the beam quality is specified by the tissue phantom ratio (TPR{sub 20,10}) and it is therefore necessary to know the TPR{sub 20,10} to calculate the dose delivered by a given accelerator. This parameter is obtained through the ratio of the absorbed dose at 20 and 10 cm depths in water and was measured in the particular conditions of the tomotherapy accelerator. Afterward, measurements were performed using the ionization chamber (model A1SL) delivered as a reference instrument by the vendor. This chamber is traceable in absorbed dose to water in a Co-60 beam to a water calorimeter of the American metrology institute (NIST). Similarly, in Switzerland, each radiotherapy department is directly traceable to the Swiss metrology institute (METAS) in absorbed dose to water based on a water calorimeter. For our research, this traceability was obtained by using an ionization chamber traceable to METAS (model NE 2611A), which is the secondary standard of our institute. Furthermore, in order to have another fully independent measurement method, we determined the dose using alanine dosimeters provided by and traceable to the British metrology institute (NPL); they are calibrated in absorbed dose to water using a graphite calorimeter. And finally, we wanted to take into account the type of chamber routinely used in clinical

  18. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-01-01

    An increasing number of remote sensing investigations require radiometrically calibrated imagery from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiation (AVHRR) sensors. Although a prelaunch calibration is done for these sensors, there is no capability for monitoring any changes in the in-flight absolute calibration for the visible and near infrared spectral channels. Hence, the possibility of using the reflectance-based method developed at White Sands for in-orbit calibration of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT Haute Resolution Visible (HVR) data to calibrate the AVHRR sensor was investigated. Three diffrent approaches were considered: Method 1 - ground and atmospheric measurements and reference to another calibrated satellite sensor; Method 2 - ground and atmospheric measurements with no reference to another sensor; and Method 3 - no ground and atmospheric measurements but reference to another satellite sensor. The purpose is to describe an investigation on the use of Method 2 to calibrate NOAA-9 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 with the help of ground and atmospheric measurements at Rogers (dry) Lake, Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in the Mojave desert of California.

  19. The CLARA/NORSAT-1 solar absolute radiometer: instrument design, characterization and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Benjamin; Levesque, Pierre-Luc; Kopp, Greg; Andersen, Bo; Beck, Ivo; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Gyo, Manfred; Heuerman, Karl; Koller, Silvio; Mingard, Nathan; Remesal Oliva, Alberto; Pfiffner, Daniel; Soder, Ricco; Spescha, Marcel; Suter, Markus; Schmutz, Werner

    2017-10-01

    The compact lightweight absolute radiometer (CLARA) experiment aims at measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI) in space and is scheduled to fly on the Norwegian NORSAT-1 micro satellite. The CLARA experiment will contribute to the long term monitoring of the TSI variability to support the analysis of potential long term trends in the Sun’s variability. CLARA is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology radiometric scale and will provide further evidence for the TSI value on an absolute scale. In this paper we present the design, characterization, and calibration details of the CLARA instrument. The combined measurement uncertainty for the calibrated SI-traceable CLARA flight instrument is 567-912 ppm (k  =  1) depending on the measuring channel.

  20. Absolute distance measurement using frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer calibrated by an optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuejian; Wei, Haoyun; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ren, Libing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jitao

    2013-04-01

    We present a frequency-sweeping heterodyne interferometer to measure an absolute distance based on a frequency-tunable diode laser calibrated by an optical frequency comb (OFC) and an interferometric phase measurement system. The laser frequency-sweeping process is calibrated by the OFC within a range of 200 GHz and an accuracy of 1.3 kHz, which brings about a precise temporal synthetic wavelength of 1.499 mm. The interferometric phase measurement system consisting of the analog signal processing circuit and the digital phase meter achieves a phase difference resolution better than 0.1 deg. As the laser frequency is sweeping, the absolute distance can be determined by measuring the phase difference variation of the interference signals. In the laboratory condition, our experimental scheme realizes micrometer accuracy over meter distance.

  1. Exact Theory of Optical Tweezers and Its Application to Absolute Calibration.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Rafael S; Viana, Nathan B; Neto, Paulo A Maia; Nussenzveig, H Moysés

    2017-01-01

    Optical tweezers have become a powerful tool for basic and applied research in cell biology. Here, we describe an experimentally verified theory for the trapping forces generated by optical tweezers based on first principles that allows absolute calibration. For pedagogical reasons, the steps that led to the development of the theory over the past 15 years are outlined. The results are applicable to a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Protocols for implementing absolute calibration are given, explaining how to measure all required experimental parameters, and including a link to an applet for stiffness calculations.

  2. A Liquid-Helium-Cooled Absolute Reference Cold Load forLong-Wavelength Radiometric Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Bensadoun, M.; Witebsky, C.; Smoot, George F.; De Amici,Giovanni; Kogut, A.; Levin, S.

    1990-05-01

    We describe a large (78-cm) diameter liquid-helium-cooled black-body absolute reference cold load for the calibration of microwave radiometers. The load provides an absolute calibration near the liquid helium (LHe) boiling point, accurate to better than 30 mK for wavelengths from 2.5 to 25 cm (12-1.2 GHz). The emission (from non-LHe temperature parts of the cold load) and reflection are small and well determined. Total corrections to the LHe boiling point temperature are {le} 50 mK over the operating range. This cold load has been used at several wavelengths at the South Pole and at the White Mountain Research Station. In operation, the average LHe loss rate was {le} 4.4 l/hr. Design considerations, radiometric and thermal performance and operational aspects are discussed. A comparison with other LHe-cooled reference loads including the predecessor of this cold load is given.

  3. A liquid-helium-cooled absolute reference cold load for long-wavelength radiometric calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensadoun, Marc; Witebsky, Chris; Smoot, George; De Amici, Giovanni; Kogut, AL; Levin, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Design, radiometric and thermal performance, and operation of a large diameter (78 cm) liquid-helium-cooled blackbody absolute reference cold load (CL) for the calibration of microwave radiometers is described. CL provides an absolute calibration near the liquid-helium (LHe) boiling point, with total uncertainty in the radiometric temperature of less than 30 mK over the 2.5-23 cm wavelength operating range. CL was used at several wavelengths at the South Pole, Antarctica and the White Mountain Research Center, California. Results show that, for the instruments operated at 20-, 12-, 7.9-, and 4.0 cm wavelength at the South Pole, the total corrections to the LHe boiling-point temperature (about 3.8 K) were 48 +/-23, 18 +/-10, 10 +/-18, and 15 +/-mK.

  4. Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2014-01-27

    A method for absolute calibration of a photon-number resolving detector producing analog signals as the output is developed using a twin beam. The method gives both analog-to-digital conversion parameters and quantum detection efficiency for the photon fields. Characteristics of the used twin beam are also obtained. A simplified variant of the method applicable to fields with high signal to noise ratios and suitable for more intense twin beams is suggested.

  5. Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A method for absolute calibration of a photon-number resolving detector producing analog signals as the output is developed using a twin beam. The method gives both analog-to-digital conversion parameters and quantum detection efficiency for the photon fields. Characteristics of the used twin beam are also obtained. A simplified variant of the method applicable to fields with high signal to noise ratios and suitable for more intense twin beams is suggested.

  6. A New Approach For Absolute Temperature Calibration: Application to the CLARREO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Anderson, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    A novel scheme to provide on-orbit absolute calibration of blackbody temperature sensors (on-demand) has been demonstrated using a copy of the engineering model version of a space flight hardware blackbody design (GIFTS). The scheme uses the phase change signature of reference materials to assign an absolute temperatures scale to the blackbody sensors over a large temperature range. Uncertainties of better than 0.020 K have been demonstrated over the temperature range from 234 to 303 K. Thermal modeling has been conducted to optimize the design, and to show that accuracies comparable to those measured in the laboratory should be obtainable in the less-controlled on-orbit temperature environment. The implementation if this scheme is very attractive due to its simplicity and relatively low mass. In addition, all aspects of the electronics (control and temperature readout) needed to support this scheme have been developed and demonstrated in the as-delivered GIFTS Engineering Model blackbody calibration system developed by the University of Wisconsin. NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly absolute standards that can provide the basis to meet stringent requirements on measurement accuracy. For example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies having absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.020 K (3 sigma). The novel blackbody temperature calibration scheme described here is very well suited for the CLARREO mission because if its low mass, high accuracy, and ease of implementation into a demonstrated flight blackbody design.

  7. First absolutely calibrated on-axis ion flow measurements in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, B.; Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    Improvements in absolute calibration techniques allow for the first direct measurements of the flow profile in the core of MST. We use both active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy and passive emission near 343 nm to measure ion temperature and flow. It is generally assumed that O VI is the brightest passive emission source. However, we show that there are cases, such as high temperature, pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) plasmas where the passive emission is dominated by C VI. Differences in the fine structure for O VI and C VI result in a systematic velocity error of about 12 km/s if the wrong model is assumed. Active measurements, however, are relatively insensitive to background model choice. The dominant source of error in active velocity measurements remains the systematic errors in calibration. The first absolutely calibrated, localized toroidal velocity measurements were obtained using an updated calibration technique. During PPCD, the on-axis ion flow is up to 40 km/s larger than both the n = 6 mode velocity and the line-averaged ion velocity. These measurements provide the first direct look at the flow profile in the core of MST. This work has been supported by the US DOE and the Wheaton College summer research program.

  8. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Measurements of Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, R. D., Jr.; Rabb, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon isotope variations (reported as δ30Si and δ29Si, relative to NBS28) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The resolution and comparability of such measurements depend on the quality of the isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs) defining the delta scale. We report new absolute Si isotopic measurements on the iRMs NBS28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, and Big Batch using the Avogadro measurement approach and comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs. The Avogadro Si measurement technique was developed by the German Physikalish-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) to provide a precise and highly accurate method to measure absolute isotopic ratios in highly enriched 28Si (99.996%) material. These measurements are part of an international effort to redefine the kg and mole based on the Planck constant h and the Avogadro constant NA, respectively (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach produces absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement calibration. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 where absolute Si isotopic measurements on SRM 990, separated by 40+ years of advances in instrumentation, are compared. The availability of this new technique does not say that absolute Si isotopic ratios are or ever will be better for normal Si isotopic measurements when seeking isotopic variations in nature, because they are not. However, by determining the absolute isotopic ratios of all the Si iRM scale artifacts, such iRMs become traceable to the metric system (SI); thereby automatically conferring on all the artifact-based δ30Si and δ29Si measurements traceability to the base SI unit, the mole. Such traceability should help reduce the potential of bias between different iRMs and facilitate the replacement of delta

  9. New apparatus for calibrations in the range of 2 kPa absolute pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, S. Y.; Choi, I. M.

    2005-12-01

    Capacitance diaphragm gauges (CDGs) are precise electromechanical pressure sensors in which the displacement of a stretched thin metal diaphragm is detected by the measurement of a capacitance. These are very accurate gauges, and are frequently used as transfer gauges. To calibrate such accurate low-pressure gauges, precise mercury manometers have been used. However, complexity, concern about mercury vapour, and cost of mercury manometers have made it difficult to use these manometers in many industrial calibration laboratories. As a substitute, gas-operated piston gauges can be used for the calibration of such low-pressure gauges. However, the minimum pressure that is necessary to balance the tare weight, which generally corresponds to a pressure of several kilopascals, is a major obstacle. To reduce this minimum operating pressure, we adopted a variable bell-jar pressure method. To realize this method effectively, we developed a new mass-handling device that makes it possible to add or remove weights up to 200 g easily, with a resolution of 10 g, without breaking the vacuum during the calibration. This calibration system can be used to measure pressures from 100 Pa to 2 kPa in the absolute mode. In this paper, we also present the calibration results for two types of CDGs with full-scale ranges of 1330 Pa and 1000 Pa, respectively.

  10. Calibration of Fourier domain short coherence interferometer for absolute distance measurements.

    PubMed

    Montonen, R; Kassamakov, I; Hæggström, E; Österberg, K

    2015-05-20

    We calibrated and determined the measurement uncertainty of a custom-made Fourier domain short coherence interferometer operated in laboratory conditions. We compared the optical thickness of two thickness standards and three coverslips determined with our interferometer to the geometric thickness determined by SEM. Using this calibration data, we derived a calibration function with a 95% confidence level system uncertainty of (5.9×10(-3)r+2.3)  μm, where r is the optical distance in μm, across the 240 μm optical measurement range. The confidence limit includes contributions from uncertainties in the optical thickness, geometric thickness, and refractive index measurements as well as uncertainties arising from cosine errors and thermal expansion. The results show feasibility for noncontacting absolute distance characterization with micrometer-level accuracy. This instrument is intended for verifying the alignment of the discs of an accelerating structure in the possible future compact linear collider.

  11. Simple method for absolute calibration of geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kann, Frank van; Winterflood, John

    2005-03-01

    A simple but powerful method is presented for calibrating geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors, including passive accelerometers. The method requires no cumbersome or expensive fixtures such as shaker platforms and can be performed using a standard instrument commonly available in the field. An absolute calibration is obtained using the reciprocity property of the device, based on the standard mathematical model for such inertial sensors. It requires only simple electrical measurement of the impedance of the sensor as a function of frequency to determine the parameters of the model and hence the sensitivity function. The method is particularly convenient if one of these parameters, namely the suspended mass is known. In this case, no additional mechanical apparatus is required and only a single set of impedance measurements yields the desired calibration function. Moreover, this measurement can be made with the device in situ. However, the novel and most powerful aspect of the method is its ability to accurately determine the effective suspended mass. For this, the impedance measurement is made with the device hanging from a simple spring or flexible cord (depending on the orientation of its sensitive axis). To complete the calibration, the device is weighed to determine its total mass. All the required calibration parameters, including the suspended mass, are then determined from a least-squares fit to the impedance as a function of frequency. A demonstration using both a 4.5 Hz geophone and a 1 Hz seismometer shows that the method can yield accurate absolute calibrations with an error of 0.1% or better, assuming no a priori knowledge of any parameters.

  12. Absolute photometric calibration of detectors to 0.3 mmag using amplitude-stabilized lasers and a helium-cooled absolute radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser sources whose intensity is determined with a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer are described. Detectors are then calibrated against this known flux, with an overall error of 0.028 percent (0.3 mmag). Ongoing research has produced laser intensity stabilizers with flicker and drift of less than 0.01 percent. Recently, the useful wavelength limit of these stabilizers have been extended to 1.65 microns by using a new modular technology and InGaAs detector systems. Data from Si photodiode calibration using the method of Zalewski and Geist are compared against an absolute cavity radiometer calibration as an internal check on the calibration system.

  13. Absolute calibration of a soft X-ray spectrograph for X-ray laser research using white beam.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, C; Kawachi, T; Ando, K; Yamaguchi, N; Hara, T

    1998-05-01

    Absolute calibration of a soft X-ray spectrograph has been performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The calibrated spectrograph was a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrograph with an X-ray CCD detector for X-ray laser research. Absolute sensitivity of the spectrograph system can be obtained from transmitted spectra using filters made of several different materials, each providing an absorption-edge wavelength standard. The absolute sensitivity determined in this work shows nearly the same behaviour with wavelength as that in another calibration experiment using a laser-produced plasma as an X-ray source.

  14. Improved strategies and optimization of calibration models for real-time PCR absolute quantification.

    PubMed

    Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice C; Shanks, Orin C

    2010-09-01

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications are becoming more common in the recreational and drinking water quality industries. Many methods rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, the generation of a standard curve for each qPCR experiment set-up can be expensive and time consuming, especially for studies with large numbers of unknown samples. As a result, many researchers have adopted a master calibration strategy where a single curve is derived from DNA standard measurements generated from multiple instrument runs. However, a master curve can inflate uncertainty associated with intercept and slope parameters and decrease the accuracy of unknown sample DNA target concentration estimates. Here we report two alternative strategies termed 'pooled' and 'mixed' for the generation of calibration equations from absolute standard curves which can help reduce the cost and time of laboratory testing, as well as the uncertainty in calibration model parameter estimates. In this study, four different strategies for generating calibration models were compared based on a series of repeated experiments for two different qPCR assays using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method. The hierarchical Bayesian approach allowed for the comparison of uncertainty in intercept and slope model parameters and the optimization of experiment design. Data suggests that the 'pooled' model can reduce uncertainty in both slope and intercept parameter estimates compared to the traditional single curve approach. In addition, the 'mixed' model achieved uncertainty estimates similar to the 'single' model while increasing the number of available reaction wells per instrument run. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. On-Orbit Absolute Temperature Calibration for CLARREO Using Multiple Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of temperature sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium - to date) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the temperature sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through a reference material melt temperature, the transient temperature signature of the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt temperature. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). The flight implementation of this new scheme will involve special considerations for packaging the phase change materials to ensure long-term compatibility with the containment system, and design features that help ensure that the on-orbit melt behavior in a microgravity environment is unchanged from pre-flight full gravitational conditions under which the system is characterized.

  16. Multispectral Photometry of the Moon and Absolute Calibration of the Clementine UV/Vis Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, John K.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Hill, Kathryn

    1999-10-01

    We present a multispectral photometric study of the Moon between solar phase angles of 0 and 85°. Using Clementine images obtained between 0.4 and 1.0 μm, we produce a comprehensive study of the lunar surface containing the following results: (1) empirical photometric functions for the spectral range and viewing and illumination geometries mentioned, (2) photometric modeling that derives the physical properties of the upper regolith and includes a detailed study of the causes for the lunar opposition surge, (3) an absolute calibration of the Clementine UV/Vis camera. The calibration procedure given on the Clementine calibration web site produces reflectances relative to a halon standard and further appear significantly higher than those seen in groundbased observations. By comparing Clementine observations with prior groundbased observations of 15 sites on the Moon we have determined a good absolute calibration of the Clementine UV/Vis camera. A correction factor of 0.532 has been determined to convert the web site (www.planetary.brown.edu/clementine/calibration.html) reflectances to absolute values. From the calibrated data, we calculate empirical phase functions useful for performing photometric corrections to observations of the Moon between solar phase angles of 0 and 85° and in the spectral range 0.4 to 1.0μm. Finally, the calibrated data is used to fit a version of Hapke's photometric model modified to incorporate a new formulation, developed in this paper, of the lunar opposition surge which includes coherent backscatter. Recent studies of the lunar opposition effect have yielded contradictory results as to the mechanism responsible: shadow hiding, coherent backscatter, or both. We find that most of the surge can be explained by shadow hiding with a halfwidth of ˜8°. However, for the brightest regions (the highlands at 0.75-1.0μm) a small additional narrow component (halfwidth of <2°) of total amplitude ˜1/6 to 1/4 that of the shadow hiding surge is

  17. Dose calibration optimization and error propagation in polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirasek, A.; Hilts, M.

    2014-02-01

    This study reports on the relative precision, relative error, and dose differences observed when using a new full-image calibration technique in NIPAM-based x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. The effects of calibration parameters (e.g. gradient thresholding, dose bin size, calibration fit function, and spatial remeshing) on subsequent errors in calibrated gel images are reported. It is found that gradient thresholding, dose bin size, and fit function all play a primary role in affecting errors in calibrated images. Spatial remeshing induces minimal reductions or increases in errors in calibrated images. This study also reports on a full error propagation throughout the CT gel image pre-processing and calibration procedure thus giving, for the first time, a realistic view of the errors incurred in calibrated CT polymer gel dosimetry. While the work is based on CT polymer gel dosimetry, the formalism is valid for and easily extended to MRI or optical CT dosimetry protocols. Hence, the procedures developed within the work are generally applicable to calibration of polymer gel dosimeters.

  18. Mask model calibration for MPC applications utilizing shot dose assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Mishra, Kushlendra; Bürgel, Christian; Standiford, Keith; Chua, Gek Soon

    2014-10-01

    Shrinking feature sizes and the need for tighter CD (Critical Dimension) control require the introduction of new technologies in mask making processes. One of those methods is the dose assignment of individual shots on VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) mask writers to compensate CD non-linearity effects and improve dose edge slope. Using increased dose levels only for most critical features, generally only for the smallest CDs on a mask, the change in mask write time is minimal while the increase in image quality can be significant. However, this technology requires accurate modeling of the mask effects, especially the CD/dose dependencies. This paper describes a mask model calibration flow for Mask Process Correction (MPC) applications with shot dose assignment. The first step in the calibration flow is the selection of appropriate test structures. For this work, a combination of linespace patterns as well as a series of contact patterns are used for calibration. Features sizes vary from 34 nm up to several micrometers in order to capture a wide range of CDs and pattern densities. After mask measurements are completed the results are carefully analyzed and measurements very close to the process window limitation and outliers are removed from the data set. One key finding in this study is that by including patterns exposed at various dose levels the simulated contours of the calibrated model very well match the SEM contours even if the calibration was based entirely on gauge based CD values. In the calibration example shown in this paper, only 1D line and space measurements as well as 1D contact measurements are used for calibration. However, those measurements include patterns exposed at dose levels between 75% and 150% of the nominal dose. The best model achieved in this study uses 2 e-beam kernels and 4 kernels for the simulation of development and etch effects. The model error RMS on a large range of CD down to 34 nm line CD is 0.71 nm. The calibrated model is then

  19. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2016-04-01

    The Avogadro Project is an ongoing international effort, coordinated by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the International Avogadro Coordination (IAC) to redefine the SI unit mole in terms of the Avogadro constant and the SI unit kg in terms of the Planck constant. One of the outgrowths of this effort has been the development of a novel, precise and highly accurate method to measure calibrated (absolute) isotopic ratios that are traceable to the SI (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach has also been able to produce absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement. Silicon isotope variations (reported as delta(Si30)and delta(Si29)) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The utility and comparability of such measurements however depends on calibration with artifact isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs). We will be reporting new measurements on the iRMs NBS-28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, Big Batch and SRM 990 using the Avogadro measurement approach, comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs.

  20. Absolute Calibration of the Magnetic Field Measurement for Muon g-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Midhat; Chupp, Tim; Muon g-2 Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab (E989) investigates the >3- σ discrepancy between the standard model prediction and the current experimental measurement of the muon magnetic moment anomaly, aμ = (g-2)/2. The effort requires a precise measurement of the 1.45 T magnetic field of the muon storage ring to 70 ppb. The final measurement will employ multiple absolute calibration probes: two water probes and a 3He probe. The 3He probe offers a cross-check of the water probes with different systematic corrections, adding a level of confidence to the measurement. A low-field 3He probe was developed at the Univ. of Michigan by employing a method called MEOP for the hyper-polarization of 3He gas, followed by NMR to determine the frequency proportional to the magnetic field in which the probe is placed. A modified probe design for operation under high fields will be tested at Argonne National Lab. Future development also involves the study of the systematic uncertainties to attain the error budget of <30 ppb for the calibration. Next, the calibration from the probes will be transferred to g-2 through several steps of a calibration chain ending in the final step of calibrating the NMR probes which measure the field in the muon storage ring at Fermilab. NSF PHY-1506021.

  1. SU-E-I-87: Calibrating Cherenkov Emission to Match Superficial Dose in Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R; Pogue, B; Glaser, A; Gladstone, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Through Monte Carlo simulations and phantom studies, the dominant factors affecting the calibration of superficial Cherenkov intensity to absolute surface dose was investigated, including tissue optical properties, curvatures, beam properties and imaging angle. Methods: The phasespace files for the TrueBeam system from Varian were used in GAMOS (a GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulation toolkit) to simulate surface emission Cherenkov signals and the correlated deposited dose. The parameters examined were: i) different tissue optical properties (skin color from light to dark), ii) beam types (X-ray and electron beam), iii) beam energies, iv) thickness of tissues (2.5 cm to 20 cm), v) SSD (80 cm to 120 cm), vi) field sizes (0.5×0.5 cm2 to 20×20 cm2), vii) entrance/exit sides, viii) curvatures (cylinders with diameters from 2.5 cm to 20cm) and ix) imaging angles (0 to 90 degrees). In a specific case, for any Cherenkov photon emitted from the surface, the original position and direction, final position and direction and energy were recorded. Similar experimental measurements were taken in a range of the most pertinent parameters using tissue phantoms. Results: Combining the dose distribution and sampling sensitivity of Cherenkov emission, quantitatively accurate calibration factors (the amount of radiation dose represented by a single Cherenkov photon) were calculated. The data showed relatively large dependence upon different optical properties, curvature, entrance/exit and beam types. For a diffusive surface, the calibration factor was insensitive to imaging angles smaller than 60 degrees. Normalization with the reflectance image was experimentally validated as a simple and accurate method for calibrations of different optical properties. Conclusion: This study sheds light on how and to what extent different conditions affect the calibration from Cherenkov intensity to absolute superficial dose and provides practical solutions to allow quantitative Cherenkov

  2. Performance of Different Light Sources for the Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, M. J.; Mantilla, J. M.; del Campo, D.; Hernanz, M. L.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.

    2017-09-01

    The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin (MeP-K) [1, 2] will, in its forthcoming edition, encourage the realization and dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature either directly (primary thermometry) or indirectly (relative primary thermometry) via fixed points with assigned reference thermodynamic temperatures. In the last years, the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), in collaboration with the Instituto de Óptica of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IO-CSIC), has developed several setups for absolute calibration of standard radiation thermometers using the radiance method to allow CEM the direct dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature and the assignment of the thermodynamic temperatures to several fixed points. Different calibration facilities based on a monochromator and/or a laser and an integrating sphere have been developed to calibrate CEM's standard radiation thermometers (KE-LP2 and KE-LP4) and filter radiometer (FIRA2). This system is based on the one described in [3] placed in IO-CSIC. Different light sources have been tried and tested for measuring absolute spectral radiance responsivity: a Xe-Hg 500 W lamp, a supercontinuum laser NKT SuperK-EXR20 and a diode laser emitting at 6473 nm with a typical maximum power of 120 mW. Their advantages and disadvantages have been studied such as sensitivity to interferences generated by the laser inside the filter, flux stability generated by the radiant sources and so forth. This paper describes the setups used, the uncertainty budgets and the results obtained for the absolute temperatures of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed points, measured with the three thermometers with central wavelengths around 650 nm.

  3. Anomalous gain in an isotopically mixed CO2 laser and application to absolute wavelength calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewagama, Tilak; Oppenheim, Uri P.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements are reported on a grating-tuned CO2 laser, containing an isotropic mixture of O-16C-12O-16, O-16C-12O-18, and O-18C-12O-18. The P6 and R14 lines of O-16C-12O-16 were found to have anomalously high intensities. These anomalies are produced by the near coincidence of the transition frequencies in two distinct isotopes, permitting them to act as a single indistinguishable population. These two lines can be used to identify the rotational quantum numbers in the P and R branch spectra, thereby permitting absolute wavelength calibration to be achieved.

  4. Absolute Current Calibration of 1$\\mu$A CW Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Arne Freyberger; Mike Bevins; Anthony Day; Arunava Saha; Stephanie Slachtouski; Ronald Gilman; Pavel Degtiarenko

    2005-06-01

    The future experimental program at Jefferson Lab requires an absolute current calibration of a 1 {mu}A CW electron beam to better than 1% accuracy. This paper presents the mechanical and electrical design of a Tungsten calorimeter that is being constructed to provide an accurate measurement of the deposited energy. The energy is determined by measuring the change in temperature after beam exposure. Knowledge of the beam energy then yields number of electrons stopped by the calorimeter during the exposure. Simulations show that the energy lost due to electromagnetic and hadronic particle losses are the dominant uncertainty. Details of the precision thermometry and calibration, mechanical design, thermal simulations and simulations will be presented.

  5. Absolute Current Calibrations of 1muA CW Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    A. Freyberger, M.E. Bevins, A.R. Day, P. Degtiarenko, A. Saha, S. Slachtouski, R. Gilman

    2005-06-06

    The future experimental program at Jefferson Lab requires an absolute current calibration of a 1{mu}A CW electron beam to better than 1% accuracy. This paper presents the mechanical and electrical design of a Tungsten calorimeter that is being constructed to provide an accurate measurement of the deposited energy. The energy is determined by measuring the change in temperature after beam exposure. Knowledge of the beam energy then yields number of electrons stopped by the calorimeter during the exposure. Simulations show that the energy losses due to electromagnetic and hadronic losses are the dominant uncertainty. Details of the precision thermometry and calibration, mechanical design, thermal simulations and GEANT simulations will be presented.

  6. An imaging technique for detection and absolute calibration of scintillation light

    SciTech Connect

    Pappalardo, Alfio; Cosentino, Luigi; Finocchiaro, Paolo

    2010-03-15

    Triggered by the need of a detection system to be used in experiments of nuclear fusion in laser-generated plasmas, we developed an imaging technique for the measurement and calibration of the scintillation light yield of scintillating materials. As in such experiments, all the reaction products are generated in an ultrashort time frame, the event-by-event data acquisition scheme is not feasible. As an alternative to the emulsion technique (or the equivalent CR39 sheets) we propose a scintillating screen readout by means of a high performance charge coupled device camera. Even though it is not strictly required in the particular application, this technique allows the absolute calibration of the scintillation light yield.

  7. The impact of water temperature on the measurement of absolute dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Naveed Mehdi

    To standardize reference dosimetry in radiation therapy, Task Group 51 (TG 51) of American Association of Physicist's in Medicine (AAPM) recommends that dose calibration measurements be made in a water tank at a depth of 10 cm and at a reference geometry. Methodologies are provided for calculating various correction factors to be applied in calculating the absolute dose. However the protocol does not specify the water temperature to be used. In practice, the temperature of water during dosimetry may vary considerably between independent sessions and different centers. In this work the effect of water temperature on absolute dosimetry has been investigated. Density of water varies with temperature, which in turn may impact the beam attenuation and scatter properties. Furthermore, due to thermal expansion or contraction air volume inside the chamber may change. All of these effects can result in a change in the measurement. Dosimetric measurements were made using a Farmer type ion chamber on a Varian Linear Accelerator for 6 MV and 23 MV photon energies for temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 °C. A thermal insulation was designed for the water tank in order to maintain relatively stable temperature over the duration of the experiment. Dose measured at higher temperatures were found to be consistently higher by a very small magnitude. Although the differences in dose were less than the uncertainty in each measurement, a linear regression of the data suggests that the trend is statistically significant with p-values of 0.002 and 0.013 for 6 and 23 MV beams respectively. For a 10 degree difference in water phantom temperatures, which is a realistic deviation across clinics, the final calculated reference dose can differ by 0.24% or more. To address this effect, first a reference temperature (e.g.22 °C) can be set as the standard; subsequently a correction factor can be implemented for deviations from this reference. Such a correction factor is expected to be of similar

  8. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Mark D; Oliver, Bryan V; Droemer, Darryl W; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 μm) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ("hotspot") was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm(2)/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +∕- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

  9. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 {mu}m) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ('hotspot') was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm{sup 2}/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

  10. Landsat-7 ETM+ on-orbit reflective-band radiometric stability and absolute calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Thome, K.J.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Helder, Dennis L.; Barker, J. L.; Scaramuzza, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument is in its sixth year of operation. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments. To date, the best onboard calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, a solar-diffuser-based system, which has indicated changes of between 1% to 2% per year in the ETM+ gain for bands 1-4 and 8 and less than 0.5%/year for bands 5 and 7. However, most of this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on vicarious calibrations and observations of "invariant sites", hyperarid sites of the Sahara and Arabia. Weighted average slopes determined from these datasets suggest changes of 0.0% to 0.4% per year for bands 1-4 and 8 and 0.4% to 0.5% per year for bands 5 and 7. Absolute calibration of the reflective bands of the ETM+ is consistent with vicarious observations and other sensors generally at the 5% level, though there appear to be some systematic differences.

  11. First Results of Field Absolute Calibration of the GPS Receiver Antenna at Wuhan University.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhigang; Zhao, Qile; Chen, Guo; Wang, Guangxing; Dai, Zhiqiang; Li, Tao

    2015-11-13

    GNSS receiver antenna phase center variations (PCVs), which arise from the non-spherical phase response of GNSS signals have to be well corrected for high-precision GNSS applications. Without using a precise antenna phase center correction (PCC) model, the estimated position of a station monument will lead to a bias of up to several centimeters. The Chinese large-scale research project "Crustal Movement Observation Network of China" (CMONOC), which requires high-precision positions in a comprehensive GPS observational network motived establishment of a set of absolute field calibrations of the GPS receiver antenna located at Wuhan University. In this paper the calibration facilities are firstly introduced and then the multipath elimination and PCV estimation strategies currently used are elaborated. The validation of estimated PCV values of test antenna are finally conducted, compared with the International GNSS Service (IGS) type values. Examples of TRM57971.00 NONE antenna calibrations from our calibration facility demonstrate that the derived PCVs and IGS type mean values agree at the 1 mm level.

  12. First Results of Field Absolute Calibration of the GPS Receiver Antenna at Wuhan University

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhigang; Zhao, Qile; Chen, Guo; Wang, Guangxing; Dai, Zhiqiang; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    GNSS receiver antenna phase center variations (PCVs), which arise from the non-spherical phase response of GNSS signals have to be well corrected for high-precision GNSS applications. Without using a precise antenna phase center correction (PCC) model, the estimated position of a station monument will lead to a bias of up to several centimeters. The Chinese large-scale research project “Crustal Movement Observation Network of China” (CMONOC), which requires high-precision positions in a comprehensive GPS observational network motived establishment of a set of absolute field calibrations of the GPS receiver antenna located at Wuhan University. In this paper the calibration facilities are firstly introduced and then the multipath elimination and PCV estimation strategies currently used are elaborated. The validation of estimated PCV values of test antenna are finally conducted, compared with the International GNSS Service (IGS) type values. Examples of TRM57971.00 NONE antenna calibrations from our calibration facility demonstrate that the derived PCVs and IGS type mean values agree at the 1 mm level. PMID:26580616

  13. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV hyperspectral camera and its validation analysis].

    PubMed

    Gou, Zhi-yang; Yan, Lei; Chen, Wei; Jing, Xin; Yin, Zhong-yi; Duan, Yi-ni

    2012-02-01

    With the data in Urad Front Banner, Inner Mongolia on November 14th, 2010, hyper-spectral camera on UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. During the in-flight absolute radiometric calibration, 6 hyper-spectral radiometric gray-scale targets were arranged in the validation field. These targets' reflectances are 4.5%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% separately. To validate the calibration result, four extra hyper-spectral targets with sharp-edge spectrum were arranged to simulate the reflection and absorption peaks in natural objectives. With these peaks, the apparent radiance calculated by radiation transfer model and that calculated through calibration coefficients are much different. The result shows that in the first 15 bands (blue bands), errors are somewhat huge due to the noises of equipment. In the rest bands with quite even spectrum, the errors are small, most of which are less than 10%. For those bands with sharp changes in spectral curves, the errors are quite considerable, varying from 10% to 25%.

  14. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Mao, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The early results of an absolute radiometric calibration of the NOAA-9 AVHRR sensor indicate significant degradations in the response of bands 1 and 2 compared to prelaunch values. The results are currently in the process of being verified and it may be that refinements of the methodology will be in order as additional data sets are analyzed. The LANDSAT TM calibration used in this approach is known to be very precise and the Herman radiative transfer code, supplemented by the 5-S code for gaseous transmission, is reliable as well. The extent to which other steps in the analysis procedure give rise to uncertainties in the results is currently under investigation. Particular attention is being given to the geometric matching of the AVHRR and TM imagery, as well as to the spectral redistribution procedure. By taking advantage of a reasonably precise calibration of TM imagery acquired on the same day as the AVHRR data at White Sands, a promising approach to the in-orbit calibration of AVHRR sensors is being developed. Current efforts involve primarily the examination of additional test cases and the investigation of possible simplifications in the procedure through judicious use of atmospheric models.

  15. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, B.; López-Caniego, M.; Perley, R. A.; Stevens, J.; Butler, B. J.; Rocha, G.; Walter, B.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-04-01

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite’s annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus, Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated Very Large Array (VLA) and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1%-2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 2%-3% ± 1.0% below Planck values with an uncertainty of +/- 1.0%; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 5%-6% ± 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  16. Field Measurement of Sand Dune Bidirectional Reflectance Characteristics for Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Optical Remote Sensing Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, C. A.; Logie, G.; Beaver, J.; Helder, D.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) for establishing the radiometric trending of optical remote sensing systems has a long history of successful implementation. Past studies have shown that the PICS method is useful for evaluating the trend of sensors over time or cross-calibration of sensors but was not considered until recently for deriving absolute calibration. Current interest in using this approach to establish absolute radiometric calibration stems from recent research that indicates that with empirically derived models of the surface properties and careful atmospheric characterisation Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance values can be predicted and used for absolute sensor radiometric calibration. Critical to the continued development of this approach is the accurate characterization of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of PICS sites. This paper presents the field data collected by a high-performance portable goniometer system in order to develop a BRDF model for the Algodones Dunes in California. These BRDF data are part of a larger study that is seeking to evaluate and quantify all aspects of this dune system (from regional effects to the micro scale optical properties of the sand) in order to provide an absolute radiometric calibration PICS. This paper presents the results of a dense temporal measurement sequence (several measurements per hour with high angular resolution), to yield detailed information on the nature of the surface reflectance properties. The BRDF data were collected covering typical view geometry of space borne sensors and will be used to close the loop on the calibration to create an absolute calibration target for optical satellite absolute radiometric calibration.

  17. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program.

  18. Pantomime-Grasping: Advance Knowledge of Haptic Feedback Availability Supports an Absolute Visuo-Haptic Calibration.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping). In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials) and without (i.e., PH- trials) terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH- trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration-a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model). The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH- and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group's previous study) and a block wherein PH- and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule). In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber's law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group's previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH- and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and simulated grasping.

  19. Comprehensive fluence model for absolute portal dose image prediction.

    PubMed

    Chytyk, K; McCurdy, B M C

    2009-04-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) continue to be investigated as treatment verification tools, with a particular focus on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). This verification could be accomplished through a comparison of measured portal images to predicted portal dose images. A general fluence determination tailored to portal dose image prediction would be a great asset in order to model the complex modulation of IMRT. A proposed physics-based parameter fluence model was commissioned by matching predicted EPID images to corresponding measured EPID images of multileaf collimator (MLC) defined fields. The two-source fluence model was composed of a focal Gaussian and an extrafocal Gaussian-like source. Specific aspects of the MLC and secondary collimators were also modeled (e.g., jaw and MLC transmission factors, MLC rounded leaf tips, tongue and groove effect, interleaf leakage, and leaf offsets). Several unique aspects of the model were developed based on the results of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the linear accelerator including (1) use of a non-Gaussian extrafocal fluence source function, (2) separate energy spectra used for focal and extrafocal fluence, and (3) different off-axis energy spectra softening used for focal and extrafocal fluences. The predicted energy fluence was then convolved with Monte Carlo generated, EPID-specific dose kernels to convert incident fluence to dose delivered to the EPID. Measured EPID data were obtained with an a-Si EPID for various MLC-defined fields (from 1 x 1 to 20 x 20 cm2) over a range of source-to-detector distances. These measured profiles were used to determine the fluence model parameters in a process analogous to the commissioning of a treatment planning system. The resulting model was tested on 20 clinical IMRT plans, including ten prostate and ten oropharyngeal cases. The model predicted the open-field profiles within 2%, 2 mm, while a mean of 96.6% of pixels over all

  20. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.; Kendrick, J.; McCoy, C. A.; Polsin, D. N.; Boehly, T. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J. H.; Millot, M.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40-nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP's ˜250-nm operating range is then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. Error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.

  1. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    DOE PAGES

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.; ...

    2016-11-29

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology–traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40 nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP’s ~250-nm operating range ismore » then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. As a result, error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.« less

  2. Absolute-magnitude Calibration for W UMa-type Systems Based on Gaia Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, Nicole M.; Rucinski, Slavek M.

    2017-09-01

    Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) parallax data are used to determine absolute magnitudes M V for 318 W UMa-type (EW) contact binary stars. A very steep (slope ≃ ‑9), single-parameter ({log}P), linear calibration can be used to predict M V to about 0.1–0.3 mag over the whole range of accessible orbital period, 0.22< P< 0.88 days. A similar calibration for the most common systems with 0.275< P< 0.575 days predicts M V values to about 0.06–0.16 mag. For orbital period values both shorter and longer than the central range, the period dependence is respectively steeper and shallower, i.e., the binaries are fainter in M V than predicted by the whole-range linear law. The steepness of the relation for short-period systems implies important consequences for the detectability of the faintest binaries, defining the short-period cut-off of the period distribution. Although the scatter around the linear {log}P-fit is fairly large (0.2–0.4 mag), the current data do not support the inclusion of a B-V color term in the calibration. ). Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement.

  3. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.; Kendrick, J.; McCoy, C. A.; Polsin, D. N.; Boehly, T. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J. H.; Millot, M.

    2016-11-29

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology–traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40 nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP’s ~250-nm operating range is then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. As a result, error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.

  4. Grasping a 2D object: terminal haptic feedback supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration.

    PubMed

    Hosang, Stephanie; Chan, Jillian; Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Grasping a three-dimensional (3D) object results in the specification of motor output via absolute size information. In contrast, the impoverished visual cues (e.g., binocular and vergence) associated with grasping a two-dimensional (2D) object are reported to render aperture formation via an object's perceptual and relative visual features. It is, however, important to recognize that 3D and 2D grasping differ not only in terms of their visual properties, but also because the latter does not entail the provision of haptic feedback. As such, the present work examined whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting 2D grasping. Participants grasped differently sized 3D objects (i.e., 3D task) and completed a 'traditional' 2D grasping task to line drawings without receiving haptic feedback (i.e., 2DH- task). As well, we included a separate condition using the same objects as the 2DH- task; however, the experimenter placed a 3D object (i.e., one corresponding to the size of the 2D object) between the thumb and forefinger of participants' grasping limb once they completed their response (i.e., 2DH+ task). Thus, the 2DH+ task provided haptic feedback related to absolute object size. Notably, we computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) scores to determine whether the different tasks adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber's law. JNDs for the 2DH- task adhered to Weber's law, whereas 3D and 2DH+ tasks violated the law. Thus, results evince that 2DH- and 2DH+ tasks are specified via relative and absolute object size information, respectively. Accordingly, we propose that haptic feedback supports an absolute visuo-haptic calibration and contend that our results highlight the importance of multi-sensory cue integration in goal-directed grasping.

  5. ScaRaB: first results of absolute and cross calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trémas, Thierry L.; Aznay, Ouahid; Chomette, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    ScaRaB (SCAnner for RAdiation Budget) is the name of three radiometers whose two first flight models have been launched in 1994 and 1997. The instruments were mounted on-board Russian satellites, METEOR and RESURS. On October 12th 2011, a last model has been launched from the Indian site of Sriharikota. ScaRaB is a passenger of MEGHA-TROPIQUES, an Indo-French joint Satellite Mission for studying the water cycle and energy exchanges in the tropics. ScaRaB is composed of four parallel and independent channels. Channel-2 and channel-3 are considered as the main ones. Channel-1 is dedicated to measure solar radiance (0.5 to 0.7 μm) while channel-4 (10 to 13 μm) is an infrared window. The absolute calibration of ScaRab is assured by internal calibration sources (black bodies and a lamp for channel-1). However, during the commissioning phase, the lamp used for the absolute calibration of channel-1 revealed to be inaccurate. We propose here an alternative calibration method based on terrestrial targets. Due to the spectral range of channel-1, only calibration over desert sites (temporal monitoring) and clouds (cross band) is suitable. Desert sites have been widely used for sensor calibration since they have a stable spectral response over time. Because of their high reflectances, the atmospheric effect on the upward radiance is relatively minimal. In addition, they are spatially uniform. Their temporal instability without atmospheric correction has been determined to be less than 1-2% over a year. Very-high-altitude (10 km) bright clouds are good validation targets in the visible and near-infrared spectra because of their high spectrally consistent reflectance. If the clouds are very high, there is no need to correct aerosol scattering and water vapor absorption as both aerosol and water vapor are distributed near the surface. Only Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption need to be considered. This method has been found to give a 4% uncertainty. Radiometric cross

  6. Absolute Density Calibration Cell for Laser Induced Fluorescence Erosion Rate Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domonkos, Matthew T.; Stevens, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Flight qualification of ion thrusters typically requires testing on the order of 10,000 hours. Extensive knowledge of wear mechanisms and rates is necessary to establish design confidence prior to long duration tests. Consequently, real-time erosion rate measurements offer the potential both to reduce development costs and to enhance knowledge of the dependency of component wear on operating conditions. Several previous studies have used laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to measure real-time, in situ erosion rates of ion thruster accelerator grids. Those studies provided only relative measurements of the erosion rate. In the present investigation, a molybdenum tube was resistively heated such that the evaporation rate yielded densities within the tube on the order of those expected from accelerator grid erosion. This work examines the suitability of the density cell as an absolute calibration source for LIF measurements, and the intrinsic error was evaluated.

  7. Absolute calibration of an EMCCD camera by quantum correlation, linking photon counting to the analog regime.

    PubMed

    Avella, A; Ruo-Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Brida, G; Genovese, M

    2016-04-15

    We show how the same setup and procedure, exploiting spatially multimode quantum correlations, allows the absolute calibration of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled (EMCCD) camera from the analog regime down to the single-photon-counting level, just by adjusting the brightness of the quantum source. At the single-photon level, an EMCCD can be operated as an on-off detector, where quantum efficiency depends on the discriminating threshold. We develop a simple model to explain the connection of the two different regimes demonstrating that the efficiency estimated in the analog (bright) regime allows us to accurately predict the detector behavior in the photocounting regime and vice versa. This work establishes a bridge between two regions of the optical measurements that up to now have been based on completely different standards, detectors, and measurement techniques.

  8. A new absolute magnitude calibration with 2MASS for cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ak, T.; Bilir, S.; Ak, S.; Retter, A.

    2007-08-01

    Using reliable trigonometric measurements, we find that the absolute magnitude of cataclysmic variables depends on the orbital period and de-reddened ( J - H) 0 and ( H - Ks) 0 colours of 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) photometric system. The calibration equation covers the ranges 0.032 d < Porb ⩽ 0.454 d, -0.08 < ( J - H) 0 ⩽ 1.54, -0.03 < ( H - Ks) 0 ⩽ 0.56 and 2.0 < MJ < 11.7; It is based on trigonometric parallaxes with relative errors of ( σπ/ π) ⩽ 0.4. By using the period-luminosity-colours (PLCs) relation, we estimated the distances of cataclysmic variables with orbital periods and 2MASS observations and compared them with distances found from other methods. We suggest that the PLCs relation can be a useful statistical tool to estimate the distances of cataclysmic variables.

  9. SU-E-T-491: Importance of Energy Dependent Protons Per MU Calibration Factors in IMPT Dose Calculations Using Monte Carlo Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Randeniya, S; Mirkovic, D; Titt, U; Guan, F; Mohan, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), energy dependent, protons per monitor unit (MU) calibration factors are important parameters that determine absolute dose values from energy deposition data obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of MC-computed absolute dose distributions to the protons/MU calibration factors in IMPT. Methods: A “verification plan” (i.e., treatment beams applied individually to water phantom) of a head and neck patient plan was calculated using MC technique. The patient plan had three beams; one posterior-anterior (PA); two anterior oblique. Dose prescription was 66 Gy in 30 fractions. Of the total MUs, 58% was delivered in PA beam, 25% and 17% in other two. Energy deposition data obtained from the MC simulation were converted to Gy using energy dependent protons/MU calibrations factors obtained from two methods. First method is based on experimental measurements and MC simulations. Second is based on hand calculations, based on how many ion pairs were produced per proton in the dose monitor and how many ion pairs is equal to 1 MU (vendor recommended method). Dose distributions obtained from method one was compared with those from method two. Results: Average difference of 8% in protons/MU calibration factors between method one and two converted into 27 % difference in absolute dose values for PA beam; although dose distributions preserved the shape of 3D dose distribution qualitatively, they were different quantitatively. For two oblique beams, significant difference in absolute dose was not observed. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that protons/MU calibration factors can have a significant impact on absolute dose values in IMPT depending on the fraction of MUs delivered. When number of MUs increases the effect due to the calibration factors amplify. In determining protons/MU calibration factors, experimental method should be preferred in MC dose calculations

  10. A Bayesian method for calculating real-time quantitative PCR calibration curves using absolute plasmid DNA standards.

    PubMed

    Sivaganesan, Mano; Seifring, Shawn; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A; Shanks, Orin C

    2008-02-25

    In real-time quantitative PCR studies using absolute plasmid DNA standards, a calibration curve is developed to estimate an unknown DNA concentration. However, potential differences in the amplification performance of plasmid DNA compared to genomic DNA standards are often ignored in calibration calculations and in some cases impossible to characterize. A flexible statistical method that can account for uncertainty between plasmid and genomic DNA targets, replicate testing, and experiment-to-experiment variability is needed to estimate calibration curve parameters such as intercept and slope. Here we report the use of a Bayesian approach to generate calibration curves for the enumeration of target DNA from genomic DNA samples using absolute plasmid DNA standards. Instead of the two traditional methods (classical and inverse), a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) estimation was used to generate single, master, and modified calibration curves. The mean and the percentiles of the posterior distribution were used as point and interval estimates of unknown parameters such as intercepts, slopes and DNA concentrations. The software WinBUGS was used to perform all simulations and to generate the posterior distributions of all the unknown parameters of interest. The Bayesian approach defined in this study allowed for the estimation of DNA concentrations from environmental samples using absolute standard curves generated by real-time qPCR. The approach accounted for uncertainty from multiple sources such as experiment-to-experiment variation, variability between replicate measurements, as well as uncertainty introduced when employing calibration curves generated from absolute plasmid DNA standards.

  11. Pantomime-Grasping: Advance Knowledge of Haptic Feedback Availability Supports an Absolute Visuo-Haptic Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An emerging issue in movement neurosciences is whether haptic feedback influences the nature of the information supporting a simulated grasping response (i.e., pantomime-grasping). In particular, recent work by our group contrasted pantomime-grasping responses performed with (i.e., PH+ trials) and without (i.e., PH− trials) terminal haptic feedback in separate blocks of trials. Results showed that PH− trials were mediated via relative visual information. In contrast, PH+ trials showed evidence of an absolute visuo-haptic calibration—a finding attributed to an error signal derived from a comparison between expected and actual haptic feedback (i.e., an internal forward model). The present study examined whether advanced knowledge of haptic feedback availability influences the aforementioned calibration process. To that end, PH− and PH+ trials were completed in separate blocks (i.e., the feedback schedule used in our group’s previous study) and a block wherein PH− and PH+ trials were randomly interleaved on a trial-by-trial basis (i.e., random feedback schedule). In other words, the random feedback schedule precluded participants from predicting whether haptic feedback would be available at the movement goal location. We computed just-noticeable-difference (JND) values to determine whether responses adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical principles of Weber’s law. Results for the blocked feedback schedule replicated our group’s previous work, whereas in the random feedback schedule PH− and PH+ trials were supported via relative visual information. Accordingly, we propose that a priori knowledge of haptic feedback is necessary to support an absolute visuo-haptic calibration. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the presence and expectancy of haptic feedback is an important consideration in contrasting the behavioral and neural properties of natural and simulated grasping. PMID:27199718

  12. Absolute calibration accuracy of L4 TM and L5 TM sensor image pairs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Landsat suite of satellites has collected the longest continuous archive of multispectral data of any land-observing space program. From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has benefited from a historical record of remotely sensed data. However, little attention has been paid to ensuring that the data are calibrated and comparable from mission to mission, Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The approach involves comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained from the L4 TM agree with those from the L5 TM to within 15 percent. Additional work to characterize the absolute differences between the two sensors over the entire mission is in progress.

  13. High dose calibrations at the pacific northwest laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, J. C.; Fox, R. A.

    1989-04-01

    he need is increasing for both high radiation exposures and calibration measurements that provide traceability of such exposures to national standards. The applications of high exposures include: electronic component damage studies, sterilization of medical products and food irradiation. Accurate high exposure measurements are difficult to obtain and cannot, in general, be carried out with a single dose measurement system or technique because of the wide range of doses and the variety of materials involved. This paper describes the dosimetric measurement and calibration techniques used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that make use of radiochromic dye films, thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), ionization chambers and calorimetric dosimeters. The methods used to demonstrate the consistency of PNL calibrations with national standards will also be discussed.

  14. Development of the national radionuclide dose calibrator standardisation service.

    PubMed

    van der Gaast, H; Buckman, S; Sherlock, S

    1993-03-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, acting as agent for the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics, maintains the Australian standard of measurement for activity. The standard includes all nuclear medicine gamma emitters and a new standard for pure positron emitters. Under Section 10 of the National Measurement Act 1960, if a measurement is made for a legal purpose, or if the legality of a measurement is in dispute, it can only be confirmed if the following two conditions are fulfilled: (a) that the measurement be in terms of the prescribed Australian legal units of measurement. (b) that it can be proven to be traceable to an Australian primary standard of measurement. To satisfy these requirements, radionuclide dose calibrators require a calibration report determined by Ansto. For this reason, Ansto has developed the national radionuclide dose calibrator standardisation service.

  15. A dedicated pistonphone for absolute calibration of infrasound sensors at very low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wen; He, Longbiao; Zhang, Fan; Rong, Zuochao; Jia, Shushi

    2016-02-01

    Aimed at the absolute calibration of infrasound sensors at very low frequencies, an upgraded and improved infrasonic pistonphone has been developed. The pistonphone was designed such that a very narrow clearance between the piston and its guide was realized based on an automatically-centered clearance-sealing structure, and a large volume rigid-walled chamber was also adopted, which improved the leakage time-constant of the chamber. A composite feedback control system was applied to the electromagnetic vibrator to control the precise motion of the piston. Performance tests and uncertainty analysis show that the leakage time-constant is so large, and the distortion of the sound pressure is so small, that the pistonphone can be used as a standard infrasound source in the frequency range from 0.001 Hz to 20 Hz. The low frequency property of the pistonphone has been verified through calibrating low frequency microphones. Comparison tests with the reciprocity method have shown that the pressure sensitivities from the pistonphone are not only reliable at common frequencies but also have smaller uncertainties at low frequencies.

  16. Absolute energy calibration for relativistic electron beams with pointing instability from a laser-plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, H. J.; Choi, I. W.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, I J.; Nam, K. H.; Jeong, T. M.; Lee, J.

    2012-06-15

    The pointing instability of energetic electron beams generated from a laser-driven accelerator can cause a serious error in measuring the electron spectrum with a magnetic spectrometer. In order to determine a correct electron spectrum, the pointing angle of an electron beam incident on the spectrometer should be exactly defined. Here, we present a method for absolutely calibrating the electron spectrum by monitoring the pointing angle using a scintillating screen installed in front of a permanent dipole magnet. The ambiguous electron energy due to the pointing instability is corrected by the numerical and analytical calculations based on the relativistic equation of electron motion. It is also possible to estimate the energy spread of the electron beam and determine the energy resolution of the spectrometer using the beam divergence angle that is simultaneously measured on the screen. The calibration method with direct measurement of the spatial profile of an incident electron beam has a simple experimental layout and presents the full range of spatial and spectral information of the electron beams with energies of multi-hundred MeV level, despite the limited energy resolution of the simple electron spectrometer.

  17. Absolute energy calibration for relativistic electron beams with pointing instability from a laser-plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Cha, H J; Choi, I W; Kim, H T; Kim, I J; Nam, K H; Jeong, T M; Lee, J

    2012-06-01

    The pointing instability of energetic electron beams generated from a laser-driven accelerator can cause a serious error in measuring the electron spectrum with a magnetic spectrometer. In order to determine a correct electron spectrum, the pointing angle of an electron beam incident on the spectrometer should be exactly defined. Here, we present a method for absolutely calibrating the electron spectrum by monitoring the pointing angle using a scintillating screen installed in front of a permanent dipole magnet. The ambiguous electron energy due to the pointing instability is corrected by the numerical and analytical calculations based on the relativistic equation of electron motion. It is also possible to estimate the energy spread of the electron beam and determine the energy resolution of the spectrometer using the beam divergence angle that is simultaneously measured on the screen. The calibration method with direct measurement of the spatial profile of an incident electron beam has a simple experimental layout and presents the full range of spatial and spectral information of the electron beams with energies of multi-hundred MeV level, despite the limited energy resolution of the simple electron spectrometer.

  18. Absolute calibration of a three-axis SQUID-cascade vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönau, T.; Zakosarenko, V.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, M.; Faßbinder, J. W. E.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the absolute calibration of a three-axis SQUID-cascade vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low temperature superconductor (LTS) dc SQUIDs with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT Hz-1/2. Due to the cascaded operation principle, the huge dynamic range required to resolve a measurement range of more than 50 µT with sub-pT resolution is split onto several electronic channels of less demanding precision. As a result, the measurement accuracy is less vulnerable to parameter drifts. Furthermore, the intrinsic redundancy of the setup can be used to check for systematic errors of measurement. The offset as well as scaling and directional errors of the magnetometer have been obtained by the method of scalar calibration in our laboratory, resulting in a residuum with a standard deviation of less than 0.64 nT.

  19. Absolute depth-dose-rate measurements for an 192Ir HDR brachytherapy source in water using MOSFET detectors.

    PubMed

    Zilio, Valéry Olivier; Joneja, Om Parkash; Popowski, Youri; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Chawla, Rakesh

    2006-06-01

    Reported MOSFET measurements concern mostly external radiotherapy and in vivo dosimetry. In this paper, we apply the technique for absolute dosimetry in the context of HDR brachytherapy using an 192Ir source. Measured radial dose rate distributions in water for different planes perpendicular to the source axis are presented and special attention is paid to the calibration of the R and K type detectors, and to the determination of appropriate correction factors for the sensitivity variation with the increase of the threshold voltage and the energy dependence. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulated dose rate distributions. The experimental results show a good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations: the discrepancy between experimental and Monte Carlo results being within 5% for 82% of the points and within 10% for 95% of the points. Moreover, all points except two are found to lie within the experimental uncertainties, confirming thereby the quality of the results obtained.

  20. Detection of multimode spatial correlation in PDC and application to the absolute calibration of a CCD camera.

    PubMed

    Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco; Rastello, Maria Luisa; Ruo-Berchera, Ivano

    2010-09-27

    We propose and demonstrate experimentally a new method based on the spatial entanglement for the absolute calibration of analog detectors. The idea consists on measuring the sub-shot-noise intensity correlation between two branches of parametric down conversion, containing many pairwise correlated spatial modes. We calibrate a scientific CCD camera and a preliminary evaluation of the uncertainty indicates the metrological interest of the method.

  1. SU-E-T-189: First Experimental Verification of the Accuracy of Absolute Dose Reconstruction From PET-CT Imaging of Yttrium 90 Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Veltchev, I; Fourkal, E; Doss, M; Ma, C; Meyer, J; Yu, M; Horwitz, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In the past few years there have been numerous proposals for 3D dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of patients undergoing radioembolization treatment of the liver with yttrium-90 microspheres. One of the most promising techniques uses convolution of the measured PET activity distribution with a pre-calculated Monte Carlo dose deposition kernel. The goal of the present study is to experimentally verify the accuracy of this method and to analyze the significance of various error sources. Methods: Optically stimulated luminescence detectors (OSLD) were used (NanoDot, Landauer) in this experiment. Two detectors were mounted on the central axis of a cylinder filled with water solution of yttrium-90 chloride. The total initial activity was 90mCi. The cylinder was inserted in a larger water phantom and scanned on a Siemens Biograph 16 Truepoint PET-CT scanner. Scans were performed daily over a period of 20 days to build a calibration curve for the measured absolute activity spanning 7 yttrium-90 half-lives. The OSLDs were mounted in the phantom for a predetermined period of time in order to record 2Gy dose. The measured dose was then compared to the dose reconstructed from the activity density at the location of each dosimeter. Results: Thorough error analysis of the dose reconstruction algorithm takes into account the uncertainties in the absolute PET activity, branching ratios, and nonlinearity of the calibration curve. The measured dose for 105-minute exposure on day 10 of the experiment was 219(11)cGy, while the reconstructed dose at the location of the detector was 215(47)cGy. Conclusion: We present the first experimental verification of the accuracy of the convolution algorithm for absolute dose reconstruction of yttrium-90 microspheres. The excellent agreement between the measured and calculated point doses will encourage the broad clinical adoption of the convolution-based dose reconstruction algorithm, making future quantitative dose

  2. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR CALCULATING REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR CALIBRATION CURVES USING ABSOLUTE PLASMID DNA STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In real-time quantitative PCR studies using absolute plasmid DNA standards, a calibration curve is developed to estimate an unknown DNA concentration. However, potential differences in the amplification performance of plasmid DNA compared to genomic DNA standards are often ignore...

  3. Use of Proportional Counters for Yield Measurement in Extremely Short Pulses of Fast Neutrons: Counting Statistics and Absolute Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Mayer, R. E.; Pavez, C.; Soto, L.

    2010-08-01

    A method for absolute calibration of proportional counters for pulsed fast neutrons is presented. The method is based on the use of an isotopic standard source and development of a model for counting detected events from area of a signal compounded by single piled up neutron pulses. Effects of detection counting statistics and electrical background noise are also considered.

  4. Use of Proportional Counters for Yield Measurement in Extremely Short Pulses of Fast Neutrons: Counting Statistics and Absolute Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Tarifeno-Saldivia, A.; Mayer, R. E.; Pavez, C.; Soto, L.

    2010-08-04

    A method for absolute calibration of proportional counters for pulsed fast neutrons is presented. The method is based on the use of an isotopic standard source and development of a model for counting detected events from area of a signal compounded by single piled up neutron pulses. Effects of detection counting statistics and electrical background noise are also considered.

  5. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR CALCULATING REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR CALIBRATION CURVES USING ABSOLUTE PLASMID DNA STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In real-time quantitative PCR studies using absolute plasmid DNA standards, a calibration curve is developed to estimate an unknown DNA concentration. However, potential differences in the amplification performance of plasmid DNA compared to genomic DNA standards are often ignore...

  6. Radiometric absolute noise-temperature measurement system features improved accuracy and calibration ease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W.; Ewen, H.; Haroules, G.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometric receiver system, which measures noise temperatures in degrees Kelvin, does not require cryogenic noise sources for routine operation. It eliminates radiometer calibration errors associated with RF attenuation measurements. Calibrated noise source is required only for laboratory adjustment and calibration.

  7. Test Plan for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches , alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climate-quality data collections. The CLARREO mission addresses the need to observe high-accuracy, long-term climate change trends and advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration. The current work describes the test plan for the SOLARIS which is the calibration demonstration

  8. Poster — Thur Eve — 42: Radiochromic film calibration for low-energy seed brachytherapy dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, H; Menon, G; Sloboda, R

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of radiochromic film calibration procedures used in external beam radiotherapy when applied to I-125 brachytherapy sources delivering higher doses, and to determine any necessary modifications to achieve similar accuracy in absolute dose measurements. GafChromic EBT3 film was used to measure radiation doses upwards of 35 Gy from 6 MV, 75 kVp and (∼28 keV) I-125 photon sources. A custom phantom was used for the I-125 irradiations to obtain a larger film area with nearly constant dose to reduce the effects of film heterogeneities on the optical density (OD) measurements. RGB transmission images were obtained with an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner, and calibration curves relating OD and dose using a rational function were determined for each colour channel and at each energy using a non-linear least square minimization method. Differences found between the 6 MV calibration curve and those for the lower energy sources are large enough that 6 MV beams should not be used to calibrate film for low-energy sources. However, differences between the 75 kVp and I-125 calibration curves were quite small; indicating that 75 kVp is a good choice. Compared with I-125 irradiation, this gives the advantages of lower type B uncertainties and markedly reduced irradiation time. To obtain high accuracy calibration for the dose range up to 35 Gy, two-segment piece-wise fitting was required. This yielded absolute dose measurement accuracy above 1 Gy of ∼2% for 75 kVp and ∼5% for I-125 seed exposures.

  9. A first in-flight absolute calibration of the Chilean Earth Observation Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattar, C.; Hernández, J.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.; Durán-Alarcón, C.; Olivera-Guerra, L.; Inzunza, M.; Tapia, D.; Escobar-lavín, E.

    2014-06-01

    This work describes the first in-flight absolute calibration of the "Sistema Satelital para la Observación de la Tierra" (SSOT or Fasat-C). It was performed on January 29th 2013 at Antumapu site located in the southern area of Santiago, Chile. A description of the procedure is presented which includes both ground measurement and atmospheric characterization. The Chilean satellite for Earth observation carries on board a "New AstroSat Optical Modular Instrument" (NAOMI) high-resolution pushbroom imager which provides a 1.45 m ground sampling distance in the panchromatic (0.455-0.744 μm) channel and a 5.8 m ground sampling distance for the green (0.455-0.52 μm), blue (0.528-0.588 μm), red (0.625-0.695 μm) and near-infrared (0.758-0.881 μm) channels from a 620 km orbit. Radiometric calibration was carried out in order to estimate the land leaving radiance and bidirectional reflectance at the top of the atmosphere. To correct the reflectance data for atmospheric effects, the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) code was used. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), water vapor and ozone content were obtained from MOD04, MOD05 and MOD07 products respectively, which are derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Statistical results such as BIAS, SIGMA and RMSE were calculated for the comparison between surface reflectance values and in situ measurements. Results show that the overall accuracy of the atmospherically corrected surface reflectance calculated from Fasat-C imagery can be estimated to around ±5%, with a R2 coefficient of 0.939 between atmospherically corrected reflectance values and in situ measurements. The atmospheric correction applied in this work by combining MODIS data and the 6S radiative transfer code could be used for further calibration of the Fasat-C images, although in situ atmospheric irradiance measurements are necessary to estimate reliable values of surface reflectance. Future

  10. Evaluation of clinical IMRT treatment planning using the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform for absolute and relative dose calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Benhalouche, S.; Le Maitre, A.; Visvikis, D.; Pradier, O.; Boussion, N.

    2013-02-15

    results show that GATE allows reliable simulation of complex beams in radiotherapy after an accurate LINAC modeling is validated. A simple cross-calibration procedure proposed in this work allows obtaining absolute dose values even in complex fields.

  11. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R Joseph; Guthrie, William F; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008-0.25 Å(-1), together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments that employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. The validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.

  12. Absolute reactivity calibration of accelerator-driven systems after RACE-T experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Jammes, C. C.; Geslot, B.

    2006-07-01

    The RACE-T experiments that were held in november 2005 in the ENEA-Casaccia research center near Rome allowed us to improve our knowledge of the experimental techniques for absolute reactivity calibration at either startup or shutdown phases of accelerator-driven systems. Various experimental techniques for assessing a subcritical level were inter-compared through three different subcritical configurations SC0, SC2 and SC3, about -0.5, -3 and -6 dollars, respectively. The area-ratio method based of the use of a pulsed neutron source appears as the most performing. When the reactivity estimate is expressed in dollar unit, the uncertainties obtained with the area-ratio method were less than 1% for any subcritical configuration. The sensitivity to measurement location was about slightly more than 1% and always less than 4%. Finally, it is noteworthy that the source jerk technique using a transient caused by the pulsed neutron source shutdown provides results in good agreement with those obtained from the area-ratio technique. (authors)

  13. Absolute fluorescence measurements > 1000 nm: setup design, calibration and standards (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resch-Genger, Ute; Würth, Christian; Pauli, Jutta; Hatami, Soheil; Kaiser, Martin

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in optical reporters like semiconductor quantum dots and upconversion nanophosphors with emission < 1000 nm for bioanalysis, medical diagnostics, and safety barcodes and hence, in reliable fluorescence measurements in this wavelength region, e.g., for the comparison of material performance and the rational design of new nanomaterials with improved properties [1-4]. The performance of fluorescence measurements < 800 nm and especially < 1000 nm is currently hampered by the lack of suitable methods and standards for the simple determination of the wavelength-dependent spectral responsivity of fluorescence measuring systems and the control of measured emission spectra and intensities [3-5]. This is of special relevance for nanocrystalline emitters like quantum dots and rods as well as for upconversion nanocrystals, where surface states and the accessibility of emissive states by quenchers largely control accomplishable quantum yields and hence, signal sizes and detection sensitivities from the reporter side. Here, we present the design of an integrating sphere setup for the absolute measurement of emission spectra and quantum yields in the wavelength region of 650 to 1600 nm and its calibration as well as examples for potential fluorescence standards from different reporter classes for the control of the reliability of such measurements [5]. This includes new spectral fluorescence standards for the wavelength region of 650 nm to 1000 nm as well as a set of quantum yield standards covering the wavelength region from 400 nm to 1000 nm.

  14. Temporal dynamics of sand dune bidirectional reflectance characteristics for absolute radiometric calibration of optical remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, Craig A.; Logie, Gordon; Beaver, Jason

    2016-09-01

    The use of Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) for establishing the radiometric trending of optical remote sensing systems has a long history of successful implementation. Past studies have shown that the PICS method is useful for evaluating the trend of sensors over time or cross-calibration of sensors but was not considered until recently for deriving absolute calibration. Current interest in using this approach to establish absolute radiometric calibration stems from recent research that indicates that with empirically derived models of the surface properties and careful atmospheric characterisation Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance values can be predicted and used for absolute sensor radiometric calibration. Critical to the continued development of this approach is the accurate characterization of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of PICS sites. This paper presents BRDF data collected by a high-performance portable goniometer system in order to develop a temporal BRDF model for the Algodones Dunes in California. The results demonstrated that the BRDF of a reasonably simple sand surface was complex with changes in anisotropy taking place in response to changing solar zenith angles. The nature of these complex interactions would present challenges to future model development.

  15. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    SciTech Connect

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-09-11

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k= 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k= 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  16. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-09-01

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k = 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k = 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  17. Error budget for a calibration demonstration system for the reflected solar instrument for the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  18. Error Budget for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  19. Dose Calibration of the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ISS-RAD instrument has been fabricated by Southwest Research Institute and delivered to NASA for flight to the ISS in late 2015 or early 2016. ISS-RAD is essentially two instruments that share a common interface to ISS. The two instruments are the Charged Particle Detector (CPD), which is very similar to the MSL-RAD detector on Mars, and the Fast Neutron Detector (FND), which is a boron-loaded plastic scintillator with readout optimized for the 0.5 to 10 MeV energy range. As the FND is completely new, it has been necessary to develop methodology to allow it to be used to measure the neutron dose and dose equivalent. This talk will focus on the methods developed and their implementation using calibration data obtained in quasi-monoenergetic (QMN) neutron fields at the PTB facility in Braunschweig, Germany. The QMN data allow us to determine an approximate response function, from which we estimate dose and dose equivalent contributions per detected neutron as a function of the pulse height. We refer to these as the "pSv per count" curves for dose equivalent and the "pGy per count" curves for dose. The FND is required to provide a dose equivalent measurement with an accuracy of ?10% of the known value in a calibrated AmBe field. Four variants of the analysis method were developed, corresponding to two different approximations of the pSv per count curve, and two different implementations, one for real-time analysis onboard ISS and one for ground analysis. We will show that the preferred method, when applied in either real-time or ground analysis, yields good accuracy for the AmBe field. We find that the real-time algorithm is more susceptible to chance-coincidence background than is the algorithm used in ground analysis, so that the best estimates will come from the latter.

  20. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  1. Pharmacokinetics of sildenafil after single oral doses in healthy male subjects: absolute bioavailability, food effects and dose proportionality

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Donald J; Muirhead, Gary J; Harness, Jane A

    2002-01-01

    Aims To determine the absolute bioavailability, dose proportionality and the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of single oral doses of sildenafil citrate. Methods Three open-label, randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy male subjects. Absolute bioavailability was determined by comparing pharmacokinetic data after administration of single oral and intravenous 50-mg doses of sildenafil (n = 12 subjects). Food effects were examined by comparing pharmacokinetic data for sildenafil and its primary circulating metabolite, UK-103,320, after administration of a single oral 100-mg dose in the fasted and fed states (n = 34 subjects). Dose proportionality was assessed from pharmacokinetic data obtained after administration of four single oral doses of sildenafil (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) to 32 subjects. The safety and tolerability of sildenafil were also assessed in all of these studies. Results The calculated absolute oral bioavailability of sildenafil was 41% (90% CI: 36–47). Food slowed the rate of absorption, delaying mean tmax by approximately 1 h and reducing Cmax by 29% (90% CI: 19–38). Systemic exposure, as assessed by the mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC), was reduced by 11% (90% CI: 6–16). These food effects were not considered to be of clinical significance. There was statistical evidence of nonproportionality in Cmax and AUC over the dose range 25–200 mg. However the degree of nonproportionality was small, with predicted increases in Cmax and AUC of 2.2- and 2.1-fold, respectively, for a doubling in dose, and was thought to be clinically nonsignificant. Sildenafil was well tolerated in the three studies; the majority of adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusions Sildenafil had a mean absolute bioavailability of 41%. Food caused small reductions in the rate and extent of systemic exposure; these reductions are unlikely to be of clinical significance. Across the dose range of 25–200 mg, systemic

  2. Test plan for a calibration demonstration system for the reflected solar instrument for the climate absolute radiance and refractivity observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; Hair, Jason; McAndrew, Brendan; Daw, Adrian; Jennings, Donald; Rabin, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission addresses the need to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change. One of the major objectives of CLARREO is to advance the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration at infrared and reflected solar wavelengths. This advance is required to reach the on-orbit absolute accuracy required to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps while remaining sufficiently accurate to observe climate change to within the uncertainty of the limit of natural variability. While these capabilities exist at NIST in the laboratory, there is a need to demonstrate that it can move successfully from NIST to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for future spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the test plan for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The end result of efforts with the SOLARIS CDS will be an SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climate-quality data collections.

  3. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of ALS Intensity Data: Effects on Accuracy and Target Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kaasalainen, Sanna; Pyysalo, Ulla; Krooks, Anssi; Vain, Ants; Kukko, Antero; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaasalainen, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of airborne laser scanning (ALS) intensity data aims at retrieving a value related to the target scattering properties, which is independent on the instrument or flight parameters. The aim of a calibration procedure is also to be able to compare results from different flights and instruments, but practical applications are sparsely available, and the performance of calibration methods for this purpose needs to be further assessed. We have studied the radiometric calibration with data from three separate flights and two different instruments using external calibration targets. We find that the intensity data from different flights and instruments can be compared to each other only after a radiometric calibration process using separate calibration targets carefully selected for each flight. The calibration is also necessary for target classification purposes, such as separating vegetation from sand using intensity data from different flights. The classification results are meaningful only for calibrated intensity data. PMID:22346660

  4. Exploring a Black Body Source as an Absolute Radiometric Calibration Standard and Comparison with a NIST Traced Lamp Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas; Sarture, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is required for the scientific research and application objectives pursued with the spectroscopic measurements. Specifically calibration is required for: inter-comparison of AVIRIS data measured at different locations and at different times; analysis of AVIRIS data with data measured by other instruments; and analysis of AVIRIS data in conjunction with computer models. The primary effect of radiometric calibration is conversion of AVIRIS instrument response values (digitized numbers, or DN) to units of absolute radiance. For example, a figure shows the instrument response spectrum measured by AVIRIS over a portion of Rogers Dry Lake, California, and another figure shows the same spectrum calibrated to radiance. Only the calibrated spectrum may be quantitatively analyzed for science research and application objectives. Since the initial development of the AVIRIS instrument-radiometric calibration has been based upon a 1000-W irradiance lamp with a calibration traced to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are several advantages to this irradiance-lamp calibration approach. First, the considerable effort of NIST backs up the calibration. Second, by changing the distance to the lamp, the output can closely span the radiance levels measured by AVIRIS. Third, this type of standard is widely used. Fourth, these calibrated lamps are comparatively inexpensive. Conversely, there are several disadvantages to this approach as well. First, the lamp is not a primary standard. Second, the lamp output characteristics may change in an unknown manner through time. Third, it is difficult to assess, constrain, or improve the calibration uncertainty delivered with the lamp. In an attempt to explore the effect and potentially address some of these disadvantages a set of analyses and measurements comparing an irradiance lamp with a black-body source have been completed

  5. SOLAR/SOLSPEC: Scientific Objectives, Instrument Performance and Its Absolute Calibration Using a Blackbody as Primary Standard Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, G.; Foujols, T.; Bolsée, D.; Gillotay, D.; Hersé, M.; Peetermans, W.; Decuyper, W.; Mandel, H.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.

    2009-06-01

    SOLAR is a set of three solar instruments measuring the total and spectral absolute irradiance from 16 nm to 3080 nm for solar, atmospheric and climatology physics. It is an external payload for the COLUMBUS laboratory launched on 7 February 2008. The mission’s primary objective is the measurement of the solar irradiance with the highest possible accuracy, and its variability using the following instruments: SOL-ACES (SOLar Auto-Calibrating EUV/UV Spectrophotometers) consists of four grazing incidence planar gratings measuring from 16 nm to 220 nm; SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECtrum) consists of three double gratings spectrometers, covering the range 165 nm to 3080 nm; and SOVIM (SOlar Variability Irradiance Monitor) is combining two types of absolute radiometers and three-channel filter - radiometers. SOLSPEC and SOL-ACES have been calibrated by primary standard radiation sources of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Below we describe SOLSPEC, and its performance.

  6. Absolute Calibration of Image Plate for electrons at energy between 100 keV and 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Back, N L; Eder, D C; Ping, Y; Song, P M; Throop, A

    2007-12-10

    The authors measured the absolute response of image plate (Fuji BAS SR2040) for electrons at energies between 100 keV to 4 MeV using an electron spectrometer. The electron source was produced from a short pulse laser irradiated on the solid density targets. This paper presents the calibration results of image plate Photon Stimulated Luminescence PSL per electrons at this energy range. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX results are also presented for three representative incident angles onto the image plates and corresponding electron energies depositions at these angles. These provide a complete set of tools that allows extraction of the absolute calibration to other spectrometer setting at this electron energy range.

  7. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Narrow-Swath Imaging Sensors with Reference to Non-Coincident Wide-Swath Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurtis; Lockwood, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    An inter-calibration method is developed to provide absolute radiometric calibration of narrow-swath imaging sensors with reference to non-coincident wide-swath sensors. The method predicts at-sensor radiance using non-coincident imagery from the reference sensor and knowledge of spectral reflectance of the test site. The imagery of the reference sensor is restricted to acquisitions that provide similar view and solar illumination geometry to reduce uncertainties due to directional reflectance effects. Spectral reflectance of the test site is found with a simple iterative radiative transfer method using radiance values of a well-understood wide-swath sensor and spectral shape information based on historical ground-based measurements. At-sensor radiance is calculated for the narrow-swath sensor using this spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters that are also based on historical in situ measurements. Results of the inter-calibration method show agreement on the 2 5 percent level in most spectral regions with the vicarious calibration technique relying on coincident ground-based measurements referred to as the reflectance-based approach. While the variability of the inter-calibration method based on non-coincident image pairs is significantly larger, results are consistent with techniques relying on in situ measurements. The method is also insensitive to spectral differences between the sensors by transferring to surface spectral reflectance prior to prediction of at-sensor radiance. The utility of this inter-calibration method is made clear by its flexibility to utilize image pairings with acquisition dates differing in excess of 30 days allowing frequent absolute calibration comparisons between wide- and narrow-swath sensors.

  8. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager using the reflectance-based approach and the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Anderson, Nikolaus; Thome, Kurtis; Biggar, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Landsat 8 was launched on 11 February 2013 as the newest platform in the Landsat program. It contains two Earthobserving instruments, one of which is the Operational Land Imager (OLI). OLI includes an onboard radiometric calibration system that is used to monitor changes in its responsivity throughout the mission lifetime, and it consists of Spectralon solar diffuser panels as well as tungsten lamp assemblies. External techniques are used to monitor both OLI and its calibration system, and they include lunar views, side slither maneuvers of the satellite, and ground-based vicarious calibration. This work presents the absolute radiometric calibration results for Landsat 8 OLI that were obtained using two ground-based measurement techniques. The first is the reflectance-based approach, where measurements of atmospheric and surface properties are made during a Landsat 8 overpass, and it requires personnel to be on site during the time of measurement. The second uses the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS), which was developed by the Remote Sensing Group in the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona so that radiometric calibration data can be collected without the requirement of on-site personnel. It allows more data to be collected annually, which increases the temporal sampling of trending results.

  9. Calibration-free absolute quantification of optical absorption coefficients using acoustic spectra in 3D photoacoustic microscopy of biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zijian; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V

    2010-06-15

    Optical absorption is closely associated with many physiological important parameters, such as the concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and it can be used to quantify the concentrations of nonfluorescent molecules. We propose a method to use acoustic spectra of photoacoustic signals to quantify the absolute optical absorption. This method is self-calibrating and thus insensitive to variations in the optical fluence. Factors such as system bandwidth and acoustic attenuation can affect the quantification but can be canceled by dividing the acoustic spectra measured at two optical wavelengths. Using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy, we quantified the absolute optical absorption of black ink samples with various concentrations. We also quantified both the concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in a live mouse in absolute units.

  10. Determining the importance of model calibration for forecasting absolute/relative changes in streamflow from LULC and climate changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Norman, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) and climate changes are important drivers of change in streamflow. Assessing the impact of LULC and climate changes on streamflow is typically done with a calibrated and validated watershed model. However, there is a debate on the degree of calibration required. The objective of this study was to quantify the variation in estimated relative and absolute changes in streamflow associated with LULC and climate changes with different calibration approaches. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied in an uncalibrated (UC), single outlet calibrated (OC), and spatially-calibrated (SC) mode to compare the relative and absolute changes in streamflow at 14 gaging stations within the Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona, USA. For this purpose, the effect of 3 LULC, 3 precipitation (P), and 3 temperature (T) scenarios were tested individually. For the validation period, Percent Bias (PBIAS) values were >100% with the UC model for all gages, the values were between 0% and 100% with the OC model and within 20% with the SC model. Changes in streamflow predicted with the UC and OC models were compared with those of the SC model. This approach implicitly assumes that the SC model is “ideal”. Results indicated that the magnitude of both absolute and relative changes in streamflow due to LULC predicted with the UC and OC results were different than those of the SC model. The magnitude of absolute changes predicted with the UC and SC models due to climate change (both P and T) were also significantly different, but were not different for OC and SC models. Results clearly indicated that relative changes due to climate change predicted with the UC and OC were not significantly different than that predicted with the SC models. This result suggests that it is important to calibrate the model spatially to analyze the effect of LULC change but not as important for analyzing the relative change in streamflow due to climate change. This

  11. Calibration of the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator for (18)F.

    PubMed

    Mo, L; Reinhard, M I; Davies, J B; Alexiev, D; Baldock, C

    2006-04-01

    Primary standardisation was performed on a solution of (18)F using the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency-tracing extrapolation method with (60)Co used as a tracer nuclide. The result was used to calibrate the ANSTO secondary standard ionisation chamber which is used to disseminate Australian activity standards for gamma emitters. Using the secondary activity standard for (18)F, the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Quality Control (QC) Section was calibrated. The dial setting number recommended by the manufacturer for the measurement of the activity of (18)F is 439. In this work, the dial setting numbers for the activity measurement of the solution of (18)F in Wheaton vials were experimentally determined to be 443+/-12, 446+/-12, 459+/-11, 473+/-15 for 0.1, 1, 4.5 and 9ml solution volumes, respectively. The uncertainties given above are expanded uncertainties (k=2) giving an estimated level of confidence of 95%. The activities determined using the manufacturer recommended setting number 439 are 0.8%, 1.4%, 4.0% and 6.5% higher than the standardised activities, respectively. It is recommended that a single dial setting number of 459 determined for 4.5ml is used for 0.1-9ml solution in Wheaton vials in order to simplify the operation procedure. With this setting the expended uncertainty (k=2) in the activity readout from the Capintec dose calibrator would be less than 6.2%.

  12. The absolute amplitude calibration of the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar - An intercomparison with other L-band radar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D.; Werner, C.; Wall, S.

    1983-01-01

    The absolute amplitude calibration of the spaceborne Seasat SAR data set is presented based on previous relative calibration studies. A scale factor making it possible to express the perceived radar brightness of a scene in units of sigma-zero is established. The system components are analyzed for error contribution, and the calibration techniques are introduced for each stage. These include: A/D converter saturation tests; prevention of clipping in the processing step; and converting the digital image into the units of received power. Experimental verification was performed by screening and processing the data of the lava flow surrounding the Pisgah Crater in Southern California, for which previous C-130 airborne scatterometer data were available. The average backscatter difference between the two data sets is estimated to be 2 dB in the brighter, and 4 dB in the dimmer regions. For the SAR a calculated uncertainty of 3 dB is expected.

  13. Absolute intensity calibration of the Wendelstein 7-X high efficiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiche, Albert; Biel, Wolfgang; Marchuk, Oleksandr; Burhenn, Rainer

    2008-09-01

    The new high effiency extreme ultraviolet overview spectrometer (HEXOS) system for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X is now mounted for testing and adjustment at the tokamak experiment for technology oriented research (TEXTOR). One part of the testing phase was the intensity calibration of the two double spectrometers which in total cover a spectral range from 2.5 to 160.0 nm with overlap. This work presents the current intensity calibration curves for HEXOS and describes the method of calibration. The calibration was implemented with calibrated lines of a hollow cathode light source and the branching ratio technique. The hollow cathode light source provides calibrated lines from 16 up to 147 nm. We could extend the calibrated region in the spectrometers down to 2.8 nm by using the branching line pairs emitted by an uncalibrated pinch extreme ultraviolet light source as well as emission lines from boron and carbon in TEXTOR plasmas. In total HEXOS is calibrated from 2.8 up to 147 nm, which covers most of the observable wavelength region. The approximate density of carbon in the range of the minor radius from 18 to 35 cm in a TEXTOR plasma determined by simulating calibrated vacuum ultraviolet emission lines with a transport code was 5.5×1017 m-3 which corresponds to a local carbon concentration of 2%.

  14. Absolute calibration of photostimulable image plate detectors used as (0.5-20 MeV) high-energy proton detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mančić, A.; Fuchs, J.; Antici, P.; Gaillard, S. A.; Audebert, P.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the absolute calibration of photostimulable image plates (IPs) used as proton detectors is presented. The calibration is performed in a wide range of proton energies (0.5-20MeV) by exposing simultaneously the IP and calibrated detectors (radiochromic films and solid state detector CR39) to a source of broadband laser-accelerated protons, which are spectrally resolved. The final result is a calibration curve that enables retrieving the proton number from the IP signal.

  15. Differential absorbed dose distributions in lineal energy for neutrons and gamma rays at the mono-energetic neutron calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Takada, M; Baba, M; Yamaguchi, H; Fujitaka, K

    2005-01-01

    Absorbed dose distributions in lineal energy for neutrons and gamma rays of mono-energetic neutron sources from 140 keV to 15 MeV were measured in the Fast Neutron Laboratory at Tohoku University. By using both a tissue-equivalent plastic walled counter and a graphite-walled low-pressure proportional counter, absorbed dose distributions in lineal energy for neutrons were obtained separately from those for gamma rays. This method needs no knowledge of energy spectra and dose distributions for gamma rays. The gamma-ray contribution in this neutron calibration field >1 MeV neutron was <3%, while for <550 keV it was >40%. The measured neutron absolute absorbed doses per unit neutron fluence agreed with the LA150 evaluated kerma factors. By using this method, absorbed dose distributions in lineal energy for neutrons and gamma rays in an unknown neutron field can be obtained separately.

  16. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Kline, R. Joseph; Guthrie, William F.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008–0.25 Å−1, together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments that employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. The validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification. PMID:28381972

  17. ABSOLUTE FLUX CALIBRATION OF THE IRAC INSTRUMENT ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE FLUX STANDARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlin, R. C.; Gordon, K. D.; Deustua, S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Flanagan, K.; Kalirai, J.; Meixner, M.; Rieke, G. H.; Engelbracht, C.; Su, K. Y. L.; Ardila, D.; Tremblay, P.-E.

    2011-05-15

    The absolute flux calibration of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-calibrate the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST calibration standards. The flux calibration constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3%, 1.9%, 2.0%, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC calibration of Reach et al., i.e., in agreement within their estimated errors of {approx}2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data reduction and secondarily in the spectral energy distributions of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 {mu}m band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. are about 1.5% {+-} 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 {mu}m result.

  18. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Allen, Andrew J.; Zhang, Fan; Kline, R. Joseph; ...

    2017-03-07

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008–0.25 Å–1, together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments that employmore » a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. As a result, the validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification.« less

  19. Comparison of absolute gain photometric calibration between Planck/HFI and Herschel/SPIRE at 545 and 857 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertincourt, B.; Lagache, G.; Martin, P. G.; Schulz, B.; Conversi, L.; Dassas, K.; Maurin, L.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Crill, B. P.; Dole, H.; Eales, S.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Perdereau, O.

    2016-04-01

    We compare the absolute gain photometric calibration of the Planck/HFI and Herschel/SPIRE instruments on diffuse emission. The absolute calibration of HFI and SPIRE each relies on planet flux measurements and comparison with theoretical far-infrared emission models of planetary atmospheres. We measure the photometric cross calibration between the instruments at two overlapping bands, 545 GHz/500 μm and 857 GHz/350 μm. The SPIRE maps used have been processed in the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (Version 12) and the HFI data are from the 2015 Public Data Release 2. For our study we used 15 large fields observed with SPIRE, which cover a total of about 120 deg2. We have selected these fields carefully to provide high signal-to-noise ratio, avoid residual systematics in the SPIRE maps, and span a wide range of surface brightness. The HFI maps are bandpass-corrected to match the emission observed by the SPIRE bandpasses. The SPIRE maps are convolved to match the HFI beam and put on a common pixel grid. We measure the cross-calibration relative gain between the instruments using two methods in each field, pixel-to-pixel correlation and angular power spectrum measurements. The SPIRE/HFI relative gains are 1.047 (±0.0069) and 1.003 (±0.0080) at 545 and 857 GHz, respectively, indicating very good agreement between the instruments. These relative gains deviate from unity by much less than the uncertainty of the absolute extended emission calibration, which is about 6.4% and 9.5% for HFI and SPIRE, respectively, but the deviations are comparable to the values 1.4% and 5.5% for HFI and SPIRE if the uncertainty from models of the common calibrator can be discounted. Of the 5.5% uncertainty for SPIRE, 4% arises from the uncertainty of the effective beam solid angle, which impacts the adopted SPIRE point source to extended source unit conversion factor, highlighting that as a focus for refinement.

  20. Landsat-7 ETM+ On-Orbit Reflective-Band Radiometric Stability and Absolute Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Barsi, Julia A.; Kaita, Ed; Helder, Dennis L.; Barker, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The Landsat-7 spacecraft carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument. This instrument images the Earth land surface in eight parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, termed spectral bands. These spectral images are used to monitor changes in the land surface, so a consistent relationship, i.e., calibration, between the image data and the Earth surface brightness, is required. The ETM+ has several on- board calibration devices that are used to monitor this calibration. The best on-board calibration source employs a flat white painted reference panel and has indicated changes of between 0.5% to 2% per year in the ETM+ response, depending on the spectral band. However, most of these changes are believed to be caused by changes in the reference panel, as opposed to changes in the instrument's sensitivity. This belief is based partially on on-orbit calibrations using instrumented ground sites and observations of "invariant sites", hyper-arid sites of the Sahara and Arabia. Changes determined from these data sets indicate are 0.1% - 0.6% per year. Tests and comparisons to other sensors also indicate that the uncertainty of the calibration is at the 5% level.

  1. Flux Density Absolute Measurements of Supernova Remnants Using Two-Temperature Blackbody Calibration Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugin, N. A.; Kuznetsova, I. P.; Razin, V. A.

    The two-temperature standard of noise radio emission consisted of two identical "black" disks with different temperatures is used to increase the accuracy of absolute measurements of cosmic source radio emission flux densities. A brief description is given to the construction of the measuring facility at the RAO NIRFI "Staraya Pustyn'", the measurement procedures and data processing with taking into account apparatus and methodical factors. The results are given of the absolute measurements made in 2003 of the radio emission flux densities of SNRs Cassiopeia A and Taurus A and the radio galaxy Cygnus A at frequencies 2829 and 8834 MHz.

  2. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of MODIS using the irradiance-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xin; Zhao, Chun-yan; Qiu, Gang-gang; Zheng, Xiao-bing

    2016-10-01

    In order to reduce the calibration uncertainty of the reflectance-based method brought by the assumption of the aerosol model, the irradiance-based method, known as improved reflectance-based method, was proposed. The irradiance-based method is described in this paper. The radiometric calibration field campaign was performed at Dunhuang test site on 27 August, 2014. A hyperspectral irradiance meter (HSIM) developed by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (AIOFM) was used to measure the diffuse-to-global spectral irradiance ratio. The irradiance-based method and the reflectance-based method were performed to calibrate the first four bands of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The results of two methods were compared with result of MODIS on-board calibrator. The comparison shows that the result of irradiance-based method has a good consistency with on-board calibration and reflectance-based method results. The difference of calibration coefficients between irradiance-based and on-board method was less than 1.4%. Due to the limitations of the irradiance-based method, a clear sky and stable atmospheric condition is required for the entire half of the calibration day to provide the data necessary for the extrapolation of diffuse-to-global ratio in viewing direction. A study on the effects of aerosol mode assumption on the final apparent reflectance was performed on both the irradiance-based method and the reflectance-based method by selecting different aerosol modes to predict the apparent reflectance. The results show that aerosol mode assumption has a great effect on the reflectance-based method, however slight effect on the irradiance-based method.

  3. Absolute calibration of a variable attenuator using few-photon pulses.

    PubMed

    Levine, Zachary H; Glebov, Boris L; Pintar, Adam L; Migdall, Alan L

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate the ability to calibrate a variable optical attenuator directly at the few-photon level using a superconducting Transition Edge Sensor (TES). Because of the inherent linearity of photon-number resolving detection, no external calibrations are required, even for the energy of the laser pulses, which ranged from means of 0.15 to 18 photons per pulse at the detector. To verify this method, calibrations were compared to an independent conventional calibration made at much higher photon fluxes using analog detectors. In all cases, the attenuations estimated by the two methods agree within their uncertainties.Our few-photon measurement determined attenuations using the Poisson-Influenced K-Means Algorithm (PIKA) to extract mean numbers of photons per pulse along with the uncertainties of these means. The robustness of the method is highlighted by the agreement of the two calibrations even in the presence of significant drifts in the optical power over the course of the experiment.Work of the United States Government. Not subject to copyright.

  4. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement conditions are described for an intensive field campaign at White Sands Missile Range for the calibration of the AVHRRs on NOAA-9, NOAA-10 and NOAA-11, LANDSAT-4 TM and SPOT. Three different methods for calibration of AVHRRs by reference to a ground surface site are reported, and results from these methods are compared. Significant degradations in NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 AVHRR responsivities occurred since prelaunch calibrations were completed. As of February 1988, degradations in NOAA-9 AVHRR responsivities were on the order of 37 percent in channel and 41 percent in channel 2, and for the NOAA-10 AVHRR these degradations were 42 and 59 percent in channels 1 and 2, respectively.

  5. Monte Carlo calculation of the sensitivity of a commercial dose calibrator to gamma and beta radiation.

    PubMed

    Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Valley, Jean-François; Bulling, Shelley; Bochud, François O

    2004-06-01

    The detection process used in a commercial dose calibrator was modeled using the GEANT 3 Monte Carlo code. Dose calibrator efficiency for gamma and beta emitters, and the response to monoenergetic photons and electrons was calculated. The model shows that beta emitters below 2.5 MeV deposit energy indirectly in the detector through bremsstrahlung produced in the chamber wall or in the source itself. Higher energy beta emitters (E > 2.5 MeV) deposit energy directly in the chamber sensitive volume, and dose calibrator sensitivity increases abruptly for these radionuclides. The Monte Carlo calculations were compared with gamma and beta emitter measurements. The calculations show that the variation in dose calibrator efficiency with measuring conditions (source volume, container diameter, container wall thickness and material, position of the source within the calibrator) is relatively small and can be considered insignificant for routine measurement applications. However, dose calibrator efficiency depends strongly on the inner-wall thickness of the detector.

  6. Absolute near-infrared refractometry with a calibrated tilted fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjun; Mandia, David J; Barry, Seán T; Albert, Jacques

    2015-04-15

    The absolute refractive indices (RIs) of water and other liquids are determined with an uncertainty of ±0.001 at near-infrared wavelengths by using the tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) cladding mode resonances of a standard single-mode fiber to measure the critical angle for total internal reflection at the interface between the fiber and its surroundings. The necessary condition to obtain absolute RIs (instead of measuring RI changes) is a thorough characterization of the dispersion of the core mode effective index of the TFBG across the full range of its cladding mode resonance spectrum. This technique is shown to be competitive with the best available measurements of the RIs of water and NaCl solutions at wavelengths in the vicinity of 1550 nm.

  7. Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration to 1% from the FUV through the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, David

    2006-07-01

    We are requesting additional support to complete the work now being carried out under the Cycle 14 archive program, HST-AR-10654. The most critical component of that effort is an accurate determination of the STIS spectrometer LSF, so that we may correctly model the infill of the Balmer line cores by light redistributed from the wings and adjacent continuum. That is the essential input for obtaining accurate and unbiased effective temperatures and gravities, and hence calibrated fluxes, via line profile fitting of the WD calibration standards. To evaluate the published STIS LSF, we investigated the spectral images of the calibration targets, yielding several significant results: a} the STIS LSF varies significantly; b} existing observation-based spectroscopic LSFs or imaging PSFs are inadequate for deriving suitable spectroscopic LSFs; c} accounting for the PSF/LSF variability will improve spectrophotometric accuracy; d} the LSFs used for model fits must be consistent with the extraction process details; and, e} TinyTim-generated PSFs, with some modifications, provide the most suitable basis for producing the required LSFs that are tailored to each individual spectral observation. Based on our current {greatly improved} state of knowlege of the instrumental effects, we are now requesting additional support to complete the work needed to generate correct LSFs, and then carry out the analyses that were the subject of the original proposal.Our goal is the same: to produce a significant improvement to the existing HST calibration. The current calibration is based on three primary DA white dwarf standards, GD 71, GD 153,and G 191-B2B. The standard fluxes are calculated using NLTE models, with effective temperatures and gravities that were derived from Balmer line fits using LTE models. We propose to improve the accuracy and internal consistency of the calibration by deriving corrected effective temperatures and gravities based on fitting the observed line profiles with

  8. The Importance of Post-Launch, On-Orbit Absolute Radiometric Calibration for Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuester, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing is a powerful tool for monitoring changes on the surface of the Earth at a local or global scale. The use of data sets from different sensors across many platforms, or even a single sensor over time, can bring a wealth of information when exploring anthropogenic changes to the environment. For example, variations in crop yield and health for a specific region can be detected by observing changes in the spectral signature of the particular species under study. However, changes in the atmosphere, sun illumination and viewing geometries during image capture can result in inconsistent image data, hindering automated information extraction. Additionally, an incorrect spectral radiometric calibration will lead to false or misleading results. It is therefore critical that the data being used are normalized and calibrated on a regular basis to ensure that physically derived variables are as close to truth as is possible. Although most earth observing sensors are well-calibrated in a laboratory prior to launch, a change in the radiometric response of the system is inevitable due to thermal, mechanical or electrical effects caused during the rigors of launch or by the space environment itself. Outgassing and exposure to ultra-violet radiation will also have an effect on the sensor's filter responses. Pre-launch lamps and other laboratory calibration systems can also fall short in representing the actual output of the Sun. A presentation of the differences in the results of some example cases (e.g. geology, agriculture) derived for science variables using pre- and post-launch calibration will be presented using DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 super spectral sensor, with bands in the visible and near infrared, as well as in the shortwave infrared. Important defects caused by an incomplete (i.e. pre-launch only) calibration will be discussed using validation data where available. In addition, the benefits of using a well-validated surface reflectance product will be

  9. Electron-photon coincidence technique for the absolute calibration of VUV detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcadams, R.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described whereby VUV photon detectors can be accurately calibrated. This method is illustrated by taking the 58.4-nm transition of He as an example. The technique consists of crossing a monoenergetic electron beam with a beam of He atoms. When inelastically scattered electrons which have excited the 2 1P state are detected in coincidence with the 58.4-nm photons emitted in the decay of the excited state, the interaction volume formed by the crossed beams constitutes a standard source of photons. By comparing the number of detected coincidences with the predicted number the calibration can be made. A total detector efficiency of 0.024 + or - 0.003 is obtained for a Galileo 4830 channeltron.

  10. Absolute calibration method for fast-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Mark D.; Frogget, Brent; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Maron, Yitzhak; Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.

    2010-04-01

    This report outlines a convenient method to calibrate fast (<1ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in the A-K gap of electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA). On RITS, light is collected through a small diameter (200 micron) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator (F/7 optics). To calibrate such a system, it is necessary to efficiently couple light from a spectral lamp into a 200 micron diameter fiber, split it into its spectral components, with 10 Angstroms or less resolution, and record it on a streak camera with 1ns or less temporal resolution.

  11. Absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using a diffraction-based iterative method.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xinguo; Chen, Zhiqiang; Duffy, Thomas S

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we report a method of precise and fast absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using an iterative x-ray diffraction based method. Although accurate x-ray energy calibration is indispensable for x-ray energy-sensitive scattering and diffraction experiments, there is still a lack of effective methods to precisely calibrate energy over a wide range, especially when normal transmission monitoring is not an option and complicated micro-focusing optics are fixed in place. It is found that by using an iterative algorithm the x-ray energy is only tied to the relative offset of sample-to-detector distance, which can be readily varied with high precision of the order of 10(-5) -10(-6) spatial resolution using gauge blocks. Even starting with arbitrary initial values of 0.1 Å, 0.3 Å, and 0.4 Å, the iteration process converges to a value within 3.5 eV for 31.122 keV x-rays after three iterations. Different common diffraction standards CeO(2), Au, and Si show an energy deviation of 14 eV. As an application, the proposed method has been applied to determine the energy-sensitive first sharp diffraction peak of network forming GeO(2) glass at high pressure, exhibiting a distinct behavior in the pressure range of 2-4 GPa. Another application presented is pair distribution function measurement using calibrated high-energy x-rays at 82.273 keV. Unlike the traditional x-ray absorption-based calibration method, the proposed approach does not rely on any edges of specific elements, and is applicable to the hard x-ray region where no appropriate absorption edge is available.

  12. Absolute Spectrophotometric Calibration to 1% from the FUV through the near-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, David

    2005-07-01

    We propose a significant improvement to the existing HST calibration. The current calibration is based on three primary DA white dwarf standards, GD 71, GD 153, and G 191-B2B. The standard fluxes are calculated using NLTE models, with effective temperatures and gravities that were derived from Balmer line fits using LTE models. We propose to improve the accuracy and internal consistency of the calibration by deriving corrected effective temperatures and gravities based on fitting the observed line profiles with updated NLTE models, and including the fit results from multiple STIS spectra, rather than the {usually} 1 or 2 ground-based spectra used previously. We will also determine the fluxes for 5 new, fainter primary or secondary standards, extending the standard V magnitude lower limit from 13.4 to 16.5, and extending the wavelength coverage from 0.1 to 2.5 micron. The goal is to achieve an overall flux accuracy of 1%, which will be needed, for example, for the upcoming supernova survey missions to measure the equation of state of the dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of the universe.

  13. Improvement in absolute calibration accuracy of Landsat-5 TM with Landsat-7 ETM+ data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Micijevic, E.; Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and quantify changes in the Earth's environment depends on satellites sensors that can provide calibrated, consistent measurements of Earth's surface features through time. A critical step in this process is to put image data from subsequent generations of sensors onto a common radiometric scale. To evaluate Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper's (TM) utility in this role, image pairs from the L5 TM and Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors were compared. This approach involves comparison of surface observations based on image statistics from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The results indicate a significant improvement in the consistency of L5 TM data with respect to L7 ETM+ data, achieved using a revised Look-Up-Table (LUT) procedure as opposed to the historical Internal Calibrator (IC) procedure previously used in the L5 TM product generation system. The average percent difference in reflectance estimates obtained from the L5 TM agree with those from the L7 ETM+ in the Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) bands to within four percent and in the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands to within six percent.

  14. Determination of the efficiency of commercially available dose calibrators for beta-emitters.

    PubMed

    Valley, Jean-François; Bulling, Shelley; Leresche, Michel; Wastiel, Claude

    2003-03-01

    The goals of this investigation are to determine whether commercially available dose calibrators can be used to measure the activity of beta-emitting radionuclides used in pain palliation and to establish whether manufacturer-supplied calibration factors are appropriate for this purpose. Six types of commercially available dose calibrators were studied. Dose calibrator response was controlled for 5 gamma-emitters used for calibration or typically encountered in routine use. For the 4 most commonly used beta-emitters ((32)P, (90)Sr, (90)Y, and (169)Er) dose calibrator efficiency was determined in the syringe geometry used for clinical applications. Efficiency of the calibrators was also measured for (153)Sm and (186)Re, 2 beta-emitters with significant gamma-contributions. Source activities were traceable to national standards. All calibrators measured gamma-emitters with a precision of +/-10%, in compliance with Swiss regulatory requirements. For beta-emitters, dose calibrator intrinsic efficiency depends strongly on the maximal energy of the beta-spectrum and is notably low for (169)Er. Manufacturer-supplied calibration factors give accurate results for beta-emitters with maximal beta-energy in the middle-energy range (1 MeV) but are not appropriate for use with low-energy ((169)Er) or high-energy ((90)Y) beta-emitters. beta-emitters with significant gamma-contributions behave like gamma-emitters. Commercially available dose calibrators have an intrinsic efficiency that is sufficient for the measurement of beta-emitters, including beta-emitters with a low maximum beta-energy. Manufacturer-supplied calibration factors are reliable for gamma-emitters and beta-emitters in the middle-energy range. For low- and high-energy beta-emitters, the use of manufacturer-supplied calibration factors introduces significant measurement inaccuracy.

  15. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  16. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2(0), respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  17. The spatial relations between stimulus and response determine an absolute visuo-haptic calibration in pantomime-grasping.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah Jazi, Shirin; Heath, Matthew

    2017-03-24

    Pantomime-grasps entail a response to an area adjacent to (i.e., spatially dissociated pantomime-grasp), or previously occupied by (i.e., no-target pantomime-grasp) a target. Previous work has reported that pantomime-grasps differ kinematically from naturalistic grasps (i.e., grasping a physical target object) - a result taken to evince that pantomime-grasps are perception-based and mediated via relative visual information. However, such actions differ not only in terms of their visual properties, but also because the former precludes haptic feedback related to a target's absolute size. The current study provides four experiments examining whether experimenter-induced haptic feedback influences the information mediating spatially dissociated and no-target pantomime-grasps. Just-noticeable-difference scores were computed to determine whether grasps adhered to, or violated, the relative psychophysical properties of Weber's law. Spatially dissociated pantomime-grasps performed with haptic feedback adhered to Weber's law (Experiments 1-3), whereas their no-target pantomime-grasp counterparts violated the law (Experiment 4). Accordingly, we propose that the top-down demands of decoupling stimulus-response relations in spatially dissociated pantomime-grasping renders aperture shaping via a visual percept that is not directly influenced by the integration of haptic feedback. In turn, the decreased top-down demands of no-target pantomime-grasps allows haptic feedback to serve as a reliable sensory resource supporting an absolute visuo-haptic calibration.

  18. Dose calibrator manufacturer-dependent bias in assays of ¹²³I.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Denis E; Cessna, Jeffrey T; Golas, Daniel B; Young, Rheannan K; Zimmerman, Brian E

    2014-08-01

    Calibration factors for commercial ionization chambers (i.e. dose calibrators) were determined for a solution of (123)I; the activity was based on the 1976 NBS standard. A link between the NIST standard and the International Reference System (SIR) was established. The two major U.S. dose calibrator manufacturers recommend oppositely biased calibration factors, giving a spread of 11.3% in measured activities. With modern quantitative imaging techniques capable of ≤10% accuracy, this bias for a SPECT nuclide is highly significant.

  19. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  20. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; ...

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,more » comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.« less

  1. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J. Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-15

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  2. Evaluation of interspecimen trypsin digestion efficiency prior to multiple reaction monitoring-based absolute protein quantification with native protein calibrators.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Irene; Smit, Nico P M; Romijn, Fred P H T M; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Deelder, André M; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Cobbaert, Christa M

    2013-12-06

    Implementation of quantitative clinical chemistry proteomics (qCCP) requires targeted proteomics approaches, usually involving bottom-up multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) with stable-isotope labeled standard (SIS) peptides, to move toward more accurate measurements. Two aspects of qCCP that deserve special attention are (1) proper calibration and (2) the assurance of consistent digestion. Here, we describe the evaluation of tryptic digestion efficiency by monitoring various signature peptides, missed cleavages, and modifications during proteolysis of apolipoprotein A-I and B in normo- and hypertriglyceridemic specimens. Absolute quantification of apolipoprotein A-I and B was performed by LC-MRM-MS with SIS peptide internal standards at two time points (4 and 20 h), using three native protein calibrators. Comparison with an immunoturbidimetric assay revealed recoveries of 99.4 ± 6.5% for apolipoprotein A-I and 102.6 ± 7.2% for apolipoprotein B after 4 h of trypsin digestion. Protein recoveries after 20 h trypsin incubation equaled 95.9 ± 6.9% and 106.0 ± 10.0% for apolipoproteins A-I and B, respectively. In conclusion, the use of metrologically traceable, native protein calibrators looks promising for accurate quantification of apolipoprotein A-I and B. Selection of rapidly formed peptides, that is, with no or minor missed cleavages, and the use of short trypsin incubation times for these efficiently cleaved peptides are likely to further reduce the variability introduced by trypsin digestion and to improve the traceability of test results to reach the desirable analytical performance for clinical chemistry application.

  3. Absolute sensitivity calibration of vacuum and extreme ultraviolet spectrometer systems and Z{sub eff} measurement based on bremsstrahlung continuum in HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Hangyu; Cui Zhengying; Fu Bingzhong; Sun Ping; Gao Yadong; Xu Yuan; Lu Ping; Yang Qingwei; Duan Xuru; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Dong Chunfeng

    2012-10-15

    A grazing-incidence flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer has been newly developed in HL-2A tokamak. Typical spectral lines are observed from intrinsic impurities of carbon, oxygen, iron, and extrinsic impurity of helium in the wavelength range of 20 A-500 A. Bremsstrahlung continuum is measured at different electron densities of HL-2A discharges to calibrate absolute sensitivity of the EUV spectrometer system and to measure effective ionic charge, Z{sub eff}. The sensitivity of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer system is also absolutely calibrated in overlapped wavelength range of 300 A-500 A by comparing the intensity between VUV and EUV line emissions.

  4. Absolute and relative dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film for high energy electron beams with different doses per pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Anglesio, Silvia; Giglioli, Francesca Romana

    2008-12-15

    The authors have evaluated the accuracy, in absolute and relative dose measurements, of the Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film in pulsed high-energy electron beams. Typically, the electron beams used in radiotherapy have a dose-per-pulse value of less than 0.1 mGy/pulse. However, very high dose-per-pulse electron beams are employed in certain linear accelerators dedicated to intraoperatory radiation therapy (IORT). In this study, the absorbed dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in both low (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high (30 and 70 mGy per pulse) dose-per-pulse electron beams were compared with ferrous sulfate chemical Fricke dosimetry (operated by the Italian Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory), a method independent of the dose per pulse. A summary of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in relative and absolute beam output determination is reported. This study demonstrates the independence of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT absorption as a function of dose per pulse at different dose levels. A good agreement (within 3%) was found with Fricke dosimeters for plane-base IORT applicators. Comparison with a diode detector is presented for relative dose measurements, showing acceptable agreement both in the steep dose falloff zone and in the homogeneous dose region. This work also provides experimental values for recombination correction factor (K{sub sat}) of a Roos (plane parallel) ionization chamber calculated on the basis of theoretical models for charge recombination.

  5. Assessment of target volume doses in radiotherapy based on the standard and measured calibration curves.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Gholamreza Fallah; Alam, Nader Riyahi; Rezaeejam, Hamed; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman

    2015-01-01

    In radiation treatments, estimation of the dose distribution in the target volume is one of the main components of the treatment planning procedure. To estimate the dose distribution, the information of electron densities is necessary. The standard curves determined by computed tomography (CT) scanner that may be different from that of other oncology centers. In this study, the changes of dose calculation due to the different calibration curves (HU-ρel) were investigated. Dose values were calculated based on the standard calibration curve that was predefined for the treatment planning system (TPS). The calibration curve was also extracted from the CT images of the phantom, and dose values were calculated based on this curve. The percentage errors of the calculated values were determined. The statistical analyses of the mean differences were performed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for both of the calibration curves. The results show no significant difference for both of the measured and standard calibration curves (HU-ρel) in 6, 15, and 18 MeV energies. In Wilcoxon ranked sum nonparametric test for independent samples with P<0.05, the equality of monitor units for both of the curves to transfer 200 cGy doses to reference points was resulted. The percentage errors of the calculated values were lower than 2% and 1.5% in 6 and 15 MeV, respectively. From the results, it could be concluded that the standard calibration curve could be used in TPS dose calculation accurately.

  6. A Recommendation for Revised Dose Calibrator Measurement Procedures for 89Zr and 124I

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Bradley J.; Pentlow, Keith S.; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Humm, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Because of their chemical properties and multiday half lives, iodine-124 and zirconium-89 are being used in a growing number of PET imaging studies. Some aspects of their quantitation, however, still need attention. For 89Zr the PET images should, in principle, be as quantitatively accurate as similarly reconstructed 18F measurements. We found, however, that images of a 20 cm well calibration phantom containing 89Zr underestimated the activity by approximately 10% relative to a dose calibrator measurement (Capintec CRC-15R) using a published calibration setting number of 465. PET images of 124I, in contrast, are complicated by the contribution of decays in cascade that add spurious coincident events to the PET data. When these cascade coincidences are properly accounted for, quantitatively accurate images should be possible. We found, however, that even with this correction we still encountered what appeared to be a large variability in the accuracy of the PET images when compared to dose calibrator measurements made using the calibration setting number, 570, recommended by Capintec. We derive new calibration setting numbers for 89Zr and 124I based on their 511 keV photon peaks as measured on an HPGe detector. The peaks were calibrated relative to an 18F standard, the activity level of which was precisely measured in a dose calibrator under well-defined measurement conditions. When measuring 89Zr on a Capintec CRC-15R we propose the use of calibration setting number 517. And for 124I, we recommend the use of a copper filter surrounding the sample and the use of calibration setting number 494. The new dose calibrator measurement procedures we propose will result in more consistent and accurate radioactivity measurements of 89Zr and 124I. These and other positron emitting radionuclides can be accurately calibrated relative to 18F based on measurements of their 511 keV peaks and knowledge of their relative positron abundances. PMID:25202987

  7. A recommendation for revised dose calibrator measurement procedures for 89Zr and 124I.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Pentlow, Keith S; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Humm, John L

    2014-01-01

    Because of their chemical properties and multiday half lives, iodine-124 and zirconium-89 are being used in a growing number of PET imaging studies. Some aspects of their quantitation, however, still need attention. For (89)Zr the PET images should, in principle, be as quantitatively accurate as similarly reconstructed 18F measurements. We found, however, that images of a 20 cm well calibration phantom containing (89)Zr underestimated the activity by approximately 10% relative to a dose calibrator measurement (Capintec CRC-15R) using a published calibration setting number of 465. PET images of (124)I, in contrast, are complicated by the contribution of decays in cascade that add spurious coincident events to the PET data. When these cascade coincidences are properly accounted for, quantitatively accurate images should be possible. We found, however, that even with this correction we still encountered what appeared to be a large variability in the accuracy of the PET images when compared to dose calibrator measurements made using the calibration setting number, 570, recommended by Capintec. We derive new calibration setting numbers for (89)Zr and (124)I based on their 511 keV photon peaks as measured on an HPGe detector. The peaks were calibrated relative to an 18F standard, the activity level of which was precisely measured in a dose calibrator under well-defined measurement conditions. When measuring (89)Zr on a Capintec CRC-15R we propose the use of calibration setting number 517. And for (124)I, we recommend the use of a copper filter surrounding the sample and the use of calibration setting number 494. The new dose calibrator measurement procedures we propose will result in more consistent and accurate radioactivity measurements of (89)Zr and (124)I. These and other positron emitting radionuclides can be accurately calibrated relative to 18F based on measurements of their 511 keV peaks and knowledge of their relative positron abundances.

  8. Absolute calibration of the Jenoptik CHM15k-x ceilometer and its applicability for quantitative aerosol monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiß, Alexander; Wiegner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric aerosols and its optical characterization is essential for the understanding of the radiation budget, air quality, and climate. For this purpose, lidar is an excellent system as it is an active remote sensing technique. As multi-wavelength research lidars with depolarization channels are quite complex and cost-expensive, increasing attention is paid to so-called ceilometers. They are simple one-wavelength backscatter lidars with low pulse energy for eye-safe operation. As maintenance costs are low and continuous and unattended measurements can be performed, they are suitable for long-term aerosol monitoring in a network. However, the signal-to-noise ratio is low, and the signals are not calibrated. The only optical property that can be derived from a ceilometer is the particle backscatter coefficient, but even this quantity requires a calibration of the signals. With four years of measurements from a Jenoptik ceilometer CHM15k-x, we developed two methods for an absolute calibration on this system. This advantage of our approach is that only a few days with favorable meteorological conditions are required where Rayleigh-calibration and comparison with our research lidar is possible to estimate the lidar constant. This method enables us to derive the particle backscatter coefficient at 1064 nm, and we retrieved for the first time profiles in near real-time within an accuracy of 10 %. If an appropriate lidar ratio is assumed the aerosol optical depth of e.g. the mixing layer can be determined with an accuracy depending on the accuracy of the lidar ratio estimate. Even for 'simple' applications, e.g. assessment of the mixing layer height, cloud detection, detection of elevated aerosol layers, the particle backscatter coefficient has significant advantages over the measured (uncalibrated) attenuated backscatter. The possibility of continuous operation under nearly any meteorological condition with temporal

  9. Calibration strategies for the determination of stable carbon absolute isotope ratios in a glycine candidate reference material by elemental analyser-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Philip J H; Malinovsky, Dmitry; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    We report a methodology for the determination of the stable carbon absolute isotope ratio of a glycine candidate reference material with natural carbon isotopic composition using EA-IRMS. For the first time, stable carbon absolute isotope ratios have been reported using continuous flow rather than dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Also for the first time, a calibration strategy based on the use of synthetic mixtures gravimetrically prepared from well characterised, highly (13)C-enriched and (13)C-depleted glycines was developed for EA-IRMS calibration and generation of absolute carbon isotope ratio values traceable to the SI through calibration standards of known purity. A second calibration strategy based on converting the more typically determined delta values on the Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB) scale using literature values for the absolute carbon isotope ratio of VPDB itself was used for comparison. Both calibration approaches provided results consistent with those previously reported for the same natural glycine using MC-ICP-MS; absolute carbon ratios of 10,649 × 10(-6) with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 24 × 10(-6) and 10,646 × 10(-6) with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 88 × 10(-6) were obtained, respectively. The absolute carbon isotope ratio of the VPDB standard was found to be 11,115 × 10(-6) with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 27 × 10(-6), which is in excellent agreement with previously published values.

  10. Nonheating methods for absolute paleointensity determination: Comparison and calibration using synthetic and natural magnetite-bearing samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Geoffrey A.; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Surovitckii, Leonid V.; Piispa, Elisa J.

    2017-03-01

    Nonheating paleointensity methods utilize an anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) or a saturation isothermal remanent magnetization to model the natural thermal remanent magnetization (TRM) to avoid heating-induced alteration. We report the results of paleointensity experiments using the ARM, pseudo-Thellier, and ratio of equivalent magnetization (REM) methods conducted to investigate their relative efficiency in recovering the true paleofield strength and to provide additional estimates of their calibration factors. The experiments on synthetic magnetite-bearing samples representing single-domain (SD) and pseudo-single-domain (PSD) magnetic states indicated that the correction factors for the ARM-based methods depend on the magnetic grain size/domain state changing from 6.3 (for SD grains) to 4.1 (for 1.5 µm PSD grains). The pseudo-Thellier method yielded correct absolute paleointensity values when normalization by the TRM/ARM demagnetization slope was used. When applied to samples of lava flows and dikes from the 32 kyr Lemptégy volcano (France), both the ARM and pseudo-Thellier methods produced similar paleointensity estimates (28.0 ± 5.1 μT and 26.9 ± 4.7 μT, respectively) consistent with the available Thellier data for the 31-33 kyr time interval. The correction factors estimated from our synthetic samples for the REM ( 3000) and for REMc ( 1500) and REM' ( 1500) variants are consistent with the previously published estimates. However, all REM variants yielded unrealistically high estimates (>110 μT) of the paleofield strength from our natural samples. Our experimental results support ARM as a better proxy of TRM and suggest that the ARM-based methods currently represent the best alternative to heating-based absolute paleointensity method.

  11. High-resolution imaging spectrometer for recording absolutely calibrated far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Charles M.; Seely, John F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, Glenn E.; Weaver, James L.; Obenschain, Steven P.; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Fielding, Drew

    2008-10-15

    An imaging spectrometer was designed and fabricated for recording far ultraviolet spectra from laser-produced plasmas with wavelengths as short as 155 nm. The spectrometer implements a Cassegrain telescope and two gratings in a tandem Wadsworth optical configuration that provides diffraction limited resolution. Spectral images were recorded from plasmas produced by the irradiation of various target materials by intense KrF laser radiation with 248 nm wavelength. Two pairs of high-resolution gratings can be selected for the coverage of two wavebands, one grating pair with 1800 grooves/mm and covering approximately 155-175 nm and another grating pair with 1200 grooves/mm covering 230-260 nm. The latter waveband includes the 248 nm KrF laser wavelength, and the former waveband includes the wavelength of the two-plasmon decay instability at (2/3) the KrF laser wavelength (165 nm). The detection media consist of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor imager, photostimulable phosphor image plates, and a linear array of 1 mm{sup 2} square silicon photodiodes with 0.4 ns rise time. The telescope mirrors, spectrometer gratings, and 1 mm{sup 2} photodiode were calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and this enables the measurement of the absolute emission from the laser-produced plasmas with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. The spectrometer is capable of measuring absolute spectral emissions at 165 nm wavelength as small as 5x10{sup -7} J/nm from a plasma source area of 0.37 mm{sup 2} and with 0.4 ns time resolution.

  12. (18)F primary standard at ENEA-INMRI by three absolute techniques and calibration of a well-type IG11 ionization chamber.

    PubMed

    Capogni, Marco; Carconi, Pierluigi; De Felice, Pierino; Fazio, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    A new (18)F primary standardization carried out at ENEA-INMRI by three different absolute techniques, i.e. 4πγNaI(Tl)γ high-efficiency counting, TDCR and 4πβ(LS)-γ[NaI(Tl)] coincidence counting method, allowed the calibration of a fixed well-reentrant IG11 ionization chamber (IC), with an uncertainty lower than 1%, and to check the calibration factor of a portable well-type IC NPL-CRC model, previously calibrated. By the new standard the ENEA-INMRI was linked to the BIPM International Reference System (SIR) through the BIPM SIR Transfer Instrument (SIRTI).

  13. Continuous absolute g monitoring of the mobile LNE-SYRTE Cold Atom Gravimeter - a new tool to calibrate superconducting gravimeters -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlet, Sébastien; Gillot, Pierre; Cheng, Bing; Pereira Dos Santos, Franck

    2016-04-01

    Atom interferometry allows for the realization of a new generation of instruments for inertial sensing based on laser cooled atoms. We have developed an absolute gravimeter (CAG) based on this technic, which can perform continuous gravity measurements at a high cycling rate. This instrument, operating since summer 2009, is the new metrological french standard for gravimetry. The CAG has been designed to be movable, so as to participate to international comparisons and on field measurements. It took part to several comparisons since ICAG'09 and operated in both urban environments and low noise underground facilities. The atom gravimeter operates with a high cycling rate of 3 Hz. Its sensitivity is predominantly limited by ground vibration noise which is rejected thanks to isolation platforms and correlation with other sensors, such as broadband accelerometers or sismometers. These developments allow us to perform continuous gravity measurements, no matter what the sismic conditions are and even in the worst cases such as during earthquakes. At best, a sensitivity of 5.6 μGal at 1 s measurement time has been demonstrated. The long term stability averages down to 0.1 μGal for long term measurements. Presently, the measurement accuracy is 4 μGal, which we plan to reduce to 1 μGal or below. I will present the instrument, the principle of the gravity acceleration measurement and its performances. I will focus on continuous gravity measurements performed over several years and compared with our superconducting gravimeter iGrav signal. This comparison allows us to calibrate the iGrav scale factor and follow its evolution. Especially, we demonstrate that, thanks to the CAG very high cycling rate, a single day gravity measurement allows to calibrate the iGrav scaling factor with a relative uncertainty as good as 4.10-4.

  14. Reduced dose measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow using dynamic SPECT imaging in a porcine model

    SciTech Connect

    Timmins, Rachel; Klein, Ran; Petryk, Julia; Marvin, Brian; Kemp, Robert A. de; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn; Wei, Lihui

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements provide important additional information over traditional relative perfusion imaging. Recent advances in camera technology have made this possible with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). Low dose protocols are desirable to reduce the patient radiation risk; however, increased noise may reduce the accuracy of MBF measurements. The authors studied the effect of reducing dose on the accuracy of dynamic SPECT MBF measurements. Methods: Nineteen 30–40 kg pigs were injected with 370 + 1110 MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin or 37 + 111 MBq of Tl-201 at rest + stress. Microspheres were injected simultaneously to measure MBF. The pigs were imaged in list-mode for 11 min starting at the time of injection using a Discovery NM 530c camera (GE Healthcare). Each list file was modified so that 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 of the original counts were included in the projections. Modified projections were reconstructed with CT-based attenuation correction and an energy window-based scatter correction and analyzed with FlowQuant kinetic modeling software using a 1-compartment model. A modified Renkin-Crone extraction function was used to convert the tracer uptake rate K1 to MBF values. The SPECT results were compared to those from microspheres. Results: Correlation between SPECT and microsphere MBF values for the full injected activity was r ≥ 0.75 for all 3 tracers and did not significantly degrade over all count levels. The mean MBF and MFR and the standard errors in the estimates were not significantly worse than the full-count data at 1/4-counts (Tc99m-tracers) and 1/2-counts (Tl-201). Conclusions: Dynamic SPECT measurement of MBF and MFR in pigs can be performed with 1/4 (Tc99m-tracers) or 1/2 (Tl-201) of the standard injected activity without significantly reducing accuracy and precision.

  15. Progress in obtaining an absolute calibration of a total deuterium-tritium neutron yield diagnostic based on copper activation.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, C L; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G W; Fehl, D L; Hahn, K D; Leeper, R J; McWatters, B R; Nelson, A J; Smelser, R M; Snow, C S; Torres, J A

    2012-10-01

    The 350-keV Cockroft-Walton accelerator at Sandia National laboratory's Ion Beam facility is being used to calibrate absolutely a total DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the (63)Cu(n,2n)(62)Cu(β+) reaction. These investigations have led to first-order uncertainties approaching 5% or better. The experiments employ the associated-particle technique. Deuterons at 175 keV impinge a 2.6 μm thick erbium tritide target producing 14.1 MeV neutrons from the T(d,n)(4)He reaction. The alpha particles emitted are measured at two angles relative to the beam direction and used to infer the neutron flux on a copper sample. The induced (62)Cu activity is then measured and related to the neutron flux. This method is known as the F-factor technique. Description of the associated-particle method, copper sample geometries employed, and the present estimates of the uncertainties to the F-factor obtained are given.

  16. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis ve [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through an initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.

  17. SU-E-T-89: Accuracy of Absolute Three-Dimensional Dose Distribution Measurement Using the Delta4

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, R; Tachibana, H; Ohyoshi, H; Matsumoto, S; Baba, H; Tanaka, F; Ariji, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the accuracy of the absolute dose distribution measurement using the Delta4 phantom compared to the measurements using a ionization chamber and EDR2 film Methods: Several conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans were used to compare the dose distribution measured using the Delta4 phantom to the absolute point dose using the chamber and the relative two-dimensional dose distribution using the EDR2 film. For the absolute dose distribution evaluation, the measurements using the Delta4, the chamber and the film were performed in similar measurement geometry. For point dose measurement using the chamber, an acrylic slab phantom with the PTW Semiflex chamber was inserted into the Delta4 phantom, alternative to the Delta4 main unit. Similarly, for dose distribution measurement using the film, the EDR2 film sandwiched with two acrylic slab phantoms were inserted to the phantom. Dose difference and gamma analysis were done for point dose and relative dose distribution comparisons, respectively. Results: The point dose measurements show slight negative systematic dose difference of −0.5 ± 0.1% and −1.0 ± 0.4% in the conventional and the IMRT plans, respectively. The additional measurement for direction dependency for Delta4 shows similar negative systematic dose difference even the phantom analysis software consider the directional dependency. The pass rate of the gamma evaluation was 77.7 ± 5.8% and 88.8±3.3% in the conventional and the IMRT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The Delta4 phantom shows a 1%-systematic dose difference derived from directional dependency and lower resolution compared to the film. Thus it is necessary to comprehensively evaluate the phantom to verify the IMRT/VMAT plans. Especially, the dosimetry tool is needed to have high resolution and high measurement accuracy in IMRT/VMAT-SBRT plan with small fields using intensity modulation in which the analysis area is limited and the

  18. Absolute and relative dose surface and dose volume histograms of the bladder: which one is the most representative for the actual treatment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Peeters, Stephanie T. H.; de Bois, Josien; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify to what extent relative and absolute bladder dose-volume and dose-surface histograms of the planning CT scan were representative for the actual treatment. We used data of 17 patients, who each received 11 repeat CT scans and a planning CT scan. The repeat CT scans were matched on the planning CT scan by the bony anatomy. Clinical treatment plans were used to evaluate the impact of bladder filling changes on the four histogram types. The impact was quantified by calculating for this patient group the correlation coefficient between the planning histogram and the treatment histogram. We found that the absolute dose-surface histogram was the most representative one for the actual treatment.

  19. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay: dose-response calibration curve, background frequency in the population and dose estimation.

    PubMed

    Rastkhah, E; Zakeri, F; Ghoranneviss, M; Rajabpour, M R; Farshidpour, M R; Mianji, F; Bayat, M

    2016-03-01

    An in vitro study of the dose responses of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was conducted with the aim of creating calibrated dose-response curves for biodosimetry measuring up to 4 Gy (0.25-4 Gy) of gamma radiation. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay was employed to obtain the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) per binucleated cell in blood samples from 16 healthy donors (eight males and eight females) in two age ranges of 20-34 and 35-50 years. The data were used to construct the calibration curves for men and women in two age groups, separately. An increase in micronuclei yield with the dose in a linear-quadratic way was observed in all groups. To verify the applicability of the constructed calibration curve, MN yields were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes of two real overexposed subjects and three irradiated samples with unknown dose, and the results were compared with dose values obtained from measuring dicentric chromosomes. The comparison of the results obtained by the two techniques indicated a good agreement between dose estimates. The average baseline frequency of MN for the 130 healthy non-exposed donors (77 men and 55 women, 20-60 years old divided into four age groups) ranged from 6 to 21 micronuclei per 1000 binucleated cells. Baseline MN frequencies were higher for women and for the older age group. The results presented in this study point out that the CBMN assay is a reliable, easier and valuable alternative method for biological dosimetry.

  20. Calibration of exposure dose for nanoscale plasmonic lithography with microsized far-field spot patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dandan; Park, Changhoon; Jung, Howon; Hahn, Jae W.

    2016-09-01

    To improve the reliability of a plasmonic lithography system for nanoscale device fabrication, a rapid calibration process is essentially required. The calibration needs a time-consuming process using an atomic force microscope (AFM) to measure a number of nano-sized spot pattern widths recorded for the variation of the exposure dose. On the basis of the underlying mechanisms of a propagating field through a bowtie aperture, we conducted a theoretical study to derive a fitting equation to predict the widths of spot patterns in a near-field region compared with those in the far-field region. We obtained a calibration curve of the exposure dose to fit the width of spot pattern in the far-field region that is measureable using an optical microscope (OM). The validity of the rapid calibration process using an OM was verified by comparison between the calibration curves determined using AFM and OM, and the uncertainty between them was found to be 3.4%. The drift of the calibration curve was further explored to calculate the system stability of the plasmonic lithography technique, which was estimated to be  >93%. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that the calibration curve is effective in the prediction of the exposure dose for nanoscale line patterning.

  1. Photon extremity absorbed dose and kerma conversion coefficients for calibration geometries.

    PubMed

    Veinot, K G; Hertel, N E

    2007-02-01

    Absorbed dose and dose equivalent conversion coefficients are routinely used in personnel dosimetry programs. These conversion coefficients can be applied to particle fluences or to measured air kerma values to determine appropriate operational monitoring quantities such as the ambient dose equivalent or personal dose equivalent for a specific geometry. For personnel directly handling materials, the absorbed dose to the extremities is of concern. This work presents photon conversion coefficients for two extremity calibration geometries using finger and wrist/arm phantoms described in HPS N13.32. These conversion coefficients have been calculated as a function of photon energy in terms of the kerma and the absorbed dose using Monte Carlo techniques and the calibration geometries specified in HPS N13.32. Additionally, kerma and absorbed dose conversion coefficients for commonly used x-ray spectra and calibration source fields are presented. The kerma values calculated in this work for the x-ray spectra and calibration sources compare well to those listed in HPS N13.32. The absorbed dose values, however, differ significantly for higher energy photons because charged particle equilibrium conditions have not been satisfied for the shallow depth. Thus, the air-kerma-to-dose and exposure-to-dose conversion coefficients for Cs and Co listed in HPS N13.32 overestimate the absorbed dose to the extremities. Applying the conversion coefficients listed in HPS N13.32 for Cs, for example, would result in an overestimate of absorbed dose of 62% for the finger phantom and 55% for the wrist phantom.

  2. Improved absolute calibration of LOPES measurements and its impact on the comparison with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Bähren, L.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Falcke, H.; Fuchs, B.; Gemmeke, H.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hiller, R.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Krömer, O.; Kuijpers, J.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Morello, C.; Nehls, S.; Oehlschläger, J.; Palmieri, N.; Pierog, T.; Rautenberg, J.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Rühle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    LOPES was a digital antenna array detecting the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. The calibration of the absolute amplitude scale of the measurements was done using an external, commercial reference source, which emits a frequency comb with defined amplitudes. Recently, we obtained improved reference values by the manufacturer of the reference source, which significantly changed the absolute calibration of LOPES. We reanalyzed previously published LOPES measurements, studying the impact of the changed calibration. The main effect is an overall decrease of the LOPES amplitude scale by a factor of 2.6 ± 0.2, affecting all previously published values for measurements of the electric-field strength. This results in a major change in the conclusion of the paper 'Comparing LOPES measurements of air-shower radio emission with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations' published by Apel et al. (2013) : With the revised calibration, LOPES measurements now are compatible with CoREAS simulations, but in tension with REAS 3.11 simulations. Since CoREAS is the latest version of the simulation code incorporating the current state of knowledge on the radio emission of air showers, this new result indicates that the absolute amplitude prediction of current simulations now is in agreement with experimental data.

  3. In-situ absolute calibration of electric-field amplitude measurements with the LPDA radio detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briechle, Florian

    2017-03-01

    With the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) located at the Pierre Auger Observatory, radio emission of extensive air showers is observed. To exploit the physics potential of AERA, electric-field amplitude measurements with the radio detector stations need to be well-calibrated on an absolute level. A convenient tool for far-field calibration campaigns is a flying drone. Here we make use of an octocopter to place a calibrated source at freely chosen positions above the radio detector array. Special emphasis is put on the reconstruction of the octocopter position and its accuracy during the flights. The antenna response pattern of the radio detector stations was measured in a recent calibration campaign. Results of these measurements are presented and compared to simulations. It is found that measurements and simulations are in good agreement.

  4. Tissue-specific Calibration of Real-time PCR Facilitates Absolute Quantification of Plasmid DNA in Biodistribution Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Joan K; White, Paul J; Pouton, Colin W

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the tissue distribution of plasmid DNA after administration of nonviral gene delivery systems is best accomplished using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), although published strategies do not allow determination of the absolute mass of plasmid delivered to different tissues. Generally, data is expressed as the mass of plasmid relative to the mass of genomic DNA (gDNA) in the sample. This strategy is adequate for comparisons of efficiency of delivery to a single site but it does not allow direct comparison of delivery to multiple tissues, as the mass of gDNA extracted per unit mass of each tissue is different. We show here that by constructing qPCR standard curves for each tissue it is possible to determine the dose of intact plasmid remaining in each tissue, which is a more useful parameter when comparing the fates of different formulations of DNA. We exemplify the use of this tissue-specific qPCR method by comparing the delivery of naked DNA, cationic DNA complexes, and neutral PEGylated DNA complexes after intramuscular injection. Generally, larger masses of intact plasmid were present 24 hours after injection of DNA complexes, and neutral complexes resulted in delivery of a larger mass of intact plasmid to the spleen. PMID:27701400

  5. [Estimation of personal dose based on the dependent calibration of personal dosimeters in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroshige; Koshida, Kichiro; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    2007-08-20

    The purpose of present study is, in interventional radiology (IVR), to elucidate the differences between each personal dosimeter, and the dependences and calibrations of area or personal dose by measurement with electronic dosimeters in particular. We compare space dose rate distributions measured by an ionization survey meter with the value measured by personal dosimeter: an optically stimulated luminescence, two fluoroglass, and two electronic dosimeters. Furthermore, with electronic dosimeters, we first measured dose rate, energy, and directional dependences. Secondly, we calibrated the dose rate measured by electronic dosimeters with the results, and estimated these methods with coefficient of determination and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). The results, especially in electronic dosimeters, revealed that the dose rate measured fell by energy and directional dependences. In terms of methods of calibration, the method is sufficient for energy dependence, but not for directional dependence, because of the lack of stable calibration. This improvement poses a question for the future. The study suggested that these dependences of the personal dosimeter must be considered when area or personal dose is estimated in IVR.

  6. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay by manual and automated scoring: calibration curves and dose prediction.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, S; De Amicis, A; Di Cristofaro, S; Franchini, V; Regalbuto, E; Mammana, G; Lista, F

    2014-06-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes is one of the best standardized and validated techniques for individual radiation dose assessment. This method has been proposed as an alternative to the dicentric chromosome assay, which is considered the "gold standard" in biological dosimetry because it requires less time and cytogenetic expertise. Nevertheless, for application as a biodosimetry tool in large-scale nuclear or radiological accidents, the manually performed cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay needs further strategies (e.g., the automation of micronucleus scoring) to speed up the analysis. An essential prerequisite for radiation dose assessment is to establish a dose-effect curve. In this study, blood samples of one healthy subject were irradiated with seven increasing doses of x-ray (240 kVp, 1 Gy min⁻¹) ranging from 0.25-4.0 Gy to generate calibration curves based on manual as well as on automated scoring mode. The quality of the calibration curves was evaluated by determination of the dose prediction accuracy after the analysis of 10 blood samples from the same donor exposed to unknown radiation doses. The micronucleus frequencies in binucleated cells were scored manually as well as automatically and were used to assess the absorbed radiation doses with reference to the respective calibration curve. The accuracy of the dose assessment based on manual and automatic scoring mode was compared.

  7. The absolute calibration strategy of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array and its external ground-based illumination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segreto, A.; Maccarone, M. C.; Catalano, O.; Biondo, B.; Gargano, C.; La Rosa, G.; Russo, F.; Sottile, G.; Fiorini, M.; Incorvaia, S.; Toso, G.

    2016-07-01

    ASTRI is the end-to-end prototype for the CTA small-size class of telescopes in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) proposed by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. ASTRI SST-2M has been installed at the Serra La Nave Astrophysical Observatory on Mount Etna (Sicily) and its Performance Verification Phase will start in autumn 2016. For the relative pixel calibration and gain monitoring, the ASTRI SST-2M camera is equipped with an internal illumination device, while an external, portable, illumination system, placed at a few km distance from the telescope, will be used for the absolute end-to-end calibration of the telescope spectral response. Moreover analysis of signals induced in the camera pixels by the night sky background (diffuse emission and reference stars) will be used to monitor the long term evolution of the telescope calibration. We present an overview of the ASTRI SST-2M absolute calibration strategy and the external illuminating device that will be used for its spectral calibration

  8. Consistency of L4 TM absolute calibration with respect to the L5 TM sensor based on near-simultaneous image acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Malla, R.; Micijevic, E.; Mettler, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat archive provides more than 35 years of uninterrupted multispectral remotely sensed data of Earth observations. Since 1972, Landsat missions have carried different types of sensors, from the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). However, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5), launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, are the backbone of an extensive archive. Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) was updated to use an improved lifetime gain model, based on the instrument's detector response to pseudo-invariant desert site data and cross-calibration with the L7 ETM+. However, no modifications were ever made to the radiometric calibration procedure of the Landsat 4 (L4) TM data. The L4 TM radiometric calibration procedure has continued to use the Internal Calibrator (IC) based calibration algorithms and the post calibration dynamic ranges, as previously defined. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The number of coincident image pairs in the USGS EROS archive is limited, so the scene selection for the cross-calibration studies proved to be a challenge. Additionally, because of the lack of near-simultaneous images available over well-characterized and traditionally used calibration sites, alternate sites that have high reflectance, large dynamic range, high spatial uniformity, high sun elevation, and minimal cloud cover were investigated. The alternate sites were identified in Yuma, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, and Algeria. The cross-calibration approach involved comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. This paper summarizes the average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained between the

  9. Consistency of L4 TM absolute calibration with respect to the L5 TM sensor based on near-simultaneous image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Micijevic, Esad; Mettler, Cory J.

    2007-09-01

    The Landsat archive provides more than 35 years of uninterrupted multispectral remotely sensed data of Earth observations. Since 1972, Landsat missions have carried different types of sensors, from the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). However, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5), launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, are the backbone of an extensive archive. Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) was updated to use an improved lifetime gain model, based on the instrument's detector response to pseudo-invariant desert site data and cross-calibration with the L7 ETM+. However, no modifications were ever made to the radiometric calibration procedure of the Landsat 4 (L4) TM data. The L4 TM radiometric calibration procedure has continued to use the Internal Calibrator (IC) based calibration algorithms and the post calibration dynamic ranges, as previously defined. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The number of coincident image pairs in the USGS EROS archive is limited, so the scene selection for the cross-calibration studies proved to be a challenge. Additionally, because of the lack of near-simultaneous images available over well-characterized and traditionally used calibration sites, alternate sites that have high reflectance, large dynamic range, high spatial uniformity, high sun elevation, and minimal cloud cover were investigated. The alternate sites were identified in Yuma, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, and Algeria. The cross-calibration approach involved comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. This paper summarizes the average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained between the

  10. Fine structure of the age-chromospheric activity relation in solar-type stars. I. The Ca II infrared triplet: Absolute flux calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Dutra-Ferreira, L.; Ribas, I.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Strong spectral lines are useful indicators of stellar chromospheric activity. They are physically linked to the convection efficiency, differential rotation, and angular momentum evolution and are a potential indicator of age. However, for ages > 2 Gyr, the age-activity relationship remains poorly constrained thus hampering its full application. Aims: The Ca II infrared triplet (IRT lines, λλ 8498, 8542, and 8662) has been poorly studied compared to classical chromospheric indicators. We report in this paper absolute chromospheric fluxes in the three Ca II IRT lines, based on a new calibration tied to up-to-date model atmospheres. Methods: We obtain the Ca II IRT absolute fluxes for 113 FGK stars from high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and high-resolution spectra covering an extensive domain of chromospheric activity levels. We perform an absolute continuum flux calibration for the Ca II IRT lines anchored in atmospheric models calculated as an explicit function of effective temperatures (Teff), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and gravities (log g) avoiding the degeneracy usually present in photometric continuum calibrations based solely on color indices. Results: The internal uncertainties achieved for continuum absolute flux calculations are ≈2% of the solar chromospheric flux, one order of magnitude lower than for photometric calibrations. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we gauge the impact of observational errors on the final chromospheric fluxes due to the absolute continuum flux calibration and find that Teffuncertainties are properly mitigated by the photospheric correction leaving [Fe/H] as the dominating factor in the chromospheric flux uncertainty. Conclusions: Across the FGK spectral types, the Ca II IRT lines are sensitive to chromospheric activity. The reduced internal uncertainties reported here enable us to build a new chromospheric absolute flux scale and explore the age-activity relation from the active regime down to very low activity levels and

  11. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Adler, D. P.; Best, F. A.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has embedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (<0.5g) of three reference materials - mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). One of the many tests to determine the readiness of this technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity. We present the details of a demonstration experiment to be conducted on the International Space Station later this year. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. The planned microgravity demonstration will compare melt signatures obtained pre-flight on the ground with those obtained on the ISS for three phase change materials (water, gallium-tin, and gallium). With a successful demonstration experiment the phase transition cells in a microgravity environment will have cleared the last hurdle before being ready for

  12. Changes in deviation of absorbed dose to water among users by chamber calibration shift.

    PubMed

    Katayose, Tetsurou; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Igari, Mitsunobu; Chang, Weishan; Hashimoto, Shimpei; Morioka, Mie

    2017-07-01

    The JSMP01 dosimetry protocol had adopted the provisional (60)Co calibration coefficient [Formula: see text], namely, the product of exposure calibration coefficient N C and conversion coefficient k D,X. After that, the absorbed dose to water D w standard was established, and the JSMP12 protocol adopted the [Formula: see text] calibration. In this study, the influence of the calibration shift on the measurement of D w among users was analyzed. The intercomparison of the D w using an ionization chamber was annually performed by visiting related hospitals. Intercomparison results before and after the calibration shift were analyzed, the deviation of D w among users was re-evaluated, and the cause of deviation was estimated. As a result, the stability of LINAC, calibration of the thermometer and barometer, and collection method of ion recombination were confirmed. The statistical significance of standard deviation of D w was not observed, but that of difference of D w among users was observed between N C and [Formula: see text] calibration. Uncertainty due to chamber-to-chamber variation was reduced by the calibration shift, consequently reducing the uncertainty among users regarding D w. The result also pointed out uncertainty might be reduced by accurate and detailed instructions on the setup of an ionization chamber.

  13. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the GÖKTÜRK-2 Satellite Sensor Using Tuz GÖLÜ (landnet Site) from Ndvi Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakarya, Ufuk; Hakkı Demirhan, İsmail; Seda Deveci, Hüsne; Teke, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Can; Küpçü, Ramazan; Feray Öztoprak, A.; Efendioğlu, Mehmet; Fehmi Şimşek, F.; Berke, Erdinç; Zübeyde Gürbüz, Sevgi

    2016-06-01

    TÜBİTAK UZAY has conducted a research study on the use of space-based satellite resources for several aspects of agriculture. Especially, there are two precision agriculture related projects: HASSAS (Widespread application of sustainable precision agriculture practices in Southeastern Anatolia Project Region (GAP) Project) and AKTAR (Smart Agriculture Feasibility Project). The HASSAS project aims to study development of precision agriculture practice in GAP region. Multi-spectral satellite imagery and aerial hyperspectral data along with ground measurements was collected to analyze data in an information system. AKTAR aims to develop models for irrigation, fertilization and spectral signatures of crops in Inner Anatolia. By the end of the project precision agriculture practices to control irrigation, fertilization, pesticide and estimation of crop yield will be developed. Analyzing the phenology of crops using NDVI is critical for the projects. For this reason, absolute radiometric calibration of the Red and NIR bands in space-based satellite sensors is an important issue. The Göktürk-2 satellite is an earth observation satellite which was designed and built in Turkey and was launched in 2012. The Göktürk-2 satellite sensor has a resolution 2.5 meters in panchromatic and 5 meters in R/G/B/NIR bands. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor was performed via the ground-based measurements - spectra-radiometer, sun photometer, and meteorological station- in Tuz Gölü cal/val site in 2015. In this paper, the first ground-based absolute radiometric calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor using Tuz Gölü is demonstrated. The absolute radiometric calibration results of this paper are compared with the published cross-calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor utilizing Landsat 8 imagery. According to the experimental comparison results, the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor coefficients for red and NIR bands

  14. SU-E-T-519: Investigation of the CyberKnife MultiPlan Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Using EBT3 Film Absolute Dosimetry for Delivery in a Heterogeneous Thorax Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberto, M; Chen, H; Huang, K; Mourtada, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To characterize the Cyberknife (CK) robotic system’s dosimetric accuracy of the delivery of MultiPlan’s Monte Carlo dose calculations using EBT3 radiochromic film inserted in a thorax phantom. Methods The CIRS XSight Lung Tracking (XLT) Phantom (model 10823) was used in this study with custom cut EBT3 film inserted in the horizontal (coronal) plane inside the lung tissue equivalent phantom. CK MultiPlan v3.5.3 with Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (1.5 mm grid size, 2% statistical uncertainty) was used to calculate a clinical plan for a 25-mm lung tumor lesion, as contoured by the physician, and then imported onto the XLT phantom CT. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using CK with the 60 mm fixed cone by delivering 0– 800 cGy. The test films (n=3) were irradiated using 325 cGy to the prescription point. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson v700 scanner (48 bits color scan, extracted red channel only, 96 dpi). Percent absolute dose and relative isodose distribution difference relative to the planned dose were quantified using an in-house QA software program. Multiplan Monte Carlo dose calculation was validated using RCF dosimetry (EBT3) and gamma index criteria of 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm for absolute dose and relative isodose distribution measurement comparisons. Results EBT3 film measurements of the patient plans calculated with Monte Carlo in MultiPlan resulted in an absolute dose passing rate of 99.6±0.4% for the Gamma Index of 3%/3mm, 10% dose threshold, and 95.6±4.4% for 2%/2mm, 10% threshold criteria. The measured central axis absolute dose was within 1.2% (329.0±2.5 cGy) of the Monte Carlo planned dose (325.0±6.5 cGy) for that same point. Conclusion MultiPlan’s Monte Carlo dose calculation was validated using the EBT3 film absolute dosimetry for delivery in a heterogeneous thorax phantom.

  15. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  16. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fat’yanov, O. V. Asimow, P. D.

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  17. Absolute dose measurements by means of a small cylindrical ionization chamber for very high dose per pulse high energy electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Karaj, E.; Righi, S.; Di Martino, F.

    2007-03-15

    Very high dose per pulse (3-13 cGy/pulse) high energy electron beams are currently produced by special linear accelerators (linac) dedicated to Intra Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT). The electron beams produced by such linacs are collimated by special Perspex applicators of various size and cylindrically shaped. The biggest problems from the dosimetric point of view are caused by the high dose-per-pulse values and the use of inclined applicators. In this work measurements of absolute dose for the inclined applicators were done by using a small cylindrical ionization chamber, type CC01 (Wellhofer), a parallel plane ionization chamber type Markus (PTW 23343) and radiochromic films type EBT. We show a method which allows calculating the quality correction factors for CC01 chamber with an uncertainty of 1% and the absolute dose value for the inclined applicators using CC01 with an uncertainty of 3.1% for electron beams of energy of 6 and 7 MeV produced by the linac dedicated to IORT Novac7.

  18. Dose Rate Calibration of a Commercial Beta-Particle Irradiator Used In Archeological and Geological Dating

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, S.M.

    2004-10-31

    The 801E Multiple Sample Irradiator, manufactured by Daybreak Nuclear Systems, is capable of exposing up to 30 samples to beta radiation by placing each sample one by one directly beneath a heavily shielded ceramic Sr-90/Y-90 source and opening a specially designed shutter. Daybreak Nuclear Systems does not provide the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y dose rate to the sample because of variations of up to 20% in the nominal activity of the beta sources (separately manufactured by AEA Technology). Thus it is left to the end user to determine. Here aluminum oxide doped with carbon (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C), in the form of Landauer's Luxel{trademark}, was irradiated to different known doses using a calibrated {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y beta particle irradiator, and the OSL signal monitored after each irradiation to generate a calibration curve. Comparison of the OSL Signal from the unknown 801E Irradiator dose with the calibration curve enabled the dose and therefore dose rate to be determined. The timing accuracy of the 801E Irradiator was also evaluated and found to be +/- 0.5 seconds. The dose rate of the beta source was found to be 0.147 +/- 0.007 Gy/s.

  19. CALIBRATION OF THERMOLUMINESCENCE AND FILM DOSEMETERS FOR SKIN DOSES FROM HIGH-ACTIVITY MICROPARTICLES.

    PubMed

    Eakins, J S; Hager, L G; Tanner, R J

    2016-09-01

    The use of EXT-RAD™ extremity TLDs and radiochromic film to measure doses from primarily beta-emitting microparticles is discussed. Specific calibration techniques have been developed, using both Monte Carlo modelling and experiments. Results for a (90)Sr/(90)Y microparticle are presented to illustrate the general techniques and to demonstrate reasonable agreement between the dosimetry methods.

  20. Radionuclide neutron sources in calibration laboratory--neutron and gamma doses and their changes in time.

    PubMed

    Józefowicz, K; Golnik, N; Tulik, P; Zielczynski, M

    2007-01-01

    The calibration laboratory, having standard neutron fields of radionuclide sources, should perform regular measurements of fields' parameters in order to check their stability and to get knowledge of any changes. Usually, accompanying gamma radiation is not of serious concern, but some personal dosemeters, old neutron dose equivalent meters with scintillation detectors and the dose meters of mixed radiation require the determination of this component. In the Laboratory of Radiation Protection Measurements in the Institute of Atomic Energy, Poland, the fields of radionuclide neutron sources (252)Cf, (241)Am-Be and (239)Pu-Be were examined for nearly 20 y. A number of detectors and methods have been applied for the determination of neutron ambient dose equivalent rate and for the determination of neutron and gamma dose components. This paper presents the recent results of measurements of gamma and neutron dose and dose equivalent, compared with the results accumulated in nearly 20 y.

  1. An Absolute Self-Calibrating Pressure Recorder for Campaign-Style Detection of Vertical Seafloor Deformation in the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M. J.; Roland, E. C.; Sasagawa, G. S.; Schmidt, D. A.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Zumberge, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Seawater pressure can be used to detect vertical seafloor deformation because small changes in seafloor height produce measurable pressure changes. Vertical deformation rates in subduction zones due to secular strain are expected to be less than 1 cm/year, signals that are difficult to measure with pressure gauges because of gauge drift. The Self-Calibrating Pressure Recorder (SCPR) was designed to circumvent the problem of gauge drift by employing a deadweight calibrator, which periodically provides a reference pressure that is used to correct for drift in a continuously recorded pressure record. Alternatively, the SCPR can be used to make campaign-style determinations of true seafloor pressure to support long-term deformation measurements and provide an exact reference for nearby pressure gauges. This Absolute Self-Calibrating Pressure Recorder (ASCPR) requires a metrological assessment of measurement parameters to ensure that its absolute accuracy is sufficient to resolve secular deformation. While on a concrete seafloor benchmark, alternating calibration and seawater observations are made every 10-20 minutes for several hours. The difference between the known reference pressure and the seafloor pressure is observed, which allows the calculation of the true, absolute seafloor pressure. In 2014 and 2015, seven concrete benchmarks were placed on the seafloor in the Cascadia subduction zone off central Oregon along a profile that extends from 20 km to 105 km offshore. We surveyed two benchmarks in 2014, 2015, and 2016, a third one in 2015 and 2016, and four more in 2016. Current measurement repeatability varies from 2 to 5 cm, but several corrections still need to be incorporated. The expected resolution is 1 cm.

  2. Wide field array calibration dependence on the stability of measured dose distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Thomas A.; Simon, William E.; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan; Liu, Chihray

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to simulate the effect of dose distribution changes on detector array calibrations and to explore compensatory methods that are used during calibration measurements. Methods: The array calibration technique that was investigated is known as wide field (WF) calibration. Using this method, a linear array [y-axis (65 detectors) of the IC PROFILER (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL)] is calibrated with three measurements ({alpha}, {theta}, and {lambda}); each measurement uses the same radiation field, which is larger than the array. For measurement configuration {theta}, the array is rotated by 180 deg. from its position in {alpha}; for {lambda}, the array is shifted by one detector from its position in {theta}. The relative detector sensitivities are then determined through ratios of detector readings at the same field locations (using {theta} and {lambda}). This method results in error propagation that is proportional to the number of detectors in the array. During the procedure, the calibration protocol operates under three postulates, which state that (a) the beam shape does not change between measurements; (b) the relative sensitivities of the detectors do not change; and (c) the scatter to the array does not change as the array is moved. The WF calibration's sensitivity to a postulate (a) violation was quantified by applying a sine shaped perturbation (of up to 0.1%) to {alpha}, {theta}, or {lambda}, and then determining the change relative to a baseline calibration. Postulate (a) violations were minimized by using a continuous beam and mechanized array movement during {theta} and {lambda}. A continuously on beam demonstrated more stable beam symmetry as compared to cycling the beam on and off between measurements. Additional side-scatter was also used to satisfy postulate (c). Results: Simulated symmetry perturbations of 0.1% to {theta} or {lambda} resulted in calibration errors of up to 2%; {alpha} was relatively immune to

  3. Piston manometer as an absolute standard for vacuum-gage calibration in the range 2 to 500 millitorr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, I.

    1972-01-01

    A thin disk is suspended, with very small annular clearance, in a cylindrical opening in the base plate of a calibration chamber. A continuous flow of calibration gas passes through the chamber and annular opening to a downstream high vacuum pump. The ratio of pressures on the two faces of the disk is very large, so that the upstream pressure is substantially equal to net force on the disk divided by disk area. This force is measured with a dynamometer that is calibrated in place with dead weights. A probable error of + or - (0.2 millitorr plus 0.2 percent) is attainable when downstream pressure is known to 10 percent.

  4. Systematic Uncertainties in the Spectroscopic Measurements of Neutron-star Masses and Radii from Thermonuclear X-Ray Bursts. III. Absolute Flux Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güver, Tolga; Özel, Feryal; Marshall, Herman; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Guainazzi, Matteo; Díaz-Trigo, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826-238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE/PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE/PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE/PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0 ± 0.3% less flux than the RXTE/PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared with EPIC MOS1, MOS2, and ACIS-S detectors. We also show that any intrinsic time-dependent systematic uncertainty that may exist in the calibration of the satellites has already been implicity taken into account in the neutron star radius measurements.

  5. Spatial Variation of Dosimetric Leaf Gap and Its Impact on Absolute Dose Delivery in Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaraswamy, Lalith

    During dose calculation, the Eclipse Treatment Planning system (TPS) retracts the MLC leaf positions by half of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) value (measured at central axis) for all leaf positions in a dynamic MLC plan to accurately model the rounded leaf ends. The aim of this study is to map the variation of DLG along the travel path of each MLC leaf pair and quantify how this variation impacts delivered dose. 6 MV DLG values were measured for all MLC leaf pairs in increments of 1.0 cm (from the line intersecting the CAX and perpendicular to MLC motion) to 13.0 cm off axis distance at depth of dose maximum. The measurements were performed on two Varian LINACs, both employing the Millennium 120-leaf MLC. The measurements were performed at several locations in the beam with both a Sun Nuclear MapCHECK device and a PTW pinpoint ion chamber. The measured DLGs for the middle 40 MLC leaf pairs (each 0.5 cm width) at positions along a line through the CAX and perpendicular to MLC leaf travel direction were very similar, varying maximally by only 0.2 mm. The outer 20 MLC leaf pairs (each 1.0 cm width) have much lower DLG values, about 0.3 to 0.5 mm lower than the central MLC leaf pair, at their respective central line position. Overall, the mean and the maximum variation between the 0.5 cm width leaves and the 1.0 cm width leaf pairs is 0.32 mm and 0.65 mm, respectively. The spatial variation in DLG is caused by the variation of intraleaf transmission through MLC leaves. Fluences centered on the CAX would not be affected since DLG does not vary; but any fluences residing significantly off-axis with narrow sweeping leaves may exhibit significant dose differences. This is due to the fact that there are differences in DLG between the true DLG exhibited by the 1.0 cm width outer leaves and the constant DLG value utilized by the TPS for dose calculation. Since there are large differences in DLG between the 0.5 cm width leaf pairs and 1.0 cm width leaf pairs, there is a need

  6. Absolute calibration of the Agfa Structurix series films at energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keVa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanier, N. E.; Cowan, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    Although photo-emulsion technology is many decades old, x-ray film still remains a key asset for diagnosing hydrodynamic features in High-Energy Density (HED) experiments. For decades, the preferred option had been Kodak's direct exposure film. After its discontinuance in 2004, the push to find alternatives began. In many situations, the Agfa Structurix series offers the most favorable substitute, but being new to the HED community, its characterization was lacking. To remedy this, recent experiments, conducted at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, provide absolute, monochromatic calibration data for the Agfa Structurix series films at K-shell backlighter energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keV. Absolute response curves are presented for Agfa D8, D7, D4, D4sc, D3, and D2. Moreover, the transmission of each film type is also measured.

  7. Absolute calibration of the Agfa Structurix series films at energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keV.

    PubMed

    Lanier, N E; Cowan, J S

    2014-11-01

    Although photo-emulsion technology is many decades old, x-ray film still remains a key asset for diagnosing hydrodynamic features in High-Energy Density (HED) experiments. For decades, the preferred option had been Kodak's direct exposure film. After its discontinuance in 2004, the push to find alternatives began. In many situations, the Agfa Structurix series offers the most favorable substitute, but being new to the HED community, its characterization was lacking. To remedy this, recent experiments, conducted at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, provide absolute, monochromatic calibration data for the Agfa Structurix series films at K-shell backlighter energies between 2.7 and 6.2 keV. Absolute response curves are presented for Agfa D8, D7, D4, D4sc, D3, and D2. Moreover, the transmission of each film type is also measured.

  8. Absolute-energy-scale calibration of ARGO-YBJ for light primaries in multi-TeV region with the Moon shadow observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; collaboration), (The ARGO-YBJ

    2017-04-01

    In 2011 ARGO-YBJ experiment has reported a work to study the absolute rigidity scale of the primary cosmic ray particles based on the Moon's shadow observation. Given the progress in high energy hadronic interaction models with LHC data, in cosmic ray chemical composition measurement and in experimental data accumulation, more updates can be researched. This paper aims to further disentangle the composition dependence in absolute-energy-scale calibration by using specific moon-shadow data which mainly is comprised of light component cosmic rays. Results show that, 17% energy scale error is estimated from 3 TeV to 50 TeV. To validate the performance of this technique, the light component cosmic ray spectrum in the same energy region is shown.

  9. Airborne stellar spectrophotometry from 1.2 to 5.5 microns - Absolute calibration and spectra of stars earlier than M3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.; Erickson, E. F.; Witteborn, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne infrared spectrophotometry (1.2-5.5 microns, 1.5% resolution) is presented for 13 stars which have been extensively used as infrared calibration objects: alpha Lyr, alpha CMA, alpha UMi, beta Dra, and mu Her; the K giants beta Gem, alpha UMa, alpha Boo, gamma-1 And, and alpha Tau; and the M giants beta And, beta Peg, and alpha Cet. These spectra, obtained using NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory and Lear Jet Observatory, are virtually free of the interfering effects of terrestrial absorptions. Absolute calibration of the spectrophotometry was based on the theoretical model of alpha Lyr by Schild, Peterson, and Oke (1971), which fits photometric measurements at shorter wavelengths. The resulting flux densities are compared with previous ground-based photometry.

  10. Piston manometer as an absolute standard for vacuum gage calibration in the range 10 to 700 microtorr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, I.

    1972-01-01

    Total pressure in a calibration chamber is determined by measuring the force on a disk suspended in an orifice in the baseplate of the chamber. The disk forms a narrow annular gap with the orifice. A continuous flow of calibration gas passes through the chamber and annulus to a downstream pumping system. The ratio of pressures on the two faces of the disk exceeds 100:1, so that chamber pressure is substantially equal to the product of disk area and net force on the disk. This force is measured with an electrodynamometer that can be calibrated in situ with dead weights. Probable error in pressure measurement is plus or minus (0.5 microtorr + 0.6 percent).

  11. TU-A-12A-09: Absolute Blood Flow Measurement in a Cardiac Phantom Using Low Dose CT

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate a first pass analysis technique to measure absolute flow from low dose CT images in a cardiac phantom. This technique can be combined with a myocardial mass assignment to yield absolute perfusion using only two volume scans and reduce the radiation dose to the patient. Methods: A four-chamber cardiac phantom and perfusion chamber were constructed from poly-acrylic and connected with tubing to approximate anatomical features. The system was connected to a pulsatile pump, input/output reservoirs and power contrast injector. Flow was varied in the range of 1-2.67 mL/s with the pump operating at 60 beats/min. The system was imaged once a second for 14 seconds with a 320-row scanner (Toshiba Medical Systems) using a contrast-enhanced, prospective-gated cardiac perfusion protocol. Flow was calculated by the following steps: subsequent images of the perfusion volume were subtracted to find the contrast entering the volume; this was normalized by an upstream, known volume region to convert Hounsfield (HU) values to concentration; this was divided by the subtracted images time difference. The technique requires a relatively stable input contrast concentration and no contrast can leave the perfusion volume before the flow measurement is completed. Results: The flow calculated from the images showed an excellent correlation with the known rates. The data was fit to a linear function with slope 1.03, intercept 0.02 and an R{sup 2} value of 0.99. The average root mean square (RMS) error was 0.15 mL/s and the average standard deviation was 0.14 mL/s. The flow rate was stable within 7.7% across the full scan and served to validate model assumptions. Conclusion: Accurate, absolute flow rates were measured from CT images using a conservation of mass model. Measurements can be made using two volume scans which can substantially reduce the radiation dose compared with current dynamic perfusion techniques.

  12. Effect of various methods for rectum delineation on relative and absolute dose-volume histograms for prostate IMRT treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kusumoto, Chiaki; Ohira, Shingo; Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Isono, Masaru; Teshima, Teruki

    2016-07-01

    Several reports have dealt with correlations of late rectal toxicity with rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for high dose levels. There are 2 techniques to assess rectal volume for reception of a specific dose: relative-DVH (R-DVH, %) that indicates relative volume for a vertical axis, and absolute-DVH (A-DVH, cc) with its vertical axis showing absolute volume of the rectum. The parameters of DVH vary depending on the rectum delineation method, but the literature does not present any standardization of such methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different delineation methods on rectal DVHs. The enrollment for this study comprised 28 patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer, who had undergone intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the prescription dose of 78 Gy. The rectum was contoured with 4 different methods using 2 lengths, short (Sh) and long (Lg), and 2 cross sections, rectum (Rec) and rectal wall (Rw). Sh means the length from 1 cm above the seminal vesicles to 1 cm below the prostate and Lg the length from the rectosigmoid junction to the anus. Rec represents the entire rectal volume including the rectal contents and Rw the rectal volume of the area with a wall thickness of 4 mm. We compared dose-volume parameters by using 4 rectal contour methods for the same plan with the R-DVHs as well as the A-DVHs. For the high dose levels, the R-DVH parameters varied widely. The mean of V{sub 70} for Sh-Rw was the highest (19.4%) and nearly twice as high as that for Lg-Rec (10.4%). On the contrary, only small variations were observed in the A-DVH parameters (4.3, 4.3, 5.5, and 5.5 cc for Sh-Rw, Lg-Rw, Sh-Rec, and Lg-Rec, respectively). As for R-DVHs, the parameters of V{sub 70} varied depending on the rectal lengths (Sh-Rec vs Lg-Rec: R = 0.76; Sh-Rw vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.85) and cross sections (Sh-Rec vs Sh-Rw: R = 0.49; Lg-Rec vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.65). For A-DVHs, however, the parameters of Sh rectal A-DVHs hardly changed

  13. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections for He - A proposed calibration standard from 5 to 200 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    Absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for electrons elastically scattered from helium are reported for the impact energy range of 5 to 200 eV. Angular distributions for elastically scattered electrons are measured in a crossed-beam geometry using a collimated, differentially pumped atomic-beam source which requires no effective-path-length correction. Below the first inelastic threshold the angular distributions were placed on an absolute scale by use of a phase-shift analysis. Above this threshold, the angular distributions from 10 to 140 deg were fitted using the phase-shift technique, and the resulting integral cross sections were normalized to a semiempirically derived integral elastic cross section. Depending on the impact energy, the data are estimated to be accurate to within 5 to 9%.

  14. Dose calibrator linearity test: 99mTc versus 18F radioisotopes*

    PubMed Central

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing 18F with 99mTc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and Methods The test was performed with sources of 99mTc (62 GBq) and 18F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results Mean deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the 99mTc source as measured with the equipment pre-calibrated to measure 99mTc and 18F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the 18F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion The results of the linearity test using 99mTc were compatible with those obtained with the 18F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in 18F acquisition suggest 99mTc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use 18F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. PMID:25798005

  15. Calibration of Kodak EDR2 film for patient skin dose assessment in cardiac catheterization procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Rachel E.; Rogers, Andy

    2004-12-01

    Kodak EDR2 film has been calibrated across the range of exposure conditions encountered in our cardiac catheterization laboratory. Its dose-response function has been successfully modelled, up to the saturation point of 1 Gy. The most important factor affecting film sensitivity is the use of beam filtration. Spectral filtration and kVp together account for a variation in dose per optical density of -10% to +25%, at 160 mGy. The use of a dynamic wedge filter may cause doses to be underestimated by up to 6%. The film is relatively insensitive to variations in batch, field size, exposure rate, time to processing and day-to-day fluctuations in processor performance. Overall uncertainty in the calibration is estimated to be -20% to +40%, at 160 mGy. However, the uncertainty increases at higher doses, as the curve saturates. Artefacts were seen on a number of films, due to faults in the light-proofing of the film packets.

  16. Investigation of the influence of calibration practices on cytogenetic laboratory performance for dose estimation.

    PubMed

    Trompier, François; Baumann, Marion; Barrios, Lleonard; Gregoire, Eric; Abend, Michael; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Barnard, Stephen; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bautista, Juan Antonio; Brzozowska, Beata; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; De Angelis, Cinzia; Domínguez, Inmaculada; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Kulka, Ulrike; Mateos, Juan Carlos; Meschini, Roberta; Monteiro Gil, Octávia; Moquet, Jayne; Oestreicher, Ursula; Montoro Pastor, Alegria; Quintens, Roel; Sebastià, Natividad; Sommer, Sylwester; Stoyanov, Orlin; Thierens, Hubert; Terzoudi, Georgia; Villaescusa, Juan Ignacio; Vral, Anne; Wojcik, Andrzej; Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Roy, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of the QA program of RENEB, an inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) of calibration sources used in biological dosimetry was achieved to investigate the influence of calibration practices and protocols on the results of the dose estimation performance as a first step to harmonization and standardization of dosimetry and irradiation practices in the European biological dosimetry network. Delivered doses by irradiation facilities used by RENEB partners were determined with EPR/alanine dosimetry system. Dosimeters were irradiated in the same conditions as blood samples. A short survey was also performed to collect the information needed for the data analysis and evaluate the diversity of practices. For most of partners the deviation of delivered dose from the targeted dose remains below 10%. Deviations larger than 10% were observed for five facilities out of 21. Origins of the largest discrepancies were identified. Correction actions were evaluated as satisfactory. The re-evaluation of some ILC results for the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assays has been performed leading to an improvement of the overall performances. This work has shown the importance of dosimetry in radiobiology studies and the needs of harmonization, standardization in irradiation and dosimetry practices and educational training for biologists using ionizing radiation.

  17. Estimation of absorbed dose in clinical radiotherapy linear accelerator beams: Effect of ion chamber calibration and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, Johnson Pichy; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2013-10-01

    The measured dose in water at reference point in phantom is a primary parameter for planning the treatment monitor units (MU); both in conventional and intensity modulated/image guided treatments. Traceability of dose accuracy therefore still depends mainly on the calibration factor of the ion chamber/dosimeter provided by the accredited Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of laboratories. The data related to Nd,water calibrations, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) postal dose validation, inter-comparison of different dosimeter/electrometers, and validity of Nd,water calibrations obtained from different calibration laboratories were analyzed to find out the extent of accuracy achievable. Nd,w factors in Gray/Coulomb calibrated at IBA, GmBH, Germany showed a mean variation of about 0.2% increase per year in three Farmer chambers, in three subsequent calibrations. Another ion chamber calibrated in different accredited laboratory (PTW, Germany) showed consistent Nd,w for 9 years period. The Strontium-90 beta check source response indicated long-term stability of the ion chambers within 1% for three chambers. Results of IAEA postal TL "dose intercomparison" for three photon beams, 6 MV (two) and 15 MV (one), agreed well within our reported doses, with mean deviation of 0.03% (SD 0.87%) (n = 9). All the chamber/electrometer calibrated by a single SSDL realized absorbed doses in water within 0.13% standard deviations. However, about 1-2% differences in absorbed dose estimates observed when dosimeters calibrated from different calibration laboratories are compared in solid phantoms. Our data therefore imply that the dosimetry level maintained for clinical use of linear accelerator photon beams are within recommended levels of accuracy, and uncertainties are within reported values.

  18. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  19. A new solar irradiance calibration from 3295 A to 8500 A derived from absolute spectrophotometry of Vega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, G. W.; Tueg, H.; White, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    By imaging sunlight diffracted by 20- and 30-micron diameter pinholes onto the entrance aperture of a photoelectric grating scanner, the solar spectral irradiance was determined relative to the spectrophotometric standard star Vega, observed at night with the same instrument. Solar irradiances are tabulated at 4 A increments from 3295 A to 8500 A. Over most of the visible spectrum, the internal error of measurement is less than 2 percent. This calibration is compared with earlier irradiance measurements by Neckel and Labs (1984) and by Arvesen et al. (1969) and with the high-resolution solar atlas by Kurucz et al. The three calibrations agree well in visible light but differ by as much as 10 percent in the ultraviolet.

  20. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  1. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-15

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  2. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. L

    2006-10-15

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3 keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3 keV ({approx}50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.

  3. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film.

    PubMed

    Gotanda, Tatsuhiro; Katsuda, Toshizo; Gotanda, Rumi; Kuwano, Tadao; Akagawa, Takuya; Tanki, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Akihiko; Shimono, Tetsunori; Kawaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were -32.336 and -33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range.

  4. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film

    PubMed Central

    Gotanda, Tatsuhiro; Katsuda, Toshizo; Gotanda, Rumi; Kuwano, Tadao; Akagawa, Takuya; Tanki, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Akihiko; Shimono, Tetsunori; Kawaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were −32.336 and −33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range. PMID:28144120

  5. Calibration setting numbers for dose calibrators for the PET isotopes (52)Mn, (64)Cu, (76)Br, (86)Y, (89)Zr, (124)I.

    PubMed

    Wooten, A Lake; Lewis, Benjamin C; Szatkowski, Daniel J; Sultan, Deborah H; Abdin, Kinda I; Voller, Thomas F; Liu, Yongjian; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2016-07-01

    For PET radionuclides, the radioactivity of a sample can be conveniently measured by a dose calibrator. These devices depend on a "calibration setting number", but many recommended settings from manuals were interpolated based on standard sources of other radionuclide(s). We conducted HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy, resulting in a reference for determining settings in two types of vessels containing one of several PET radionuclides. Our results reiterate the notion that in-house, experimental calibrations are recommended for different radionuclides and vessels.

  6. Absolute calibration of the Greenland time scale: implications for Antarctic time scales and for Δ 14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackleton, N. J.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Chiu, Tzu-chien; Parrenin, F.

    2004-07-01

    We propose a new age scale for the two ice cores (GRIP and GISP2) that were drilled at Greenland summit, based on accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of foraminifera in core MD95-2042 (Paleoceanography 15 (2000) 565), calibrated by means of recently obtained paired 14C and 230Th measurements on pristine corals (Marine radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 10,500 to 50,000 years BP (thousand years before present) Based on paired 230Th/ 234U/ 238U and 14C dates on Pristine Corals Geological Society of America Bulletin, 2003, submitted for publication). The record of core MD95-2042 can be correlated very precisely to the Greenland ice cores. Between 30 and 40 ka BP our scale is 1.4 ka older than the GRIP SS09sea time scale (Journal of Quaternary Science 16 (2001) 299). At the older end of Marine Isotope Stage 3 we use published 230Th dates from speleothems to calibrate the record. Using this scale we show a Δ 14C record that is broadly consistent with the modelled record (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 200 (2002) 177) and with the data of Hughen et al. (Science 303 (2004) 202), but not consistent with the high values obtained by Beck et al. (Science 292 (2001) 2453) or by Voelker et al. (Radiocarbon 40 (1998) 517). We show how a set of age scales for the Antarctic ice cores can be derived that are both fully consistent with the Greenland scale, and glaciologically reasonable.

  7. Development of a low-level 39Ar calibration standard – Analysis by absolute gas counting measurements augmented with simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Brandenberger, J. M.; ...

    2017-02-17

    Here, this paper describes the generation of 39Ar, via reactor irradiation of potassium carbonate, followed by quantitative analysis (length-compensated proportional counting) to yield two calibration standards that are respectively 50 and 3 times atmospheric background levels. Measurements were performed in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's shallow underground counting laboratory studying the effect of gas density on beta-transport; these results are compared with simulation. The total expanded uncertainty of the specific activity for the ~50 × 39Ar in P10 standard is 3.6% (k=2).

  8. Absolute Doppler shift calibration of laser induced fluorescence signals using optogalvanic measurements in a hollow cathode lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the use of optogalvanic (OG) measurements on the neutral 3P1 and 3P2 levels of argon in a hollow cathode lamp for the purpose of calibrating Doppler shifts of laser-induced fluorescence signals from an arcjet plume. It is shown that, even with non-Doppler-free OG detection, accuracy to better than 10 MHz is possible but that, depending on the experiment geometry, corrections of 10-35 MHz may be necessary to offset small axial drift velocities of neutral atoms in the hollow cathode lamp.

  9. Absolute calibration and beam reconstruction of MITO(a ground-based instrument in the millimetric region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savini, G.; Orlando, A.; Battistelli, E. S.; De Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Luzzi, G.; Palladino, E.

    2003-09-01

    An efficient sky data reconstruction derives from a precise characterization of the observing instrument. Here we describe the reconstruction of performances of a single-pixel 4-band photometer installed at MITO (Millimeter and Infrared Testagrigia Observatory) focal plane. The strategy of differential sky observations at millimeter wavelengths, by scanning the field of view at constant elevation wobbling the subreflector, induces a good knowledge of beam profile and beam-throw amplitude, allowing efficient data recovery. The problems that arise estimating the detectors throughput by drift scanning on planets are shown. Atmospheric transmission, monitored by skydip technique, is considered for deriving final responsivities for the 4 channels using planets as primary calibrators.

  10. Dosimetric comparison of absolute and relative dose distributions between tissue maximum ratio and convolution algorithms for acoustic neurinoma plans in Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Hisato; Komori, Masataka; Shibamoto, Yuta; Tsugawa, Takahiko; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya

    2014-08-01

    The treatment planning for Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) that performs dose calculations based on tissue maximum ratio (TMR) algorithm has disadvantages in predicting dose in tissue heterogeneity. The latest version of the planning software is equipped with a convolution dose algorithm as an optional extra and the new algorithm is able to compensate for head inhomogeneity. However, the effect of this improved calculation method requires detailed validation in clinical cases. In this study, we compared absolute and relative dose distributions of treatment plans for acoustic neurinoma between TMR and the convolution calculation. Twenty-nine clinically used plans created by TMR algorithm were recalculated by convolution method. Differences between TMR and convolution were evaluated in terms of absolute dose (beam-on time), dosimetric parameters including target coverage, selectivity, conformity index, gradient index, radical homogeneity index and the dose-volume relationship. The discrepancy in estimated absolute dose to the target ranged from 1 to 7 % between TMR and convolution. In addition, dosimetric parameters of the two methods achieved statistical significance. However, it was difficult to see the change of relative dose distribution by visual assessment on a monitor. Convolution, heterogeneity correction calculation, and the algorithm are necessary to reduce the dosimetric uncertainty of each case in GK SRS.

  11. SU-E-T-470: Importance of HU-Mass Density Calibration Technique in Proton Pencil Beam Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Penfold, S; Miller, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Stoichiometric calibration of Hounsfield Units (HUs) for conversion to proton relative stopping powers (RStPs) is vital for accurate dose calculation in proton therapy. However proton dose distributions are not only dependent on RStP, but also on relative scattering power (RScP) of patient tissues. RScP is approximated from material density but a stoichiometric calibration of HU-density tables is commonly neglected. The purpose of this work was to quantify the difference in calculated dose of a commercial TPS when using HU-density tables based on tissue substitute materials and stoichiometric calibrated ICRU tissues. Methods: Two HU-density calibration tables were generated based on scans of the CIRS electron density phantom. The first table was based directly on measured HU and manufacturer quoted density of tissue substitute materials. The second was based on the same CT scan of the CIRS phantom followed by a stoichiometric calibration of ICRU44 tissue materials. The research version of Pinnacle{sup 3} proton therapy was used to compute dose in a patient CT data set utilizing both HU-density tables. Results: The two HU-density tables showed significant differences for bone tissues; the difference increasing with increasing HU. Differences in density calibration table translated to a difference in calculated RScP of −2.5% for ICRU skeletal muscle and 9.2% for ICRU femur. Dose-volume histogram analysis of a parallel opposed proton therapy prostate plan showed that the difference in calculated dose was negligible when using the two different HU-density calibration tables. Conclusion: The impact of HU-density calibration technique on proton therapy dose calculation was assessed. While differences were found in the calculated RScP of bony tissues, the difference in dose distribution for realistic treatment scenarios was found to be insignificant.

  12. Construction of Calibration Curve for Premature Chromosome Condensation Assay for Dose Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Neronova, Elizaveta G.

    2016-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry plays an important role in the triage and medical management of affected people in radiological incidents/accidents. Cytogenetic biodosimetry uses different methods to estimate the absorbed dose in the exposed individuals, and each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay presents several advantages that hopefully fulfill the gaps identified in the other cytogenetic methods. To introduce this technique into the panel of other cytogenetic methods, a calibration curve for PCC after γ-irradiation was generated for our laboratory. PMID:28217285

  13. Construction of Calibration Curve for Premature Chromosome Condensation Assay for Dose Assessment.

    PubMed

    Neronova, Elizaveta G

    2016-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry plays an important role in the triage and medical management of affected people in radiological incidents/accidents. Cytogenetic biodosimetry uses different methods to estimate the absorbed dose in the exposed individuals, and each approach has its advantages and disadvantages. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay presents several advantages that hopefully fulfill the gaps identified in the other cytogenetic methods. To introduce this technique into the panel of other cytogenetic methods, a calibration curve for PCC after γ-irradiation was generated for our laboratory.

  14. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Emprin, B.; Oudot, G.; Tassin, V.; Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  15. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response

    SciTech Connect

    Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Oudot, G.; Tassin, V.; Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-15

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  16. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    PubMed

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  17. Deviation in the predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators and the associated inaccuracy in the radioactivity measurements of beta-gamma emitters

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarika; Singh, Baljinder; Koul, Ashwani; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators can provide accurate radioactivity measurements of beta-gamma emitters used in routine therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. Materials and Methods: Two models of dose calibrators were used in the present study for radioactivity measurements of 153Sm ethylenediamine-N, N, N’, N’-tetrakis methylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) and 177Lu (EDTMP). A known (precalibrated) activity of each of the two beta emitters received by us from our National Supplier for administration to the patients with extensive bony metastases for bone pain palliation, was used for experiments. Results: When we used the manufacturers’ provided dial setting of 450 × 10, each of the dose calibrators underestimated the radioactivity of 177Lu by about 9.0%. Dial settings of 403 × 10 and 408 × 10 for 177Lu on CRC-15R and CRC-ultra dose calibrators respectively were calculated experimentally using an iterative approach. The radioactivity measurements made at these settings provided an excellent agreement with the specified values. Likewise, a dial setting of 230 for each of the two dose calibrators was calculated for 153Sm, which provided a good agreement between the experimentally derived radioactivity values and the certified values. A deviation of ± 5.0% was observed when radioactivity of 177Lu and 153Sm was measured over a wide range (4.0 MBq to 2.1 GBq) for time intervals equivalent to 4.5 half-lives of each of the two radionuclides. A deviation of ± 5% was observed when radioactivity was counted in different dilution volumes and in syringes of varying size. Conclusion: These variations could lead to a cumulative error of about 20.0% toward the inaccuracy in the radioactivity measurements of the beta-gamma emitters and thus predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators may require experimental re-setting of these parameters and periodic checking to provide accurate radioactivity estimates of

  18. Deviation in the predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators and the associated inaccuracy in the radioactivity measurements of beta-gamma emitters.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarika; Singh, Baljinder; Koul, Ashwani; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether the predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators can provide accurate radioactivity measurements of beta-gamma emitters used in routine therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. Two models of dose calibrators were used in the present study for radioactivity measurements of (153)Sm ethylenediamine-N, N, N', N'-tetrakis methylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) and (177)Lu (EDTMP). A known (precalibrated) activity of each of the two beta emitters received by us from our National Supplier for administration to the patients with extensive bony metastases for bone pain palliation, was used for experiments. When we used the manufacturers' provided dial setting of 450 × 10, each of the dose calibrators underestimated the radioactivity of (177)Lu by about 9.0%. Dial settings of 403 × 10 and 408 × 10 for (177)Lu on CRC-15R and CRC-ultra dose calibrators respectively were calculated experimentally using an iterative approach. The radioactivity measurements made at these settings provided an excellent agreement with the specified values. Likewise, a dial setting of 230 for each of the two dose calibrators was calculated for (153)Sm, which provided a good agreement between the experimentally derived radioactivity values and the certified values. A deviation of ± 5.0% was observed when radioactivity of (177)Lu and (153)Sm was measured over a wide range (4.0 MBq to 2.1 GBq) for time intervals equivalent to 4.5 half-lives of each of the two radionuclides. A deviation of ± 5% was observed when radioactivity was counted in different dilution volumes and in syringes of varying size. These variations could lead to a cumulative error of about 20.0% toward the inaccuracy in the radioactivity measurements of the beta-gamma emitters and thus predefined calibration factors of the dose calibrators may require experimental re-setting of these parameters and periodic checking to provide accurate radioactivity estimates of beta-gamma emitters in a given clinical

  19. Galactic model parameters of cataclysmic variables: Results from a new absolute magnitude calibration with 2MASS and WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdönmez, A.; Ak, T.; Bilir, S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the spatial distribution, Galactic model parameters and luminosity function of cataclysmic variables (CVs), a J-band magnitude limited sample of 263 CVs has been established using a newly constructed period-luminosity-colours (PLCs) relation which includes J,Ks and W1-band magnitudes in 2MASS and WISE photometries, and the orbital periods of the systems. This CV sample is assumed to be homogeneous regarding to distances as the new PLCs relation is calibrated with new or re-measured trigonometric parallaxes. Our analysis shows that the scaleheight of CVs is increasing towards shorter periods, although selection effects for the periods shorter than 2.25 h dramatically decrease the scaleheight: the scaleheight of the systems increases from 192 pc to 326 pc as the orbital period decreases from 12 to 2.25 h. The z-distribution of all CVs in the sample is well fitted by an exponential function with a scaleheight of 213-10+11 pc. However, we suggest that the scaleheight of CVs in the Solar vicinity should be ∼300 pc and that the scaleheights derived using the sech2 function should be also considered in the population synthesis models. The space density of CVs in the Solar vicinity is found 5.58(1.35)×10-6 pc-3 which is in the range of previously derived space densities and not in agreement with the predictions of the population models. The analysis based on the comparisons of the luminosity function of white dwarfs with the luminosity function of CVs in this study show that the best fits are obtained by dividing the luminosity functions of white dwarfs by a factor of 350-450.

  20. The fading of Cassiopeia A, and improved models for the absolute spectrum of primary radio calibration sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotter, A. S.; Reichart, D. E.; Egger, R. E.; Stýblová, J.; Paggen, M. L.; Martin, J. R.; Dutton, D. A.; Reichart, J. E.; Kumar, N. D.; Maples, M. P.; Barlow, B. N.; Berger, T. A.; Foster, A. C.; Frank, N. R.; Ghigo, F. D.; Haislip, J. B.; Heatherly, S. A.; Kouprianov, V. V.; LaCluyzé, A. P.; Moffett, D. A.; Moore, J. P.; Stanley, J. L.; White, S.

    2017-08-01

    Based on 5 yr of observations with the 40-foot telescope at Green Bank Observatory (GBO), Reichart & Stephens found that the radio source Cassiopeia A had either faded more slowly between the mid-1970s and late 1990s than Baars et al. had found it to be fading between the late 1940s and mid-1970s, or that it had rebrightened and then resumed fading sometime between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s, in the L band (1.4 GHz). Here, we present 15 additional years of observations of Cas A and Cyg A with the 40-foot in the L band, and three and a half additional years of observations of Cas A, Cyg A, Tau A and Vir A with GBO's recently refurbished 20-m telescope in the L and X (9 GHz) bands. We also present a more sophisticated analysis of the 40-foot data, and a reanalysis of the Baars et al. data, which reveals small, but non-negligible differences. We find that overall, between the late 1950s and late 2010s, Cas A faded at an average rate of 0.670 ± 0.019 per cent yr-1 in the L band, consistent with Reichart & Stephens. However, we also find, at the 6.3σ credible level, that it did not fade at a constant rate. Rather, Cas A faded at a faster rate through at least the late 1960s, rebrightened (or at least faded at a much slower rate), and then resumed fading at a similarly fast rate by, at most, the late 1990s. Given these differences from the original Baars et al. analysis, and given the importance of their fitted spectral and temporal models for flux-density calibration in radio astronomy, we update and improve on these models for all four of these radio sources. In doing so, we additionally find that Tau A is fading at a rate of 0.102^{+0.042}_{-0.043} per cent yr-1 in the L band.

  1. SkyProbe: Real-Time Precision Monitoring in the Optical of the Absolute Atmospheric Absorption on the Telescope Science and Calibration Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, J.-C.; Magnier, E.; Sabin, D.; Mahoney, B.

    2016-05-01

    Mauna Kea is known for its pristine seeing conditions but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations since at least 25% of the observable (i.e. open dome) nights are not photometric, an effect mostly due to high-altitude cirrus. Since 2001, the original single channel SkyProbe mounted in parallel on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) has gathered one V-band exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera offering a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (40 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tycho catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). The measurement of the true atmospheric absorption is achieved within 2%, a key advantage over all-sky direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds. The absolute measurement of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds and particulates affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO) representing today all of the telescope time. Also, science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for a new observation at a later date at 1/10th of the original exposure time in photometric conditions to ensure a proper final absolute photometric calibration. Photometric standards are observed only when conditions are reported as being perfectly stable by SkyProbe. The more recent dual color system (simultaneous B & V bands) will offer a better characterization of the sky properties above Mauna Kea and should enable a better detection of the thinnest cirrus (absorption down to 0.01 mag., or 1%).

  2. Accurate Determination of the Absolute Isotopic Composition and Atomic Weight of Molybdenum by Multiple Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a Fully Calibrated Strategy.

    PubMed

    Song, Panshu; Wang, Jun; Ren, Tongxiang; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Yuanjing; Wang, Song

    2017-09-05

    A fully calibrated strategy has been investigated for the first time for the accurate determination of absolute isotopic composition and atomic weight of molybdenum using multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The correction for instrumental mass bias was performed using synthetic isotope mixtures, which were gravimetrically prepared with all of the seven high-purity and isotopically enriched molybdenum isotope materials together. Six natural molybdenum materials, including molybdenum standard solution NIST SRM 3134, were accurately measured and yielded the absolute isotopic composition (in atom %, k = 1) of (92)Mo-14.690(18), (94)Mo-9.173(6), (95)Mo-15.865(5), (96)Mo-16.666(3), (97)Mo-9.588(4), (98)Mo-24.307(16), and (100)Mo-9.711(13). These isotopic data enable an atomic weight Ar(Mo) of 95.9466(34) (k = 2) to be calculated, which is slightly lower than the current standard atomic weight 95.95(1) and with a much improved uncertainty. The associated uncertainties were evaluated according to the Guide to Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement of ISO/BIPM and Monte Carlo simulation to ensure that all sources of uncertainty were fully accounted for. A particular characteristic of the proposed new approach is that mass bias correction factor K for each isotope ratio of molybdenum can be achieved via fully experimental determination without using the traditional semiempirical correction mathematical models. In addition, the relationship between mass of isotope and bias per mass unit β was investigated based on the thorough measurement data.

  3. Development of highly efficient proton recoil counter telescope for absolute measurement of neutron fluences in quasi-monoenergetic neutron calibration fields of high energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Saegusa, Jun; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    2010-04-01

    Precise calibration of monitors and dosimeters for use with high energy neutrons necessitates reliable and accurate neutron fluences being evaluated with use of a reference point. A highly efficient Proton Recoil counter Telescope (PRT) to make absolute measurements with use of a reference point was developed to evaluate neutron fluences in quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields. The relatively large design of the PRT componentry and relatively thick, approximately 2 mm, polyethylene converter contributed to high detection efficiency at the reference point over a large irradiation area at a long distance from the target. The polyethylene converter thickness was adjusted to maintain the same carbon density per unit area as the graphite converter for easy background subtraction. The high detection efficiency and thickness adjustment resulted in efficient absolute measurements being made of the neutron fluences of sufficient statistical precision over a short period of time. The neutron detection efficiencies of the PRT were evaluated using MCNPX code at 2.61×10-6, 2.16×10-6 and 1.14×10-6 for the respective neutron peak energies of 45, 60 and 75 MeV. The neutron fluences were determined to have been evaluated at an uncertainty of within 6.5% using analysis of measured data and the detection efficiencies. The PRT was also designed so as to be capable of simultaneously obtaining TOF data. The TOF data also increased the reliability of neutron fluence measurements and provided useful information for use in interpreting the source of proton events.

  4. Unintended attenuation in the Leksell Gamma Knife registered Perfexion trade mark sign calibration-phantom adaptor and its effect on dose calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, Jagdish P.; Novotny, Josef Jr.; Quader, Mubina A.; Bednarz, Greg; Huq, M. Saiful

    2009-04-15

    The calibration of Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGK PFX) is performed using a spherical polystyrene phantom 160 mm in diameter, which is provided by the manufacturer. This is the same phantom that has been used with LGK models U, B, C, and 4C. The polystyrene phantom is held in irradiation position by an aluminum adaptor, which has stainless steel side-fixation screws. The phantom adaptor partially attenuates the beams from sectors 3 and 7 by 3.2% and 4.6%, respectively. This unintended attenuation introduces a systematic error in dose calibration. The overall effect of phantom-adaptor attenuation on output calibration of the LGK PFX unit is to underestimate output by about 1.0%.

  5. Absolute intensity calibration of flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer using radial profiles of visible and extreme ultraviolet bremsstrahlung continuum emitted from high-density plasmas in Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Chunfeng; Wang Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi

    2011-11-15

    A precise absolute intensity calibration of a flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in wavelength range of 60-400 A is carried out using a new calibration technique based on radial profile measurement of the bremsstrahlung continuum in Large Helical Device. A peaked vertical profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum has been successfully observed in high-density plasmas (n{sub e}{>=} 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}) with hydrogen ice pellet injection. The absolute calibration can be done by comparing the EUV bremsstrahlung profile with the visible bremsstrahlung profile of which the absolute value has been already calibrated using a standard lamp. The line-integrated profile of measured visible bremsstrahlung continuum is firstly converted into the local emissivity profile by considering a magnetic surface distortion due to the plasma pressure, and the local emissivity profile of EUV bremsstrahlung is secondly calculated by taking into account the electron temperature profile and free-free gaunt factor. The line-integrated profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum is finally calculated from the local emissivity profile in order to compare with measured EUV bremsstrahlung profile. The absolute intensity calibration can be done by comparing measured and calculated EUV bremsstrahlung profiles. The calibration factor is thus obtained as a function of wavelength with excellent accuracy. It is also found in the profile analysis that the grating reflectivity of EUV emissions is constant along the direction perpendicular to the wavelength dispersion. Uncertainties on the calibration factor determined with the present method are discussed including charge-coupled device operation modes.

  6. Evaluation of factors to convert absorbed dose calibrations from graphite to water for the NPL high-energy photon calibration service.

    PubMed

    Nutbrown, R F; Duane, S; Shipley, D R; Thomas, R A S

    2002-02-07

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) provides a high-energy photon calibration service using 4-19 MV x-rays and 60Co gamma-radiation for secondary standard dosemeters in terms of absorbed dose to water. The primary standard used for this service is a graphite calorimeter and so absorbed dose calibrations must be converted from graphite to water. The conversion factors currently in use were determined prior to the launch of this service in 1988. Since then, it has been found that the differences in inherent filtration between the NPL LINAC and typical clinical machines are large enough to affect absorbed dose calibrations and, since 1992, calibrations have been performed in heavily filtered qualities. The conversion factors for heavily filtered qualities were determined by interpolation and extrapolation of lightly filtered results as a function of tissue phantom ratio 20,10 (TPR20,10). This paper aims to evaluate these factors for all mega-voltage photon energies provided by the NPL LINAC for both lightly and heavily filtered qualities and for 60Co y-radiation in two ways. The first method involves the use of the photon fluence-scaling theorem. This states that if two blocks of different material are irradiated by the same photon beam, and if all dimensions are scaled in the inverse ratio of the electron densities of the two media, then, assuming that all photon interactions occur by Compton scatter the photon attenuation and scatter factors at corresponding scaled points of measurement in the phantom will be identical. The second method involves making in-phantom measurements of chamber response at a constant target-chamber distance. Monte Carlo techniques are then used to determine the corresponding dose to the medium in order to determine the chamber calibration factor directly. Values of the ratio of absorbed dose calibration factors in water and in graphite determined in these two ways agree with each other to within 0.2% (1sigma uncertainty). The best fit

  7. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  8. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  9. Absolute Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartig, George

    1990-12-01

    The absolute sensitivity of the FOS will be determined in SV by observing 2 stars at 3 epochs, first in 3 apertures (1.0", 0.5", and 0.3" circular) and then in 1 aperture (1.0" circular). In cycle 1, one star, BD+28D4211 will be observed in the 1.0" aperture to establish the stability of the sensitivity and flat field characteristics and improve the accuracy obtained in SV. This star will also be observed through the paired apertures since these are not calibrated in SV. The stars will be observed in most detector/grating combinations. The data will be averaged to form the inverse sensitivity functions required by RSDP.

  10. TH-E-BRE-09: TrueBeam Monte Carlo Absolute Dose Calculations Using Monitor Chamber Backscatter Simulations and Linac-Logged Target Current

    SciTech Connect

    A, Popescu I; Lobo, J; Sawkey, D; Svatos, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To simulate and measure radiation backscattered into the monitor chamber of a TrueBeam linac; establish a rigorous framework for absolute dose calculations for TrueBeam Monte Carlo (MC) simulations through a novel approach, taking into account the backscattered radiation and the actual machine output during beam delivery; improve agreement between measured and simulated relative output factors. Methods: The ‘monitor backscatter factor’ is an essential ingredient of a well-established MC absolute dose formalism (the MC equivalent of the TG-51 protocol). This quantity was determined for the 6 MV, 6X FFF, and 10X FFF beams by two independent Methods: (1) MC simulations in the monitor chamber of the TrueBeam linac; (2) linac-generated beam record data for target current, logged for each beam delivery. Upper head MC simulations used a freelyavailable manufacturer-provided interface to a cloud-based platform, allowing use of the same head model as that used to generate the publicly-available TrueBeam phase spaces, without revealing the upper head design. The MC absolute dose formalism was expanded to allow direct use of target current data. Results: The relation between backscatter, number of electrons incident on the target for one monitor unit, and MC absolute dose was analyzed for open fields, as well as a jaw-tracking VMAT plan. The agreement between the two methods was better than 0.15%. It was demonstrated that the agreement between measured and simulated relative output factors improves across all field sizes when backscatter is taken into account. Conclusion: For the first time, simulated monitor chamber dose and measured target current for an actual TrueBeam linac were incorporated in the MC absolute dose formalism. In conjunction with the use of MC inputs generated from post-delivery trajectory-log files, the present method allows accurate MC dose calculations, without resorting to any of the simplifying assumptions previously made in the True

  11. Determination of Delta m(d) and absolute calibration of flavor taggers for the Delta m(s) analysis, in fully reconstructed decays at the CDF experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Jonatan Piedra

    2005-04-21

    The new trigger processor, the Silicon Vertex Tracking (SVT), has dramatically improved the B physics capabilities of the upgraded CDF II Detector; for the first time in a hadron collider, the SVT has enabled the access to non-lepton-triggered B meson decays. Within the new available range of decay modes, the B$0\\atop{s}$ → D$-\\atop{s}$π+ signature is of paramount importance in the measurement of the Δms mixing frequency. The analysis reported here is a step towards the measurement of this frequency; two where our goals: carrying out the absolute calibration of the opposite side flavor taggers, used in the Δms measurement; and measuring the B$0\\atop{d}$ mixing frequency in a B → Dπ sample, establishing the feasibility of the mixing measurement in this sample whose decay-length is strongly biased by the selective SVT trigger. We analyze a total integrated luminosity of 355 pb-1 collected with the CDF II Detector. By triggering on muons, using the conventional di-muon trigger; or displaced tracks, using the SVT trigger, we gather a sample rich in bottom and charm mesons.

  12. How calibration and reference spectra affect the accuracy of absolute soft X-ray solar irradiance measured by the SDO/EVE/ESP during high solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid

    2016-10-01

    The Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP), one of the channels of SDO’s Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), measures solar irradiance in several EUV and soft x-ray (SXR) bands isolated using thin-film filters and a transmission diffraction grating, and includes a quad-diode detector positioned at the grating zeroth-order to observe in a wavelength band from about 0.1 to 7.0 nm. The quad diode signal also includes some contribution from shorter wavelength in the grating’s first-order and the ratio of zeroth-order to first-order signal depends on both source geometry, and spectral distribution. For example, radiometric calibration of the ESP zeroth-order at the NIST SURF BL-2 with a near-parallel beam provides a different zeroth-to-first-order ratio than modeled for solar observations. The relative influence of “uncalibrated” first-order irradiance during solar observations is a function of the solar spectral irradiance and the locations of large Active Regions or solar flares. We discuss how the “uncalibrated” first-order “solar” component and the use of variable solar reference spectra affect determination of absolute SXR irradiance which currently may be significantly overestimated during high solar activity.

  13. Energy and directional response for the Harshaw dosemeter holders 8814 and 8891, and its effect on the appropriate radiation qualities for absolute calibration.

    PubMed

    Børretzen, I; Wøhni, T

    2003-01-01

    The personal dosimetry laboratory at the Norwegian radiation protection authority utilises a two-element dosemeter card for measuring Hp(10) and Hp(0.07), in a Harshaw dosemeter holder type 8814. Energy and directional responses for photons and betas for this holder have been assessed, as well as for the new Harshaw holder type 8891. The energy response characteristics for the 12-1250 keV photon energy range, in terms of TL output per unit Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) have been evaluated. The maximum over-response to under-response ratio for the Hp(10) element was found to be 1.46 for the new type 8891 holder, as compared to 1.55 for the older type 8814. The new holder also displays a more favourable directional response for this element. For the Hp(0.07) element, no significant differences with regard to energy or directional responses were found. Selecting radiation energy for absolute calibration of the Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) elements are discussed.

  14. Construction of dose response calibration curves for dicentrics and micronuclei for X radiation in a Serbian population.

    PubMed

    Pajic, J; Rakic, B; Jovicic, D; Milovanovic, A

    2014-10-01

    Biological dosimetry using chromosome damage biomarkers is a valuable dose assessment method in cases of radiation overexposure with or without physical dosimetry data. In order to estimate dose by biodosimetry, any biological dosimetry service have to have its own dose response calibration curve. This paper reveals the results obtained after irradiation of blood samples from fourteen healthy male and female volunteers in order to establish biodosimetry in Serbia and produce dose response calibration curves for dicentrics and micronuclei. Taking into account pooled data from all the donors, the resultant fitted curve for dicentrics is: Ydic=0.0009 (±0.0003)+0.0421 (±0.0042)×D+0.0602 (±0.0022)×D(2); and for micronuclei: Ymn=0.0104 (±0.0015)+0.0824 (±0.0050)×D+0.0189 (±0.0017)×D(2). Following establishment of the dose response curve, a validation experiment was carried out with four blood samples. Applied and estimated doses were in good agreement. On this basis, the results reported here give us confidence to apply both calibration curves for future biological dosimetry requirements in Serbia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dose Calculation on KV Cone Beam CT Images: An Investigation of the Hu-Density Conversion Stability and Dose Accuracy Using the Site-Specific Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi

    2010-10-01

    Precise calibration of Hounsfield units (HU) to electron density (HU-density) is essential to dose calculation. On-board kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is used predominantly for patients' positioning, but will potentially be used for dose calculation. The impacts of varying 3 imaging parameters (mAs, source-imager distance [SID], and cone angle) and phantom size on the HU number accuracy and HU-density calibrations for CBCT imaging were studied. We proposed a site-specific calibration method to achieve higher accuracy in CBCT image-based dose calculation. Three configurations of the Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS) water equivalent electron density phantom were used to simulate sites including head, lungs, and lower body (abdomen/pelvis). The planning computed tomography (CT) scan was used as the baseline for comparisons. CBCT scans of these phantom configurations were performed using Varian Trilogy{sup TM} system in a precalibrated mode with fixed tube voltage (125 kVp), but varied mAs, SID, and cone angle. An HU-density curve was generated and evaluated for each set of scan parameters. Three HU-density tables generated using different phantom configurations with the same imaging parameter settings were selected for dose calculation on CBCT images for an accuracy comparison. Changing mAs or SID had small impact on HU numbers. For adipose tissue, the HU discrepancy from the baseline was 20 HU in a small phantom, but 5 times lager in a large phantom. Yet, reducing the cone angle significantly decreases the HU discrepancy. The HU-density table was also affected accordingly. By performing dose comparison between CT and CBCT image-based plans, results showed that using the site-specific HU-density tables to calibrate CBCT images of different sites improves the dose accuracy to {approx}2%. Our phantom study showed that CBCT imaging can be a feasible option for dose computation in adaptive radiotherapy approach if the site

  16. Dose calculation on kV cone beam CT images: an investigation of the Hu-density conversion stability and dose accuracy using the site-specific calibration.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yi; Smilowitz, Jennifer; Tewatia, Dinesh; Tomé, Wolfgang A; Paliwal, Bhudatt

    2010-01-01

    Precise calibration of Hounsfield units (HU) to electron density (HU-density) is essential to dose calculation. On-board kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is used predominantly for patients' positioning, but will potentially be used for dose calculation. The impacts of varying 3 imaging parameters (mAs, source-imager distance [SID], and cone angle) and phantom size on the HU number accuracy and HU-density calibrations for CBCT imaging were studied. We proposed a site-specific calibration method to achieve higher accuracy in CBCT image-based dose calculation. Three configurations of the Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS) water equivalent electron density phantom were used to simulate sites including head, lungs, and lower body (abdomen/pelvis). The planning computed tomography (CT) scan was used as the baseline for comparisons. CBCT scans of these phantom configurations were performed using Varian Trilogy system in a precalibrated mode with fixed tube voltage (125 kVp), but varied mAs, SID, and cone angle. An HU-density curve was generated and evaluated for each set of scan parameters. Three HU-density tables generated using different phantom configurations with the same imaging parameter settings were selected for dose calculation on CBCT images for an accuracy comparison. Changing mAs or SID had small impact on HU numbers. For adipose tissue, the HU discrepancy from the baseline was 20 HU in a small phantom, but 5 times lager in a large phantom. Yet, reducing the cone angle significantly decreases the HU discrepancy. The HU-density table was also affected accordingly. By performing dose comparison between CT and CBCT image-based plans, results showed that using the site-specific HU-density tables to calibrate CBCT images of different sites improves the dose accuracy to approximately 2%. Our phantom study showed that CBCT imaging can be a feasible option for dose computation in adaptive radiotherapy approach if the site-specific calibration

  17. An effective calibration technique for radiochromic films using a single-shot dose distribution in Gamma Knife(®).

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Pil; Oh, Se Woon; Seong, Young Min; Chun, Kook Jin; Chung, Hyun-Tai

    2016-02-01

    A method of calibrating radiochromic films for Gamma Knife(®) (GK) dosimetry was developed. The applicability and accuracy of the new method were examined. The dose distribution for a sixteen millimeter single-shot from a GK was built using a reference film that was calibrated using the conventional multi-film calibration (MFC) method. Another film, the test film, from a different set of films was irradiated under the same conditions as the reference film. The calibration curve for the second set of films was obtained by assigning the dose distribution of the reference film to the optical density of the test film, point by point. To assess the accuracy of this single-film calibration (SFC) method, differences between gamma index pass rates (GIPRs) were calculated. The SFC curves were successfully obtained with estimated errors of 1.46%. GIPRs obtained with the SFC method for films irradiated using a single-shot showed differences less than one percentage point when dose difference criterion (ΔD) was 2% and the distance to agreement criterion (Δd) was 1 mm. The GIPRs of the SFC method when the films were irradiated following a virtual target treatment plan were consistent with the GIPRs of the MFC method, with differences of less than 0.2 percentage points for ΔD = 1% and Δd = 1 mm. The accuracy of the SFC method is comparable to that of conventional multi-film calibration method for GK film dosimetry. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Accuracy, reproducibility, and uncertainty analysis of thyroid-probe-based activity measurements for determination of dose calibrator settings.

    PubMed

    Esquinas, Pedro L; Tanguay, Jesse; Gonzalez, Marjorie; Vuckovic, Milan; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Cristina; Häfeli, Urs O; Celler, Anna

    2016-12-01

    In the nuclear medicine department, the activity of radiopharmaceuticals is measured using dose calibrators (DCs) prior to patient injection. The DC consists of an ionization chamber that measures current generated by ionizing radiation (emitted from the radiotracer). In order to obtain an activity reading, the current is converted into units of activity by applying an appropriate calibration factor (also referred to as DC dial setting). Accurate determination of DC dial settings is crucial to ensure that patients receive the appropriate dose in diagnostic scans or radionuclide therapies. The goals of this study were (1) to describe a practical method to experimentally determine dose calibrator settings using a thyroid-probe (TP) and (2) to investigate the accuracy, reproducibility, and uncertainties of the method. As an illustration, the TP method was applied to determine (188)Re dial settings for two dose calibrator models: Atomlab 100plus and Capintec CRC-55tR. Using the TP to determine dose calibrator settings involved three measurements. First, the energy-dependent efficiency of the TP was determined from energy spectra measurements of two calibration sources ((152)Eu and (22)Na). Second, the gamma emissions from the investigated isotope ((188)Re) were measured using the TP and its activity was determined using γ-ray spectroscopy methods. Ambient background, scatter, and source-geometry corrections were applied during the efficiency and activity determination steps. Third, the TP-based (188)Re activity was used to determine the dose calibrator settings following the calibration curve method [B. E. Zimmerman et al., J. Nucl. Med. 40, 1508-1516 (1999)]. The interobserver reproducibility of TP measurements was determined by the coefficient of variation (COV) and uncertainties associated to each step of the measuring process were estimated. The accuracy of activity measurements using the proposed method was evaluated by comparing the TP activity estimates of (99m

  19. Electron cyclotron emission spectra in X- and O-mode polarisation at JET: Martin-Puplett interferometer, absolute calibration, revised uncertainties, inboard/outboard temperature profile, and wall properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Boom, J. E.; Meneses, L.; Abreu, P.; Belonohy, E.; Lupelli, I.

    2016-09-01

    At the tokamak Joint European Torus (JET), the electron cyclotron emission spectra in O-mode and X-mode polarisations are diagnosed simultaneous in absolute terms for several harmonics with two Martin-Puplett interferometers. From the second harmonic range in X-mode polarisation, the electron temperature profile can be deduced for the outboard side (low magnetic field strength) of JET but only for some parts of the inboard side (high magnetic field strength). This spatial restriction can be bypassed, if a cutoff is not present inside the plasma for O-mode waves in the first harmonic range. Then, from this spectral domain, the profile on the entire inboard side is accessible. The profile determination relies on the new absolute and independent calibration for both interferometers. During the calibration procedure, the antenna pattern was investigated as well, and, potentially, an increase in the diagnostic responsivity of about 5% was found for the domain 100-300 GHz. This increase and other uncertainty sources are taken into account in the thorough revision of the uncertainty for the diagnostic absolute calibration. The uncertainty deduced and the convolution inherent for Fourier spectroscopy diagnostics have implications for the temperature profile inferred. Having probed the electron cyclotron emission spectra in orthogonal polarisation directions for the first harmonic range, a condition is derived for the reflection and polarisation-scrambling coefficients of the first wall on the outboard side of JET.

  20. Effects of Different Containers on Radioactivity Measurements using a Dose Calibrator with Special Reference to (111)In and (123)I.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Kei; Miyatake, Hiroki; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy characteristic x-rays emitted by (111)In and (123)I sources are easily absorbed by the containers of the sources, affecting radioactivity measurements using a dose calibrator. We examined the effects of different containers on the estimated activities. The radioactivities of (111)In, (123)I, (201)Tl, and (99m)Tc were measured in containers frequently employed in clinical practice in Japan. The (111)In measurements were performed in the vials A and B of the (111)In-pentetreotide preparation kit and in the plastic syringe. The activities of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and (201)Tl chloride were measured in the prefilled glass syringes and plastic syringes. The milking vial, vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe were used to assay (99m)Tc. For (111)In and (123)I, measurements were performed with and without a copper filter. The filter was inserted into the well of the dose calibrator to absorb low-energy x-rays. The relative estimate was defined as the ratio of the activity estimated with the dose calibrator to the standard activity. The estimated activities varied greatly depending on the container when (111)In and (123)I sources were assayed without the copper filter. The relative estimates of (111)In were 0.908, 1.072, and 1.373 in the vial A, vial B, and plastic syringe, respectively. The relative estimates of (123)I were 1.052 and 1.352 in the glass syringe and plastic syringe, respectively. Use of the copper filter eliminated the container-dependence in (111)In and (123)I measurements. Container-dependence was demonstrated in neither (201)Tl nor (99m)Tc measurements. The activities of (111)In and (123)I estimated with a dose calibrator differ greatly among the containers. Accurate estimation may be attained using the container-specific correction factor or using the copper filter.

  1. Experimental derivation of wall correction factors for ionization chambers used in high dose rate 192Ir source calibration.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, M H; de Almeida, C E; Ferreira, I H; Sibata, C H

    2002-01-01

    At present there are no specific primary standards for 192Ir high dose rate sources used in brachytherapy. Traceability to primary standards is guaranteed through the method recommended by the AAPM that derives the air kerma calibration factor for the 192Ir gamma rays as the average of the air kerma calibration factors for x-rays and 137Cs gamma-rays or the Maréchal et al. method that uses the energy-weighted air kerma calibration factors for 250 kV x rays and 60Co gamma rays as the air kerma calibration factor for the 192Ir gamma rays. In order to use these methods, it is necessary to use the same buildup cap for all energies and the appropriate wall correction factor for each chamber. This work describes experimental work used to derive the A(W) for four different ionization chambers and different buildup cap materials for the three energies involved in the Maréchal et al. method. The A(W) for the two most common ionization chambers used in hospitals, the Farmer NE 2571 and PTW N30001 is 0.995 and 0.997, respectively, for 250 kV x rays, 0.982 and 0.985 for 192Ir gamma rays, and 0.979 and 0.991 for 60Co gamma rays, all for a PMMA build-up cap of 0.550 gm cm(-2). A comparison between the experimental values and Monte Carlo calculations shows an agreement better than 0.9%. Availability of the A(W) correction factors for all commercial chambers allows users of the in-air calibration jig, provided by the manufacturer, to alternatively use the Maréchal et al. method. Calibration laboratories may also used this method for calibration of a well-type ionization chamber with a comparable accuracy to the AAPM method.

  2. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation: Evaluation of the dose with cytogenetic methodologies by the construction of calibration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Facco, E.; Sarchiapone, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    In case of a radiation accident, it is well known that in the absence of physical dosimetry biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods is a unique tool to estimate individual absorbed dose. Moreover, even when physical dosimetry indicates an overexposure, scoring chromosome aberrations (dicentrics and rings) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) at metaphase is presently the most widely used method to confirm dose assessment. The analysis of dicentrics and rings in PBLs after Giemsa staining of metaphase cells is considered the most valid assay for radiation injury. This work shows that applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using telomeric/centromeric peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes in metaphase chromosomes for radiation dosimetry, could become a fast scoring, reliable and precise method for biological dosimetry after accidental radiation exposures. In both in vitro methods described above, lymphocyte stimulation is needed, and this limits the application in radiation emergency medicine where speed is considered to be a high priority. Using premature chromosome condensation (PCC), irradiated human PBLs (non-stimulated) were fused with mitotic CHO cells, and the yield of excess PCC fragments in Giemsa stained cells was scored. To score dicentrics and rings under PCC conditions, the necessary centromere and telomere detection of the chromosomes was obtained using FISH and specific PNA probes. Of course, a prerequisite for dose assessment in all cases is a dose-effect calibration curve. This work illustrates the various methods used; dose response calibration curves, with 95% confidence limits used to estimate dose uncertainties, have been constructed for conventional metaphase analysis and FISH. We also compare the dose-response curve constructed after scoring of dicentrics and rings using PCC combined with FISH and PNA probes. Also reported are dose response curves showing scored dicentrics and rings per cell, combining

  3. A new re-entrant ionization chamber for the calibration of iridium-192 high dose rate sources.

    PubMed

    Goetsch, S J; Attix, F H; DeWerd, L A; Thomadsen, B R

    1992-01-01

    A re-entrant (well-type) ionization chamber has been designed and fabricated at the University of Wisconsin for use with iridium-192 high dose-rate (HDR) remote after-loading brachytherapy devices. The chamber was designed to provide an ionization current of about 10(-8) ampere with a nominal 10 curie iridium-192 source. A narrow opening is provided into the sensitive volume of the chamber to insert a Nucletron MicroSelectron catheter, or catheters with similar diameters from other HDR manufacturers. The chamber exhibits a flat response (+/- 0.1%) for any source position within +/-4 mm of the chamber center. A 300 volt chamber bias yields a 99.96% ion collection efficiency. The chamber is capable of being calibrated directly with an iridium-192 source which has in turn been calibrated with thimble-type ion chambers. Reproducibility for readings in the current mode for 10 consecutive insertions of the MicroSelectron iridium-192 HDR source is within 0.02% or less. Two thimble chambers calibrated by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology provide calibration traceability of iridium-192 HDR sources and re-entrant chambers to a primary national standards laboratory. Results of activity measurements of 6 commercial iridium-192 HDR sources are reported.

  4. Ion recombination correction factor in scanned light-ion beams for absolute dose measurement using plane-parallel ionisation chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossomme, S.; Horn, J.; Brons, S.; Jäkel, O.; Mairani, A.; Ciocca, M.; Floquet, V.; Romano, F.; Rodriguez Garcia, D.; Vynckier, S.; Palmans, H.

    2017-07-01

    Based on international reference dosimetry protocols for light-ion beams, a correction factor (k s) has to be applied to the response of a plane-parallel ionisation chamber, to account for recombination of negative and positive charges in its air cavity before these charges can be collected on the electrodes. In this work, k s for IBA PPC40 Roos-type chambers is investigated in four scanned light-ion beams (proton, helium, carbon and oxygen). To take into account the high dose-rates used with scanned beams and LET-values, experimental results are compared to a model combining two theories. One theory, developed by Jaffé, describes the variation of k s with the ionization density within the ion track (initial recombination) and the other theory, developed by Boag, describes the variation of k s with the dose rate (volume recombination). Excellent agreement is found between experimental and theoretical k s-values. All results confirm that k s cannot be neglected. The solution to minimise k s is to use the ionisation chamber at high voltage. However, one must be aware that charge multiplication may complicate the interpretation of the measurement. For the chamber tested, it was found that a voltage of 300 V can be used without further complication. As the initial recombination has a logarithmic variation as a function of 1/V, the two-voltage method is not applicable to these scanned beams.

  5. Detection of 15 dB Squeezed States of Light and their Application for the Absolute Calibration of Photoelectric Quantum Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Squeezed states of light belong to the most prominent nonclassical resources. They have compelling applications in metrology, which has been demonstrated by their routine exploitation for improving the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave detector since 2010. Here, we report on the direct measurement of 15 dB squeezed vacuum states of light and their application to calibrate the quantum efficiency of photoelectric detection. The object of calibration is a customized InGaAs positive intrinsic negative (p-i-n) photodiode optimized for high external quantum efficiency. The calibration yields a value of 99.5% with a 0.5% (k =2 ) uncertainty for a photon flux of the order 1 017 s-1 at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The calibration neither requires any standard nor knowledge of the incident light power and thus represents a valuable application of squeezed states of light in quantum metrology.

  6. Detection of 15 dB Squeezed States of Light and their Application for the Absolute Calibration of Photoelectric Quantum Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-09-09

    Squeezed states of light belong to the most prominent nonclassical resources. They have compelling applications in metrology, which has been demonstrated by their routine exploitation for improving the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave detector since 2010. Here, we report on the direct measurement of 15 dB squeezed vacuum states of light and their application to calibrate the quantum efficiency of photoelectric detection. The object of calibration is a customized InGaAs positive intrinsic negative (p-i-n) photodiode optimized for high external quantum efficiency. The calibration yields a value of 99.5% with a 0.5% (k=2) uncertainty for a photon flux of the order 10^{17}  s^{-1} at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The calibration neither requires any standard nor knowledge of the incident light power and thus represents a valuable application of squeezed states of light in quantum metrology.

  7. Proposed low-energy absolute calibration of nuclear recoils in a dual-phase noble element TPC using D-D neutron scattering kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbus, J. R.; Rhyne, C. A.; Malling, D. C.; Genecov, M.; Ghosh, S.; Moskowitz, A. G.; Chan, S.; Chapman, J. J.; de Viveiros, L.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Huang, D. Q.; Pangilinan, M.; Taylor, W. C.; Gaitskell, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new technique for the calibration of nuclear recoils in large noble element dual-phase time projection chambers used to search for WIMP dark matter in the local galactic halo. This technique provides an in situ measurement of the low-energy nuclear recoil response of the target media using the measured scattering angle between multiple neutron interactions within the detector volume. The low-energy reach and reduced systematics of this calibration have particular significance for the low-mass WIMP sensitivity of several leading dark matter experiments. Multiple strategies for improving this calibration technique are discussed, including the creation of a new type of quasi-monoenergetic neutron source with a minimum possible peak energy of 272 keV. We report results from a time-of-flight-based measurement of the neutron energy spectrum produced by an Adelphi Technology, Inc. DD108 neutron generator, confirming its suitability for the proposed nuclear recoil calibration.

  8. Improvement and calibration of a SSNT personal dosemeter and study of importance of albedo factor for dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Torkzadeh, F; Taheri, M

    2007-01-01

    The Neutriran albedo neutron dosemeter has been improved and calibrated for neutron personal dosimetry. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to calculate the thermal neutrons backscattered from the body (albedo factor). Backscattering from the wall, ceiling and floor in calibration room was considered also via simulation by MCNP4C. A semi automated counting system applying a high-resolution scanner was used for counting of tracks. An 241Am source was used to produce similar alpha particles from 10B (n,alpha)7Li reaction for the optimisation of scanner parameters to distinguish and separate the tracks in SSNTD, which lead to a better distinction between etched alpha tracks and, consequently, a higher linear region of dose characteristic.

  9. A performance evaluation of 90Y dose-calibrator measurements in nuclear pharmacies and clinics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Michael K; Cessna, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Tamara L; Ponto, James A; Petry, Neil; Kowalsky, Richard J; Palmer, Matthew R; Beinlich, Uwe F; Baker, William; Hinkle, George H; Hung, Joseph C; Quinton, Timothy; Rice, Peter A; Divgi, Chaitanya; Norenberg, Jeffrey P

    2008-02-01

    A blind performance test was conducted to evaluate dose-calibrator measurements at nuclear pharmacies in the United States (US). Two test-sample geometries were chosen to represent those used for measurements of 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (ZEVALIN). The radioactivity concentration of test-samples was verified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. Forty-five results were reported by 10 participants. Eighty percent of reported values were within the US Pharmacopoeia content standard (+/-10%) for 90Y-ZEVALIN. All results were within US Nuclear Regulatory Commission conformance limits (+/-20%) for defining therapeutic misadministrations.

  10. A patient-specific quality assurance study on absolute dose verification using ionization chambers of different volumes in RapidArc treatments.

    PubMed

    Syam Kumar, S A; Sukumar, Prabakar; Sriram, Padmanaban; Rajasekaran, Dhanabalan; Aketi, Srinu; Vivekanandan, Nagarajan

    2012-01-01

    The recalculation of 1 fraction from a patient treatment plan on a phantom and subsequent measurements have become the norms for measurement-based verification, which combines the quality assurance recommendations that deal with the treatment planning system and the beam delivery system. This type of evaluation has prompted attention to measurement equipment and techniques. Ionization chambers are considered the gold standard because of their precision, availability, and relative ease of use. This study evaluates and compares 5 different ionization chambers: phantom combinations for verification in routine patient-specific quality assurance of RapidArc treatments. Fifteen different RapidArc plans conforming to the clinical standards were selected for the study. Verification plans were then created for each treatment plan with different chamber-phantom combinations scanned by computed tomography. This includes Medtec intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) phantom with micro-ionization chamber (0.007 cm(3)) and pinpoint chamber (0.015 cm(3)), PTW-Octavius phantom with semiflex chamber (0.125 cm(3)) and 2D array (0.125 cm(3)), and indigenously made Circular wax phantom with 0.6 cm(3) chamber. The measured isocenter absolute dose was compared with the treatment planning system (TPS) plan. The micro-ionization chamber shows more deviations when compared with semiflex and 0.6 cm(3) with a maximum variation of -4.76%, -1.49%, and 2.23% for micro-ionization, semiflex, and farmer chambers, respectively. The positive variations indicate that the chamber with larger volume overestimates. Farmer chamber shows higher deviation when compared with 0.125 cm(3). In general the deviation was found to be <1% with the semiflex and farmer chambers. A maximum variation of 2% was observed for the 0.007 cm(3) ionization chamber, except in a few cases. Pinpoint chamber underestimates the calculated isocenter dose by a maximum of 4.8%. Absolute dose measurements using the semiflex

  11. Photon dose mixed in monoenergetic neutron calibration fields using 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Y; Tsutsumi, M; Yoshizawa, M

    2014-10-01

    The ambient dose equivalents H*(10) of photons mixed in the 144, 250 and 565 keV monoenergetic neutron fields were evaluated using measurements from an NaI(Tl) detector and calculations done using the MCNP-ANT code. It was found that H*(10) of the photons produced in the target assembly dominates the dose, particularly near the target. The H*(10) of the photons produced in other materials in the field increases with the increase in distance from the target and could not be neglected at a large distance from the target. The ratios of the H*(10) of the mixed photons to that of the monoenergetic neutrons for 144, 250 and 565 keV neutron fields, were evaluated to be below 5.5, 6.9 and 1.5 %, respectively. The ratios were calculated at calibration points between 100 and 500 cm from the target.

  12. Absolute ultraviolet spectrophotometry of: alpha CMa, gamma Ori, kappa Ori, and alpha Leo; and a continuing calibration program and some preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    Spectral observations of the stars alpha CMa, gamma Ori, kappa Ori, and alpha Leo have been obtained in the range 1150 to 4000 Angstroms, using rocket borne spectrometers. The payloads have a 13-inch diameter telescope, a rotatable concave diffraction grating, and three pulse counting photomultiplier photometers. The laboratory standards used as photometric references derive their primary calibration directly or indirectly from the National Bureau of Standards. An error range of up to + or - 10 percent is attributed to these laboratory standards; + or - 8 percent to the calibration procedure; and + or - 10 percent is assigned as an accidental error range.

  13. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  14. Study of the influence of phantom material and size on the calibration of ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water.

    PubMed

    Arib, Mehenna; Medjadj, Toufik; Boudouma, Youcef

    2006-08-24

    In the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) code of practice (TRS 398) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine's dosimetry protocol (TG-51), full-scatter water phantoms are recommended for the determination of the absorbed dose for both photon and electron beams and, consequently, for the calibration of the user's ionization chambers. This procedure is applied in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, where the calibration is performed on a 60Co gamma beam, in comparison with reference chambers whose absorbed dose-to-water calibration coefficients, ND,w, are known. In this work, we present the results of the calibration of 10 Farmer-like ionization chambers calibrated in three water phantoms (sizes 20 x 20 x 15 cm3, 30 x 30 x 30 cm3, and 35 x 35 x 37 cm3) and two plastic phantoms (size 20 x 20 x 20 cm3) polymethyl methacrlyate (PMMA) and polystyrene). Calibrations are performed by the substitution method using an ionization chamber whose ND,w has been supplied by the IAEA's reference laboratory. It is shown that the results, expressed as the percentage ratio of the calibration coefficient in a given phantom to that of the standard IAEA phantom, is less than 0.35% for all investigated chambers, and that the standard deviation of the mean of the ND,w calibration coefficients determined in all five phantoms is less than 0.06%, except for one nylon-walled ionization chamber, where the observed 0.34% value could be explained by the hygroscopic properties of nylon. Furthermore, a chamber-to-chamber dependence of the calibration coefficient has been shown to vary by up to 2.8%. These results emphasize that the phantom dimensions and its material are not sensitive criteria for the calibration of cylindrical ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water. The results also show that generic calibration coefficients could not be considered for a given type of chamber.

  15. Absolute x-ray and neutron calibration of CVD-diamond-based time-of-flight detectors for the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, A.; Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Rinderknecht, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J.

    2016-10-01

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility routinely measures proton and neutron nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond biased to 250 - 1500 V. This work discusses an absolute measurement of CVD diamond sensitivity to continuous neutrons and x-rays. Although the impulse response of the detector is regularly measured on a diagnostic timing shot, absolute sensitivity of the detector's response to neutrons and x-rays has not been fully established. X-ray, DD-n, and DT-n sources at the MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility provide continuous sources for testing. CVD diamond detectors are also fielded on OMEGA experiments to measure sensitivity to impulse DT-n. Implications for absolute neutron yield measurements at the NIF using pTOF detectors will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DoE and LLNL.

  16. Film dosimetry calibration method for pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy with an 192Ir source.

    PubMed

    Schwob, Nathan; Orion, Itzhak

    2007-05-01

    192Ir sources have been widely used in clinical brachytherapy. An important challenge is to perform dosimetric measurements close to the source despite the steep dose gradient. The common, inexpensive silver halide film is a classic two-dimensional integrator dosimeter and would be an attractive solution for these dose measurements. The main disadvantage of film dosimetry is the film response to the low-energy photon. Since the photon energy spectrum is known to vary with depth, the sensitometric curves are expected to be dependent on depth. The purpose of this study is to suggest a correction method for silver halide film dosimetry that overcomes the response changes at different depths. Sensitometric curves have been obtained at different depths with verification film near a 1 Ci 192Ir pulsed-dose-rate source. The depth dependence of the film response was observed and a correction function was established. The suitability of the method was tested through measurement of the radial dose profile and radial dose function. The results were compared to Monte Carlo-simulated values according to the TG43 formalism. Monte Carlo simulations were performed separately for the beta and gamma source emissions, using the EGS4 code system, including the low-energy photon and electron transport optimization procedures. The beta source emission simulation showed that the beta dose contribution could be neglected and therefore the film-depth dependence could not be attributed to this part of the source radioactivity. The gamma source emission simulations included photon-spectra collection at several depths. The results showed a depth-dependent softening of the photon spectrum that can explain the film-energy dependence.

  17. Calibration Curve for Dicentric Chromosomes Induced in Human Blood Lymphocytes Exposed to Gamma Rays at a Dose Rate of 12.5 mGy/s

    PubMed Central

    Que, Tran; Duy, Pham Ngoc; Luyen, Bui Thi Kim

    2016-01-01

    To develop a calibration curve for induction of dicentric chromosomes by radiation, we have used a 60Co gamma-ray source with dose rate of 12.5 mGy/s. Whole blood from 15 healthy donors was collected. Whole blood from each donor was divided equally into 8 parts for exposing to supposedly physical doses 0, 0.30, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 Gy for a independent calibration curve. Whole blood from 15 donors was used to calibrate dose – effect and statistical for general calibration curve. Using Poisson test (U-test) for the distribution of dicentric chromosomes in the metaphases to determine the uniformity of the radiation field. The average from 15 independent calibration curves of linear correlated coefficient was determined to be r (y, d) = 0.5136 ± 0.0038. The model equation derived is y = aD + bD2 + C. The calibration equation of dose-effect was y = 1.01D + 4.43D2 + 0.56. PMID:28217278

  18. Calibration Curve for Dicentric Chromosomes Induced in Human Blood Lymphocytes Exposed to Gamma Rays at a Dose Rate of 12.5 mGy/s.

    PubMed

    Que, Tran; Duy, Pham Ngoc; Luyen, Bui Thi Kim

    2016-01-01

    To develop a calibration curve for induction of dicentric chromosomes by radiation, we have used a 60Co gamma-ray source with dose rate of 12.5 mGy/s. Whole blood from 15 healthy donors was collected. Whole blood from each donor was divided equally into 8 parts for exposing to supposedly physical doses 0, 0.30, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 3.00 and 4.00 Gy for a independent calibration curve. Whole blood from 15 donors was used to calibrate dose - effect and statistical for general calibration curve. Using Poisson test (U-test) for the distribution of dicentric chromosomes in the metaphases to determine the uniformity of the radiation field. The average from 15 independent calibration curves of linear correlated coefficient was determined to be r (y, d) = 0.5136 ± 0.0038. The model equation derived is y = aD + bD(2) + C. The calibration equation of dose-effect was y = 1.01D + 4.43D(2) + 0.56.

  19. Absolute vicarious calibration of Landsat-8 OLI and Resourcesat-2 AWiFS sensors over Rann of Kutch site in Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sridhar, V. N.; Prajapati, R. P.; Rao, K. M.; Mathur, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, vicarious calibration coefficients for all the four bands (green, red, NIR and SWIR) of Resourcesat-2 AWiFS sensor for four dates during Dec 2013-Nov 2014 and for seven bands (blue, green, red, NIR, SWIR1, SWIR2 and PAN) of OLI sensor onboard Landsat-8 for six dates during Dec 2013-Feb 2015 were estimated using field measured reflectance and measured atmospheric parameters during sensor image acquisition over Rann of Kutch site in Gujarat. The top of atmosphere (TOA) at-satellite radiances for all the bands were simulated using 6S radiative transfer code with field measured reflectance, synchronous atmospheric measurements and respective sensor's spectral response functions as an input. These predicted spectral radiances were compared with the radiances from the respective sensor's image in the respective band over the calibration site. Cross-calibration between the sensors AWiFS and OLI was also attempted using near-simultaneous same day image acquisition. Effect of spectral band adjustment factor was also studied with OLI sensor taken as reference sensor. Results show that the variation in average estimated radiance ratio for the AWiFS sensor was found to be within 10% for all the bands, whereas, for OLI sensor, the variation was found to be within 6% for all the bands except green and SWIR2 for which the variation was 8% and 11% respectively higher than the 5% uncertainty of the OLI sensor specification for TOA spectral radiance. At the 1σ level, red, NIR, SWIR1 and Panchromatic bands of OLI sensor showed close agreement between sensor-measured and vicarious TOA radiance resulting no change in calibration coefficient and hence indicating no sensor degradation. Two sets of near-simultaneous SBAFs were derived from respective ground measured target reflectance profiles and applied to the AWiFS and it was observed that overall, SBAF compensation provides a significant improvement in sensor agreement. The reduction in the difference between AWiFS and

  20. The suitable dose range for the calibration of EBT2 film by the PDD method with a comparison of two curve fitting algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liyun; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Yeh, Shyh-An; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Chen, Pang-Yu

    2015-03-01

    EBT2 film is a convenient dosimetry quality-assurance (QA) tool with high 2D dosimetry resolution and a self-development property for use in verifications of radiation therapy treatment planning and special projects; however, the user will suffer from a relatively higher degree of uncertainty (more than ±6% by Hartmann et al. [29]), and the trouble of cutting one piece of film into small pieces and then reintegrating them each time. To prevent this tedious cutting work, and save calibration time and budget, a dose range analysis is presented in this study for EBT2 film calibration using the Percentage-Depth-Dose (PDD) method. Different combinations of the three dose ranges, 9-26 cGy, 33-97 cGy and 109-320 cGy, with two types of curve fitting algorithms, film pixel values and net optical densities converting into doses, were tested and compared. With the lowest error and acceptable inaccuracy of less than 3 cGy for the clinical dose range (9-320 cGy), a single film calibrated by the net optical density algorithm with the dose range 109-320 cGy was suggested for routine calibration.

  1. A Prototype {sup 212}Pb Medical Dose Calibrator for Alpha Radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, W.F.; Patil, A.; Russ, W.R.; Newman, J.; Torgue, J.

    2015-07-01

    Linux computer mounted inside a standard project box. The results of initial calibration measurements are presented. (authors)

  2. Experimental determination of electron-hole pair creation energy in 4H-SiC epitaxial layer: An absolute calibration approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Sandeep K.; Zavalla, Kelvin J.; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2013-01-21

    Electron-hole pair creation energy ({epsilon}) has been determined from alpha spectroscopy using 4H-SiC epitaxial layer Schottky detectors and a pulser calibration technique. We report an experimentally obtained {epsilon} value of 7.28 eV in 4H-SiC. The obtained {epsilon} value and theoretical models were used to calculate a Fano factor of 0.128 for 5.48 MeV alpha particles. The contributions of different factors to the ultimate alpha peak broadening in pulse-height spectra were determined using the calculated {epsilon} value and Monte-Carlo simulations. The determined {epsilon} value was verified using a drift-diffusion model of variation of charge collection efficiency with applied bias.

  3. NOTE: Cone beam computerized tomography: the effect of calibration of the Hounsfield unit number to electron density on dose calculation accuracy for adaptive radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, Joan; McCurdy, Boyd; Greer, Peter B.

    2009-08-01

    The availability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images at the time of treatment has opened possibilities for dose calculations representing the delivered dose for adaptive radiation therapy. A significant component in the accuracy of dose calculation is the calibration of the Hounsfield unit (HU) number to electron density (ED). The aim of this work is to assess the impact of HU to ED calibration phantom insert composition and phantom volume on dose calculation accuracy for CBCT. CBCT HU to ED calibration curves for different commercial phantoms were measured and compared. The effect of the scattering volume of the phantom on the HU to ED calibration was examined as a function of phantom length and radial diameter. The resulting calibration curves were used at the treatment planning system to calculate doses for geometrically simple phantoms and a pelvic anatomical phantom to compare against measured doses. Three-dimensional dose distributions for the pelvis phantom were calculated using the HU to ED curves and compared using Chi comparisons. The HU to ED calibration curves for the commercial phantoms diverge at densities greater than that of water, depending on the elemental composition of the phantom insert. The effect of adding scatter material longitudinally, increasing the phantom length from 5 cm to 26 cm, was found to be up to 260 HU numbers for the high-density insert. The change in the HU value, by increasing the diameter of the phantom from 18 to 40 cm, was found to be up to 1200 HU for the high-density insert. The effect of phantom diameter on the HU to ED curve can lead to dose differences for 6 MV and 18 MV x-rays under bone inhomogeneities of up to 20% in extreme cases. These results show significant dosimetric differences when using a calibration phantom with materials which are not tissue equivalent. More importantly, the amount of scattering material used with the HU to ED calibration phantom has a significant effect on the dosimetric

  4. Absolute Energy Calibration of X-ray TESs with 0.04 eV Uncertainty at 6.4 keV in a Hadron-Beam Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuno, H.; Doriese, W. B.; Bennett, D. A.; Curceanu, C.; Fowler, J. W.; Gard, J.; Gustafsson, F. P.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayano, R. S.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishimoto, S.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Kuwabara, K.; Ma, Y.; Marton, J.; Noda, H.; O'Neil, G. C.; Okada, S.; Outa, H.; Reintsema, C. D.; Sato, M.; Schmidt, D. R.; Shi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, T.; Uhlig, J.; Ullom, J. N.; Widmann, E.; Yamada, S.; Zmeskal, J.; Swetz, D. S.

    2016-08-01

    A performance evaluation of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) in the environment of a pion beam line at a particle accelerator is presented. Averaged across the 209 functioning sensors in the array, the achieved energy resolution is 5.2 eV FWHM at Co K_{α } (6.9 keV) when the pion beam is off and 7.3 eV at a beam rate of 1.45 MHz. Absolute energy uncertainty of ± 0.04 eV is demonstrated for Fe K_{α } (6.4 keV) with in-situ energy calibration obtained from other nearby known X-ray lines. To achieve this small uncertainty, it is essential to consider the non-Gaussian energy response of the TESs and thermal cross-talk pile-up effects due to charged particle hits in the silicon substrate of the TES array.

  5. Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a time-resolved near-infrared technique to yield absolute cerebral blood flow measurements

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Mamadou; Verdecchia, Kyle; Lee, Ting-Yim; St Lawrence, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A primary focus of neurointensive care is the prevention of secondary brain injury, mainly caused by ischemia. A noninvasive bedside technique for continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) could improve patient management by detecting ischemia before brain injury occurs. A promising technique for this purpose is diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) since it can continuously monitor relative perfusion changes in deep tissue. In this study, DCS was combined with a time-resolved near-infrared technique (TR-NIR) that can directly measure CBF using indocyanine green as a flow tracer. With this combination, the TR-NIR technique can be used to convert DCS data into absolute CBF measurements. The agreement between the two techniques was assessed by concurrent measurements of CBF changes in piglets. A strong correlation between CBF changes measured by TR-NIR and changes in the scaled diffusion coefficient measured by DCS was observed (R2 = 0.93) with a slope of 1.05 ± 0.06 and an intercept of 6.4 ± 4.3% (mean ± standard error). PMID:21750781

  6. Absolutely calibrated mass spectrometry measurement of reactive and stable plasma chemistry products in the effluent of a He/H2O atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, Gert; Benedikt, Jan; von Keudell, Achim

    2017-08-01

    Mass spectrometry has been used to analyse the effluent of a micro-scaled atmospheric plasma jet operated in helium with a controlled concentration of water vapour. Absolute densities of H2O2 and OH have been measured as function of water vapour concentration and distance from the jet nozzle. The trend for both species densities are correlated and after an initial increase, the densities of H2O2 and OH saturate around 5000 ppm to 6000 ppm of water admixture. The largest densities for H2O2 (2.37× 1014 cm-3 ) and OH (1.96× 1014 cm-3 ) were measured at 7980 ppm water admixture and 2 mm distance from the jet. Densities of HO2 (1× 1014 cm-3 ) and O2 (4× 1014 cm-3 ) have been measured as well, although no trend could be observed. The direct electron impact ionisation cross-section of H2O2 at 70 eV electron energy was experimentally determined to be 1.02 × 10-16 cm2 . The measured densities and profiles have been compared to a 2D axially symmetric fluid model of species transport and recombination reactions. The effluent reaction chemistry is dominated by the hydroxyl radical, where the hydrogen atoms seem to play an important role as well. The analysis of neutral plasma chemistry products have been complemented by measurements of qualitative ion signals.

  7. High dose rate 192Ir source calibration: A single institution experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, R.; Abdullah, N. H.; Mohamed, M.; Idris, N. R. N.; Yusoff, A. L.; Chen, S. C.; Zakaria, A.

    2017-05-01

    Measurement of source strength of new high dose rate (HDR) 192Ir supplied by the manufacturer is part of quality assurance recommended by Radiation Safety Section, Ministry of Health of Malaysia. The source strength is determined in reference air kerma rate (RAKR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate RAKR measurement of 192Ir using well-type ionisation chamber with RAKR stated in the certificate provided by the manufacturer. A retrospective study on 19 MicroSelectron HDR 192Ir Classic from 2001 to 2009 and 12 MicroSelectron HDR 192Ir V2 sources from 2009 to 2016 supplied by manufacturer were compared. From the study, the agreement between measured RAKR and RAKR stated in the certificate by manufacturer for all 32 sources supplied were within ±2.5%. As a conclusion, a threshold level of ±2.5% can be used as suitable indicator to spot problems of the brachytherapy system in Department of Nuclear Medicine Radiotherapy and Oncology, Hospital USM.

  8. Mapping the pharmacological modulation of brain oxygen metabolism: The effects of caffeine on absolute CMRO2 measured using dual calibrated fMRI.

    PubMed

    Merola, Alberto; Germuska, Michael A; Warnert, Esther Ah; Richmond, Lewys; Helme, Daniel; Khot, Sharmila; Murphy, Kevin; Rogers, Peter J; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2017-07-15

    This study aims to map the acute effects of caffeine ingestion on grey matter oxygen metabolism and haemodynamics with a novel MRI method. Sixteen healthy caffeine consumers (8 males, age=24.7±5.1) were recruited to this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was scanned on two days before and after the delivery of an oral caffeine (250mg) or placebo capsule. Our measurements were obtained with a newly proposed estimation approach applied to data from a dual calibration fMRI experiment that uses hypercapnia and hyperoxia to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation. Estimates were based on a forward model that describes analytically the contributions of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and of the measured end-tidal partial pressures of CO2 and O2 to the acquired dual-echo GRE signal. The method allows the estimation of grey matter maps of: oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), CBF, CBF-related cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). Other estimates from a multi inversion time ASL acquisition (mTI-ASL), salivary samples of the caffeine concentration and behavioural measurements are also reported. We observed significant differences between caffeine and placebo on average across grey matter, with OEF showing an increase of 15.6% (SEM±4.9%, p<0.05) with caffeine, while CBF and CMRO2 showed differences of -30.4% (SEM±1.6%, p<0.01) and -18.6% (SEM±2.9%, p<0.01) respectively with caffeine administration. The reduction in oxygen metabolism found is somehow unexpected, but consistent with a hypothesis of decreased energetic demand, supported by previous electrophysiological studies reporting reductions in spectral power with EEG. Moreover the maps of the physiological parameters estimated illustrate the spatial distribution of changes across grey matter enabling us to localise the effects of caffeine with voxel-wise resolution. CBF changes were widespread as reported by previous findings, while

  9. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  10. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries. XXVIII. BK Pegasi and other F-type binaries: Prospects for calibration of convective core overshoot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, J. V.; Frandsen, S.; Bruntt, H.; Olsen, E. H.; Helt, B. E.; Gregersen, K.; Juncher, D.; Krogstrup, P.

    2010-06-01

    Context. Double-lined, detached eclipsing binaries are our main source for accurate stellar masses and radii. In this paper we focus on the 1.15-1.70 M⊙ interval where convective core overshoot is gradually ramped up in theoretical evolutionary models. Aims: We aim to determine absolute dimensions and abundances for the F-type detached eclipsing binary BK Peg, and to perform a detailed comparison with results from recent stellar evolutionary models, including a sample of previously studied systems with accurate parameters. Methods: uvby light curves and uvbyβ standard photometry were obtained with the Strömgren Automatic Telescope, ESO, La Silla, and high-resolution spectra were acquired with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma. Results: The 5 fd 49 period orbit of BK Peg is slightly eccentric (e = 0.053). The two components are quite different with masses and radii of (1.414 ± 0.007 M⊙, 1.988 ± 0.008 Rsun) and (1.257 ± 0.005 M⊙, 1.474 ± 0.017 Rsun), respectively. The measured rotational velocities are 16.6 ± 0.2 (primary) and 13.4 ± 0.2 (secondary) km s-1. For the secondary component this corresponds to (pseudo)synchronous rotation, whereas the primary component seems to rotate at a slightly lower rate. We derive an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.12 ± 0.07 and similar abundances for Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr and Ni. The stars have evolved to the upper half of the main-sequence band. Yonsei-Yale and Victoria-Regina evolutionary models for the observed metal abundance reproduce BK Peg at ages of 2.75 and 2.50 Gyr, respectively, but tend to predict a lower age for the more massive primary component than for the secondary. We find the same age trend for three other upper main-sequence systems in a sample of well studied eclipsing binaries with components in the 1.15-1.70 M⊙ range. We also find that the Yonsei-Yale models systematically predict higher ages than the Victoria-Regina models. The sample includes BW Aqr, and as a

  11. [Development of the 60Co gamma-ray standard field for therapy-level dosimeter calibration in terms of absorbed dose to water (N(D,w))].

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Akifumi; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Fukahori, Mai; Sakata, Suoh

    2012-01-01

    A primary standard for the absorbed dose rate to water in a 60Co gamma-ray field was established at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in fiscal year 2011. Then, a 60Co gamma-ray standard field for therapy-level dosimeter calibration in terms of absorbed dose to water was developed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) as a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL). The results of an IAEA/WHO TLD SSDL audit demonstrated that there was good agreement between NIRS stated absorbed dose to water and IAEA measurements. The IAEA guide based on the ISO standard was used to estimate the relative expanded uncertainty of the calibration factor for a therapy-level Farmer type ionization chamber in terms of absorbed dose to water (N(D,w)) with the new field. The uncertainty of N(D,w) was estimated to be 1.1% (k = 2), which corresponds to approximately one third of the value determined in the existing air kerma field. The dissemination of traceability of the calibration factor determined in the new field is expected to diminish the uncertainty of dose delivered to patients significantly.

  12. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  13. Radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed scanners: a fast and accurate method for dose calibration and uniformity correction with single film exposure.

    PubMed

    Menegotti, L; Delana, A; Martignano, A

    2008-07-01

    Film dosimetry is an attractive tool for dose distribution verification in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A critical aspect of radiochromic film dosimetry is the scanner used for the readout of the film: the output needs to be calibrated in dose response and corrected for pixel value and spatial dependent nonuniformity caused by light scattering; these procedures can take a long time. A method for a fast and accurate calibration and uniformity correction for radiochromic film dosimetry is presented: a single film exposure is used to do both calibration and correction. Gafchromic EBT films were read with two flatbed charge coupled device scanners (Epson V750 and 1680Pro). The accuracy of the method is investigated with specific dose patterns and an IMRT beam. The comparisons with a two-dimensional array of ionization chambers using a 18 x 18 cm2 open field and an inverse pyramid dose pattern show an increment in the percentage of points which pass the gamma analysis (tolerance parameters of 3% and 3 mm), passing from 55% and 64% for the 1680Pro and V750 scanners, respectively, to 94% for both scanners for the 18 x 18 open field, and from 76% and 75% to 91% for the inverse pyramid pattern. Application to an IMRT beam also shows better gamma index results, passing from 88% and 86% for the two scanners, respectively, to 94% for both. The number of points and dose range considered for correction and calibration appears to be appropriate for use in IMRT verification. The method showed to be fast and to correct properly the nonuniformity and has been adopted for routine clinical IMRT dose verification.

  14. Radiochromic film dosimetry with flatbed scanners: A fast and accurate method for dose calibration and uniformity correction with single film exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Menegotti, L.; Delana, A.; Martignano, A.

    2008-07-15

    Film dosimetry is an attractive tool for dose distribution verification in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). A critical aspect of radiochromic film dosimetry is the scanner used for the readout of the film: the output needs to be calibrated in dose response and corrected for pixel value and spatial dependent nonuniformity caused by light scattering; these procedures can take a long time. A method for a fast and accurate calibration and uniformity correction for radiochromic film dosimetry is presented: a single film exposure is used to do both calibration and correction. Gafchromic EBT films were read with two flatbed charge coupled device scanners (Epson V750 and 1680Pro). The accuracy of the method is investigated with specific dose patterns and an IMRT beam. The comparisons with a two-dimensional array of ionization chambers using a 18x18 cm{sup 2} open field and an inverse pyramid dose pattern show an increment in the percentage of points which pass the gamma analysis (tolerance parameters of 3% and 3 mm), passing from 55% and 64% for the 1680Pro and V750 scanners, respectively, to 94% for both scanners for the 18x18 open field, and from 76% and 75% to 91% for the inverse pyramid pattern. Application to an IMRT beam also shows better gamma index results, passing from 88% and 86% for the two scanners, respectively, to 94% for both. The number of points and dose range considered for correction and calibration appears to be appropriate for use in IMRT verification. The method showed to be fast and to correct properly the nonuniformity and has been adopted for routine clinical IMRT dose verification.

  15. SU-E-T-678: Response Calibration Using Electron Depth-Dose Data for MRI-Based 3D Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y; Warmington, L; Gopishankar, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a calibration method using the depth-dose data of an electron beam for MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry. Methods: MAGAT was manufactured in-house to fill two 400mL-cylindrical phantoms and nine 22mL-glass vials. Phantom-A was irradiated along the cylinder axis with a 9MeV electron beam of 6 cm x 6 cm field size (FS). Phantom-B was irradiated with a 6MV photon beam of 3 cm x 3 cm FS by a 360-degree arc technique. Eight vials were irradiated in a water-bath to various doses with a 20 cm x 20 cm FS 6MV photon beam. All irradiated phantoms and one un-irradiated vial were scanned with a 3T MRI scanner to obtain the spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) distributions. By comparing the measured R2-to-depth data with the known depth-dose data for Phantom-A, R2-to-dose calibration data were obtained (e-beam method). Another calibration data were obtained from the 9 vials data (9-vial method). We tested two regression equations, i.e., third-order polynomial and tangent functions, and two dose normalization methods, i.e., one-point and two-point methods. Then, these two calibration methods were used to obtain the 3D dose distribution of Phantom-B and evaluated by comparing the measured data with the dose distribution from a treatment planning system. The comparison was made with gamma passing rate (2%/2mm criteria). Results: We did not observe a clear advantage of the e-beam method over the 9-vial method for the 3D dose comparison with the test case. Nevertheless, we found that the e-beam method required a smaller dose scaling for the dose comparison. Furthermore, the tangent function showed better data fitting than the polynomial function with smaller uncertainty of the estimated coefficients. Conclusions: Considering the overall superior performance, we recommend the e-beam method with the tangent function as the regression equation and one-point dose normalization for the MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry.

  16. Calibration of GafChromic XR-RV3 radiochromic film for skin dose measurement using standardized x-ray spectra and a commercial flatbed scanner

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Bradley P.; Speidel, Michael A.; Pike, Tina L.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: In this study, newly formulated XR-RV3 GafChromic film was calibrated with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceability for measurement of patient skin dose during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Methods: The film was calibrated free-in-air to air kerma levels between 15 and 1100 cGy using four moderately filtered x-ray beam qualities (60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp). The calibration films were scanned with a commercial flatbed document scanner. Film reflective density-to-air kerma calibration curves were constructed for each beam quality, with both the orange and white sides facing the x-ray source. A method to correct for nonuniformity in scanner response (up to 25% depending on position) was developed to enable dose measurement with large films. The response of XR-RV3 film under patient backscattering conditions was examined using on-phantom film exposures and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The response of XR-RV3 film to a given air kerma depended on kVp and film orientation. For a 200 cGy air kerma exposure with the orange side of the film facing the source, the film response increased by 20% from 60 to 120 kVp. At 500 cGy, the increase was 12%. When 500 cGy exposures were performed with the white side facing the x-ray source, the film response increased by 4.0% (60 kVp) to 9.9% (120 kVp) compared to the orange-facing orientation. On-phantom film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations show that using a NIST-traceable free-in-air calibration curve to determine air kerma in the presence of backscatter results in an error from 2% up to 8% depending on beam quality. The combined uncertainty in the air kerma measurement from the calibration curves and scanner nonuniformity correction was {+-}7.1% (95% C.I.). The film showed notable stability. Calibrations of film and scanner separated by 1 yr differed by 1.0%. Conclusions: XR-RV3 radiochromic film response to a given air kerma shows dependence on beam quality and film

  17. Calibration of GafChromic XR-RV3 radiochromic film for skin dose measurement using standardized x-ray spectra and a commercial flatbed scanner

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Bradley P.; Speidel, Michael A.; Pike, Tina L.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, newly formulated XR-RV3 GafChromic® film was calibrated with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceability for measurement of patient skin dose during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Methods: The film was calibrated free-in-air to air kerma levels between 15 and 1100 cGy using four moderately filtered x-ray beam qualities (60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp). The calibration films were scanned with a commercial flatbed document scanner. Film reflective density-to-air kerma calibration curves were constructed for each beam quality, with both the orange and white sides facing the x-ray source. A method to correct for nonuniformity in scanner response (up to 25% depending on position) was developed to enable dose measurement with large films. The response of XR-RV3 film under patient backscattering conditions was examined using on-phantom film exposures and Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The response of XR-RV3 film to a given air kerma depended on kVp and film orientation. For a 200 cGy air kerma exposure with the orange side of the film facing the source, the film response increased by 20% from 60 to 120 kVp. At 500 cGy, the increase was 12%. When 500 cGy exposures were performed with the white side facing the x-ray source, the film response increased by 4.0% (60 kVp) to 9.9% (120 kVp) compared to the orange-facing orientation. On-phantom film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations show that using a NIST-traceable free-in-air calibration curve to determine air kerma in the presence of backscatter results in an error from 2% up to 8% depending on beam quality. The combined uncertainty in the air kerma measurement from the calibration curves and scanner nonuniformity correction was ±7.1% (95% C.I.). The film showed notable stability. Calibrations of film and scanner separated by 1 yr differed by 1.0%. Conclusions: XR-RV3 radiochromic film response to a given air kerma shows dependence on beam quality and film

  18. Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect

    Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F.

    2013-01-15

    balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.

  19. Calibrating Wide Field Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Fernández, Carlos; Irwin, M.; Lewis, J.; González Solares, E.

    2017-09-01

    "In this talk I will review the strategies in CASU to calibrate wide field surveys, in particular applied to data taken with the VISTA telescope. These include traditional night-by-night calibrations along with the search for a global, coherent calibration of all the data once observations are finished. The difficulties of obtaining photometric accuracy of a few percent and a good absolute calibration will also be discussed."

  20. The 238U/235U isotope ratio of the Earth and the solar system: Constrains from a gravimetrically calibrated U double spike and implications for absolute Pb-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, Stefan; Noordmann, Janine; Brennecka, Greg; Richter, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    The ratio of 238U and 235U, the two primordial U isotopes, has been assumed to be constant on Earth and in the solar system. The commonly accepted value for the 238U/235U ratio, which has been used in Pb-Pb dating for the last ~ 30 years, was 137.88. Within the last few years, it has been shown that 1) there are considerable U isotope variations (~1.3‰) within terrestrial material produced by isotope fractionation during chemical reactions [1-3] and 2) there are even larger isotope variations (at least 3.5‰) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meoteorites that define the currently accepted age of the solar system [4]. These findings are dramatic for geochronology, as a known 238U/235U is a requirement for Pb-Pb dating, the most precise dating technique for absolute ages. As 238U/235U variations can greatly affect the reported absolute Pb-Pb age, understanding and accurately measuring variation of the 238U/235U ratio in various materials is critical, With these new findings, the questions also arises of "How well do we know the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system?" and "How accurate can absolute Pb-Pb ages be?" Our results using a gravimetrically calibrated 233U/236U double spike IRMM 3636 [5] indicate that the U standard NBL 950a, which was commonly used to define the excepted "natural" 238U/235U isotope ratio, has a slightly lower 238U/235U of 137.836 ± 0.024. This value is indistinguishable from the U isotope compositions for NBL 960 and NBL112A, which have been determined by several laboratories, also using the newly calibrated U double spike IRMM 3636 [6]. These findings provide new implications about the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system. Basalts display a very tight range of U isotope variations (~0.25-0.32‰ relative to SRM 950a). Their U isotope composition is also very similar to that of chondrites [4], which however appear to show a slightly larger spread. Accepting terrestrial

  1. Comparing Hp(3) evaluated from the conversion coefficients from air kerma to personal dose equivalent for eye lens dosimetry calibrated on a new cylindrical PMMA phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esor, J.; Sudchai, W.; Monthonwattana, S.; Pungkun, V.; Intang, A.

    2017-06-01

    Based on a new occupational dose limit recommended by ICRP (2011), the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye for workers should be reduced from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years in which no single year exceeding 50 mSv. This new dose limit directly affects radiologists and cardiologists whose work involves high radiation exposure over 20 mSv/y. Eye lens dosimetry (Hp(3)) has become increasingly important and should be evaluated directly based on dosimeters that are worn closely to the eye. Normally, Hp(3) dose algorithm was carried out by the combination of Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) values while dosimeters were calibrated on slab PMMA phantom. Recently, there were three reports from European Union that have shown the conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(3). These conversion coefficients carried out by ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay projects were performed by using a new cylindrical head phantom. In this study, various delivered doses were calculated using those three conversion coefficients while nanoDot, small OSL dosimeters, were used for Hp(3) measurement. These calibrations were performed with a standard X-ray generator at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). Delivered doses (Hp(3)) using those three conversion coefficients were compared with Hp(3) from nanoDot measurements. The results showed that percentage differences between delivered doses evaluated from the conversion coefficient of each project and Hp(3) doses evaluated from the nanoDots were found to be not exceeding -11.48 %, -8.85 % and -8.85 % for ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay project, respectively.

  2. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckey, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  3. Establishing cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory in Saudi Arabia and producing preliminary calibration curve of dicentric chromosomes as biomarker for medical dose estimation in response to radiation emergencies.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadyan, Khaled; Elewisy, Sara; Moftah, Belal; Shoukri, Mohamed; Alzahrany, Awad; Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-12-01

    In cases of public or occupational radiation overexposure and eventual radiological accidents, it is important to provide dose assessment, medical triage, diagnoses and treatment to victims. Cytogenetic bio-dosimetry based on scoring of dicentric chromosomal aberrations assay (DCA) is the "gold standard" biotechnology technique for estimating medically relevant radiation doses. Under the auspices of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan in Saudi Arabia, we have set up a biodosimetry laboratory and produced a national standard dose-response calibration curve for DCA, pre-required to estimate the doses received. For this, the basic cytogenetic DCA technique needed to be established. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected from four healthy volunteers and irradiated with radiation doses between 0 and 5 Gy of 320 keV X-rays. Then, lymphocytes were PHA stimulated, Colcemid division arrested and stained cytogenetic slides were prepared. The Metafer4 system (MetaSystem) was used for automatic and manually assisted metaphase finding and scoring of dicentric chromosomes. Results were fit to the linear-quadratic dose-effect model according to the IAEA EPR-Biodosimetry-2011 report. The resulting manually assisted dose-response calibration curve (Y = 0.0017 + 0.026 × D + 0.081 × D(2)) was in the range of those described in other populations. Although the automated scoring over-and-under estimates DCA at low (<1 Gy) and high (>2 Gy) doses, respectively, it showed potential for use in triage mode to segregate between victims with potential risk to develop acute radiotoxicity syndromes. In conclusion, we have successfully established the first biodosimetry laboratory in the region and have produced a preliminary national dose-response calibration curve. The laboratory can now contribute to the national preparedness plan in response to eventual radiation emergencies in addition to providing information for decision makers and public health

  4. Calibration of GafChromic EBT3 for absorbed dose measurements in 5 MeV proton beam and {sup 60}Co γ-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Vadrucci, M. Ronsivalle, C.; Marracino, F.; Montereali, R. M.; Picardi, L.; Piccinini, M.; Vincenti, M. A.; Esposito, G.; De Angelis, C.; Cherubini, R.; Pimpinella, M.

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: To study EBT3 GafChromic film in low-energy protons, and for comparison purposes, in a reference {sup 60}Co beam in order to use it as a calibrated dosimetry system in the proton irradiation facility under construction within the framework of the Oncological Therapy with Protons (TOP)-Intensity Modulated Proton Linear Accelerator for RadioTherapy (IMPLART) Project at ENEA-Frascati, Italy. Methods: EBT3 film samples were irradiated at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, with a 5 MeV proton beam generated by a 7 MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator. The nominal dose rates used were 2.1 Gy/min and 40 Gy/min. The delivered dose was determined by measuring the particle fluence and the energy spectrum in air with silicon surface barrier detector monitors. A preliminary study of the EBT3 film beam quality dependence in low-energy protons was conducted by passively degrading the beam energy. EBT3 films were also irradiated at ENEA-National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology with gamma radiation produced by a {sup 60}Co source characterized by an absorbed dose to water rate of 0.26 Gy/min as measured by a calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber. EBT3 film calibration curves were determined by means of a set of 40 film pieces irradiated to various doses ranging from 0.5 Gy to 30 Gy absorbed dose to water. An EPSON Expression 11000XL color scanner in transmission mode was used for film analysis. Scanner response stability, intrafilm uniformity, and interfilm reproducibility were verified. Optical absorption spectra measurements were performed on unirradiated and irradiated EBT3 films to choose the most sensitive color channel to the dose range used. Results: EBT3 GafChromic films show an under response up to about 33% for low-energy protons with respect to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, which is consistent with the linear energy transfer dependence already observed with higher energy protons, and a negligible dose

  5. Calibration of GafChromic EBT3 for absorbed dose measurements in 5 MeV proton beam and (60)Co γ-rays.

    PubMed

    Vadrucci, M; Esposito, G; Ronsivalle, C; Cherubini, R; Marracino, F; Montereali, R M; Picardi, L; Piccinini, M; Pimpinella, M; Vincenti, M A; De Angelis, C

    2015-08-01

    To study EBT3 GafChromic film in low-energy protons, and for comparison purposes, in a reference (60)Co beam in order to use it as a calibrated dosimetry system in the proton irradiation facility under construction within the framework of the Oncological Therapy with Protons (TOP)-Intensity Modulated Proton Linear Accelerator for RadioTherapy (IMPLART) Project at ENEA-Frascati, Italy. EBT3 film samples were irradiated at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, with a 5 MeV proton beam generated by a 7 MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator. The nominal dose rates used were 2.1 Gy/min and 40 Gy/min. The delivered dose was determined by measuring the particle fluence and the energy spectrum in air with silicon surface barrier detector monitors. A preliminary study of the EBT3 film beam quality dependence in low-energy protons was conducted by passively degrading the beam energy. EBT3 films were also irradiated at ENEA-National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology with gamma radiation produced by a (60)Co source characterized by an absorbed dose to water rate of 0.26 Gy/min as measured by a calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber. EBT3 film calibration curves were determined by means of a set of 40 film pieces irradiated to various doses ranging from 0.5 Gy to 30 Gy absorbed dose to water. An EPSON Expression 11000XL color scanner in transmission mode was used for film analysis. Scanner response stability, intrafilm uniformity, and interfilm reproducibility were verified. Optical absorption spectra measurements were performed on unirradiated and irradiated EBT3 films to choose the most sensitive color channel to the dose range used. EBT3 GafChromic films show an under response up to about 33% for low-energy protons with respect to (60)Co gamma radiation, which is consistent with the linear energy transfer dependence already observed with higher energy protons, and a negligible dose-rate dependence in the 2-40 Gy/min range

  6. SU-E-I-22: Dependence On Calibration Phantom and Field Area of the Conversion Factor Used to Calculate Skin Dose During Neuro-Interventional Fluoroscopic Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, V K; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different

  7. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

    2002-12-01

    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  8. [Reliability of plural measuring instruments for quantitative PET measurement -performance of dose-calibrator, auto well gamma counter, continuous blood sampling system, and PET scanner].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Keiji; Murase, Kenya; Senda, Michio

    2008-10-20

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful tool for measuring in vivo functions such as blood flow, metabolism, enzyme activity, receptors, and transporters. However, plural measuring instruments (i.e., the dose-calibrator, the auto well gamma counter, the continuous blood sampling system) are necessary for the quantitative PET measurement as well as the PET scanner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of plural measuring instruments from the maintenance data for 6 years. Four kinds of measuring instrument were evaluated: a dose-calibrator (CAPINTEC, CRC-15R), an auto well gamma counter (ALOKA, ARC-400), a continuous blood sampling system (ESPEC Techno, PH type), and a dedicated PET scanner (Siemens, ECAT EXACT HR+). We examined whether the initial performance for system sensitivity is maintained. The reliability of the PET scanner was evaluated from the value of mean time between failures (MTBF) for each part of the system obtained from the maintenance data for 6 years. The sensitivity of a dose-calibrator and an auto well gamma counter were maintained virtually constant during the 6 years, but the sensitivity of a continuous blood sampling system was 0.1+/-3.2%. The sensitivity of a PET scanner was decreased to 92.3% of the initial value. Fifty-one percent of the problems with the PET scanner were for detector block (DB) and analog processor (AP) board. The MTBF of DB and AP board module were 199 and 244 days, respectively. The MTBF of the PET scanner was 56 days. The performance of three measuring instruments, excepting the PET scanner, was relatively stable. The reliability of the PET scanner strongly depends on the MTBF of the DB and AP board. For quantitative PET measurement, it is effective to evaluate the reliability of the system and to make it known to the users.

  9. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  10. Absolute Bioavailability of Tasimelteon.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosarelis; Dressman, Marlene A; Kramer, William G; Baroldi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Tasimelteon is a novel dual melatonin receptor agonist and is the first treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder. This study was conducted to assess the absolute bioavailability of tasimelteon and to further assess the single-dose pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of oral and intravenous (IV) routes of administration of the drug. This study was an open-label, single-dose, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment, 2-sequence, crossover study in which 14 healthy volunteers were randomly administered tasimelteon as either a 20-mg capsule or IV administration of 2 mg infused over 30 minutes. Each subject received both treatments in a random order, separated by a washout period of 5 ± 2 days. The total clearance and volume of distribution of tasimelteon, from the IV treatment, were 505 mL per minute and 42.7 L, respectively. Based on the statistical comparison of dose-corrected area under the curve to infinity, the absolute bioavailability was 38%, with a 90% confidence interval of 27%-54%. The mean elimination half-life was the same for the oral and IV routes. The exposure ratios, oral-to-IV, for metabolites M9, M11, M12, and M13, were 133.27%, 118.28%, 138.76%, and 112.36%, respectively, suggesting presystemic or first-pass metabolism. Three (21.4%) subjects experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) during the study. All TEAEs were mild, considered related to study medication, and consistent with what has been seen in other studies. There were no deaths, serious adverse events, or discontinuations due to TEAEs. Both tasimelteon treatments were well tolerated during the study.

  11. 2D EPID dose calibration for pretreatment quality control of conformal and IMRT fields: A simple and fast convolution approach.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Jérémy; Mazurier, Jocelyne; Franck, Denis; Dudouet, Philippe; Latorzeff, Igor; Franceries, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an original algorithm that converts the signal of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) into absorbed dose in water at the depth of maximum. The model includes a first image pre-processing step that accounts for the non-uniformity of the detector response but also for the perturbation of the signal due to backscatter radiation. Secondly, the image is converted into absorbed dose to water through a linear conversion function associated with a dose redistribution kernel. These two computation parameters were modelled by correlating the on-axis EPID signal with absorbed dose measurements obtained on square fields by using an ionization chamber placed in water at the depth of maximum dose. The accuracy of the algorithm was assessed by comparing the dose determined from the EPID signal with the dose derived by the treatment planning system (TPS) using the ϒ-index. These comparisons were performed on 8 conformal radiotherapy treatment fields (3DCRT) and 18 modulated fields (IMRT). For a dose difference and a distance-to-agreement set to 3% of the maximum dose and 2 mm respectively, the mean percentage of points with a ϒ-value less than or equal to 1 was 99.8% ± 0.1% for 3DCRT fields and 96.8% ± 2.7% for IMRT fields. Moreover, the mean gamma values were always less than 0.5 whatever the treatment technique. These results confirm that our algorithm is an accurate and suitable tool for clinical use in a context of IMRT quality assurance programmes. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calibration of a TLD-100 powder dosimetric system to verify the absorbed dose to water imparted by 137Cs sources in low dose rate brachytherapy at the oncology unit in the Hospital General de Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Romero, J T; Tovar Muñoz, V M; de León, B Salinas; Oviedo, J O Hernández; Barcenas, L Santillán; Milo, C Molero; Monterrubio, J Montoya

    2006-01-01

    A thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system was characterised at SSDL-ININ to verify the air-kerma strength (S(K)) and dose-to-water (D(W)) values for (137)Cs sources used in low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatments at the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM). It consists of a Harshaw 3500 reader and a set of TLD-100 powder capsules. The samples of TLD-100 powder were calibrated in terms of D(W) vs. nC or nC mg(-1), and their dose response curves were corrected for supralinearity. The D(W) was calculated using the AAPM TG-43 formalism using S(K) for a CDCSM4 (137)Cs reference source. The S(K) value was obtained by using a NE 2611 chamber, and with two well chambers. The angular anisotropy factor was measured with the NE 2611 chamber for this source. The HGM irradiated TLD-100 powder capsules to a reference dose D(W) of 2 Gy with their (137)Cs sources. The percent deviations between the imparted and reference doses were 1.2% < or = Delta < or = 6.5%, which are consistent with the combined uncertainties: 5.6% < or = u(c) < or = 9.8% for D(W).

  13. Monte Carlo-derived TLD cross-calibration factors for treatment verification and measurement of skin dose in accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    PubMed

    Garnica-Garza, H M

    2009-03-21

    Monte Carlo simulation was employed to calculate the response of TLD-100 chips under irradiation conditions such as those found during accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system. The absorbed dose versus radius in the last 0.5 cm of the treated volume was also calculated, employing a resolution of 20 microm, and a function that fits the observed data was determined. Several clinically relevant irradiation conditions were simulated for different combinations of balloon size, balloon-to-surface distance and contents of the contrast solution used to fill the balloon. The thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) cross-calibration factors were derived assuming that the calibration of the dosemeters was carried out using a Cobalt 60 beam, and in such a way that they provide a set of parameters that reproduce the function that describes the behavior of the absorbed dose versus radius curve. Such factors may also prove to be useful for those standardized laboratories that provide postal dosimetry services.

  14. [Constancy check of system linearity for dose calibrators. Effect of molybdenum impurities at high start activities of 99mTc].

    PubMed

    Schütze, Christian; Knoop, Bernd O; Vehrenkamp, Iris; Rudolf, Frank; Geworski, Lilli

    2016-08-05

    Dose calibrators are one of the most important and most frequently used instruments for the determination of activities in nuclear medicine. For guaranteeing a constant quality of the dose calibrators' measurements, constancy checks including the examination of the system linearity have to be performed regularly, usually measured using 99mTc. The 99mTc eluate extracted from a 99Mo/99mTc generator is contaminated with molybdenum. Not accounting for the molybdenum impurity might lead to an exceed of the tolerance limit of 5% deviation to the reference value for this constancy check. The reason for this effect is the contamination of the 99mTc eluate with 99Mo, whose impact depends on both the amount of the impurity and on the total measurement time (high start activities). In this work, the influence of the molybdenum impurity on the results of the constancy check of the system linearity was investigated and maximum start activities for certain impurities were determined providing that the deviation to the reference values is below 5%. Provided that certain boundary conditions are observed, a correction of the results with respect to the molybdenum contamination is not necessary.

  15. Calibrating the High Density Magnetic Port within Tissue Expanders to Achieve more Accurate Dose Calculations for Postmastectomy Patients with Immediate Breast Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jasmine; Zhang, Rui; Heins, David; Castle, Katherine

    In postmastectomy radiotherapy, an increasing number of patients have tissue expanders inserted subpectorally when receiving immediate breast reconstruction. These tissue expanders are composed of silicone and are inflated with saline through an internal metallic port; this serves the purpose of stretching the muscle and skin tissue over time, in order to house a permanent implant. The issue with administering radiation therapy in the presence of a tissue expander is that the port's magnetic core can potentially perturb the dose delivered to the Planning Target Volume, causing significant artifacts in CT images. Several studies have explored this problem, and suggest that density corrections must be accounted for in treatment planning. However, very few studies accurately calibrated commercial TP systems for the high density material used in the port, and no studies employed fusion imaging to yield a more accurate contour of the port in treatment planning. We compared depth dose values in the water phantom between measurement and TPS calculations, and we were able to overcome some of the inhomogeneities presented by the image artifact by fusing the KVCT and MVCT images of the tissue expander together, resulting in a more precise comparison of dose calculations at discrete locations. We expect this method to be pivotal in the quantification of dose distribution in the PTV. Research funded by the LS-AMP Award.

  16. Practical calibration curve of small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter for evaluation of entrance skin dose in the diagnostic X-ray region.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Tohru; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2015-07-01

    For X-ray diagnosis, the proper management of the entrance skin dose (ESD) is important. Recently, a small-type optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (nanoDot OSL dosimeter) was made commercially available by Landauer, and it is hoped that it will be used for ESD measurements in clinical settings. Our objectives in the present study were to propose a method for calibrating the ESD measured with the nanoDot OSL dosimeter and to evaluate its accuracy. The reference ESD is assumed to be based on an air kerma with consideration of a well-known back scatter factor. We examined the characteristics of the nanoDot OSL dosimeter using two experimental conditions: a free air irradiation to derive the air kerma, and a phantom experiment to determine the ESD. For evaluation of the ability to measure the ESD, a calibration curve for the nanoDot OSL dosimeter was determined in which the air kerma and/or the ESD measured with an ionization chamber were used as references. As a result, we found that the calibration curve for the air kerma was determined with an accuracy of 5 %. Furthermore, the calibration curve was applied to the ESD estimation. The accuracy of the ESD obtained was estimated to be 15 %. The origin of these uncertainties was examined based on published papers and Monte-Carlo simulation. Most of the uncertainties were caused by the systematic uncertainty of the reading system and the differences in efficiency corresponding to different X-ray energies.

  17. Consistency of absorbed dose to water measurements using 21 ion-chamber models following the AAPM TG51 and TG21 calibration protocols.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Ramesh C; Hanson, William F; Wells, Nathan; Ibbott, Geoffrey S

    2006-06-01

    In 1999, the AAPM introduced a reference dosimetry protocol, known as TG51, based on an absorbed dose standard. This replaced the previous protocol, known as TG21, which was based on an air kerma standard. A significant body of literature has emerged discussing the improved accuracy and robustness of the absorbed dose standard, and quantifying the changes in baseline dosimetry with the introduction of the absorbed dose protocol. A significant component playing a role in the overall accuracy of beam output determination is the variability due to the use of different dosimeters. This issue, not adequately addressed in the past, is the focus of the present study. This work provides a comparison of absorbed dose determinations using 21 different makes and models of ion chambers for low- and high-energy photon and electron beams. The study included 13 models of cylindrical ion chambers and eight models of plane-parallel chambers. A high degree of precision (<0.25%) resulted from measurements with all chambers in a single setting, a sufficient number of repeat readings, and the use of high quality ion chambers as external monitors. Cylindrical chambers in photon beams show an improvement in chamber-to-chamber consistency with TG51. For electron dosimetry with plane-parallel chambers, the parameters Ngas and the product ND,w x k(ecal) were each determined in two ways, based on (i) an ADCL calibration, and (ii) a cross comparison with an ADCL-calibrated cylindrical chamber in a high-energy electron beam. Plane-parallel chamber results, therefore, are presented for both methods of chamber calibration. Our electron results with technique (i) show that plane-parallel chambers, as a group, overestimate the beam output relative to cylindrical chambers by 1%-2% with either protocol. Technique (ii), by definition, normalizes the plane-parallel results to the cylindrical results. In all cases, the maximum spread in output from the various cylindrical chambers is <2% implying a

  18. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  19. Accurate calibration of a polymer gel dosimeter with a plastic scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Nicolas M; Hubert-Tremblay, Vincent; Bujold, Rachel; Beddar, A Sam; Beaulieu, Luc; Lepage, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Three dimensional dose polymer gel dosimetry measurements provide unique information on sophisticated dose distributions. In this study, the authors propose a novel method to improve the accuracy of polymer gel dosimeters by inserting a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) to provide a dose reference. PSD dosimeters were calibrated using chromatic deconvolution and then inserted into polyacrylanide gel (PAG) dosimeters. The gel and the PSDs were immersed into water and irradiated with 6 MV wedge filtered beams to obtain a wide range of dose variation. Calibration vials containing the same gel were also irradiated to generate a standard calibration curve. The distribution of magnetic nuclear transverse relaxation rate (R2) values of the gel was determined with a multislice multiecho MRI sequence at 1.5 T. Another calibration curve was obtained by assigning the R2 values in the gel surrounding the scintillators to the dose determined by the PSDs. A reference calibration point from a PSD located in a low dose gradient area served to correct the standard calibration method yielding three novel calibration methods. The results were compared with EBT2 GAFCHROMIC film measurements acquired in the same condition and with the Pinnacle3 treatment planning dose calculations, The mean absolute error of the standard calibration method ranged from 6.1 to 12.4%. The corresponding gamma index (3%/3 mm distance to agreement) criterion was satisfied for only 56% of the pixels in the middle slice of the gel compared to Pinnacle3 dose calculations and to EBT2 film measurements in the center part of the field. Calibration methods using a PSD reduced the mean absolute error to less than 4%; this value was under 2.6% for one of the three methods. In that case, 98% of the pixels satisfied the gamma index criterion. The accuracy of PAG dosimeters may be highly improved using one reference dose point measurement using a plastic scintillation detector. The best calibration procedure

  20. A randomized Phase III trial of weekly or 3-weekly doses of nab-paclitaxel versus weekly doses of Cremophor-based paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced gastric cancer (ABSOLUTE Trial).

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Wasaburo; Morita, Satoshi; Sakata, Yuh

    2015-03-01

    Paclitaxel is an agent widely used in second-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 3-weekly or weekly doses of nanoparticle albumin-bound-paclitaxel compared with weekly doses of Cremophor-based paclitaxel in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer refractory to first-line chemotherapy comprising fluoropyrimidines. A total of 730 patients will be enrolled from 72 institutions. The primary endpoint is the overall survival, and the secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, time to treatment failure, overall response rate, disease control rate, quality of life (by using the EQ-5D system) and safety.

  1. A water calorimeter for on-site absorbed dose to water calibrations in 60Co and MV-photon beams including MRI incorporated treatment equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Prez, Leon; de Pooter, Jacco; Jansen, Bartel; Aalbers, Tony

    2016-07-01

    In reference dosimetry the aim is to establish the absorbed dose to water, D w, under reference conditions. However, existing dosimetry protocols are not always applicable for rapidly emerging new treatment modalities. For primary standard dosimetry laboratories it is generally not feasible to acquire such modalities. Therefore it is strongly desired that D w measurements with primary standards can be performed on-site in clinical beams for the new treatment modalities in order to characterize and calibrate detectors. To serve this need, VSL has developed a new transportable water calorimeter serving as a primary D w standard for 60Co and MV-photons including MRI incorporated treatment equipment. Special attention was paid to its operation in different beam geometries and beam modalities including the application in magnetic fields. The new calorimeter was validated in the VSL 60Co beam and on-site in clinical MV-photon beams. Excellent agreement of 0.1% was achieved with previous 60Co field calibrations, i.e. well within the uncertainty of the previous calorimeter, and with measurements performed in horizontal and vertical MV-photon beams. k Q factors, determined for two PTW 30013 ionization chambers, agreed very well with available literature data. The relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) for D w measurements in 60Co and MV-photons is 0.37%. Calibrations are carried out with a standard uncertainty of 0.42% and k Q -factors are determined with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.40%.

  2. Monte Carlo simulated correction factors for machine specific reference field dose calibration and output factor measurement using fixed and iris collimators on the CyberKnife system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francescon, P.; Kilby, W.; Satariano, N.; Cora, S.

    2012-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of dose to water and dose to detector has been used to calculate the correction factors needed for dose calibration and output factor measurements on the CyberKnife system. Reference field ionization chambers simulated were the PTW 30006, Exradin A12, and NE 2571 Farmer chambers, and small volume chambers PTW 31014 and 31010. Correction factors for Farmer chambers were found to be 0.7%-0.9% larger than those determined from TRS-398 due mainly to the dose gradient across the chamber cavity. For one microchamber where comparison was possible, the factor was 0.5% lower than TRS-398 which is consistent with previous MC simulations of flattening filter free Linacs. Output factor detectors simulated were diode models PTW 60008, 60012, 60017, 60018, Sun Nuclear edge detector, air-filled microchambers Exradin A16 and PTW 31014, and liquid-filled microchamber PTW 31018 microLion. Factors were generated for both fixed and iris collimators. The resulting correction factors differ from unity by up to +11% for air-filled microchambers and -6% for diodes at the smallest field size (5 mm), and tend towards unity with increasing field size (correction factor magnitude <1% for all detectors at field sizes >15 mm). Output factor measurements performed using these detectors with fixed and iris collimators on two different CyberKnife systems showed initial differences between detectors of >15% at 5 mm field size. After correction the measurements on each unit agreed within ˜1.5% at the smallest field size. This paper provides a complete set of correction factors needed to apply a new small field dosimetry formalism to both collimator types on the CyberKnife system using a range of commonly used detectors.

  3. Absolutely classical spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "absolutely classical" spin states, in analogy to absolutely separable states of bipartite quantum systems. Absolutely classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of absolutely classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of absolutely separable states.

  4. A fast and simple dose-calibrator-based quality control test for the radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced 99mTc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Esquinas, P.; Vuckovic, M.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-11-01

    Cyclotron production of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc through the 100Mo(p,2n){{}99\\text{m}} Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. Like most radioisotope production methods, cyclotron production of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc will result in creation of unwanted impurities, including Tc and non-Tc isotopes. It is important to measure the amounts of these impurities for release of cyclotron-produced {{}99\\text{m}} Tc (CPTc) for clinical use. Detection of radioactive impurities will rely on measurements of their gamma (γ) emissions. Gamma spectroscopy is not suitable for this purpose because the overwhelming presence of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc and the count-rate limitations of γ spectroscopy systems preclude fast and accurate measurement of small amounts of impurities. In this article we describe a simple and fast method for measuring γ emission rates from radioactive impurities in CPTc. The proposed method is similar to that used to identify 99Mo breakthrough in generator-produced {{}99\\text{m}} Tc: one dose calibrator (DC) reading of a CPTc source placed in a lead shield is followed by a second reading of the same source in air. Our experimental and theoretical analysis show that the ratio of DC readings in lead to those in air are linearly related to γ emission rates from impurities per MBq of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc over a large range of clinically-relevant production conditions. We show that estimates of the γ emission rates from Tc impurities per MBq of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc can be used to estimate increases in radiation dose (relative to pure {{}99\\text{m}} Tc) to patients injected with CPTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. This enables establishing dosimetry-based clinical-release criteria that can be tested using commercially-available dose calibrators. We show that our approach is highly sensitive to the presence of {{}93\\text{g}} Tc, {{}93\\text{m}} Tc, {{}94\\text{g}} Tc, {{}94\\text{m}} Tc

  5. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

    2017-04-01

    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Software For Calibration Of Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zyl, Jakob; Zebker, Howard; Freeman, Anthony; Holt, John; Dubois, Pascale; Chapman, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) software tool intended to assist in calibration of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) systems. In particular, calibrates Stokes-matrix-format data produced as standard product by NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). Version 4.0 of POLCAL is upgrade of version 2.0. New options include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed-target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with corner reflectors, altitude or roll-angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Reduces crosstalk and corrects phase calibration without use of ground calibration equipment. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. The IPEM code of practice for electron dosimetry for radiotherapy beams of initial energy from 4 to 25 MeV based on an absorbed dose to water calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thwaites (Chair), IPEM Working Party: D. I.; Du Sautoy, A. R.; Jordan, T.; McEwen, M. R.; Nisbet, A.; Nahum, A. E.; Pitchford, W. G.

    2003-09-01

    This report contains the recommendations of the Electron Dosimetry Working Party of the UK Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The recommendations consist of a code of practice for electron dosimetry for radiotherapy beams of initial energy from 4 to 25 MeV. The code is based on the absorbed dose to water calibration service for electron beams provided by the UK standards laboratory, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). This supplies direct ND,w calibration factors, traceable to a calorimetric primary standard, at specified reference depths over a range of electron energies up to approximately 20 MeV. Electron beam quality is specified in terms of R50,D, the depth in water along the beam central axis at which the dose is 50% of the maximum. The reference depth for any given beam at the NPL for chamber calibration and also for measurements for calibration of clinical beams is 0.6R50,D - 0.1 cm in water. Designated chambers are graphite-walled Farmer-type cylindrical chambers and the NACP- and Roos-type parallel-plate chambers. The practical code provides methods to determine the absorbed dose to water under reference conditions and also guidance on methods to transfer this dose to non-reference points and to other irradiation conditions. It also gives procedures and data for extending up to higher energies above the range where direct calibration factors are currently available. The practical procedures are supplemented by comprehensive appendices giving discussion of the background to the formalism and the sources and values of any data required. The electron dosimetry code improves consistency with the similar UK approach to megavoltage photon dosimetry, in use since 1990. It provides reduced uncertainties, approaching 1% standard uncertainty in optimal conditions, and a simpler formalism than previous air kerma calibration based recommendations for electron dosimetry.

  10. Calibration of megavoltage cone-beam CT for radiotherapy dose calculations: Correction of cupping artifacts and conversion of CT numbers to electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Steven F.; Elmpt, Wouter J. C. van; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; Lambin, Philippe; Dekker, Andre L. A. J.

    2008-03-15

    Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) is used for three-dimensional imaging of the patient anatomy on the treatment table prior to or just after radiotherapy treatment. To use MV CBCT images for radiotherapy dose calculation purposes, reliable electron density (ED) distributions are needed. Patient scatter, beam hardening and softening effects result in cupping artifacts in MV CBCT images and distort the CT number to ED conversion. A method based on transmission images is presented to correct for these effects without using prior knowledge of the object's geometry. The scatter distribution originating from the patient is calculated with pencil beam scatter kernels that are fitted based on transmission measurements. The radiological thickness is extracted from the scatter subtracted transmission images and is then converted to the primary transmission used in the cone-beam reconstruction. These corrections are performed in an iterative manner, without using prior knowledge regarding the geometry and composition of the object. The method was tested using various homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms with varying shapes and compositions, including a phantom with different electron density inserts, phantoms with large density variations, and an anthropomorphic head phantom. For all phantoms, the cupping artifact was substantially removed from the images and a linear relation between the CT number and electron density was found. After correction the deviations in reconstructed ED from the true values were reduced from up to 0.30 ED units to 0.03 for the majority of the phantoms; the residual difference is equal to the amount of noise in the images. The ED distributions were evaluated in terms of absolute dose calculation accuracy for homogeneous cylinders of different size; errors decreased from 7% to below 1% in the center of the objects for the uncorrected and corrected images, respectively, and maximum differences were reduced from 17% to 2%, respectively. The

  11. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, F.; Distefano, C.; Antares Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  12. Measurement of absolute transition dipole moment functions of the 3 (1)Pi --> 1(X) (1)Sigma+ and 3 (1)Pi --> 2(A) (1)Sigma+ transitions in NaK using Autler-Townes spectroscopy and calibrated fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, S J; Ahmed, E H; Qi, P; Kirova, T; Lyyra, A M; Huennekens, J

    2008-10-21

    We describe a two-laser experiment using optical-optical double resonance fluorescence and Autler-Townes (AT) splittings to determine the NaK 3 (1)Pi-->1(X)(1)Sigma(+), 2(A)(1)Sigma(+) absolute transition dipole moment functions. Resolved 3 (1)Pi-->A (1)Sigma(+) and 3 (1)Pi-->X (1)Sigma(+) fluorescence was recorded with the frequencies of a titanium-sapphire laser (L1) and a ring dye laser (L2) fixed to excite particular 3 (1)Pi(upsilon = 19,J = 11,f)<--A (1)Sigma(+)(upsilon('),J(') = J = 11,e)<--X (1)Sigma(+)(upsilon("),J(") = J(')+/-1,e) double resonance transitions. The coefficients of a trial transition dipole moment function mu(e)(R) = a(0)+a(1)(R(eq)/R)(2)+a(2)(R(eq)/R)(4)+... were adjusted to match the relative intensities of resolved spectral lines terminating on the lower A (1)Sigma(+)(upsilon('),11,e) and X (1)Sigma(+)(upsilon("),11,e) levels. These data provide a relative measure of the functions mu(e)(R) over a broad range of R. Next, L2 was tuned to either the 3 (1)Pi(19,11,f)<--A (1)Sigma(+)(10,11,e) or 3 (1)Pi(19,11,f)<--A (1)Sigma(+)(9,11,e) transition and focused to an intensity large enough to split the levels via the AT effect. L1 was scanned over the A (1)Sigma(+)(10,11,e)<--X (1)Sigma(+)(1,10,e) or A (1)Sigma(+)(9,11,e)<--X (1)Sigma(+)(0,12,e) transition to probe the AT line shape, which was fit using density matrix equations to yield an absolute value for mu(ik) = integral psi(vib) (i)(R)mu(e)(R)psi(vib)(k)(R)dR, where i and k represent the upper and lower levels, respectively, of the coupling laser (L2) transition. Finally, the values of mu(ik) were used to place the relative mu(e)(R) functions obtained with resolved fluorescence onto an absolute scale. We compare our experimental transition dipole moment functions to the theoretical work of Magnier et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 200, 96 (2000)].

  13. Absolute x-ray dosimetry on a synchrotron medical beam line with a graphite calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, P. D. Ramanathan, G.; Butler, D. J.; Johnston, P. N.; Lye, J. E.; Hall, C. J.; Stevenson, A. W.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The absolute dose rate of the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter. The calorimetry results were compared to measurements from the existing free-air chamber, to provide a robust determination of the absolute dose in the synchrotron beam and provide confidence in the first implementation of a graphite calorimeter on a synchrotron medical beam line. Methods: The graphite calorimeter has a core which rises in temperature when irradiated by the beam. A collimated x-ray beam from the synchrotron with well-defined edges was used to partially irradiate the core. Two filtration sets were used, one corresponding to an average beam energy of about 80 keV, with dose rate about 50 Gy/s, and the second filtration set corresponding to average beam energy of 90 keV, with dose rate about 20 Gy/s. The temperature rise from this beam was measured by a calibrated thermistor embedded in the core which was then converted to absorbed dose to graphite by multiplying the rise in temperature by the specific heat capacity for graphite and the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the core and beam. Conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water was achieved using Monte Carlo calculations with the EGSnrc code. The air kerma measurements from the free-air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. Results: Absolute measurements of the IMBL dose rate were made using the graphite calorimeter and compared to measurements with the free-air chamber. The measurements were at three different depths in graphite and two different filtrations. The calorimetry measurements at depths in graphite show agreement within 1% with free-air chamber measurements, when converted to absorbed dose to water. The calorimetry at the surface and free-air chamber results show agreement of order 3% when converted to absorbed dose to water. The combined standard uncertainty is 3

  14. Absolute x-ray dosimetry on a synchrotron medical beam line with a graphite calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Harty, P D; Lye, J E; Ramanathan, G; Butler, D J; Hall, C J; Stevenson, A W; Johnston, P N

    2014-05-01

    The absolute dose rate of the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter. The calorimetry results were compared to measurements from the existing free-air chamber, to provide a robust determination of the absolute dose in the synchrotron beam and provide confidence in the first implementation of a graphite calorimeter on a synchrotron medical beam line. The graphite calorimeter has a core which rises in temperature when irradiated by the beam. A collimated x-ray beam from the synchrotron with well-defined edges was used to partially irradiate the core. Two filtration sets were used, one corresponding to an average beam energy of about 80 keV, with dose rate about 50 Gy/s, and the second filtration set corresponding to average beam energy of 90 keV, with dose rate about 20 Gy/s. The temperature rise from this beam was measured by a calibrated thermistor embedded in the core which was then converted to absorbed dose to graphite by multiplying the rise in temperature by the specific heat capacity for graphite and the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the core and beam. Conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water was achieved using Monte Carlo calculations with the EGSnrc code. The air kerma measurements from the free-air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. Absolute measurements of the IMBL dose rate were made using the graphite calorimeter and compared to measurements with the free-air chamber. The measurements were at three different depths in graphite and two different filtrations. The calorimetry measurements at depths in graphite show agreement within 1% with free-air chamber measurements, when converted to absorbed dose to water. The calorimetry at the surface and free-air chamber results show agreement of order 3% when converted to absorbed dose to water. The combined standard uncertainty is 3.9%. The good agreement of

  15. Meteorological radar calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    A meteorological radar calibration technique is developed. It is found that the integrated, range corrected, received power saturates under intense rain conditions in a manner analogous to that encountered for the radiometric path temperature. Furthermore, it is found that this saturation condition establishes a bound which may be used to determine an absolution radar calibration for the case of radars operating at attenuating wavelengths. In the case of less intense rainfall or for radars at nonattenuating wavelengths, the relationship for direct calibration in terms of an independent measurement of radiometric path temperature is developed. This approach offers the advantage that the calibration is in terms of an independent measurement of the rainfall through the same elevated region as that viewed by the radar.

  16. White Dwarf Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis

    1994-01-01

    As a result of last November calibration workshop, all parties agreed that the HST should be switched to the WD basis for absolute fluxes. This proposal implements that decision. A measurement of the absolute sensitivity of the FOS detectors will be performed using theoretical pure hydrogen model atmosphere calculations for three white dwarfs. The high resolution gratings will be used in the 1 arcsec aperture. A four stage peakup of the standard star provides centering in the aperture. Observations are requested for fall 94 with repeated observations about two months after.

  17. Absolute dosimetry on a dynamically scanned sample for synchrotron radiotherapy using graphite calorimetry and ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lye, J. E.; Harty, P. D.; Butler, D. J.; Crosbie, J. C.; Livingstone, J.; Poole, C. M.; Ramanathan, G.; Wright, T.; Stevenson, A. W.

    2016-06-01

    The absolute dose delivered to a dynamically scanned sample in the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter anticipated to be established as a primary standard for synchrotron dosimetry. The calorimetry was compared to measurements using a free-air chamber (FAC), a PTW 31 014 Pinpoint ionization chamber, and a PTW 34 001 Roos ionization chamber. The IMBL beam height is limited to approximately 2 mm. To produce clinically useful beams of a few centimetres the beam must be scanned in the vertical direction. In practice it is the patient/detector that is scanned and the scanning velocity defines the dose that is delivered. The calorimeter, FAC, and Roos chamber measure the dose area product which is then converted to central axis dose with the scanned beam area derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and film measurements. The Pinpoint chamber measures the central axis dose directly and does not require beam area measurements. The calorimeter and FAC measure dose from first principles. The calorimetry requires conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water using MC calculations with the EGSnrc code. Air kerma measurements from the free air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. The two ionization chambers are secondary standards requiring calibration with kilovoltage x-ray tubes. The Roos and Pinpoint chambers were calibrated against the Australian primary standard for air kerma at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). Agreement of order 2% or better was obtained between the calorimetry and ionization chambers. The FAC measured a dose 3-5% higher than the calorimetry, within the stated uncertainties.

  18. Absolute dosimetry on a dynamically scanned sample for synchrotron radiotherapy using graphite calorimetry and ionization chambers.

    PubMed

    Lye, J E; Harty, P D; Butler, D J; Crosbie, J C; Livingstone, J; Poole, C M; Ramanathan, G; Wright, T; Stevenson, A W

    2016-06-07

    The absolute dose delivered to a dynamically scanned sample in the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter anticipated to be established as a primary standard for synchrotron dosimetry. The calorimetry was compared to measurements using a free-air chamber (FAC), a PTW 31 014 Pinpoint ionization chamber, and a PTW 34 001 Roos ionization chamber. The IMBL beam height is limited to approximately 2 mm. To produce clinically useful beams of a few centimetres the beam must be scanned in the vertical direction. In practice it is the patient/detector that is scanned and the scanning velocity defines the dose that is delivered. The calorimeter, FAC, and Roos chamber measure the dose area product which is then converted to central axis dose with the scanned beam area derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and film measurements. The Pinpoint chamber measures the central axis dose directly and does not require beam area measurements. The calorimeter and FAC measure dose from first principles. The calorimetry requires conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water using MC calculations with the EGSnrc code. Air kerma measurements from the free air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. The two ionization chambers are secondary standards requiring calibration with kilovoltage x-ray tubes. The Roos and Pinpoint chambers were calibrated against the Australian primary standard for air kerma at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). Agreement of order 2% or better was obtained between the calorimetry and ionization chambers. The FAC measured a dose 3-5% higher than the calorimetry, within the stated uncertainties.

  19. Computer processing of spectrograms for absolute intensities.

    PubMed

    Guttman, A; Golden, J; Galbraith, H J

    1967-09-01

    A computer program was developed to process photographically recorded spectra for absolute intensity. Test and calibration films are subjected to densitometric scans that provide digitally recorded densities on magnetic tapes. The nonlinear calibration data are fitted by least-squares cubic polynomials to yield a good approximation to the monochromatic H&D curves for commonly used emulsions (2475 recording film, Royal-X, Tri-X, 4-X). Several test cases were made. Results of these cases show that the machine processed absolute intensities are accurate to within 15%o. Arbitrarily raising the sensitivity threshold by 0.1 density units above gross fog yields cubic polynomial fits to the H&D curves that are radiometrically accurate within 10%. In addition, curves of gamma vs wavelength for 2475, Tri-X, and 4-X emulsions were made. These data show slight evidence of the photographic Purkinje effect in the 2475 emulsion.

  20. Radiance calibration of spherical integrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, James T.; Guenther, Bruce W.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques for improving the knowledge of the radiance of large area spherical and hemispherical integrating energy sources have been investigated. Such sources are used to calibrate numerous aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing instruments. Comparisons are made between using a standard source based calibration method and a quantum efficient detector (QED) based calibration method. The uncertainty involved in transferring the calibrated values of the point source standard lamp to the extended source is estimated to be 5 to 10 percent. The use of the QED allows an improvement in the uncertainty to 1 to 2 percent for the measurement of absolute radiance from a spherical integrator source.

  1. Minerva Detector Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza

    2013-04-01

    Current and future neutrino oscillation experiments depend on precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus cross-sections. Minerva is a neutrino scattering experiment at Fermilab. Minerva was designed to make precision measurements of low energy neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on a variety of different materials (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O). In Order to make these measurements, it is crucial that the detector is carefully calibrated.This talk will describe how MINERvA uses muons from upstream neutrino interactions as a calibration source to convert electronics output to absolute energy deposition.

  2. Recent Infrasound Calibration Activity at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, R. W.; Marcillo, O. E.

    2014-12-01

    Absolute infrasound sensor calibration is necessary for estimating source sizes from measured waveforms. This can be an important function in treaty monitoring. The Los Alamos infrasound calibration chamber is capable of absolute calibration. Early in 2014 the Los Alamos infrasound calibration chamber resumed operations in its new location after an unplanned move two years earlier. The chamber has two sources of calibration signals. The first is the original mechanical piston, and the second is a CLD Dynamics Model 316 electro-mechanical unit that can be digitally controlled and provide a richer set of calibration options. During 2008-2010 a number of upgrades were incorporated for improved operation and recording. In this poster we give an overview of recent chamber work on sensor calibrations, calibration with the CLD unit, some measurements with different porous hoses and work with impulse sources.

  3. Summary of OARE flight calibration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.

    1995-01-01

    To date, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) has flown on the shuttle orbiter for five missions; namely, STS-40, STS-50, STS-58, STS-62, and STS-65. The OARE instrument system contains a three-axis accelerometer which can resolve accelerations to the nano-g (10(exp -9) g) level and a full calibration station to permit in situ bias and scale factor calibration measurements. This calibration capability eliminates the large uncertainty encountered with accelerometers flown in the past on the orbiter which use ground-based calibrations to provide absolute acceleration measurements. A detailed flight data report presentation is given for the OARE calibration measurements from all missions, along with an estimate of the calibration errors. The main aim is to collect, process, and present the calibration data in one archival report. These calibration data are the necessary key ingredient to produce the absolute acceleration levels from the OARE acceleration flight data.

  4. Absolute and relative blindsight.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, absolute blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or absolute blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and absolute blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight.

  5. Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. N.; Revet, G.; Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M.; Glenzer, S.; Propp, A.; Bazalova-Carter, M.; Bolanos, S.; Riquier, R.; Antici, P.; Morabito, A.; Starodubtsev, M.

    2016-07-15

    Radiochromic films (RCF) are commonly used in dosimetry for a wide range of radiation sources (electrons, protons, and photons) for medical, industrial, and scientific applications. They are multi-layered, which includes plastic substrate layers and sensitive layers that incorporate a radiation-sensitive dye. Quantitative dose can be retrieved by digitizing the film, provided that a prior calibration exists. Here, to calibrate the newly developed EBT3 and HDv2 RCFs from Gafchromic™, we used the Stanford Medical LINAC to deposit in the films various doses of 10 MeV photons, and by scanning the films using three independent EPSON Precision 2450 scanners, three independent EPSON V750 scanners, and two independent EPSON 11000XL scanners. The films were scanned in separate RGB channels, as well as in black and white, and film orientation was varied. We found that the green channel of the RGB scan and the grayscale channel are in fact quite consistent over the different models of the scanner, although this comes at the cost of a reduction in sensitivity (by a factor ∼2.5 compared to the red channel). To allow any user to extend the absolute calibration reported here to any other scanner, we furthermore provide a calibration curve of the EPSON 2450 scanner based on absolutely calibrated, commercially available, optical density filters.

  6. Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. N.; Gauthier, M.; Bazalova-Carter, M.; Bolanos, S.; Glenzer, S.; Riquier, R.; Revet, G.; Antici, P.; Morabito, A.; Propp, A.; Starodubtsev, M.; Fuchs, J.

    2016-07-01

    Radiochromic films (RCF) are commonly used in dosimetry for a wide range of radiation sources (electrons, protons, and photons) for medical, industrial, and scientific applications. They are multi-layered, which includes plastic substrate layers and sensitive layers that incorporate a radiation-sensitive dye. Quantitative dose can be retrieved by digitizing the film, provided that a prior calibration exists. Here, to calibrate the newly developed EBT3 and HDv2 RCFs from Gafchromic™, we used the Stanford Medical LINAC to deposit in the films various doses of 10 MeV photons, and by scanning the films using three independent EPSON Precision 2450 scanners, three independent EPSON V750 scanners, and two independent EPSON 11000XL scanners. The films were scanned in separate RGB channels, as well as in black and white, and film orientation was varied. We found that the green channel of the RGB scan and the grayscale channel are in fact quite consistent over the different models of the scanner, although this comes at the cost of a reduction in sensitivity (by a factor ˜2.5 compared to the red channel). To allow any user to extend the absolute calibration reported here to any other scanner, we furthermore provide a calibration curve of the EPSON 2450 scanner based on absolutely calibrated, commercially available, optical density filters.

  7. Absolute dosimetric characterization of Gafchromic EBT3 and HDv2 films using commercial flat-bed scanners and evaluation of the scanner response function variability.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; Gauthier, M; Bazalova-Carter, M; Bolanos, S; Glenzer, S; Riquier, R; Revet, G; Antici, P; Morabito, A; Propp, A; Starodubtsev, M; Fuchs, J

    2016-07-01

    Radiochromic films (RCF) are commonly used in dosimetry for a wide range of radiation sources (electrons, protons, and photons) for medical, industrial, and scientific applications. They are multi-layered, which includes plastic substrate layers and sensitive layers that incorporate a radiation-sensitive dye. Quantitative dose can be retrieved by digitizing the film, provided that a prior calibration exists. Here, to calibrate the newly developed EBT3 and HDv2 RCFs from Gafchromic™, we used the Stanford Medical LINAC to deposit in the films various doses of 10 MeV photons, and by scanning the films using three independent EPSON Precision 2450 scanners, three independent EPSON V750 scanners, and two independent EPSON 11000XL scanners. The films were scanned in separate RGB channels, as well as in black and white, and film orientation was varied. We found that the green channel of the RGB scan and the grayscale channel are in fact quite consistent over the different models of the scanner, although this comes at the cost of a reduction in sensitivity (by a factor ∼2.5 compared to the red channel). To allow any user to extend the absolute calibration reported here to any other scanner, we furthermore provide a calibration curve of the EPSON 2450 scanner based on absolutely calibrated, commercially available, optical density filters.

  8. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  9. Dose Calibrator Linearity Testing: Radioisotope (99m)Tc or (18)F? An Alternative for Reducing Costs in Nuclear Medicine Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo T; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre T; Alves, Carlos E; Cardona, Marissa R; Gutterres, Ricardo F; Buchpiguel, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Dose calibrator linearity testing is indispensable for evaluating the capacity of this equipment in measuring radioisotope activities at different magnitudes, a fundamental aspect of the daily routine of a nuclear medicine department, and with an impact on patient exposure. The main aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of substituting the radioisotope Fluorine-18 ((18)F) with Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) in this test, and to indicate it with the lowest operational cost. The test was applied with sources of (99m)Tc (62 GBq) and (18)F (12 GBq), the activities of which were measured at different times, with the equipment preadjusted to measuring sources of (99m)Tc, (18)F, Gallium-67 ((67)Ga), and Iodine-131 ((131)I). Over time, the average deviation between measured and expected activities from (99m)Tc and (18)F were, respectively, 0.56 (±1.79)% and 0.92 (±1.19)%. The average ratios for 99(m)Tc source experimental activity, when measured with the equipment adjusted for measuring (18)F, (67)Ga, and (131)I sources, in real values, were, respectively, 3.42 (±0.06), 1.45 (±0.03), and 1.13 (±0.02), and those for the (18)F source experimental activity, measured through adjustments of (99m)Tc, (67)Ga, and (131)I, were, respectively, 0.295 (±0.004), 0.335 (±0.007), and 0.426 (±0.006). The adjustment of a simple exponential function for describing (99m)Tc and (18)F experimental activities facilitated the calculation of the physical half-lives of the radioisotopes, with a difference of about 1% in relation to the values described in the literature. Linearity test results, when using (99m)Tc, through being compatible with those acquired with (18)F, imply the possibility of using both radioisotopes during linearity testing. Nevertheless, this information, along with the high potential of exposure and the high cost of (18)F, implies that (99m)Tc should preferably be employed for linearity testing in clinics that normally use (18)F, without the risk of

  10. Absolute radiation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John E.

    1996-11-01

    An absolute radiation detector (a cryogenic radiometer) is being developed to replace the existing UK primary national standard cryogenic radiometer with an improved uncertainty. The cryogenic radiometer will be capable of measuring black body radiation and laser radiation with an uncertainty approaching 10 ppm. From these measurements it will be possible to determine the fundamental constant, the Stefan Boltzmann constant, confirming the radiometer as an absolute detector, and link this determination to the SI unit of luminous intensity, the candela. Thus detector and source based scales/standards will be tied to an invariant physical quantity ensuring their long-term stability.

  11. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  12. The LED calibration system of the SPHERE-2 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, R. A.; Bonvech, E. A.; Chernov, D. V.; Podgrudkov, D. A.; Roganova, T. M.

    2016-04-01

    An absolute calibration method for the PMT mosaic used in the SPHERE-2 experiment is presented. The method is based on the relative calibration of all PMTs in the mosaic to a single stable PMT, incorporated in it, during each measurement event and subsequent absolute calibration of that single PMT using a known stable light source. The results of the SPHERE-2 detector PMTs calibration are presented and are discussed.

  13. Photometer calibration error using extended standard sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, M. R.; Hays, P. B.; Kennedy, B. C.; Torr, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a project to compare measurements of the night airglow made by the visible airglow experiment on the Atmospheric Explorer-C satellite, the standard light sources of several airglow observatories were compared with the standard source used in the absolute calibration of the satellite photometer. In the course of the comparison, it has been found that serious calibration errors (up to a factor of two) can arise when a calibration source with a reflecting surface is placed close to an interference filter. For reliable absolute calibration, the source should be located at a distance of at least five filter radii from the interference filter.

  14. SU-F-BRA-09: New Efficient Method for Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy Source Calibration by Pre-Characterizing Surface Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective is to improve the efficiency and efficacy of Xoft™ Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (EBT) calibration of the source & surface applicator using AAPM TG-61 formalism. Methods: Current method of Xoft EBT source calibration involves determination of absolute dose rate of the source in each of the four conical surface applicators using in-air chamber measurements & TG61 formalism. We propose a simplified TG-61 calibration methodology involving initial characterization of surface cone applicators. This is accomplished by calibrating dose rates for all 4 surface applicator sets (for 10 sources) which establishes the “applicator output ratios” with respect to the selected reference applicator (20 mm applicator). After the initial time, Xoft™ Axxent™ source TG61 Calibration is carried out only in the reference applicator. Using the established applicator output ratios, dose rates for other applicators will be calculated. Results: 200 sources & 8 surface applicator sets were calibrated cumulatively using a Standard Imaging A20 ion-chamber in accordance with manufacturer-recommended protocols. Dose rates of 10, 20, 35 & 50mm applicators were normalized to the reference (20mm) applicator. The data in Figure 1 indicates that the normalized dose rate variation for each applicator for all 200 sources is better than ±3%. The average output ratios are 1.11, 1.02 and 0.49 for the 10 mm,35 mm and 50 mm applicators, respectively, which are in good agreement with the manufacturer’s published output ratios of 1.13, 1.02 and 0.49. Conclusion: Our measurements successfully demonstrate the accuracy of a new calibration method using a single surface applicator for Xoft EBT sources and deriving the dose rates of other applicators. The accuracy of the calibration is improved as this method minimizes the source position variation inside the applicator during individual source calibrations. The new method significantly reduces the calibration time to less

  15. Fundamental principles of absolute radiometry and the philosophy of this NBS program (1968 to 1971)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, J.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given work performed on a program to develop an electrically calibrated detector (also called absolute radiometer, absolute detector, and electrically calibrated radiometer) that could be used to realize, maintain, and transfer a scale of total irradiance. The program includes a comprehensive investigation of the theoretical basis of absolute detector radiometry, as well as the design and construction of a number of detectors. A theoretical analysis of the sources of error is also included.

  16. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.

    PubMed

    Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S

    2010-10-01

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  17. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

  18. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

  19. A practical implementation of the 2010 IPEM high dose rate brachytherapy code of practice for the calibration of 192Ir sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awunor, O. A.; Lecomber, A. R.; Richmond, N.; Walker, C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper details a practical method for deriving the reference air kerma rate calibration coefficient for Farmer NE2571 chambers using the UK Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) code of practice for the determination of the reference air kerma rate for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources based on the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) air kerma standard. The reference air kerma rate calibration coefficient was derived using pressure, temperature and source decay corrected ionization chamber response measurements over three successive 192Ir source clinical cycles. A secondary standard instrument (a Standard Imaging 1000 Plus well chamber) and four tertiary standard instruments (one additional Standard Imaging 1000 Plus well chamber and three Farmer NE2571 chambers housed in a perspex phantom) were used to provide traceability to the NPL primary standard and enable comparison of performance between the chambers. Conservative and optimized estimates on the expanded uncertainties (k = 2) associated with chamber response, ion recombination and reference air kerma rate calibration coefficient were determined. This was seen to be 2.3% and 0.4% respectively for chamber response, 0.2% and 0.08% respectively for ion recombination and 2.6% and 1.2% respectively for the calibration coefficient. No significant change in ion recombination with source decay was observed over the duration of clinical use of the respective 192Ir sources.

  20. A practical implementation of the 2010 IPEM high dose rate brachytherapy code of practice for the calibration of 192Ir sources.

    PubMed

    Awunor, O A; Lecomber, A R; Richmond, N; Walker, C

    2011-08-21

    This paper details a practical method for deriving the reference air kerma rate calibration coefficient for Farmer NE2571 chambers using the U.K. Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) code of practice for the determination of the reference air kerma rate for HDR (192)Ir brachytherapy sources based on the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) air kerma standard. The reference air kerma rate calibration coefficient was derived using pressure, temperature and source decay corrected ionization chamber response measurements over three successive (192)Ir source clinical cycles. A secondary standard instrument (a Standard Imaging 1000 Plus well chamber) and four tertiary standard instruments (one additional Standard Imaging 1000 Plus well chamber and three Farmer NE2571 chambers housed in a perspex phantom) were used to provide traceability to the NPL primary standard and enable comparison of performance between the chambers. Conservative and optimized estimates on the expanded uncertainties (k = 2) associated with chamber response, ion recombination and reference air kerma rate calibration coefficient were determined. This was seen to be 2.3% and 0.4% respectively for chamber response, 0.2% and 0.08% respectively for ion recombination and 2.6% and 1.2% respectively for the calibration coefficient. No significant change in ion recombination with source decay was observed over the duration of clinical use of the respective 192Ir sources.

  1. STIS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, S.; Hodge, P.; Lindler, D.; Shaw, R.; Goudfrooij, P.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; McGrath, M.; Bohlin, R.; Baum, S.

    1997-05-01

    Routine calibration of STIS observations in the HST data pipeline is performed by the CALSTIS task. CALSTIS can: subtract the over-scan region and a bias image from CCD observations; remove cosmic ray features from CCD observations; correct global nonlinearities for MAMA observations; subtract a dark image; and, apply flat field corrections. In the case of spectral data, CALSTIS can also: assign a wavelength to each pixel; apply a heliocentric correction to the wavelengths; convert counts to absolute flux; process the automatically generated spectral calibration lamp observations to improve the wavelength solution; rectify two-dimensional (longslit) spectra; subtract interorder and sky background; and, extract one-dimensional spectra. CALSTIS differs in significant ways from the current HST calibration tasks. The new code is written in ANSI C and makes use of a new C interface to IRAF. The input data, reference data, and output calibrated data are all in FITS format, using IMAGE or BINTABLE extensions. Error estimates are computed and include contributions from the reference images. The entire calibration can be performed by one task, but many steps can also be performed individually.

  2. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  3. Prompt energy calibration at RENO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, Sang Yong; RENO Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    RENO (Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation) has obtained the first measured value of effective neutrino mass difference from a spectral analysis of reactor neutrino disappearance. The measurement absolutely relies on the accurate energy calibration. Several radioactive sources such as 137Cs, 54Mn, 68Ge, 65Zn, 60Co, Po-Be, Am-Be, and Cf-Ni, are used for the energy calibration of the RENO detectors. We obtained an energy conversion function from observed charges to prompt signal energy which describes a non-linear response due to the quenching effect in liquid scintillator and Cherenkov radiation. We have verified the performance of the energy calibration using copious betadecay events from radioactive isotopes B12 that are produced by cosmic-muon interaction. The energy calibration was performed for the target and gamma-catcher regions separately due to their different energy responses. In this presentation we describe the methods and results of the energy calibration.

  4. Method for calibration of plutonium NDA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.; Campbell, A.R.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Calibration materials characterized by calorimetric assay can be a practical alternative to synthetic standards for the calibration of plutonium nondestructive assay. Calorimetric assay is an effective measurement system for the characterization because: it can give an absolute assay from first principles when the isotopic composition is known, it is insensitive to most matrix effects, and its traceability to international measurement systems has been demonstrated.

  5. An absolute calibration source for laboratory and satellite infrared spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Karoli, A R; Hickey, J R; Nelson, R E

    1967-07-01

    A compact blackbody source with an operating range of -40 degrees C to + 60 degrees C, utilizing thermoelectric heat pumping for uniform and stable temperature control, has been developed. The blackbody radiator (target) consists of a blackened honeycomb cavity array coupled to four matched, two-stage (cascade type) thermoelectric modules. This array, located within a temperature-regulated baffle system, produces a blackbody of high emissivity (>0.995) with small thermal gradients over the source area (65 cm(2)). Heat pumping of the target and baffles is controlled, independently, by two interference-free, proportional regulators which provide linear thermal control in both the heating and cooling modes of operation. Additional features of this blackbody source include excellent stability and rapid response to input temperature changes. Provisions are made for temperature monitoring at five locations on the target and at the center of each of the four baffle units. Performance characteristics and test results obtained in nonabsorbing atmospheres and under vacuum conditions are presented, as are the details of construction and operation.

  6. Absolute broadband calibration procedure for infrared heterodyne receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.A.; Richards, R.K.; Hutchinson, D.P.

    1988-08-15

    A dual-channel low-noise heterodyne receiver is presented as part of a development effort to build a carbon dioxide laser-based Thomson scattering alpha particle diagnostic for a burning plasma experiment./aip/

  7. [Absolute bioavailability of chlorpromazine, promazine and promethazine].

    PubMed

    Koytchev, R; Alken, R G; Kirkov, V; Neshev, G; Vagaday, M; Kunter, U

    1994-02-01

    The absolute bioavailability of the three phenothiazine neuroleptics, promazine (Sinophenin, CAS 58-40-2), chlorpromazine (Propaphenin, CAS 50-53-3) and promethazine (Prothazin, CAS 60-87-7) was tested in three single-dose cross-over studies. In each trial 12 to 14 healthy volunteers were enrolled. The single doses for promazine, promethazine and chlorpromazine were 100, 75 and 150 mg (orally) and 20, 50 and 50 mg (intravenously), resp. The serum concentrations of the three neuroleptics were measured by means of a selective HPLC-method. the distribution-free confidence intervals for the absolute bioavailability of the three phenothiazines were within 10.5 to 24.7% for chlorpromazine, 7.8 to 24.9% for promazine and 12.3 to 40% for promethazine. Promazine and chlorpromazine are pharmacokinetically very similar and differ substantially from promethazine.

  8. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  9. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  10. Absolute flatness testing of large synchrotron optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weihao; He, Yumei; Song, Li; Luo, Hongxin; Wang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Interferometry is one of the most efficient techniques in surface figure testing while the transmission surface usually limits the accuracy. Besides, standard figure interferometers often have a typical aperture of about 150 mm diameter which can not satisfy the need of large optics calibration. A novel method for characterizing the absolute surface figure of long grazing-incidence optics used in synchrotron radiation beamlines is presented. We demonstrate oblique incidence interferometry to overcome the aperture limitation. Furthermore, multiple rotating measurements are used to remove the transmission surface errors. The new solution is simple and easy without dismantling the transmission flat throughout the calibration procedure. The theoretical derivation, experiment results and uncertainty analysis are presented.

  11. Absolute-structure reports.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2013-08-01

    All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of absolute structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the absolute structure.

  12. Model calibration in the continual reassessment method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shing M; Ying Kuen Cheung

    2009-06-01

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) is an adaptive model-based design used to estimate the maximum tolerated dose in dose finding clinical trials. A way to evaluate the sensitivity of a given CRM model including the functional form of the dose-toxicity curve, the prior distribution on the model parameter, and the initial guesses of toxicity probability at each dose is using indifference intervals. While the indifference interval technique provides a succinct summary of model sensitivity, there are infinitely many possible ways to specify the initial guesses of toxicity probability. In practice, these are generally specified by trial and error through extensive simulations. By using indifference intervals, the initial guesses used in the CRM can be selected by specifying a range of acceptable toxicity probabilities in addition to the target probability of toxicity. An algorithm is proposed for obtaining the indifference interval that maximizes the average percentage of correct selection across a set of scenarios of true probabilities of toxicity and providing a systematic approach for selecting initial guesses in a much less time-consuming manner than the trial-and-error method. The methods are compared in the context of two real CRM trials. For both trials, the initial guesses selected by the proposed algorithm had similar operating characteristics as measured by percentage of correct selection, average absolute difference between the true probability of the dose selected and the target probability of toxicity, percentage treated at each dose and overall percentage of toxicity compared to the initial guesses used during the conduct of the trials which were obtained by trial and error through a time-consuming calibration process. The average percentage of correct selection for the scenarios considered were 61.5 and 62.0% in the lymphoma trial, and 62.9 and 64.0% in the stroke trial for the trial-and-error method versus the proposed approach. We only present

  13. Calibrations of the LHD Thomson scattering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Yasuhara, R.; Hayashi, H.; Kenmochi, N.; Minami, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Ohta, K.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic systems are widely used for the measurements of absolute local electron temperatures and densities of fusion plasmas. In order to obtain accurate and reliable temperature and density data, careful calibrations of the system are required. We have tried several calibration methods since the second LHD experiment campaign in 1998. We summarize the current status of the calibration methods for the electron temperature and density measurements by the LHD Thomson scattering diagnostic system. Future plans are briefly discussed.

  14. 1987 calibration of the TFTR neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Princeton Univ., NJ . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1989-12-01

    The {sup 3}He neutron spectrometer used for measuring ion temperatures and the NE213 proton recoil spectrometer used for triton burnup measurements were absolutely calibrated with DT and DD neutron generators placed inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. The details of the detector response and calibration are presented. Comparisons are made to the neutron source strengths measured from other calibrated systems. 23 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Amplitude calibration experiment for SIR-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, D. N.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives, approach, and expected results of the amplitude calibration experiment for the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) are outlined. Specific objectives include: (1) the determination of the repeatability (stability) of the SIR-B; (2) the absolute and relative calibration of the system; and (3) the ground truth verification of the calibration accuracy using measurements made by a ground spectrometer and an airborne synthetic aperture radar.

  16. Calibrations of the LHD Thomson scattering system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, I. Funaba, H.; Yasuhara, R.; Hayashi, H.; Kenmochi, N.; Minami, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Ohta, K.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. H.

    2016-11-15

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic systems are widely used for the measurements of absolute local electron temperatures and densities of fusion plasmas. In order to obtain accurate and reliable temperature and density data, careful calibrations of the system are required. We have tried several calibration methods since the second LHD experiment campaign in 1998. We summarize the current status of the calibration methods for the electron temperature and density measurements by the LHD Thomson scattering diagnostic system. Future plans are briefly discussed.

  17. Direct calibration in megavoltage photon beams using Monte Carlo conversion factor: validation and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tracy; Lye, Jessica E; Ramanathan, Ganesan; Harty, Peter D; Oliver, Chris; Webb, David V; Butler, Duncan J

    2015-01-21

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has established a method for ionisation chamber calibrations using megavoltage photon reference beams. The new method will reduce the calibration uncertainty compared to a (60)Co calibration combined with the TRS-398 energy correction factor. The calibration method employs a graphite calorimeter and a Monte Carlo (MC) conversion factor to convert the absolute dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water. EGSnrc is used to model the linac head and doses in the calorimeter and water phantom. The linac model is validated by comparing measured and modelled PDDs and profiles. The relative standard uncertainties in the calibration factors at the ARPANSA beam qualities were found to be 0.47% at 6 MV, 0.51% at 10 MV and 0.46% for the 18 MV beam. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 gave results of 0.9965(55), 0.9924(60) and 0.9932(59) for the 6, 10 and 18 MV beams, respectively, with all beams within 1σ of the participant average. The measured kQ values for an NE2571 Farmer chamber were found to be lower than those in TRS-398 but are consistent with published measured and modelled values. Users can expect a shift in the calibration factor at user energies of an NE2571 chamber between 0.4-1.1% across the range of calibration energies compared to the current calibration method.

  18. Absolute linearity measurement of photodetectors using sinusoidal modulated radiation.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Tamer F; Johnson, David G

    2012-07-01

    A method is presented for characterizing the linearity of photodetectors based on time-domain analysis of response to sinusoidal excitation. Nonlinearity is quantified solely from the output distortion. Relative response is converted to absolute response by including two calibration points. For low signal level, one calibration point is required, while using dark current as the second point. The response is mapped over a wider range using a series of overlapping sinusoids for calibration transfer. The method is demonstrated with a relatively linear photodiode and a nonlinear phototransistor. A Michelson interferometer is used to generate sinusoidal modulation of a laser source. Results demonstrate the potential of the proposed technique.

  19. Results from source-based and detector-based calibrations of a CLARREO calibration demonstration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angal, Amit; McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is formulated to determine long-term climate trends using SI-traceable measurements. The CLARREO mission will include instruments operating in the reflected solar (RS) wavelength region from 320 nm to 2300 nm. The Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO and facilitates testing and evaluation of calibration approaches. The basis of CLARREO and SOLARIS calibration is the Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Response (GLAMR) that provides a radiance-based calibration at reflective solar wavelengths using continuously tunable lasers. SI-traceability is achieved via detector-based standards that, in GLAMR's case, are a set of NIST-calibrated transfer radiometers. A portable version of the SOLARIS, Suitcase SOLARIS is used to evaluate GLAMR's calibration accuracies. The calibration of Suitcase SOLARIS using GLAMR agrees with that obtained from source-based results of the Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona to better than 5% (k=2) in the 720-860 nm spectral range. The differences are within the uncertainties of the NIST-calibrated FEL lamp-based approach of RSG and give confidence that GLAMR is operating at <5% (k=2) absolute uncertainties. Limitations of the Suitcase SOLARIS instrument also discussed and the next edition of the SOLARIS instrument (Suitcase SOLARIS- 2) is expected to provide an improved mechanism to further assess GLAMR and CLARREO calibration approaches.

  20. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  1. Absorbed dose to water reference dosimetry using solid phantoms in the context of absorbed-dose protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Seuntjens, Jan; Olivares, Marina; Evans, Michael; Podgorsak, Ervin

    2005-09-15

    For reasons of phantom material reproducibility, the absorbed dose protocols of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) (TG-51) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (TRS-398) have made the use of liquid water as a phantom material for reference dosimetry mandatory. In this work we provide a formal framework for the measurement of absorbed dose to water using ionization chambers calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water but irradiated in solid phantoms. Such a framework is useful when there is a desire to put dose measurements using solid phantoms on an absolute basis. Putting solid phantom measurements on an absolute basis has distinct advantages in verification measurements and quality assurance. We introduce a phantom dose conversion factor that converts a measurement made in a solid phantom and analyzed using an absorbed dose calibration protocol into absorbed dose to water under reference conditions. We provide techniques to measure and calculate the dose transfer from solid phantom to water. For an Exradin A12 ionization chamber, we measured and calculated the phantom dose conversion factor for six Solid Water{sup TM} phantoms and for a single Lucite phantom for photon energies between {sup 60}Co and 18 MV photons. For Solid Water{sup TM} of certified grade, the difference between measured and calculated factors varied between 0.0% and 0.7% with the average dose conversion factor being low by 0.4% compared with the calculation whereas for Lucite, the agreement was within 0.2% for the one phantom examined. The composition of commercial plastic phantoms and their homogeneity may not always be reproducible and consistent with assumed composition. By comparing measured and calculated phantom conversion factors, our work provides methods to verify the consistency of a given plastic for the purpose of clinical reference dosimetry.

  2. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m-1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  3. Calibration of an x-ray cabinet unit for radiobiology use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKerracher, Carolyn; Thwaites, David I.

    2006-07-01

    A Faxitron sealed x-ray cabinet, operated at 100 kV, was modified to irradiate monkey testicles, to a uniform, accurately calibrated dose, for work aimed at investigating spermatogenesis in children undergoing radiotherapy. An aluminium filter was added to increase the beam quality and a lead collimating system manufactured to reduce the beam size to between 1 and 4 cm diameter. Percentage depth doses and profiles were analysed and relative in-air outputs measured with a selection of small (0.2 cc, 0.015 cc) ion chambers. The absolute calibration of the unit was carried out in a 10 × 10 cm2 beam with a 0.6 cc chamber. Backscatter factors were based on standard tables, but then modified according to experimental results with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in a phantom to account for reduced scatter in the irradiation situations. A suitable irradiation set-up was devised for the monkeys, to ensure accuracy of delivered dose to the target volume and minimize the dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. The homogeneity throughout the testes was calculated to be well within ±5%, using a parallel-opposed irradiation technique. The TLD measured doses to the testes on three monkeys were lower than the calculated doses by 3 to 6%. Following modifications to the standard percentage depth doses to account for changes in scatter conditions, these differences became ±3%. The uncertainties on both calculated and measured dose were estimated to be approximately ±3.2% at 1 SD.

  4. GPI Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.

    2017-09-01

    "The Gemini Planet Imager requires a large set of Calibrations. These can be split into two major sets, one set associated with each observation and one set related to biweekly calibrations. The observation set is to optimize the correction of miscroshifts in the IFU spectra and the latter set is for correction of detector and instrument cosmetics."

  5. Gafchromic EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode with a novel plan-based calibration method

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, I.; Hartman, V.; Hudej, R.; Strojnik, A.; Casar, B.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose:A dosimetric system formed by Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film and Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was commissioned for dosimetry. In this paper, several open questions concerning the commissioning of radiochromic films for dosimetry were addressed: (a) is it possible to employ this dosimetric system in reflection mode; (b) if so, can the methods used in transmission mode also be used in reflection mode; (c) is it possible to obtain accurate absolute dose measurements with Gafchromic EBT2 films; (d) which calibration method should be followed; (e) which calibration models should be used; and (f) does three-color channel dosimetry offer a significant improvement over single channel dosimetry. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify these questions. Methods: In this study, films were scanned in reflection mode, the effect of surrounding film was evaluated and the feasibility of EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode was studied. EBT2's response homogeneity has been reported to lead to excessive dose uncertainties. To overcome this problem, a new plan-based calibration method was implemented. Plan-based calibration can use every pixel and each of the three color channels of the scanned film to obtain the parameters of the calibration model. A model selection analysis was conducted to select lateral correction and sensitometric curve models. The commonly used calibration with fragments was compared with red-channel plan-based calibration and with three-channel plan-based calibration. Results: No effect of surrounding film was found in this study. The film response inhomogeneity in EBT2 films was found to be important not only due to differences in the fog but also due to differences in sensitivity. The best results for lateral corrections were obtained using absolute corrections independent of the dose. With respect to the sensitometric curves, an empirical polynomial fit of order 4 was found to obtain results equivalent to a gamma

  6. Gafchromic EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode with a novel plan-based calibration method.

    PubMed

    Mendez, I; Hartman, V; Hudej, R; Strojnik, A; Casar, B

    2013-01-01

    A dosimetric system formed by Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film and Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was commissioned for dosimetry. In this paper, several open questions concerning the commissioning of radiochromic films for dosimetry were addressed: (a) is it possible to employ this dosimetric system in reflection mode; (b) if so, can the methods used in transmission mode also be used in reflection mode; (c) is it possible to obtain accurate absolute dose measurements with Gafchromic EBT2 films; (d) which calibration method should be followed; (e) which calibration models should be used; and (f) does three-color channel dosimetry offer a significant improvement over single channel dosimetry. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify these questions. In this study, films were scanned in reflection mode, the effect of surrounding film was evaluated and the feasibility of EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode was studied. EBT2's response homogeneity has been reported to lead to excessive dose uncertainties. To overcome this problem, a new plan-based calibration method was implemented. Plan-based calibration can use every pixel and each of the three color channels of the scanned film to obtain the parameters of the calibration model. A model selection analysis was conducted to select lateral correction and sensitometric curve models. The commonly used calibration with fragments was compared with red-channel plan-based calibration and with three-channel plan-based calibration. No effect of surrounding film was found in this study. The film response inhomogeneity in EBT2 films was found to be important not only due to differences in the fog but also due to differences in sensitivity. The best results for lateral corrections were obtained using absolute corrections independent of the dose. With respect to the sensitometric curves, an empirical polynomial fit of order 4 was found to obtain results equivalent to a gamma-distributed single hit model based on

  7. Radiometric calibration updates to the Landsat collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micijevic, Esad; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Mishra, Nischal

    2016-09-01

    The Landsat Project is planning to implement a new collection management strategy for Landsat products generated at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. The goal of the initiative is to identify a collection of consistently geolocated and radiometrically calibrated images across the entire Landsat archive that is readily suitable for time-series analyses. In order to perform an accurate land change analysis, the data from all Landsat sensors must be on the same radiometric scale. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) is calibrated to a radiance standard and all previous sensors are cross-calibrated to its radiometric scale. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is calibrated to both radiance and reflectance standards independently. The Landsat 8 OLI reflectance calibration is considered to be most accurate. To improve radiometric calibration accuracy of historical data, Landsat 1-7 sensors also need to be cross-calibrated to the OLI reflectance scale. Results of that effort, as well as other calibration updates including the absolute and relative radiometric calibration and saturated pixel replacement for Landsat 8 OLI and absolute calibration for Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mappers (TM), will be implemented into Landsat products during the archive reprocessing campaign planned within the new collection management strategy. This paper reports on the planned radiometric calibration updates to the solar reflective bands of the new Landsat collection.

  8. Calibration of X-Ray Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; L'Dell, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate calibration of x-ray observatories has proved an elusive goal. Inaccuracies and inconsistencies amongst on-ground measurements, differences between on-ground and in-space performance, in-space performance changes, and the absence of cosmic calibration standards whose physics we truly understand have precluded absolute calibration better than several percent and relative spectral calibration better than a few percent. The philosophy "the model is the calibration" relies upon a complete high-fidelity model of performance and an accurate verification and calibration of this model. As high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy begins to play a more important role in astrophysics, additional issues in accurately calibrating at high spectral resolution become more evident. Here we review the challenges of accurately calibrating the absolute and relative response of x-ray observatories. On-ground x-ray testing by itself is unlikely to achieve a high-accuracy calibration of in-space performance, especially when the performance changes with time. Nonetheless, it remains an essential tool in verifying functionality and in characterizing and verifying the performance model. In the absence of verified cosmic calibration sources, we also discuss the notion of an artificial, in-space x-ray calibration standard. 6th

  9. Absolute Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.

    1994-12-01

    We present absolute spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in absolute calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).

  10. Absolute cavity pyrgeometer

    DOEpatents

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2013-10-29

    Implementations of the present disclosure involve an apparatus and method to measure the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere or long-wave source. The apparatus may involve a thermopile, a concentrator and temperature controller. The incoming long-wave irradiance may be reflected from the concentrator to a thermopile receiver located at the bottom of the concentrator to receive the reflected long-wave irradiance. In addition, the thermopile may be thermally connected to a temperature controller to control the device temperature. Through use of the apparatus, the long-wave irradiance of the atmosphere may be calculated from several measurements provided by the apparatus. In addition, the apparatus may provide an international standard of pyrgeometers' calibration that is traceable back to the International System of Units (SI) rather than to a blackbody atmospheric simulator.

  11. A stoichiometric calibration method for dual energy computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, Alexandra E.; Carrier, Jean-François; Bouchard, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of radiotherapy dose calculation relies crucially on patient composition data. The computed tomography (CT) calibration methods based on the stoichiometric calibration of Schneider et al (1996 Phys. Med. Biol. 41 111-24) are the most reliable to determine electron density (ED) with commercial single energy CT scanners. Along with the recent developments in dual energy CT (DECT) commercial scanners, several methods were published to determine ED and the effective atomic number (EAN) for polyenergetic beams without the need for CT calibration curves. This paper intends to show that with a rigorous definition of the EAN, the stoichiometric calibration method can be successfully adapted to DECT with significant accuracy improvements with respect to the literature without the need for spectrum measurements or empirical beam hardening corrections. Using a theoretical framework of ICRP human tissue compositions and the XCOM photon cross sections database, the revised stoichiometric calibration method yields Hounsfield unit (HU) predictions within less than ±1.3 HU of the theoretical HU calculated from XCOM data averaged over the spectra used (e.g., 80 kVp, 100 kVp, 140 kVp and 140/Sn kVp). A fit of mean excitation energy (I-value) data as a function of EAN is provided in order to determine the ion stopping power of human tissues from ED-EAN measurements. Analysis of the calibration phantom measurements with the Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash dual source CT scanner shows that the present formalism yields mean absolute errors of (0.3 ± 0.4)% and (1.6 ± 2.0)% on ED and EAN, respectively. For ion therapy, the mean absolute errors for calibrated I-values and proton stopping powers (216 MeV) are (4.1 ± 2.7)% and (0.5 ± 0.4)%, respectively. In all clinical situations studied, the uncertainties in ion ranges in water for therapeutic energies are found to be less than 1.3 mm, 0.7 mm and 0.5 mm for protons, helium and carbon ions respectively, using a generic

  12. Effects of High Volume MOSFET Usage on Dosimetry in Pediatric CT, Pediatric Lens of the Eye Dose Reduction Using Siemens Care kV, & Designing Quality Assurance of a Cesium Calibration Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Aaron Kenneth

    phantom by 1.060, 8.859, and17.854% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Soft tissue CNR was reduced for the 1-year old phantom by 8.812, 11.001, and 5.018% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Soft tissue CNR was reduced for the 5-year old phantom by 3.473, 5.517, and 3.248% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Bone CNR was reduced for the 1-year old phantom by 4.447, 8.175, and 10.046% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Bone CNR was reduced for the 5-year old phantom by 4.782, 7.966, and 11.715% by using Care kV with tube potential set to 120, 110 and 100 kV respectively. Project 3: Designing Quality Assurance for Cesium Calibration Source: Purpose: North Caroline regulations state that survey meters must be traceable to NIST. The Cs-137 Calibration source used by Duke was installed in 2005 and has since not been measured except for routine calibration of survey meters. The goal of this project was to measure the geometry and dose rate of the source and make a recommendation as to how and how often quality assurance measurements should be made with a NIST traceable ion chamber. Materials and Methods: Gafchromic XR QA2 radiochromic film was placed in the source beam to measure the angle of the source collimator. Two 0.18 cc and a 6 cc ion chamber were used in a variety of combinations of distance from source and attenuation to determine the exposure rate of the calibration source and compare it to the current calibration table in use. Results: The collimator angles for the top, bottom, left, and right were calculated to be 12.13, 9.648, 11.58, and 11.58, respectively. The two 0.18 cc ion chambers deviated from the table values by more than 30% for every measurement. The 6 cc ion chamber deviated from the calibration table in use by 9.55, 8.13, 3.36, and 3.72% for 30 cm no attenuation, 30 cm 2x attenuation

  13. The influence of the magnetron frequency, the servo settings and the gantry angle on the flatness and the dose calibration of a linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Blad, B; Jacobsson, L; Wendel, P

    1998-01-01

    For the Philips SL75/5, we have noticed that the performance of the beam (e.g. the hump) varies with the settings of the magnetron frequency and the gantry angle. This study investigated these changes and the optimum magnetron frequency setting was determined. The relation between the relative absorbed dose measured by the accelerator and the relative absorbed dose measured for different amounts of the hump in the centre of the beam was found. Results from a model and from measured values were compared. The beam was studied for different gantry angles and for different adjustments of the beam servo systems. The profiles obtained showed some variations, but were reduced when optimal adjustments of the servos were performed.

  14. Anemometer calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

    1971-01-01

    Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

  15. Analysis of Gafchromic EBT3 film calibration irradiated with gamma rays from different systems: Gamma Knife and Cobalt-60 unit.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mohsen; Geraily, Ghazale; Shirazi, Alireza; Esfahani, Mahbod; Teimouri, Javad

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Gafchromic films are used as an advanced instrument for dosimetry systems. The EBT3 films are a new generation of Gafchromic films. Our main interest is to compare the response of the EBT3 films exposed to gamma rays provided by the Theratron 780C as a conventional radiotherapy system and the Leksell Gamma Knife as a stereotactic radiotherapy system (SRS). Both systems use Cobalt-60 sources, thus using the same energy. However, other factors such as source-to-axis distance, number of sources, dose rate, direction of irradiation, shape of phantom, the field shape of radiation, and different scatter contribution may influence the calibration curve. Calibration curves for the 2 systems were measured and plotted for doses ranging from 0 to 40 Gy at the red and green channels. The best fitting curve was obtained with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Also, the component of dose uncertainty was obtained for any calibration curve. With the best fitting curve for the EBT3 films, we can use the calibration curve to measure the absolute dose in radiation therapy. Although there is a small deviation between the 2 curves, the p-value at any channel shows no significant difference between the 2 calibration curves. Therefore, the calibration curve for each system can be the same because of minor differences. The results show that with the best fitting curve from measured data, while considering the measurement uncertainties related to them, the EBT3 calibration curve can be used to measure the unknown dose both in SRS and in conventional radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Redetermining CEBAF's Absolute Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tong; Jlab Marathon Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    With the upgrade of the Jefferson Lab accelerator (CEBAF) from 6 GeV max energy to 12 GeV, all the dipole magnets in the machine were refurbished. Most of them were switched from open c-shaped to closed h-shaped by adding extra iron. With these upgraded magnets, the energy calibration of the accelerator needed to be redetermined. We will show how an extra external dipole, which is run in series with those in the machine, helps us cross check the current in the magnets as well as precisely map out the integral field for any machine setting. Using knowledge of the relative performance of the dipoles as well as the bend angle into the Hall, has allowed us to already determine a 4th pass 7 GeV beam to better than 7 MeV. In the future, we will use g-2 spin precession as a second independent energy determination. This work is supported by Kent State University, NSF Grant PHY-1405814, and DOE Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177 (JLab).

  17. Method for absolute flatness measurement of optical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Lei; Yin, Jiayi

    2009-05-01

    To determine the absolute flatness deviations of optical surfaces, a novel method using two optical plates to achieve the absolute flatness test is presented. Absolute deviations of three surfaces, the rear surface of plate I and the front and rear surfaces of plate II, are obtained by four measurements. Wavefront error due to the inhomogeneity of plate II is measured beforehand and is then subtracted from the test results. Vertical profiles of the three surfaces are compared with the measurement results obtained by Zygo's three-flat application. Good agreement validates our method. The advantage of our method is that only one transmission flat is needed during the absolute test, which is especially useful for large-aperture interferometer calibration.