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Sample records for absolute dynamic topography

  1. An estimate of global absolute dynamic topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, C.-K.; Wunsch, C.

    1984-01-01

    The absolute dynamic topography of the world ocean is estimated from the largest scales to a short-wavelength cutoff of about 6700 km for the period July through September, 1978. The data base consisted of the time-averaged sea-surface topography determined by Seasat and geoid estimates made at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The issues are those of accuracy and resolution. Use of the altimetric surface as a geoid estimate beyond the short-wavelength cutoff reduces the spectral leakage in the estimated dynamic topography from erroneous small-scale geoid estimates without contaminating the low wavenumbers. Comparison of the result with a similarly filtered version of Levitus' (1982) historical average dynamic topography shows good qualitative agreement. There is quantitative disagreement, but it is within the estimated errors of both methods of calculation.

  2. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  3. Inferring cetacean population densities from the absolute dynamic topography of the ocean in a hierarchical Bayesian framework.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Mario A; Gerrodette, Tim; Beier, Emilio; Gendron, Diane; Forney, Karin A; Chivers, Susan J; Barlow, Jay; Palacios, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    We inferred the population densities of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as functions of the water-column's physical structure by implementing hierarchical models in a Bayesian framework. This approach allowed us to propagate the uncertainty of the field observations into the inference of species-habitat relationships and to generate spatially explicit population density predictions with reduced effects of sampling heterogeneity. Our hypothesis was that the large-scale spatial distributions of these two cetacean species respond primarily to ecological processes resulting from shoaling and outcropping of the pycnocline in regions of wind-forced upwelling and eddy-like circulation. Physically, these processes affect the thermodynamic balance of the water column, decreasing its volume and thus the height of the absolute dynamic topography (ADT). Biologically, they lead to elevated primary productivity and persistent aggregation of low-trophic-level prey. Unlike other remotely sensed variables, ADT provides information about the structure of the entire water column and it is also routinely measured at high spatial-temporal resolution by satellite altimeters with uniform global coverage. Our models provide spatially explicit population density predictions for both species, even in areas where the pycnocline shoals but does not outcrop (e.g. the Costa Rica Dome and the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge). Interannual variations in distribution during El Niño anomalies suggest that the population density of both species decreases dramatically in the Equatorial Cold Tongue and the Costa Rica Dome, and that their distributions retract to particular areas that remain productive, such as the more oceanic waters in the central California Current System, the northern Gulf of California, the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge, and the more southern portion of the

  4. Inferring Cetacean Population Densities from the Absolute Dynamic Topography of the Ocean in a Hierarchical Bayesian Framework

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Mario A.; Gerrodette, Tim; Beier, Emilio; Gendron, Diane; Forney, Karin A.; Chivers, Susan J.; Barlow, Jay; Palacios, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    We inferred the population densities of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) and short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as functions of the water-column’s physical structure by implementing hierarchical models in a Bayesian framework. This approach allowed us to propagate the uncertainty of the field observations into the inference of species-habitat relationships and to generate spatially explicit population density predictions with reduced effects of sampling heterogeneity. Our hypothesis was that the large-scale spatial distributions of these two cetacean species respond primarily to ecological processes resulting from shoaling and outcropping of the pycnocline in regions of wind-forced upwelling and eddy-like circulation. Physically, these processes affect the thermodynamic balance of the water column, decreasing its volume and thus the height of the absolute dynamic topography (ADT). Biologically, they lead to elevated primary productivity and persistent aggregation of low-trophic-level prey. Unlike other remotely sensed variables, ADT provides information about the structure of the entire water column and it is also routinely measured at high spatial-temporal resolution by satellite altimeters with uniform global coverage. Our models provide spatially explicit population density predictions for both species, even in areas where the pycnocline shoals but does not outcrop (e.g. the Costa Rica Dome and the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge). Interannual variations in distribution during El Niño anomalies suggest that the population density of both species decreases dramatically in the Equatorial Cold Tongue and the Costa Rica Dome, and that their distributions retract to particular areas that remain productive, such as the more oceanic waters in the central California Current System, the northern Gulf of California, the North Equatorial Countercurrent thermocline ridge, and the more southern portion of

  5. Validation of CryoSat-2 Classical Altimetry Data over Ocean using a GOCE Geoid to derive Absolute Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, A.; Dinardo, S.; Pail, R.; Gruber, T.; Benveniste, J.

    2011-12-01

    The ESA Earth Explorer mission CryoSat-2 provides a unique opportunity for exploring a broad variety of scientific applications in the fields of Geodesy and Oceanography. The quality assessment of CryoSat-2 data and in particular Low Rate Mode Level 2 (LRM L2) data is an essential step for a successful integration of the data products into operational usage and processing. The investigations presented in this paper are divided into two parts; on the one side the data quality analysis and on the other side the computation and use of an enhanced data product in an oceanographic application. After one year of data acquisition, the evolution of data quality is clearly visible. In this context, a comprehensive data quality analysis has been carried out, focussing mainly on cross-over difference analysis and the estimation of a present time tag bias in detail as well as other parameters, such as consistency and availability of the product. Different types of measures will be shown: Firstly, a CryoSat-2 mission internal analysis of the cross-over differences and secondly, a validation of CryoSat-2 with respect to Jason-2 as reference. As a consequence of the present deficiencies in the delivered products, a correction, to be applied to the product's data, was computed in order to gain enhanced data. To prove the feasibility of this enhancement, a case study will demonstrate the improvement of Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) results in an oceanic region, such as the Gulf Stream. For the ADT computation in an along track approach, geoid heights derived from the GOCE time-wise geoid model are used. The spatial resolution of the ADT is at 100km. A validation of the CryoSat-2/GOCE ADT results with other independently derived ADT estimates will be shown. A comprehensive description of the data, the techniques, the references and the models used will be included.

  6. Mesoscale variability of the absolute dynamic topography in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea in 1993-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshlyakov, Mikhail; Repina, Irina; Tarakanov, Roman

    2016-04-01

    Daily numerical maps of the absolute dynamics topography (ADT), which are published by the French CLS agency (www.aviso.oceanobs.com) were used for the investigation of synoptic (mesoscale) ocean eddies in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea in 1993-2014. Parts of these maps with the closed ADT isopleths (isohypses) were detected by a precise numerical algorithm and were interpreted as places of the location of cyclonic and anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. In addition, curves of ζ²(t), where t is time and ζ (t) is disturbance of ADT relative to the mean value in 1993-2014 at a given point, were plotted at a number of points within the studied ocean region. These curves show two well pronounced time scales ("periods") of ζ²(t) fluctuations: a lesser scale of 100-500 days and a greater scale varying generally from 2 to 4.5 years manifesting as changes in the time intervals with low and high amplitudes of the lesser time scale ζ²(t) fluctuations. Comparison of the ζ²(t) curves with the ADT maps shows that these lesser scale fluctuations are related to the behavior of individual eddies: their propagation through a given point in the ocean, eddy generation or absorption of an eddy by an ACC jet. The theory of the geostrophic ocean turbulence allows us to suppose that the above mentioned greater time scale of ζ²(t) fluctuations is related to the energy exchange between the ACC jets and mesoscale eddies that appears in a given ocean region, as an alternation of the periods of intense generation of eddies by ACC jets and periods of increased reverse energy transfer from the eddies to jets. The fact revealed in this work that cyclonic (anticyclonic) eddies are adjacent from the north (south) to the ACC jets agrees with this supposition and opens the possibilities to analyze the dynamic influence of the eddy interaction with the individual ACC jets separately.

  7. Isostasy, flexure, and dynamic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvirtzman, Zohar; Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2016-06-01

    A fundamental scientific question is, what controls the Earth's topography? Although the theoretical principles of isostasy, flexure, and dynamic topography are widely discussed, the parameters needed to apply these principles are frequently not available. Isostatic factors controlling lithospheric buoyancy are frequently uncertain and non-isostatic factors, such as lithospheric bending towards subduction zones and dynamic topography, are hard to distinguish. The question discussed here is whether a set of simple rules that relate topography to lithospheric structure in various tectonic environments can be deduced in a way that missing parameters can be approximated; or does each area behave differently, making generalizations problematic. We contribute to this issue analyzing the Asia-Africa-Arabia-Europe domain following a top-down strategy. We compile a new crustal thickness map and remove the contribution of the crust from the observed elevation. Then, the challenge is to interpret the residual topography in terms of mantle lithosphere buoyancy and dynamics. Based on systematic relationships between tectonic environments and factors controlling topography, we argue that crustal buoyancy and mantle lithospheric density can be approximated from available geological data and that regions near mantle upwelling or downwelling are easily identified by their extreme residual topography. Yet, even for other areas, calculating lithospheric thickness from residual topography is problematic, because distinguishing variations in mantle lithosphere thickness from sub-lithospheric dynamics is difficult. Fortunately, the area studied here provides an opportunity to examine this issue. Based on the conjunction between the Afar Plume and the mid-ocean ridge in the nearby Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea, we constrain the maximal amplitude of dynamic topography to 1 km. This estimate is based on a narrow definition of dynamic topography that only includes sub

  8. Interferometer for measuring dynamic corneal topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micali, Jason Daniel

    The cornea is the anterior most surface of the eye and plays a critical role in vision. A thin fluid layer, the tear film, coats the outer surface of the cornea and serves to protect, nourish, and lubricate the cornea. At the same time, the tear film is responsible for creating a smooth continuous surface where the majority of refraction takes place in the eye. A significant component of vision quality is determined by the shape of the cornea and stability of the tear film. It is desirable to possess an instrument that can measure the corneal shape and tear film surface with the same accuracy and resolution that is currently performed on common optical elements. A dual interferometer system for measuring the dynamic corneal topography is designed, built, and verified. The completed system is validated by testing on human subjects. The system consists of two co-aligned polarization splitting Twyman-Green interferometers designed to measure phase instantaneously. The primary interferometer measures the surface of the tear film while the secondary interferometer simultaneously tracks the absolute position of the cornea. Eye motion, ocular variation, and a dynamic tear film surface will result in a non-null configuration of the surface with respect to the interferometer system. A non-null test results in significant interferometer induced errors that add to the measured phase. New algorithms are developed to recover the absolute surface topography of the tear film and corneal surface from the simultaneous interferometer measurements. The results are high-resolution and high-accuracy surface topography measurements of the in vivo cornea that are captured at standard camera frame rates. This dissertation will cover the development and construction of an interferometer system for measuring the dynamic corneal topography of the human eye. The discussion starts with the completion of an interferometer for measuring the tear film. The tear film interferometer is part of an

  9. Flat Subduction and Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dávila, F. M.; Eakin, C. M.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle dynamics manifests at the surface via the horizontal motions of plates and the vertical deflections that influence topography and the non-hydrostatic geoid. The pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. (1989) and Gurnis (1990) on this dynamic topography revolutionized our understanding of sedimentary basin formation, sea level changes and continental flooding. The temporal evolution of subduction can explain the migration of basins and even the drainage reversal of the Amazon (Shephard et al., 2012; Eakin et al., 2014). Until recently, flat subduction has been seen as enhancing downward deflection of the overriding plate and increasing flooding. However, this interpretation depends crucially on the details of the morphology and density structure of the slab, which controls the loci and amplitude of the deflection. We tend to ignore morphological details in mantle dynamics because flow can smooth out short wavelength variations. We have shown instead that details matter! Using South America as a natural laboratory because of the large changes in morphology of the Nazca slab along strike, we show that downward deflection of the overriding plate and hence basin formation, do not occur over flat segments but at the leading edge, where slabs plunge back into the mantle. This is true in both Argentina and Peru. The temporal evolution from a 'normally' dipplng slab to a flat slab leads to uplift over flat segments rather than enhanced subsidence. Critical for this result is the use of a detailed morphological model of the present-day Nazca slab with a spatial resolution of 50-100 km and based on relocated seismicity and magnetotelluric results. The density structure of the slab, due to age and the presence of overthickened crust from aseismic ridge subduction is essential. Overthickened crust leads to buoyant slabs. We reproduce formation and deposition of the Acres-Solimoes basin and the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin in Peru as well as the Mar Chiquita

  10. Interferometric determination of the topographies of absolute sphere radii using the sphere interferometer of PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Guido; Krystek, Michael; Nicolaus, Arnold; Giardini, Walter

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a method to reconstruct the absolute shape of a sphere—i.e. a topography of radii—using the sphere interferometer of PTB in combination with a stitching approach. The method allows for the reconstruction of absolute radii instead of the relative shape deviations which result from conventional sphericity measurements. The sphere interferometer was developed for the volume determination of spherical material measures—in particular the spheres of the Avogadro project—by precise diameter measurements with an uncertainty of 1 nm or less. In the scope of the present work a procedure has been implemented that extends the applicability of the interferometer to fields where not the volume or diameter but the direction-dependent radii are of interest. The results of the reconstruction were compared quantitatively to the independent results of sphericity measurements from CSIRO.

  11. Dual interferometer for dynamic measurement of corneal topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micali, Jason D.; Greivenkamp, John E.

    2016-08-01

    The cornea is the anterior most surface of the eye and plays a critical role in vision. A thin fluid layer, the tear film, coats the outer surface of the cornea and serves to protect, nourish, and lubricate the cornea. At the same time, the tear film is responsible for creating a smooth continuous surface, where the majority of refraction takes place in the eye. A significant component of vision quality is determined by the shape of the cornea and stability of the tear film. A dual interferometer system for measuring the dynamic corneal topography is designed, built, verified, and qualified by testing on human subjects. The system consists of two coaligned simultaneous phase-shifting polarization-splitting Twyman-Green interferometers. The primary interferometer measures the surface of the tear film while the secondary interferometer tracks the absolute position of the cornea, which provides enough information to reconstruct the absolute shape of the cornea. The results are high-resolution and high-accuracy surface topography measurements of the in vivo tear film and cornea that are captured at standard camera frame rates.

  12. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  13. Global dynamic topography: geoscience communities requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewez, T.; Costeraste, J.

    2012-04-01

    The advent of free-of-charge global topographic data sets SRTM and Aster GDEM have enabled testing a host of geoscience hypotheses. This is because they first revealed the relief of previously unavailable earth landscapes, enabled quantitative geomorphometric analyses across entire landscapes and improved the resolution of measurements. Availability of such data is now considered standard, and though resolved at 30-m to 90-m pixel, which is amazing seeing where we come from, they are now regarded as mostly obsolete given the sub-meter imagery coming through web services like Google Earth. Geoscientists now appear to desire two additional features: field-scale-compatible elevation datasets (i.e. meter-scale digital models and sub-meter elevation precision) and dispose of regularly updated topography to retrieve earth surface changes, while retaining the key for success: data availability at no charge. A new satellite instrument is currently under phase 0 study at CNES, the French space agency, to fulfil these aims. The scientific community backing this demand is that of natural hazards, glaciology and to a lesser extent the biomass community. The system under study combines a native stereo imager and a lidar profiler. This combination provides spatially resolved elevation swaths together with absolute along-track elevation control point profiles. Data generated through this system, designed for revisit time better than a year, is intended to produce not only single acquisition digital surface models, colour orthoimages and small footprint full-wave-form lidar profiles to update existing topographic coverages, but also time series of them. This enables 3D change detection with centimetre-scale planimetric precision and metric vertical precision, in complement of classical spectral change appoaches. The purpose of this contribution, on behalf of the science team, is to present the mission concepts and philosophy and the scientific needs for such instrument including

  14. Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, J. D.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    Madagascar is located on the fringes of the African superswell. Its position and the existence of a +30 mGal long wavelength free-air gravity anomaly suggest that its present-day topography is maintained by convective circulation of the sub-lithospheric mantle. Residual depth anomalies of oceanic crust encompassing the island imply that Madagascar straddles a dynamic topographic gradient. In June-July 2012, we examined geologic evidence for Neogene uplift around the Malagasy coastline. Uplifted coral reef deposits, fossil beach rock, and terraces demonstrate that the northern and southern coasts are probably being uplifted at a rate of ~0.2 mm/yr. Rates of uplift clearly vary around the coastline. Inland, extensive peneplains occur at elevations of 1 - 2 km. These peneplains are underlain by 10 - 20 m thick laterite deposits, and there is abundant evidence for rapid erosion (e.g. lavaka). Basaltic volcanism also occurred during Neogene times. These field observations can be combined with an analysis of drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~100 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Madagascar. An inverse model is then used to minimize the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~20 to ~4. Our results suggest that youthful and rapid uplift of 1-2 km occurred at rates of 0.2-0.4 mm/yr during the last ˜15 Myr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Hauts Plateaux). Our field observations and modeling indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

  15. Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal

    2005-10-01

    A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

  16. Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, B. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Richards, M. A.; Comer, R. P.; Dziewonski, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    Density contrasts in the lower mantle, recently imaged using seismic tomography, drive convective flow which results in kilometers of dynamically maintained topography at the core-mantle boundary and at the Earth's surface. The total gravity field due to interior density contrasts and boundary topography predicts the largest wavelength components of the geoid remarkably well. Neglecting dynamic surface deformation leads to geoid anomalies of opposite sign than are observed.

  17. Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, B. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Richards, M. A.; Comer, R. P.; Dziewonski, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Density contrasts in the lower mantle, recently imaged using seismic tomography, drive convective flow which results in kilometers of dynamically maintained topography at the core-mantle boundary and at the earth's surface. The total gravity field due to interior density constrasts and boundary topography predicts the largest wavelength components of the geoid remarkably well. Neglecting dynamic surface deformation leads to geoid anomalies of opposite sign than are observed.

  18. Mercury's Thermal Evolution, Dynamical Topography and Geoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziethe, Ruth; Benkhoff, Johannes

    stagnant lid comprises roughly half the mantle after only 0.5Ga. Since the rigid lithosphere does not take part in the convection anymore, the heat coming from the interior (due to the cooling of the large core) can only be transported through the lithosphere by thermal conduction. This is a significantly less effective mechanism of heat transport than convection and hence the lithosphere forms an insulating layer. As a result, the interior is kept relatively warm.Because the mantle is relatively shallow compared to the planet's radius, and additionally the thick stagnant lid is formed relatively rapid, the convection is confined to a layer of only about 200km to 300km. Convection structures are therefore relatively small structured. The flow patterns in the early evolution show that mantle convection is characterized by numerous upwelling plumes, which are fed by the heat flow from the cooling core. These upwellings are relatively stable regarding their spatial position. As the core cools down the temperature anomalies become colder and less pronounced but not less numerous. In our calculations, a region of partial melt in the mantle forms immediately after the start of the model at a depths of roughly 220km. While in the entire lower mantle the temperature exceeds the solidus, the highest melt degrees can be found in the upwelling plumes. The partial molten region persists a significant time (up to 2.5Ga). How long the partial molten zone actually survives depends strongly on the initial conditions of the model. For instance, an outer layer with a reduced thermal conductivity would keep the lower mantle significantly warmer and a molten layer survives longer. The hot upwellings cause a surface deformation (dynamical topography) which itself causes a gravity anomaly. Due to the weak constraints of important parameters (e.g. sulfur content of the core, mantle rheology, amount and distribution of radiogenic heat sources, planetary contraction, thermal conductivity, etc

  19. Evolution of Neogene Dynamic Topography in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jonathan; Roberts, Gareth; White, Nicky

    2013-04-01

    The characteristic basins and swells of Africa's surface topography probably reflect patterns of convective circulation in the sub-lithospheric mantle. We have interrogated drainage networks to determine the spatial and temporal pattern of convectively driven uplift. ~560 longitudinal river profiles were extracted from a digital elevation model of Africa. An inverse model is then used to minimise the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles as a function of uplift rate history. During inversion, the residual misfit decreases from ~22 to ~5. Our results suggest that Africa's topography began to grow most rapidly after ~30 Ma at peak uplift rates of 0.1-0.15 mm/yr. The algorithm resolves distinct phases of uplift which generate localized swells of high topography and relief (e.g. the Angolan Dome). Uplift rate histories are shown to vary significantly from swell to swell. The calculated magnitudes, timing, and location of uplift agree well with local independent geological constraints, such as intense volcanism at Hoggar (42-39 Ma) and Afar (31-29 Ma), uplifted marine terraces, and warped peneplains. We have also calculated solid sediment flux histories for major African deltas which have persisted through time. This onshore record provides an important indirect constraint on the history of vertical motions at the surface, and agrees well with the offshore flux record, obtained from mapping isopachs of deltaic sediments. Our modelling and reconstructed sedimentary flux histories indicate that the evolution of drainage networks may contain useful information about mantle convective processes.

  20. Dynamic and reversible surface topography influences cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Jennifer D; Wen, Jessica H; del Álamo, Juan C; Engler, Adam J

    2013-08-01

    Microscale and nanoscale surface topography changes can influence cell functions, including morphology. Although in vitro responses to static topography are novel, cells in vivo constantly remodel topography. To better understand how cells respond to changes in topography over time, we developed a soft polyacrylamide hydrogel with magnetic nickel microwires randomly oriented in the surface of the material. Varying the magnetic field around the microwires reversibly induced their alignment with the direction of the field, causing the smooth hydrogel surface to develop small wrinkles; changes in surface roughness, ΔRRMS , ranged from 0.05 to 0.70 μm and could be oscillated without hydrogel creep. Vascular smooth muscle cell morphology was assessed when exposed to acute and dynamic topography changes. Area and shape changes occurred when an acute topographical change was imposed for substrates exceeding roughness of 0.2 μm, but longer-term oscillating topography did not produce significant changes in morphology irrespective of wire stiffness. These data imply that cells may be able to use topography changes to transmit signals as they respond immediately to changes in roughness.

  1. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in Central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengül Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Göǧüş, Oǧuz H.

    2016-09-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of `dynamic topography'. 2-D thermomechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along an N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sublithospheric flow driven by the seismically inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myr. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  2. Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.

  3. Mantle Flow Pattern and Dynamic Topography beneath the Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; King, S. D.; Adam, C. M.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M. H.; Kirby, E.

    2015-12-01

    The complex tectonic history of the eastern US over the past billion years includes episodes of subduction and rifting associated with two complete cycles of supercontinent assembly and breakup. Both the previous global tomography models (S40RTS, SAVANI, TX2011, GyPSuM, SMEAN) and the analysis of the shear-wave splitting from the broadband seismic stations find a distinct coast-to-inland differentiation pattern in the lithosphere and upper mantle. The Mid-Atlantic Geophysical Integrative Collaboration (MAGIC) includes a dense linear seismic array from the Atlantic coast of Virginia to the western boarder of Ohio, crossing several different tectonic zones. To derive the regional mantle flow pattern along with its surface expression such as dynamic topography and aid the interpretation of the seismic observations, we are building a new geodynamic model based on ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth CovecTion) that uses buoyancy derived from seismic tomography along with realistic lithosphere and sub-lithosphere structure. At present, we use S40RTS and SAVANI tomography models together with the temperature-dependent viscosity to compute the mantle flow and dynamic topography. Beneath the eastern US, the upper mantle flow in our model is primarily parallel to the trend of the Appalachian belt, which is broadly consistent with the direction of the local shear-wave splitting. The dynamic topography results exhibit a coast-to-inland magnitude differentiation along the MAGIC seismic deployment. The numerical tests also show that both the magnitude and pattern of the dynamic topography are quite sensitive to the density perturbation and rigidity of the lithosphere/sub-lithosphere. Our future work involves using other tomography and viscosity models to obtain the mantle flow pattern as well as the resulting dynamic topography and geoid.

  4. The effects of abrupt topography on plankton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zavala Sansón, L; Provenzale, A

    2009-12-01

    Plankton population dynamics in the upper layer of the ocean depends on upwelling processes that bring nutrients from deeper waters. In turn, these depend on the structure of the vertical velocity field. In coastal areas and in oceanic regions characterized by the presence of strong submarine topographic features, the variable bottom topography induces significant effects on vertical velocities and upwelling/downwelling patterns. As a consequence, large plankton and fish abundances are frequently observed above seamounts, canyons and steep continental shelves. In this work, the dynamics of an NPZ (nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton) system is numerically studied by coupling the ecosystem model with a quasi two-dimensional (2D) fluid model with topography. At variance with classical 2D approaches, this formulation allows for an explicit expression of the vertical motions produced when fluid columns are squeezed and stretched as they experience changes of depth. Thus, input or output of nutrients at the surface are associated with fluid motion over the bottom topography. We examine the dynamics of a cyclonic vortex over two basic topographies: a steep escarpment and a submarine mountain. We show that plankton abundance over the escarpment is modulated by the passing of topographic Rossby waves, generated by the vortex-topography interaction. In such configuration, advection effects driven by the flow over the escarpment are of limited relevance for the dynamics of biological fields. By contrast, we find that the flow resulting from the interaction of a vortex with a seamount is sufficiently strong and persistent to allow for a remarkable increase of nutrients, and a corresponding enhancement of phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations. Over the seamount, advection effects associated with trapped flow perturbations around the summit play an essential role.

  5. Two methods for absolute calibration of dynamic pressure transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, G. W.; Migliori, A.; Garrett, S. L.; Wheatley, J. C.

    1982-12-01

    Two techniques are described for absolute calibration of a dynamic pressure transducer from 0 to 400 Hz in 1-MPa helium gas. One technique is based on a comparison to a mercury manometer; the other is based on the principle of reciprocity. The two techniques agree within the instrumental uncertainties of 1%.

  6. Dynamic wetting and spreading and the role of topography.

    PubMed

    McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I; Shirtcliffe, Neil J

    2009-11-18

    The spreading of a droplet of a liquid on a smooth solid surface is often described by the Hoffman-de Gennes law, which relates the edge speed, v(e), to the dynamic and equilibrium contact angles θ and θ(e) through [Formula: see text]. When the liquid wets the surface completely and the equilibrium contact angle vanishes, the edge speed is proportional to the cube of the dynamic contact angle. When the droplets are non-volatile this law gives rise to simple power laws with time for the contact angle and other parameters in both the capillary and gravity dominated regimes. On a textured surface, the equilibrium state of a droplet is strongly modified due to the amplification of the surface chemistry induced tendencies by the topography. The most common example is the conversion of hydrophobicity into superhydrophobicity. However, when the surface chemistry favors partial wetting, topography can result in a droplet spreading completely. A further, frequently overlooked consequence of topography is that the rate at which an out-of-equilibrium droplet spreads should also be modified. In this report, we review ideas related to the idea of topography induced wetting and consider how this may relate to dynamic wetting and the rate of droplet spreading. We consider the effect of the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equations on the driving forces and discuss how these may modify power laws for spreading. We relate the ideas to both the hydrodynamic viscous dissipation model and the molecular-kinetic theory of spreading. This suggests roughness and solid surface fraction modified Hoffman-de Gennes laws relating the edge speed to the dynamic and equilibrium contact angle. We also consider the spreading of small droplets and stripes of non-volatile liquids in the capillary regime and large droplets in the gravity regime. In the case of small non-volatile droplets spreading completely, a roughness modified Tanner's law giving the dependence of dynamic contact angle on time is

  7. Dynamic topography and the Cenozoic carbonate compensation depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, S. M.; Moucha, R.; Raymo, M. E.; Derry, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The carbonate compensation depth (CCD), the ocean depth at which the calcium carbonate accumulation rate goes to zero, can provide valuable insight into climatic and weathering conditions over the Cenozoic. The paleoposition of the CCD can be inferred from sediment core data. As the carbonate accumulation rate decreases linearly with depth between the lysocline and CCD, the CCD can be calculated using a linear regression on multiple sediment cores with known carbonate accumulation rates and paleodepths. It is therefore vital to have well-constrained estimates of paleodepths. Paleodepths are typically calculated using models of thermal subsidence and sediment loading and compaction. However, viscous convection-related stresses in the mantle can warp the ocean floor by hundreds of meters over broad regions and can also vary significantly over millions of years. This contribution to paleobathymetry, termed dynamic topography, can be calculated by modeling mantle flow backwards in time. Herein, we demonstrate the effect dynamic topography has on the inference of the late Cenozoic CCD with an example from the equatorial Pacific, considering sites from IODP Expeditions 320/321. The equatorial Pacific, given its large size and high productivity, is closely tied to the global carbon cycle. Accordingly, long-term changes in the equatorial Pacific CCD can be considered to reflect global changes in weathering fluxes and the carbon cycle, in addition to more regional changes in productivity and thermohaline circulation. We find that, when the dynamic topography contribution to bathymetry is accounted for, the equatorial Pacific CCD is calculated to be appreciably shallower at 30 Ma than previous estimates would suggest, implying a greater deepening of the Pacific CCD over the late Cenozoic.

  8. The updated geodetic mean dynamic topography model - DTU15MDT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole; Maximenko, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    An update to the global mean dynamic topography model DTU13MDT is presented. For DTU15MDT the newer gravity model EIGEN-6C4 has been combined with the DTU15MSS mean sea surface model to construct this global mean dynamic topography model. The EIGEN-6C4 is derived using the full series of GOCE data and provides a better resolution. The better resolution fixes a few problems related to geoid signals in the former model DTU13MDT. Slicing in the GOCO05S gravity model up to harmonic degree 150 has solved some issues related to striations. Compared to the DTU13MSS, the DTU15MSS has been derived by including re-tracked CRYOSAT-2 altimetry also, hence, increasing its resolution. Also, some issues in the Polar regions have been solved. Finally, the filtering was re-evaluated by adjusting the quasi-gaussian filter width to optimize the fit to drifter velocities. Subsequently, geostrophic surface currents were derived from the DTU15MDT. The results show that geostrophic surface currents associated with the mean circulation have been further improved and that currents having speeds down to below 4 cm/s have been recovered.

  9. Dynamic Topography in the Oceanic Realm of West Africa, India, and the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggard, M. J.; Roberts, G.; White, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is generally agreed that convection in the mantle can generate vertical motions at the Earth's surface. Consequently, the recorded history of subsidence and uplift holds important clues about mantle convection. We use the well-established relationship between seafloor subsidence and age to map present-day residual depth anomalies in the oceanic realm. This map yields estimates of the spatial variation of dynamic topography, providing care is taken to rule out other potential causes of subsidence or uplift such as flexure adjacent to seamounts and subduction zones. Global analysis indicates that anomalies typically vary between ±1 km, over wavelengths of ~1000 km. This analysis of residual topography is concentrated on the oldest oceanic crust that abuts continental margins in order to provide a leg up onto the continents, where measuring absolute values of dynamic topography is considerably more complicated. Here we begin by looking at three areas in more detail - the west coast of Africa, India and the Gulf of Mexico. Residual depths along the west coast of Africa capture two full wavelengths of dynamic topography, which correlate well with the long-wavelength free air gravity anomaly. To constrain the temporal evolution of dynamic topography, we focus on regions such as the Gulf of Mexico which is currently drawn-down by ~2 km at its centre. Backstripping stratigraphic data from wells implies the majority of the anomalous subsidence has occurred in the last ~15 Ma. The east coast of India shows a drawdown of 2 km beneath the Bengal fan and the development of this anomaly is clearly recorded in the transition from progradational to aggradational behaviour within the margin's clinoform architecture. Analysis of adjacent river profiles indicates recent onshore uplift has provided high quantities of clastic detritus that have been deposited on the margin. Oceanic residual depths along the west African margin overlain by the long wavelength filtered free air

  10. Isostatic and Dynamic Support of High Passive Margin Topography in Southern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, V. K.; Huismans, R. S.; Moucha, R.

    2015-12-01

    Substantial controversy surrounds the origin of high topography along passive continental margins. We focus on the well-documented elevated passive margin in southern Scandinavia, and quantify the relative contributions of crustal isostasy and dynamic topography in controlling topography. We find that most topography is compensated by the crustal structure, suggesting a topographic age related to ~400 Myr old orogenesis. In addition, we infer that dynamic uplift (~300 m) has rejuvenated existing topography within the last ~10 Myr. Such uplift can, combined with a general sea level fall, explain observations that have traditionally been interpreted in favor of a peneplain uplift model. We conclude that the high topography along the Scandinavian margin cannot represent remnants of a peneplain uplifted within the last ~20 Myr. Topography must have been high since ~400 Myr. Our results demonstrate that the enigmatic topography on passive margins cannot be attributed to a single causal mechanism.

  11. Isostatic and dynamic support of high topography on a North Atlantic passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Vivi K.; Huismans, Ritske S.; Moucha, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Substantial controversy surrounds the origin of high topography along passive continental margins. Here we focus on the well-documented elevated passive margin in southwestern Scandinavia, and quantify the relative contributions of crustal isostasy and dynamic topography in controlling the present topography. We find that majority of the topography is compensated by the crustal structure, suggesting a topographic age that is in accord with the 400 Myr old Caledonian orogenesis. In addition, we propose that dynamic uplift of ∼300 m has rejuvenated existing topography locally in the coastal region over the last 10 Myr. Such uplift, combined with a general sea level fall, can help explain a variety of observations that have traditionally been interpreted in favor of a peneplain uplift model. We conclude that high topography along the Scandinavian margin cannot represent remnants of a peneplain uplifted within the last 20 Myr. The topography must have been high since the Caledonian orogeny.

  12. Late Cenozoic Temporal Evolution of North American Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Rowley, D. B.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.

    2008-12-01

    The Farallon plate was completely overridden by the North American plate by mid-Cenozoic. Although the Farallon plate ceased to exist on the surface, it continues to have a significant tectonic impact on North America. At the present time, the subducted Farallon plate drives a large-scale thermal convective cell below the southern half of North America, where downward flow in the east is driven by the dense Farallon slab and upward flow in the west is a combination of local, buoyancy-driven hot upwelling and large-scale return flow. Herein, we will explore the geodynamic implications of this convective flow throughout the late Cenozoic by carrying out backward mantle flow simulations starting with present-day heterogeneity derived from a high resolution joint seismic-geodynamic tomography model (Simmons et al., 2007) that yields excellent fits to present day surface observables (e.g. dynamic topography and the geoid). Our proposed temporal model of late Cenozoic North American mantle dynamics brings together the uplift of the Colorado Plateau in the southwestern US and offers an explanation for present-day seismicity at the New Madrid seismic zone. Furthermore, we consider the impact of this model on inferences of eustatic sea level change from measurements at the New Jersey passive margin.

  13. Dynamic Ocean Topography from GOCE- Some Preparatory Attempts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertella, Alberta; Rummel, Reiner; Savcenko, Roman; Bosch, Wolfgang; Janjic, Tijana; Schroter, Jens; Gruber, Thomas; Bouman, Johannes

    2010-12-01

    Tests of dynamic ocean topography (DOT) estimation have been carried out in anticipation of the availability of GOCE gravity models. Mean ocean surface models of recent years, based on data of satellite radar altimetry missions are thereby combined with high resolution geoid and gravity gradient data from GRACE. Both data sets have been made spectrally consistent, on the one hand by filtering in the spectral domain the geoid and constructing a spherical harmonic representation of the ocean surface and on the other hand by applying identical filters to geoid and sea surface heights sampled along individual tracks. Both approaches are accompanied by error propagation using the variance- covariance matrix of the gravity field coefficients and the error covariance function of the altimeter data. In a second step the DOT is converted to surface velocities under the assumption of geostrophic balance; also these computations are accompanied by rigorous error propagation. Finally, data assimilation is carried out of DOT data with varying degrees into a finite element ocean model employing the method of ensemble based Kalman filtering.

  14. Freeboard, sea level and dynamic topography during aggregation of a supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, B.; Husson, L.; Choblet, G.

    2012-04-01

    The long-term evolution of sea level is a combination of eustatic mechanisms (tectono-eustatism, distribution of continental masses through orogenesis and sedimentation) and non-uniform processes (dynamic topography, geoid, wander of the Earth rotation pole). Given the potentially similar amplitude of both factors, there is a bias in the observation of absolute sea level. Moreover, over large time-scales, and more specifically over the Wilson cycle time-scale, plate aggregation and separation are associated both with (i) variations of the flow pattern and (ii) thermal state in the mantle, which in turn may induce specific vertical motions of the surface. By changing the size of the oceanic and continental water reservoirs, large-scale dynamic topography associated with subduction or the presence of mantle plumes controls rises or drops of sea level, which in turn controls part of the stratigraphic record. The Earth has known periods of continental aggregation and fragmentation that redistribute the location of plate boundaries, especially the location and the length of subduction zones, that could potentially affect sea level. The distribution of mass anomalies in the mantle with respect to continents may therefore have a significant impact. To test the possible correlation between sea level changes and the Wilson cycle, we decide to first focus on the Pangea, which is known to be a period during which most subductions took place beneath continents. We run a set of Earth-like instantaneous flow model using the OEDIPUS (Origin, Evolution and Dynamics of the Interiors of Planets Using Simulation) tool, which allows spherical geometries with lateral viscosity variations. In these models, Pangea is modeled by a spherical continental cap, covering 29% of the planet surface, and floating above a two-layered viscous mantle. We vary parameters such as the dip of the subducting panel, the depth reached by the slab, the viscosity structure and the plate thickness within

  15. Potential for tunable static and dynamic contact angle anisotropy on gradient microscale patterned topographies.

    PubMed

    Long, Christopher J; Schumacher, James F; Brennan, Anthony B

    2009-11-17

    Translationally symmetric topographies can be designed to induce anisotropy of static and dynamic contact angles. The validity of ignoring directionality of topography in contact angle characterization was evaluated using microscale patterned topographies. Seven patterned topographies comprising elongated discontinuous microfeatures oriented along parallel paths and one topography comprising ridges were fabricated in a poly(dimethyl siloxane) elastomer (PDMSe). The static contact angle, advancing contact angle, receding contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and slip angle were measured using water on each surface at three in-plane perspectives, with respect to the feature orientation. Static and dynamic contact angle anisotropies were investigated on the topographies to evaluate the effect of discontinuities along the feature lengths on the anisotropy that has been shown on channels or ridges in previous reports. Discontinuous feature topographies exhibited a statistically significant anisotropy of 2 degrees-6 degrees between the perpendicular and parallel directions, with respect to the static and dynamic contact angles. The ridges topography exhibited much larger 5 degrees-42 degrees anisotropy in the contact angles. The discontinuities along the feature lengths greatly reduced, but did not eliminate, the anisotropies compared to the ridges. This evidence of contact angle anisotropy indicates a need to identify the orientation of topography, in relation to contact angle measurements. It also implies a need to consider directionality in the design of microfluidic devices and self-cleaning surfaces.

  16. A magmatic probe of dynamic topography beneath western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.

    2014-12-01

    A region centered on the Yellowstone hotspot and encompassing the Colorado Plateau sits at an elevation 2 km higher than the cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with tomographically observed variations in lithospheric thickness: ~120 km beneath western North America, ~240 km beneath the craton. Thermochronology of the Grand Canyon area, sedimentary flux to the Gulf of Mexico, and river profile inversion all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two separate stages. High resolution seismic tomographic models, using USArray data, have identified a ring of low velocity material beneath the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows distinct phases: an overall increase in volume around 40 Ma and a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signatures around 5 Ma. Volcanism is also observed to migrate north-east with time. Here, we attempt to integrate these different observations with lithospheric thickness. A dynamic topography model of progressive lithospheric erosion over a hot mantle plume might account for uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America. Thinning of the lithosphere around the edges of the Colorado Plateau in combination with the hotter mantle potential temperature of a plume could create isostatic and dynamic uplift as well as allowing for melt production. To test this model, we have analysed around 100 samples from volcanic centers across western North America by ICP-MS for rare earth elements (REE). Most of the samples are younger than 5 Ma, and all of them have previously been analysed by XRF. Using trace element ratios such as La/Yb and Nb/Y we assess depth of melting and melt fraction, respectively. In addition, we use REE inversion modelling to estimate melt fractions as a function of depth and temperature of melting. The results are compared to existing constraints on lithospheric thickness and mantle potential

  17. Assessment of optimally filtered recent geodetic mean dynamic topographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegismund, F.

    2013-01-01

    AbstractRecent geoids from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer satellite mission (GOCE) contain useful short-scale information for the construction of a geodetic ocean mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT). The geodetic MDT is obtained from subtracting the geoid from a mean sea surface (MSS) as measured by satellite altimetry. A gainful use of the MDT and an adequate assessment needs an optimal filtering. This is accomplished here by defining a cutoff length scale dmax for the geoid and applying a Gaussian filter with half-width radius r on the MDT. A series of MDTs (GRACE, GOCE, and combined satellite-only (GOCO) solutions) is tested, using different sets of filter parameters dmax and r. Optimal global and regional dependent filter parameters are estimated. To find optimal parameters and to assess the resulting MDTs, the geostrophic surface currents induced by the filtered geodetic MDT are compared to corrected near-surface currents obtained from the Global Drifter Program (GDP). The global optimal cutoff degree and order (d/o) dmax (half-width radius r of the spatial Gaussian filter) is 160 (1.1°) for GRACE; 180 (1.1-1.2°) for 1st releases of GOCE (time- and space-wise methods) and GOCO models; and 210 (1.0 degree) for 2nd and 3rd releases of GOCE and GOCO models. The cutoff d/o is generally larger (smaller) and the filter length smaller (larger) for regions with strong, small-scale (slow, broad scale) currents. The smallest deviations from the drifter data are obtained with the GOCO03s geoid model, although deviations of other models are only slightly higher.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPI..261..172G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPI..261..172G"><span>Modelling Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Decomposition of the static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guerri, M.; Cammarano, F.; Tackley, P. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Contrasting results on the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> component of <span class="hlt">topography</span> motivate us to analyse the sources of uncertainties affecting long wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> modelling. We obtain a range of mantle density structures from thermo-chemical interpretation of available seismic tomography models. We account for pressure, temperature and compositional effects as inferred by mineral physics to relate seismic velocity with density. Mantle density models are coupled to crustal density distributions obtained with a similar methodology. We compute isostatic <span class="hlt">topography</span> and associated residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and perform instantaneous mantle flow modelling to calculate the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We explore the effects of proposed mantle 1-D viscosities and also test a 3D pressure- and temperature-dependent viscosity model. We find that the patterns of residual and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> are robust, with an average correlation coefficient (r) of respectively ∼0.74 and ∼0.71, upper-lower quartile ranges of 0.86-0.65 for residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> and 0.83-0.62 for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps. The amplitudes are, on the contrary, poorly constrained. For the static component, the inferred density models of lithospheric mantle give an interquartile range of isostatic <span class="hlt">topography</span> that is always higher than 100 m, reaching 1.7 km in some locations, and averaging ∼720 m. Crustal density models satisfying the same compressional velocity structure lead to variations in isostatic <span class="hlt">topography</span> averaging 350 m, with peaks of 1 km in thick crustal regions, and always higher than 100 m. The uncertainties on isostatic <span class="hlt">topography</span> are strong enough to mask, if present, the contribution of mantle convection to surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. For the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> component, we obtain a peak-to-peak <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> amplitude exceeding 3 km for all our mantle density and viscosity models. These extremely high values would be associated with a magnitude of geoid undulations that is not in agreement with observations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811349K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811349K"><span>Isostatic and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> support of high <span class="hlt">topography</span> on a North Atlantic passive margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kathrine Pedersen, Vivi; Huismans, Ritske S.; Moucha, Robert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Substantial controversy surrounds the origin and recent evolution of high <span class="hlt">topography</span> along passive continental margins in the North Atlantic, with suggested age of formation ranging from early Paleozoic Caledonian orogenesis to Neogene uplift of a Mesozoic peneplain. Here we focus on the well-documented high passive margin in southwestern Scandinavia, and quantify the relative contributions of crustal isostasy and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in controlling the present <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We find that most <span class="hlt">topography</span> is compensated by the crustal structure, suggesting a topographic age related to ~400 Myr old Caledonian orogenesis. In addition, we infer that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift (~300 m) has rejuvenated existing <span class="hlt">topography</span> locally in the coastal region within the last ~10 Myr due to mantle convection. Such uplift has, in combination with a general eustatic sea-level fall and concurrent erosion-driven isostatic rock-column uplift, the potential to increase erosion of coastal-near regions and explain observations that have traditionally been interpreted in favor of the peneplain uplift model. We conclude that high <span class="hlt">topography</span> along the Scandinavian margin cannot represent remnants of a peneplain uplifted within the last ~20 Myr. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> must have been high since the Caledonian orogeny.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4778..169K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4778..169K"><span>Measurement of fine <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes of corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> by use of interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Jaronski, Jaroslaw W.</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>Paper presents results of in vivo measurements of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> variations of the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> by use of the Twyman Green interferometer. Sequence of interferograms were recorded by the CCD camera and stored in the computer memory. Then the fringe tracking method was used separately to each interferogram giving the phase surface of the wave reflected from the cornea in the numerical form. Results from neighboring interferograms were subtracted giving new sequence of changes of the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> within 40 ms. Obtained results show the complex space distribution of the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> variations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004OExpr..12.6278D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004OExpr..12.6278D"><span>Study of the tear <span class="hlt">topography</span> <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> using a lateral shearing interferometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubra, Alfredo; Paterson, Carl; Dainty, Christopher</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the pre-corneal tear film <span class="hlt">topography</span> are studied on 21 subjects with a purpose-built lateral shearing interferometer. Interesting tear <span class="hlt">topography</span> features such as post-blink undulation, break-up, eyelid-produced bumps/ridges, bubbles and rough pre-contact lens tear surfaces were recorded. Using the calculated tear <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps, the effects of the tear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in visual performance, refractive surgery and ophthalmic adaptive optics are discussed in terms of wavefront RMS. The potential of lateral shearing interferometry for clinical applications such as dry eye diagnosis and contact lens performance studies is illustrated by the recorded <span class="hlt">topography</span> features such as post-blink undulation, break-up, eyelid-produced bumps/ridges, bubbles and rough tear surfaces in front of contact lenses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4450M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4450M"><span>Integrated approach to estimate the ocean's time variable <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> including its covariance matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Müller, Silvia; Brockmann, Jan Martin; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The ocean's <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> as the difference between the sea surface and the geoid reflects many characteristics of the general ocean circulation. Consequently, it provides valuable information for evaluating or tuning ocean circulation models. The sea surface is directly observed by satellite radar altimetry while the geoid cannot be observed directly. The satellite-based gravity field determination requires different measurement principles (satellite-to-satellite tracking (e.g. GRACE), satellite-gravity-gradiometry (GOCE)). In addition, hydrographic measurements (salinity, temperature and pressure; near-surface velocities) provide information on the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The observation types have different representations and spatial as well as temporal resolutions. Therefore, the determination of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is not straightforward. Furthermore, the integration of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> into ocean circulation models requires not only the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> itself but also its inverse covariance matrix on the ocean model grid. We developed a rigorous combination method in which the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is parameterized in space as well as in time. The altimetric sea surface heights are expressed as a sum of geoid heights represented in terms of spherical harmonics and the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> parameterized by a finite element method which can be directly related to the particular ocean model grid. Besides the difficult task of combining altimetry data with a gravity field model, a major aspect is the consistent combination of satellite data and in-situ observations. The particular characteristics and the signal content of the different observations must be adequately considered requiring the introduction of auxiliary parameters. Within our model the individual observation groups are combined in terms of normal equations considering their full covariance information; i.e. a rigorous variance/covariance propagation from the original measurements to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.1909A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.203.1909A"><span>Calculating gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Austermann, J.; Mitrovica, J. X.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a generalized formalism for computing gravitationally self-consistent sea level changes driven by the combined effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, geoid perturbations due to mantle convection, ice mass fluctuations and sediment redistribution on a deforming Earth. Our mathematical treatment conserves mass of the surface (ice plus ocean) load and the solid Earth. Moreover, it takes precise account of shoreline migration and the associated ocean loading. The new formalism avoids a variety of approximations adopted in previous models of sea level change driven by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including the assumption that a spatially fixed isostatic amplification of `air-loaded' <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> accurately accounts for ocean loading effects. While our approach is valid for Earth models of arbitrary complexity, we present numerical results for a set of simple cases in which a pattern of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is imposed, the response to surface mass loading assumes that Earth structure varies only with depth and that isostatic equilibrium is maintained at all times. These calculations, involving fluid Love number theory, indicate that the largest errors in previous predictions of sea level change driven by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> occur in regions of shoreline migration, and thus in the vicinity of most geological markers of ancient sea level. We conclude that a gravitationally self-consistent treatment of long-term sea level change is necessary in any effort to use such geological markers to estimate ancient ice volumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.8944M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.8944M"><span>Improving the geoid: Combining altimetry and mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the California coastal ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazloff, Matthew R.; Gille, Sarah T.; Cornuelle, Bruce</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Satellite gravity mapping missions, altimeters, and other platforms have allowed the Earth's geoid to be mapped over the ocean to a horizontal resolution of approximately 100 km with an uncertainty of less than 10 cm. At finer resolution this uncertainty increases to greater than 10 cm. Achieving greater accuracy requires accurate estimates of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DOT). In this study two DOT estimates for the California Current System with uncertainties less than 10 cm are used to solve for a geoid correction field. The derived field increases the consistency between the DOTs and along-track altimetric observations, suggesting it is a useful correction to the gravitational field. The correction is large compared to the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span>, with a magnitude of 15 cm and significant structure, especially near the coast. The results are evidence that modern high-resolution <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> products can be used to improve estimates of the geoid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1014407','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1014407"><span>Elucidating <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Processes Relevant to Flow Encountering Abrupt <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (FLEAT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p>1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Elucidating <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Processes Relevant to Flow ...<span class="hlt">dynamical</span> explorations using numerical models. To put the in-situ measurements in context, we plan to analyze the output from the submesoscale eddy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990109139&hterms=mantle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmantle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990109139&hterms=mantle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmantle"><span>Geoid Anomalies and <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from Time Dependent, Spherical Axisymmetric Mantle Convection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kiefer, Walter S.; Kellogg, Louise H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Geoid anomalies and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> are two important diagnostics of mantle convection. We present geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> results for several time-dependent convection models in spherical axisymmetric geometry for Rayleigh numbers between 10(exp 6) and 10(exp 7) with depth-dependent viscosity and mixtures of bottom and internal heating. The models are strongly chaotic, with boundary layer instabilities erupting out of both thermal boundary layers. In some instances, instabilities from one boundary layer influence the development of instabilities in the other boundary layer. Such coupling between events at the top and bottom of the mantle has been suggested to play a role in a mid-Cretaceous episode of enhanced volcanism in the Pacific. These boundary layer instabilities produce large temporal variations in the geoid anomalies and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> nd to the <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with the convection. The amplitudes of these fluctuations depend on the detailed model parameter,.% it of this but fluctuations of 30-50% relative to the time-averaged geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> are common. The convective planform is strongly sensitive to the specific initial conditions. Convection cells with larger aspect ratio tend to have larger fractional fluctuations in their geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> amplitudes, because boundary layer instabilities have more time to develop in long cells. In some instances, we observe low-amplitude topographic highs adjacent to the topographic lows produced by cold downwellings. We discuss applications of these results to several situations, including the temporal variability of m basis. hotspots such as Hawaii, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of subduction zone outer rises, and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of coronae on Venus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.207.1186Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.207.1186Y"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, gravity and the role of lateral viscosity variations from inversion of global mantle flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Ting; Gurnis, Michael</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Lateral viscosity variations (LVVs) in the mantle influence geodynamic processes and their surface expressions. With the observed long-wavelength geoid, free-air anomaly, gravity gradient in three directions and discrete, high-accuracy residual <span class="hlt">topography</span>, we invert for depth- and temperature-dependent and tectonically regionalized mantle viscosity with a mantle flow model. The inversions suggest that long-wavelength gravitational and topographic signals are mainly controlled by the radial viscosity profile; the pre-Cambrian lithosphere viscosity is slightly (˜ one order of magnitude) higher than that of oceanic and Phanerozoic lithosphere; plate margins are substantially weaker than plate interiors; and viscosity has only a weak apparent, dependence on temperature, suggesting either a balancing between factors or a smoothing of actual higher amplitude, but short wavelength, LVVs. The predicted large-scale lithospheric stress regime (compression or extension) is consistent with the world stress map (thrust or normal faulting). Both recent compiled high-accuracy residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the predicted <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> yield ˜1 km amplitude long-wavelength <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, inconsistent with recent studies suggesting amplitudes of ˜100 to ˜500 m. Such studies use a constant, positive admittance (transfer function between <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity), in contrast to the evidence which shows that the earth has a spatially and wavelength-dependent admittance, with large, negative admittances between ˜4000 and ˜104 km wavelengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5114D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5114D"><span>How to approximate viscoelastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of stagnant lid planetary bodies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dumoulin, Caroline; Čadek, Ondřej; Choblet, Gaël</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Planetary mantles are viscoelastic media. However, since numerical models of thermal convection in a viscoelastic spherical shell are still very challenging, most of the studies concerning <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of planetary surfaces generated by mantle convection use one of the following simplified rheological set-up: i) IVF (instantaneous viscous flow), ii) viscous body with a free surface, or iii) hybrid methods combining viscous deformation and elastic filtering of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Justifications for the use of such approximations instead of a fully viscoelastic rheology have been made on the basis of simple tests with step-like viscosity structures, with small to moderate viscosity contrasts. However, because the rheology of planetary materials is thermally activated, the radial stratification of viscosity is more likely to be a continuous function of depth, and global viscosity contrasts might be very large. In our study, we systematically compare viscoelastic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced by an internal load to <span class="hlt">topographies</span> generated by the three different simplified approaches listed above using a realistic viscosity profile for a stagnant lid associated to the lithosphere of a one plate planete. To this purpose, we compute response functions of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid using three different semi-spectral models that all include self-gravitation: a) a linear Maxwell body with a pseudo free upper surface, b) a viscous body with a pseudo free upper surface, and c) a viscous body with a free-slip condition at the surface. Results obtained with this last model (IVF) can then be filtered using the elastic thin shell approximation: the effective elastic thickness then corresponds to the elastic thickness that is needed to fit the viscoelastic <span class="hlt">topography</span> with an elastic filtering of the IVF <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We show that the effective elastic thickness varies strongly with the degree of the load, with the depth of the load, and with the duration of the loading. These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8021V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8021V"><span>Noise-driven cooperative <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> between vegetation and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in riparian zones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vesipa, R.; Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Riparian ecosystems exhibit complex biotic and abiotic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, where the triad vegetation-sediments-stream determines the ecogeomorphological features of the river landscape. Random fluctuations of the water stage are a key trait of this triad, and a number of behaviors of the fluvial environment can be understood only taking into consideration the role of noise. In order to elucidate how randomness shape riparian transects, a stochastic model that takes into account the main links between vegetation, sediments, and the stream is adopted, emphasizing the capability of vegetation to alter the plot <span class="hlt">topography</span>. A minimalistic approach is pursued, and the probability density function of vegetation biomass is analytically evaluated in any transect plot. This probability density function strongly depends on the vegetation-<span class="hlt">topography</span> feedback. We demonstrate how the vegetation-induced modifications of the bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> create more suitable conditions for the survival of vegetation in a stochastically dominated environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T11D1281D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.T11D1281D"><span>Mantle Flow, <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Rift-Flank Uplift of Arabia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daradich, A. L.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Willett, S. D.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The Red Sea is flanked by highlands. To the east, the Arabian platform is broadly tilted along an axis that runs parallel to the sea, and the long tail of high <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been described as a classic example of `rift-flank uplift' [Wernicke, 1985]. A suite of thermal and mechanical effects have been invoked to derive generic mechanisms for flank uplift and these have been applied, with varying levels of success, to the Arabian case. We propose that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> supported by large scale mantle flow beneath the Africa-Arabia system contributes significantly to the observed pattern of Arabian rift-flank uplift. Seismic tomographic images indicate the existence of large scale (anomalously slow) heterogeneity originating from the deep mantle under southern Africa and, apparently, connecting to more shallow structure beneath the East African Rift system and the Arabian plate. We predict Arabian <span class="hlt">topography</span> driven by viscous stresses associated with this buoyant megastructure. We first convert velocity anomalies given by the seismic S-wave model S20RTS [Ritsema et al., 1999] to density anomalies using standard scaling profiles, and then input these into a 2-D mantle convection model. Normal stresses derived from the flow models are then used to compute associated profiles of surface (`<span class="hlt">dynamic</span>') <span class="hlt">topography</span>. These profiles reconcile the observed <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Arabian platform and they provide an explanation for the distinct geometry of rift-flank uplift across the two sides of the Red Sea. Our calculations do not preclude a contribution to <span class="hlt">topography</span> from previously described thermal and/or mechanical effects; however, they indicate that future analyses of rift-flank uplift should consider the potential contribution from large scale mantle flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616088H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616088H"><span>Exploiting Oceanic Residual Depth to Quantify Present-day <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> at the Earth's Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoggard, Mark; White, Nicky</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Convective circulation within the mantle causes vertical motions at the Earth's surface. This <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is time dependent and occurs on wavelengths of 1000s km with maximum amplitudes of ±2 km. Convective simulation models have been used extensively to make predictions of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and have thus far out-paced observational constraints. Here, the well-established relationship between seafloor subsidence and age is used to produce a global map of residual depth anomalies in the oceanic realm. Care is taken to remove other causes of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including an isostatic correction for sedimentary loading that takes compaction into account, a correction for variable oceanic crustal thickness, and lithospheric thickening with age away from mid-ocean ridge spreading centres. A dataset including over 1000 seismic reflection profiles and 300 modern wide-angle refraction experiments has been amassed, primarily on old ocean floor adjacent to the continents. Calculation of residual depth yields a map of present-day <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> with amplitudes significantly larger than the errors associated with the corrections. One of the most interesting results occurs along the west coast of Africa, where two full 2000 km wavelengths of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> have been captured with amplitudes ±1 km that correlate well with the long-wavelength free air gravity anomaly. Comparison with predictive models reveal poor to moderate correlations. This is a direct result of the limited resolution of the mantle tomography models used to set-up convection simulations and also the currently poor understanding of viscosity structure within the Earth. It is hoped that this residual depth dataset should provide an excellent surface boundary constraint for future convective simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.1384C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.1384C"><span>Spatial and temporal patterns of Australian <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from River Profile Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Czarnota, K.; Roberts, G. G.; White, N. J.; Fishwick, S.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Despite its importance, the temporal and spatial evolution of continental <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is poorly known. Australia's isolation from active plate boundaries and its rapid northward motion within a hot spot reference frame make it a useful place to investigate the interplay between mantle convection, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and drainage. Offshore, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is relatively well constrained and can be accounted for by Australia's translation over the mantle's convective circulation. To build a database of onshore constraints, we have analyzed an inventory of longitudinal river profiles, which is sensitive to uplift rate history. Using independently constrained erosional parameters, we determine uplift rates by minimizing the misfit between observed and calculated river profiles. Resultant fits are excellent and calculated uplift histories match independent geologic constraints. We infer that western and central Australia underwent regional uplift during the last 50 Myr and that the Eastern Highlands have been uplifted in two stages. The first stage from 120 to 80 Ma, coincided with rifting along the eastern margin and its existence is supported by thermochronological measurements. A second stage occurred at 80-10 Ma, formed the Great Escarpment, and coincided with Cenozoic volcanism. The relationship between <span class="hlt">topography</span>, gravity anomalies, and shear wave tomographic models suggest that regional elevation is supported by temperature anomalies within the lithosphere's thermal boundary layer. Morphology and stratigraphy of the Eastern Highlands imply that these anomalies have been coupled to the base of the plate during Australia's northward motion over the last 70 Myr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8197E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8197E"><span>The bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the Obskaya and Baydaratskaya Bays, Kara Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ermolov, A.; Noskov, A.; Ogorodov, S.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The development of the arctic gas fields requires a gas transport system to be laid across the Obskaya Bay and the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea. Designing, construction and safe operation of the offshore parts of the crossing demands special knowledge about a structure of the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> and coastal zone <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Results of investigation indicate a difference between those regions and common features of structure and evolution. Owing to a quite large scale of research it was possible to detail the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span>, to reveal separate elements and forms. The analyses of <span class="hlt">topography</span> were executed to define the mechanisms and basic phases of relief formation. Accordingly, the geomorphological map describing the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> by the set of parameters (major of them are morphology, morphometry, age, genesis and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>) has also become more detailed. Geomorphological structure of a seabed is the important source of the information on location of permafrost relicts, sites of concentration of rip currents, intensive ice bottom gouging, deformations of an underwater coastal slope and other adverse phenomena and dangerous exogenous processes. The analysis of all these data allowed making prediction of bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> development, to plan and carry out an engineering construction. Digital model of bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> is a basis for engineering constructions designing. Creation of digital models of bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> was carried out by the original method consisted of several stages and based on manual author's processing and interpretation of maps. Also a large amount of archival and literary materials on geophysics, geology, geomorphology and paleogeography has been involved for digital model creation with the purpose to determine the features of morphostructure and genesis of the basic elements. It is established, that the geomorphological structure of the bottom of the Baydaratskaya and Obskaya Bays reflects consecutive change of the conditions and relief</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6912A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6912A"><span>Density heterogeneity of the cratonic mantle and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in southern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Artemieva, Irina; Vinnik, Lev</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>An unusually high <span class="hlt">topography</span> in southern Africa may be caused by the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> support of the mantle below the lithosphere base and/or by a low density (high depletion) of the cratonic lithospheric mantle. We use free-board constraints to examine the relative contributions of the both factors to surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and present the model of density structure of the lithospheric mantle in southern Africa. The results indicate that 0.5-1.0 km of <span class="hlt">topography</span> requires contribution from the sublithospheric mantle because it cannot be explained by the lithosphere structure within the petrologically permitted range of mantle densities. We propose that this additional <span class="hlt">topography</span> may be associated with the low-density region below the depth of isostatic compensation (LAB). A likely candidate is the low velocity layer between the lithospheric base and the mantle transition zone, where a temperature anomaly of 100-200 deg may produce the required extra contribution to regional topographic uplift. The calculated lithospheric mantle density values are in an overall agreement with xenolith-based data for lithospheric terranes of different ages and show an overall trend in mantle density increase from Archean to younger lithospheric terranes. A significant anomaly in mantle depletion beneath the Limpopo belt and the Bushveld Complex may result from regional melt-metasomatism. Density anomalies in the lithospheric mantle show an overall inverse correlation with seismic Vp, Vs velocities at 100-150 km depth; however, density-velocity relationship is strongly non-unique. Manuscripts in revision, Gondwana Research (2016)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SolED...4..889B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SolED...4..889B"><span>Insight into collision zone <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from <span class="hlt">topography</span>: numerical modelling results and observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> basin (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate causes the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. This uplift and subsidence pattern correlates well with our modelled <span class="hlt">topography</span> changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SolE....3..387B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SolE....3..387B"><span>Insight into collision zone <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from <span class="hlt">topography</span>: numerical modelling results and observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) basin on the overriding plate after initial collision. This "collisional mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> basin" (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing, material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also, during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate cause the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. Our modelled <span class="hlt">topography</span> changes fit well with this observed uplift and subsidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..256J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..256J"><span>Assimilation of geodetic <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> data into ocean circulation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janjic, Tijana; Schroeter, Jens; Albertella, Alberta; Bosch, Wolfgang; Rummel, Reiner; Savcenko, Roman</p> <p></p> <p>Estimation of ocean circulation via assimilation of satellite measurements of <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DOT) into the global finite-element ocean model (FEOM) is investigated. The DOT was obtained by means of geodetic approach from carefully cross-calibrated multi-mission-altimeter data and GRACE gravity fields. The spectral consistency was achieved by means of the filtering applied on sea surface and geoid. Since the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> is obtained from data types coming from different sources, different techniques can be employed for their assimilation into ocean circulation models. For example, the data can be combined and interpolated onto the model grid before they are used in assimilation. In this case special care needs to be taken concerning the specification of observational error statistics. The assimilation is performed by employing the local SEIK filter and various functions for observations error covariance are used. Finally we consider the effects of assimilation on potential temperature field and on steric height changes. Analysed potential temperature is compared with ARGO data. We also compared the standard deviation of the observations and standard deviation of the steric height calculated from the analysis. In many regions of the world ocean there is a good correspondence between these two fields. However also structures that are not present in the observations appear in the steric height standard deviations. Keywords: <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span>, data assimilation Session: A2.6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T23A2914M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T23A2914M"><span>Slab flattening, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and normal faulting in the Cordillera Blanca region (northern Peru)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Margirier, A.; Robert, X.; Laurence, A.; Gautheron, C.; Bernet, M.; Simon-Labric, T.; Hall, S. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Processes driving surface uplift in the Andes are still debated and the role of subduction processes as slab flattening on surface uplift and relief building in the Andes is not well understood. Some of the highest Andean summits, the Cordillera Blanca (6768 m) and the Cordillera Negra (5187 m), are located above a present flat subduction zone (3-15°S), in northern Peru. In this area, both the geometry and timing of the flattening of the slab are well constrained (Gutscher et al., 1999; Rosenbaum et al., 2005). This region is thus a perfect target to explore the effect of slab flattening on the Andean <span class="hlt">topography</span> and uplift. We obtained new apatite (U-Th)/He and fission-track ages from three vertical profiles located in the Cordillera Blanca and the Cordillera Negra. Time-temperature paths obtained from inverse modeling of the thermochronological data indicates a Middle Miocene cooling for both Cordillera Negra profiles. We interpret it as regional exhumation in the Cordillera Occidental starting in Middle Miocene, synchronous with the onset of the subduction of the Nazca ridge (Rosenbaum et al., 2005). We propose that the Nazca ridge subduction at 15 Ma and onset of slab flattening in northern Peru drove regional positive <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and thus enhanced exhumation in the Cordillera Occidental. This study provides new evidence of the impact subduction processes and associated <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> on paleogeography and surface uplift in the Andes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430103"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements with high resolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A unique <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392223"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements with high resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>A unique <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> frequency-domain interferometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214243','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214243"><span>The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> control ratio at the equilibrium point (DCRe): introducing relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reliability scores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alt, Tobias; Knicker, Axel J; Strüder, Heiko K</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Analytical methods to assess thigh muscle balance need to provide reliable data to allow meaningful interpretation. However, reproducibility of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> control ratio at the equilibrium point has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reliability indices of its angle and moment values with conventional and functional hamstring-quadriceps ratios. Furthermore, effects of familiarisation and angular velocity on reproducibility were analysed. A number of 33 male volunteers participated in 3 identical test sessions. Peak moments (PMs) were determined unilaterally during maximum concentric and eccentric knee flexion (prone) and extension (supine position) at 0.53, 1.57 and 2.62 rad · s(-1). A repeated measure, ANOVA, confirmed systematic bias. Intra-class correlation coefficients and standard errors of measurement indicated relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reliability. Correlation coefficients were averaged over respective factors and tested for significant differences. All balance scores showed comparable low-to-moderate relative (<0.8-0.9) and good <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reliability (<10%). Relative reproducibility of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> control equilibrium parameters augmented with increasing angular velocity, but not with familiarisation. At 2.62 rad · s(-1), high (moment: 0.906) to moderate (angle: 0.833) relative reliability scores with accordingly high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> indices (4.9% and 6.4%) became apparent. Thus, the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> control equilibrium is an equivalent method for the reliable assessment of thigh muscle balance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25503050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25503050"><span>Frequency-scanning interferometry for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement using Kalman filter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tao, Long; Liu, Zhigang; Zhang, Weibo; Zhou, Yangli</p> <p>2014-12-15</p> <p>We propose a frequency-scanning interferometry using the Kalman filtering technique for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement. Frequency-scanning interferometry only uses a single tunable laser driven by a triangle waveform signal for forward and backward optical frequency scanning. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance and moving speed of a target can be estimated by the present input measurement of frequency-scanning interferometry and the previously calculated state based on the Kalman filter algorithm. This method not only compensates for movement errors in conventional frequency-scanning interferometry, but also achieves high-precision and low-complexity <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> measurements. Experimental results of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> measurements under static state, vibration and one-dimensional movement are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33B4532O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S33B4532O"><span>Effect of the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohtani, M.; Hirahara, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>For quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> earthquake cycle simulations (ECSs) using BIEM, we have developed a method of calculating slip response function (SRF) in a homogeneous elastic medium with an arbitrary shaped Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> (Ohtani and Hirahara, 2013; Paper1). In this study, we report the improvement in our method. Following Hok and Fukuyama (2011), we set the Earth's surface as a free surface, in addition to the fault interface, in a homogeneous full-space medium. Then, using the analytic solution in full-space, we can calculate the Earth's surface deformation, then the SRF change. The surface cell setting determines the accuracy. For reducing the computational amount, we use the different sizes of the surface region and its divided subfault cells, depending on the fault depth. Paper1 used the uniform size for surface cells. Here, we improved our method where the Earth's surface cells closer to the trench have the finer sizes for achieving more accuracy. With such numerical SRF, we performed the quasi-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ECS on a model, where the Earth's surface is convex upward. Basically, with this <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the slip behavior approaches the full-space case, from the half-space with flat surface case. This is because the distance from the Earth's surface to the fault becomes large. When we set two asperities with negative A - B in the positive A - B background at 10km and 35km depths, the two asperities rupture independently. The recurrence time of the shallow asperity is Trshalf = 34.95, Trsflat = 34.89, and Trsactual =32.82 years, when using analytic SRF in half-space, and numerical SRF with flat surface and with actual <span class="hlt">topography</span>, respectively. For each case, the recurrence time of the deep asperity is Tr1_dhalf = 26.80, Tr1_dflat = 26.89, and Tr1_dactual =26.69 years. Thus, the shallower asperity is more affected by the Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> than the deeper one, because the distance change rate from the surface to the fault is larger. On the other hand, when we set</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C21A0305A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C21A0305A"><span>Enhanced Arctic Mean Sea Surface and Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> including retracked CryoSat-2 Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andersen, O. B.; Jain, M.; Stenseng, L.; Knudsen, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A reliable mean sea surface (MSS) is essential to derive a good mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) and for the estimation of short and long-term changes in the sea surface. The lack of satellite radar altimetry observations above 82 degrees latitude means that existing mean sea surface models have been unreliable in the Arctic Ocean. We here present the latest DTU mean sea surface and mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> models combining conventional altimetry with retracked CryoSat-2 data to improve the reliability in the Arctic Ocean. For the derivation of a mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> the ESA GOCE derived geoid model have been used to constrain the longer wavelength. We present the retracking of C2 SAR data using various retrackes and how we have been able to combine data from various retrackers under various sea ice conditions. DTU13MSS and DTU13MDT are the newest state of the art global high-resolution models including CryoSat-2 data to extend the satellite radar altimetry coverage up to 88 degrees latitude and through combination with a GOCE geoid model completes coverage all the way to the North Pole. Furthermore the SAR and SARin capability of CryoSat-2 dramatically increases the amount of useable sea surface returns in sea-ice covered areas compared to conventional radar altimeters like ENVISAT and ERS-1/2. With the inclusion of CryoSat-2 data the new mean sea surface is improved by more than 20 cm above 82 degrees latitude compared with the previous generation of mean sea surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712057O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712057O"><span>Active layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in three sites with contrasted <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, Antarctica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Vieira, Gonçalo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Topography</span> exerts a key role on permafrost distribution in areas where mean annual temperatures are slightly negative. This is the case of low-altitude environments in Maritime Antarctica, namely in the South Shetland Islands, where permafrost is marginal to discontinuous until elevations of 20-40 m asl turning to continuous at higher areas. Consequently, the active layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is also strongly conditioned by the geomorphological setting. In January 2014 we installed three sites for monitoring the active layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> across the Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands) in different geomorphological environments at elevations between 60 and 100 m. The purpose was to examine the role of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and microclimatic conditions on the active layer <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. At each site a set of loggers was set up to monitor: air temperatures, snow thickness, ground temperatures until 80 cm together with the coupling atmosphere-ground temperatures. During the first year of monitoring the mean annual air temperatures show similar values in the three sites, in all cases slightly below freezing. The snowy conditions during this year in this archipelago have resulted in a late melting of snow, which has also conditioned the duration of frozen conditions in the uppermost soil layers. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> has a strong influence on snow cover duration, which in turn affects frozen ground conditions. The Domo site is located in a higher position with respect to the central plateau of Byers; here, the wind is stronger and snow cover thinner, which has conditioned a longer thawing season than in the other two sites (Cerro Negro, Escondido). These two sites are located in topographically protected areas favouring snow accumulation. The longer persistence of snow conditions a longer duration of negative temperatures in the active layer of the permafrost. This research was financially supported by the HOLOANTAR project (Portuguese Science Foundation) and the AXA Research Fund.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI11A2577Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI11A2577Z"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> as constraints on stress and viscosity in the mantle and lithosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhong, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Mantle convection generates stress in the mantle and lithosphere. The lithosphere stress is responsible for localized deformation including seismic deformation at plate boundaries, and localized stress highs in lithosphere are also suggested to cause <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> self-consistent generation of plate tectonics and continental lithosphere instability, as the stress exceeds a threshold or yield stress. Modeling load-induced deformation at oceanic islands (e.g., Hawaii) constrains lithospheric stress at 100-200 MPa in the plate interiors, leading to a lower limit on lithospheric yield stress (Zhong and Watts, 2013). However, convection-induced lithospheric stress is poorly understood, ranging from 500 MPa to tens of MPa as reported in mantle convection studies. The magnitude and distribution of lithospheric and mantle stress depend critically on buoyancy and viscosity, particularly the latter. Unfortunately, lithospheric and mantle viscosity is also poorly constrained. For example, the inferred lower mantle viscosity from post-glacial rebound and geoid modeling studies ranges from 1023 Pas to 1022 Pas (e.g., Mitrovica and Forte, 2004; Simons and Hager, 1996; Paulson et al., 2007). In addition to the stress, the lower mantle viscosity may also affect the time evolution of mantle structure including sinking rate of slabs and formation of the degree-2 mantle seismic structure. Therefore, it is important to develop independent constraints on mantle viscosity and convection-induced stress. In this study, I demonstrate that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be used to place first-order constraints on both lithospheric stress and mantle viscosity. For a given superadiabatic temperature difference across the mantle (e.g., 2500 K), a larger mantle viscosity (or a smaller Rayleigh number) leads to a larger lithospheric stress and a larger <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. To be consistent with the inferred <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the lower mantle viscosity is constrained to be significantly smaller than 1023</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004856','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920004856"><span>Flight <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> facility operational orbit determination support for the ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bolvin, D. T.; Schanzle, A. F.; Samii, M. V.; Doll, C. E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Experiment (TOPEX/POSEIDON) mission is designed to determine the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Earth's sea surface across a 3 yr period, beginning with launch in June 1992. The Goddard Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Facility has the capability to operationally receive and process Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) tracking data. Because these data will be used to support orbit determination (OD) aspects of the TOPEX mission, the <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Facility was designated to perform TOPEX operational OD. The scientific data require stringent OD accuracy in navigating the TOPEX spacecraft. The OD accuracy requirements fall into two categories: (1) on orbit free flight; and (2) maneuver. The maneuver OD accuracy requirements are of two types; premaneuver planning and postmaneuver evaluation. Analysis using the Orbit Determination Error Analysis System (ODEAS) covariance software has shown that, during the first postlaunch mission phase of the TOPEX mission, some postmaneuver evaluation OD accuracy requirements cannot be met. ODEAS results also show that the most difficult requirements to meet are those that determine the change in the components of velocity for postmaneuver evaluation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T14B..04E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T14B..04E"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Passage of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Beneath the Southern Costa Rica Forearc seen with Seismic Stratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, J. H.; Kluesner, J. W.; Silver, E. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>3D seismic reflection data (CRISP) collected across the southern Costa Rica margin reveals that a thick, deforming sedimentary wedge underlies the younger slope sediments (Silver et al., this meeting). The older wedge material and younger slope sediments are separated by a high-amplitude regional unconformity. Seismic stratigraphy of the sedimentary strata overlying this regional unconformity reflects a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> deformation history of the margin. The younger slope sediments contain series of more localized unconformities, separating sedimentary units as thick as 1 km that reveal a <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> changing set of inverted, overlapping basins. The geometry of these overlapping, inverted basins indicate sequential uplift events. The direction of basin thickening varies upsection, and these basins are cut by both thrust and normal faults and are deformed by folding. Structural development appears to be controlled by relief on the subducting plate interface, which induces uplift and subsidence and thereby controls the pattern of erosion and deposition. We interpret the evolution of these inverted stratigraphic packages as forming from subducting <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Correlating these seismic-stratigraphic packages to recent drilling based on preliminary magnetostratigraphy from IODP site U1413 (Expedition 344 Scientists, 2013), allows us to date the passage of the subducting plate <span class="hlt">topography</span> beginning ~2 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8215E..04P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8215E..04P"><span>Interferometer for measuring the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a human tear film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Primeau, Brian C.; Greivenkamp, John E.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The anterior refracting surface of the eye is the thin tear film that forms on the surface of the cornea. Following a blink, the tear film quickly smoothes and starts to become irregular after 10 seconds. This irregularity can affect comfort and vision quality. An in vivo method of characterizing <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> tear films has been designed based upon a near-infrared phase-shifting interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the tear film, allowing sub-micron analysis of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Movies showing the tear film behavior can be generated along with quantitative metrics describing changes in the tear film surface. This tear film measurement allows analysis beyond capabilities of typical fluorescein visual inspection or corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and provides better sensitivity and resolution than shearing interferometry methods. The interferometer design is capable of identifying features in the tear film much less than a micron in height with a spatial resolution of about ten microns over a 6 mm diameter. This paper presents the design of the tear film interferometer along with the considerations that must be taken when designing an interferometer for on-eye diagnostics. Discussions include eye movement, design of null optics for a range of ocular geometries, and laser emission limits for on-eye interferometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614915S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614915S"><span>Enhancing the Arctic Mean Sea Surface and Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> with CryoSat-2 Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole B.; Knudsen, Per</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A reliable mean sea surface (MSS) is essential to derive a good mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) and for the estimation of short and long-term changes in the sea surface. The lack of satellite radar altimetry observations above 82 degrees latitude means that existing mean sea surface models have been unreliable in the Arctic Ocean. We here present the latest DTU mean sea surface and mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> models that includes CryoSat-2 data to improve the reliability in the Arctic Ocean. In an attempt to extrapolate across the gap above 82 degrees latitude the previously models included ICESat data, gravimetrical geoids, ocean circulation models and various combinations hereof. Unfortunately cloud cover and the short periods of operation has a negative effect on the number of ICESat sea surface observations. DTU13MSS and DTU13MDT are the new generation of state of the art global high-resolution models that includes CryoSat-2 data to extend the satellite radar altimetry coverage up to 88 degrees latitude. Furthermore the SAR and SARin capability of CryoSat-2 dramatically increases the amount of useable sea surface returns in sea-ice covered areas compared to conventional radar altimeters like ENVISAT and ERS-1/2. With the inclusion of CryoSat-2 data the new mean sea surface is improved by more than 20 cm above 82 degrees latitude compared with the previous generation of mean sea surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.2501K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..38.2501K"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean from ICESat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwok, R.; Morison, J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We construct the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DOT) of the Arctic Ocean, for five ICESat campaigns (winter of 2004-2008), using sea surface height estimates in open leads. Results show that the mean winter DOT over the Arctic Ocean varies by ˜1 m and features a distinct dome of ˜40 cm over the Beaufort Sea. Standard deviation of the mean field is ˜20 cm. Spatial coherence between the five winter DOTs is consistently high (>0.9), whereas the coherence between the DOTs and the winter (DJFM) sea-level pressure fields over the Arctic Basin is variable. This suggests persistence of the underlying hydrodynamic processes at interannual time-scales compared to seasonal atmospheric forcing. Comparison of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> heights (DH) from hydrographic surveys and the DOT in 2008 shows a remarkable correlation of 0.92. The geostrophic velocity fields computed from the DOT and interpolated DH fields highlight the smaller scale oceanographic features in the satellite estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T43F2729D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T43F2729D"><span>The Time Dependance of <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Mantle <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Contributions to Local and Global Sea-Level Histories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Durbin, C. J.; Shahnas, M.; Peltier, W. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> plays an important role in many surface processes, particularly through its influence on the water cycle and erosional processes. Our ability to predict weather patterns and surface/subsurface hydrological processes depends upon our knowledge of this field. Similarly, understanding the evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> through time (paleo-<span class="hlt">topography</span>) is critically important for the accurate modeling of past climate states such as that of the last glacial maximum. Whilst the present day topographic field can be accurately inferred over the entire globe using satellite based sensors and geodetic techniques, no equivalently comprehensive tools exist that enable access to paleo-<span class="hlt">topography</span>. The rock record allows for limited, local estimations of deposition elevation with respect to sea level using appropriate fossils combined with sedimentological analyses. However, this method is not available in most locations as a consequence of poor-preservation of the requisite sea level indicators and in any event the accuracy of the relative sea level record is often compromised. Furthermore, just as <span class="hlt">topography</span> itself consists of distinct <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and isostatic contributions, relatives sea level also consists of two contributions, respectively that due to the vertical motion of the surface of the solid Earth and that due to the changing volume of water in the global oceans. In this paper we study the time dependence of Earth's <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> that has occurred over the recent past due to the action of the mantle convection process. We use a modern model of mantle mixing, an extension to three dimensions of the recently published control volume based convection model of Shahnas and Peltier (2010, JGR, vol 115, B11408). This is initialized using a mantle temperature field inferred on the basis of modern seismic tomographic imaging analysis, which enables the model to simulate the present day <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> state of Earth's mantle. The use of this methodology enables the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......146C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......146C"><span>Molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> investigation of nanoscale substrate <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its interaction with liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cordeiro Rodrigues, Jhonatam</p> <p></p> <p>Nanotechnology has been presenting successful applications in several areas. However, experimentation with nanoscale materials is costly and limited in analysis capability. This research investigates the use of molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD) simulations to model and study nanomaterials and manufacturing processes. MD simulations are employed to reduce cost, optimize design, increase productivity and allow for the investigation of material interactions not yet observable through experimentation. This work investigates the interaction of water with substrates at the nanoscale. The effect of temperature, droplet impingement velocities and size, as well as substrate material, are investigated at the nanoscale. Several substrate <span class="hlt">topography</span> designs were modeled to reveal their influence on the wettability of the substrate. Nanoscale gold and silicon substrates are more hydrophilic at higher temperatures than at room temperature. The reduction in droplet diameter increases its wettability. High impingement velocity of droplets does not influence final wettability of substrates but induces higher diffusion rates of droplets in a heated environment. Droplets deposited over a gradient of surface exposure presents spontaneous movement. The Leidenfrost effect was investigated at the nanoscale. Droplets of 4 and 10nm in diameter presented behaviors pertinent to the Leidenfrost effect at 373K, significantly lower than at micro scale and of potential impact to the field. Topographical features were manipulated using superhydrophobic coating resulting in micro whiskers. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) was used to manufacture substrate <span class="hlt">topographies</span> at the nanoscale. Water droplets were deposited on the substrates and their wettability was measured using droplet contact angles. Lower surface area exposure resulted in higher contact angles. The experimental relationships between surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and substrate wettability were used to validate the insights gained from MD simulations for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016168','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016168"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, gravity and improved orbit accuracies from the direct evaluation of SEASAT altimeter data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Marsh, J. G.; Lerch, F.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Williamson, R. G.; Patel, G. B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A method for the simultaneous solution of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span>, gravity and orbits using satellite altimeter data is described. A GEM-T1 based gravitational model called PGS-3337 that incorporates Seasat altimetry, surface gravimetry and satellite tracking data has been determined complete to degree and order 50. The altimeter data is utilized as a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> observation of the satellite's height above the sea surface with a degree 10 model of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> being recovered simultaneously with the orbit parameters, gravity and tidal terms in this model. PGS-3337 has a geoid uncertainty of 60 cm root-mean-square (RMS) globally, with the uncertainty over the altimeter tracked ocean being in the 25 cm range. Doppler determined orbits for Seasat, show large improvements, with the sub-30 cm radial accuracies being achieved. When altimeter data is used in orbit determination, radial orbital accuracies of 20 cm are achieved. The RMS of fit to the altimeter data directly gives 30 cm fits for Seasat when using PGS-3337 and its geoid and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> model. This performance level is two to three times better than that achieved with earlier Goddard earth models (GEM) using the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from long-term oceanographic averages. The recovered <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> reveals the global long wavelength circulation of the oceans with a resolution of 1500 km. The power in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> recovery is now found to be closer to that of oceanographic studies than for previous satellite solutions. This is attributed primarily to the improved modeling of the geoid which has occurred. Study of the altimeter residuals reveals regions where tidal models are poor and sea state effects are major limitations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.190..922A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.190..922A"><span>High resolution <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Southern Ocean from GOCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albertella, A.; Savcenko, R.; Janjić, T.; Rummel, R.; Bosch, W.; Schröter, J.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>A mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) has been computed using a high resolution GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) gravity model and a new mean sea surface obtained from a combination of satellite altimetry covering the period 1992 October till 2010 April. The considered gravity model is GO-CONS-GCF-2-TIM-R3, which computes geoid using 12 months of GOCE gravity field data. The GOCE gravity data allow for more detailed and accurate estimates of MDT. This is illustrated in the Southern Ocean where the commission error is reduced from 20 to 5 cm compared to the MDT computed using the GRACE gravity field model ITG-Grace2010. As a result of the more detailed and accurate MDT, the calculation of geostrophic velocities from the MDT is now possible with higher accuracy and spatial resolution, and the error estimate is about 7 cm s-1 for the Southern Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.728E..11C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.728E..11C"><span>Nonlinear Diffusion Filtering of the GOCE-Based Satellite-Only Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cunderlik, Robert; Mikula, Karol</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The paper presents nonlinear diffusion filtering of the GOCE-based satellite-only mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT). Our approach is based on a numerical solution to the nonlinear diffusion equation defined on the discretized Earth’s surface using the regularized surface Perona-Malik Model. For its numerical discretization we use a surface finite volume method. A key idea is that the diffusivity coefficient depends on the edge detector. It allows effectively reduce the stripping noise while preserve important gradients in filtered data. Numerical experiments present nonlinear filtering of the geopotential evaluated from the GO_CONS_GCF_2_ DIR_R5 model on the DTU13 mean sea surface. After filtering the geopotential is transformed into the MDT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDM13006Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDM13006Z"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> roughness model for LES of turbulent flow over multiscale urban-like <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xiaowei; Anderson, William</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Urban-like <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are composed of a wide spectrum of topographic elements, which results in multiscale, fractal-like distributions. This has important implications for microscale numerical weather prediction in urban environments, or urban meteorology: the range of scales inhibits the use of numerical schemes where the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is fully resolved, but the self-similar nature of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> inspires development of closures that leverage such self-similarity to parameterize unresolved information. That is, a natural urban landscape can be low-pass filtered at the large-eddy simulation grid scale, thereby removing details between the grid scale and the smallest scale of the landscape, but the effects of these truncated topographic modes can be modeled based on details of the large scale. LES has been used to investigate the effects of subgrid-scale (SGS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the roughness length of multiscale urban-like <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. First, high-resolution multiscale urban-like <span class="hlt">topographies</span> were generated with random distribution function. Then, the high-resolution multiscale <span class="hlt">topography</span> was filtered and separated into large- and small-scale <span class="hlt">topographies</span> with the Reynolds decomposition. Thus, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> was decomposed into resolved (scale larger than the grid scale) and SGS part (scale smaller than the filter scale). The resolved part was resolved in LES, while the SGS terrain must be parameterized. New models for urban roughness will be used to parameterize SGS <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Army Research Office, Grant # W911NF-15-1-0231.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040031692','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040031692"><span>The Effect of Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> on the Nonlinear <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Rossby Waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abarzhi, S. I.; Desjardins, O.; Pitsch, H.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Boussinesq convection in rotating systems attracts a sustained attention of the fluid <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> community, because it has intricate non-linear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (Cross & Hohenberg 1993) and plays an important role in geophysical and astrophysical applications, such as the motion of the liquid outer core of Earth, the Red Spot in Jupiter, the giant cells in the Sun etc. (Alridge et al. 1990). A fundamental distinction between the real geo- and astrophysical problems and the idealized laboratory studies is that natural systems are inhomogeneous (Alridge et al. 1990). Heterogeneities modulate the flow and influence significantly the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of convective patterns (Alridge et al. 1990; Hide 1971). The effect of modulations on pattern formation and transition to turbulence in Boussinesq convection is far from being completely understood (Cross & Hohenberg 1993; Aranson & Kramer 2002). It is generally accepted that in the liquid outer core of the Earth the transport of the angular momentum and internal heat occurs via thermal Rossby waves (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). These waves been visualized in laboratory experiments in rotating liquid-filled spheres and concentric spherical shells (Zhang et al. 2001; Kuang & Bloxham 1999). The basic <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> features of Rossby waves have been reproduced in a cylindrical annulus, a system much simpler than the spherical ones (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). For convection in a cylindrical annulus, the fluid motion is two-dimensional, and gravity is replaced by a centrifugal force, (Busse & Or 1986; Or & Busse 1987). Hide (1971) has suggested that the momentum and heat transport in the core might be influenced significantly by so-called bumps, which are heterogeneities on the mantle-core boundary. To model the effect of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the transport of momentum and energy in the liquid outer core of the Earth, Bell & Soward (1996), Herrmann & Busse (1998) and Westerburg & Busse (2001) have studied the nonlinear <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.P12B1062P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.P12B1062P"><span>Venus - <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Interior, Gravity Field and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Analyzed by Multiresolution Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pauer, M.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The goal of our effort is to find such an interior structure of Venus which best predicts the geoid data. Our models are based on different kinds of <span class="hlt">topography</span> support. The predicted data are compared with observed ones on the basis of common spectral methods and localization methods. First, we apply the principle of isostasy and we look for an average apparent depth of compensation (ADC). For the whole spectrum, dominated by the low degrees, a 165 km depth is found which might correspond to a bottom of the lithosphere. However, the predicted geoid does not fit well to the observed data in the whole spectral interval. Studying the degree-dependent ADC and the admittance function we obtain a uniform depth of compensation around 35 km for degrees higher than 40. For the geoid at degrees lower than 40 we propose a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> origin. This hypothesis is investigated in the framework of the internal loading theory. Assuming that the buoyancy force does not vary with depth (which roughly corresponds to a plume-like style of mantle convection) we can well explain about 90% of both geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The best fit to the data and the observed admittance function is found for the viscosity profile with a ~100 km thick lithosphere and a viscosity increase by factor 10-100 through the mantle. Second, we analyze our results by means of multiresolution methods. This technique is generally a useful tool for filtering the full-spectra signal. In comparison with the spherical harmonics the wavelet base (or some other suitable function) is well localized (i.e. has non-zero amplitudes only in a vicinity of the point of interest). So using this method we obtain true field anomalies without artificial oscillations. In our study of geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venus we can also look at localized "qualitative" fields: correlation and admittance. There are two major approaches - spectral one presented by Simons et al. (1997) and spatial one presented by Kido et al. (2003). We use the later one</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060029916&hterms=Topography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DTopography','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060029916&hterms=Topography&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DTopography"><span>Advances in large-scale ocean <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from a decade of satellite altimetric measurement of ocean surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fu, L. L.; Menard, Y.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The past decade has seen the most intensive observations of the global ocean surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> from satellite altimeters. The Joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) Mission has become the longest radar mission ever flown in space, providing the most accurate measurements for the study of ocean <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> since October 1992.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B43I0674F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B43I0674F"><span>Soil organic carbon <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> as affected by <span class="hlt">topography</span> in southern California hillslopes systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fissore, C.; Dalzell, B. J.; Berhe, A. A.; Evans, M.; Voegtle, M.; Wu, A. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Active <span class="hlt">topography</span> is a predominant feature of Southern California's landscapes where intense erosion and depositional processes can influence SOC translocation and accumulation and where changes in chemical, physical, and topographic conditions may affect long-term stability of SOC. Considering the large variability in SOC content across areas with active <span class="hlt">topography</span>, it is necessary to develop landscape-scale stratifications of sampling that capture SOC variability due to erosion and deposition processes at different topographic locations. To achieve this goal, landscape SOC needs to be assessed based on more than just slope position by taking into account specific topographic indices, such as slope class, curvature, and catchment area. In this work, we used a series of analytical approaches, including total and water extractable C fractions, ultraviolet absorbance, infrared spectroscopy and a radio-isotope tracer (137Cs) in combination with GIS and digital terrain attributes analyses to investigate the quality and distribution of SOC along the sloping landscape of Puente Hills Preserve, in Whittier, CA. The complex interaction of terrain attributes on erosion and depositional processes was evident from 137Cs analysis, which allowed us to identify depositional and eroding areas. Our findings indicate that greater SOC accumulation is associated with concave profile and plane curvature, when combined with low slope class. Slope appears to be the terrain attribute that most affects SOC content and slope effects persist at depth. Ultraviolet absorbance of water extractable OC and infrared spectroscopy of SOC allowed the identification of different levels of aromaticity and distribution of SOC moieties that have been correlated to rates of mineralization. Southern California, like other Mediterranean regions around the world, is expected to experience increasingly severe droughts, more intense erosion and more frequent fire perturbation - which can exacerbate erosion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11E..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMPP11E..04A"><span>The impact of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> change on Antarctic Ice Sheet stability during the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Austermann, J.; Pollard, D.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Deconto, R. M.; Rowley, D. B.; Raymo, M. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The mid-Pliocene warm period (MPWP; ~ 3Ma), characterized by globally elevated temperatures (2-3º C) and carbon dioxide levels of ~400ppm, is commonly used as a testing ground for investigating ice sheet stability in a slightly warmer world. The central, unanswered question in this regard is the extent of East Antarctic melting during the MPWP. Here we assess the potential role of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> on this issue. Model reconstructions of the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet during the ice age require an estimate of bedrock elevation through time. Ice sheet models account for changes in bedrock elevation due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), often using simplified models of the GIA process, but they generally do not consider other processes that may perturb subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span>. One such notable process is <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, i.e. the deflection of the solid surface of the Earth due to convective flow and buoyancy variations within the mantle and lithosphere. Paleo-shorelines of Pliocene age reflect the influence of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, but the impact of these bedrock elevation changes on ice sheet stability in the Antarctic region is unknown. In this study we use viscous flow simulations of mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> to predict changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and reconstruct bedrock elevations below the Antarctic Ice Sheet since the MPWP. We furthermore couple this reconstruction to a three-dimensional ice sheet model in order to explore the impact of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the extent of the Antarctic Ice Sheet during the Pliocene. Our modeling indicates that uplift occurred in the area of the Transantarctic Mountains and the adjacent Wilkes Basin. This predicted uplift, which is consistent with geological inferences of uplift in the Transantarctic Mountains, implies a significantly (~100-200 m) lower elevation of the Wilkes Basin in the Pliocene. This lower elevation leads to ~400 km of additional retreat of the grounding line in this region relative to simulations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.137vA519V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.137vA519V"><span>Nonlinear dimensionality reduction for nonadiabatic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>: The influence of conical intersection <span class="hlt">topography</span> on population transfer rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Virshup, Aaron M.; Chen, Jiahao; Martínez, Todd J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Conical intersections play a critical role in the nonadiabatic relaxation of excited electronic states. However, there are an infinite number of these intersections and it is difficult to predict which are actually relevant. Furthermore, traditional descriptors such as intrinsic reaction coordinates and steepest descent paths often fail to adequately characterize excited state reactions due to their highly nonequilibrium nature. To address these deficiencies in the characterization of excited state mechanisms, we apply a nonlinear dimensionality reduction scheme (diffusion mapping) to generate reaction coordinates directly from ab initio multiple spawning <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> calculations. As illustrated with various examples of photoisomerization <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, excited state reaction pathways can be derived directly from simulation data without any a priori specification of relevant coordinates. Furthermore, diffusion maps also reveal the influence of intersection <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the efficiency of electronic population transfer, providing further evidence that peaked intersections promote nonadiabatic transitions more effectively than sloped intersections. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques as powerful tools for elucidating reaction mechanisms beyond the statistical description of processes on ground state potential energy surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010016297&hterms=frank+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dfrank%2Bsmith','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010016297&hterms=frank+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dfrank%2Bsmith"><span>Geopotential Model Improvement Using POCM_4B <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Information: PGM2000A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pavlis, N. K.; Chinn, D. S.; Cox, C. M.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The two-year mean (1993-1994) <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (DOT) field implied by the POCM_4B circulation model was used to develop normal equations for DOT, in a surface spherical harmonic representation. These normal equations were combined with normal equations from satellite tracking data, surface gravity data, and altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1. Several least-squares combination solutions were developed in this fashion, by varying parameters such as the maximum degree of the estimated DOT and the relative weights of the different data. The solutions were evaluated in terms of orbit fit residuals, GPS/Leveling-derived undulations, and independent DOT information from in situ WOCE hydrographic data. An optimal solution was developed in this fashion which was originally presented at the 1998 EGS meeting in Nice, France. This model, designated here PGM2000A, maintains the orbit and land geoid modeling performance of EGM96, while improving its marine geoid modeling capability. In addition, PGM2000A's error spectrum is considerably more realistic than those of other contemporary gravitational models and agrees well with the error spectrum of EGM96. We will present the development and evaluation of PGM2000A, with particular emphasis on the weighting of the DOT information implied by POCM_4B. We will also present an inter-comparison of PGM2000A with the GRIM5-C1 and TEG-4 models. Directions for future work and problematic areas will be identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PEPI..224...21B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PEPI..224...21B"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of plumes in a compressible mantle with phase changes: Implications for phase boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bossmann, Andrea B.; van Keken, Peter E.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>While plumes rising from the deep mantle may be responsible for hotspot volcanism, their existence has not yet been unambiguously confirmed by seismological studies. Several seismic studies reported that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the 670-km discontinuity is flat below hotspots, which disagrees with the elevation expected due to its negative Clapeyron slope and plume excess temperature. An improved numerical method that includes compressibility and consistently implemented phase transitions is used to study plume evolution in the Earth’s mantle. The influence of latent heat on plume behavior for varying convective vigor and Clapeyron slope of the endothermic phase change at 670 km depth is studied in axisymmetric spherical shell geometry. Minor differences in plume <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> are found for models considering and neglecting latent heat. Three regimes of plume behavior at the endothermic phase boundary are observed: besides complete plume inhibition and penetration along the symmetry axis an intermediate regime in which the plume forms a ring around the symmetry axis is found. These models also predict that the 670-km discontinuity is flat below hotspots due to a large plume head in the lower mantle of about 1000 km diameter that significantly thins as it rises into the upper mantle. This is explained by the lower viscosity in the upper mantle and the spreading of the temporarily inhibited plume below the endothermic phase boundary, which reconciles the flat 670-km discontinuity with a deep mantle plume origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGeo...72...67F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGeo...72...67F"><span>A new filter for the Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the ocean derived directly from satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freiwald, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (MDT) of the ocean provides valuable information about the ocean's surface currents. Therefore the MDT is computed from satellite observations and then assimilated into ocean models in order to improve the ocean circulation estimates. However, the computation of the MDT from satellite observations of sea surface height and the Earth's gravity field is not straightforward and requires additional filtering of the data combination. The choice of the filter is crucial as it determines the amount of small-scale noise in the data and the resolution of the final MDT. There exist various approaches for the determination of an "optimal" filter. However, they all have in common the more or less subjective choice of the filter type and filter width. Here, a new filter is presented that is determined directly from the geodetic normal equations. By its construction, this filter accurately accounts for the correlations within the MDT data and requires no subjective choice about the filter radius. The new filtered MDT is assimilated into an inverse ocean model. Modifications in the meridional overturning circulation and in the poleward heat transports can be observed, compared to the result of the assimilation using the unfiltered MDT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.7807O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.7807O"><span>A comparative assessment of coastal mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Norway by geodetic and ocean approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ophaug, Vegard; Breili, Kristian; Gerlach, Christian</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The ocean's mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) is the surface representation of ocean circulation. It may be determined by the ocean approach, using numerical ocean circulation models, or by the geodetic approach, where MDT is the height of the mean sea surface (MSS), or mean sea level (MSL), above the geoid. Using new geoid models, geodetic MDT profiles based on tide gauges, dedicated coastal altimetry products, and conventional altimetry are compared with six ocean MDT estimates independent of geodetic data. Emphasis is put on the determination of high-resolution geoid models, combining ESA's fifth release (R5) of GOCE satellite-only global gravity models (GGMs) with a regional geoid model for Norway by a filtering technique. Differences between MDT profiles along the Norwegian coast together with Taylor diagrams confirm that geodetic and ocean MDTs agree on the ˜3-7 cm level at the tide gauges, and on the ˜5-11 cm level at the altimetry sites. Some geodetic MDTs correlate more with the best-performing ocean MDT than do other ocean MDTs, suggesting a convergence of the methods. While the GOCE R5 geoids are shown to be more accurate over land, they do not necessarily show the best agreement over the ocean. Pointwise monomission altimetry products give results comparable with the multimission DTU13MSS grid on the ˜5 cm level. However, dedicated coastal altimetry products generally do not offer an improvement over conventional altimetry along the Norwegian coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554760','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554760"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurements of the high-frequency magnetic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in high-{Tc} superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hayden, S.M.; Aeppli, G.; Dai, P.; Mook, H.A.; Perring, T.G.; Cheong, S.W.; Fisk, Z.; Dogan, F.; Mason, T.E.</p> <p>1997-08-07</p> <p>The authors review recent measurements of the high-frequency <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> magnetic susceptibility in the high-T{sub c} superconducting systems La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. Experiments were performed using the chopper spectrometers HET and MARI at the ISIS spallation source. The authors have placed their measurements on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity scale, this allows systematic trends to be seen and comparisons with theory to be made. They find that the insulating S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic parent compounds show a dramatic renormalization in the spin wave intensity. The effect of doping on the response is to cause broadenings in wave vector and large redistributions of spectral weight in frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27445202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27445202"><span>The Interplay Between Conformation and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Configuration in Chiral Electron <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Small Diols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daly, Steven; Tia, Maurice; Garcia, Gustavo A; Nahon, Laurent; Powis, Ivan</p> <p>2016-09-05</p> <p>A competition between chiral characteristics alternatively attributable to either conformation or to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration is identified. Circular dichroism associated with photoexcitation of the outer orbital of configurational enantiomers of 1,3- and 2,3-butanediols has been examined with a focus on the large changes in electron chiral asymmetry produced by different molecular conformations. Experimental gas-phase measurements offer support for the theoretical modeling of this chiroptical effect. A surprising prediction is that a conformationally produced pseudo-enantiomerism in 1,3-butanediol generates a chiral response in the frontier electron <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> that outweighs the influence of the permanent configurational handedness established at the asymmetrically substituted carbon. Induced conformation, and specifically induced conformational chirality, may thus be a dominating factor in chiral molecular recognition in such systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6546G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6546G"><span>Retrodicting the Cenozoic evolution of the mantle: Implications for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glišović, Petar; Forte, Alessandro; Rowley, David; Simmons, Nathan; Grand, Stephen</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Seismic tomography is the essential starting ingredient for constructing realistic models of the mantle convective flow and for successfully predicting a wide range of convection-related surface observables. However, the lack of knowledge of the initial thermal state of the mantle in the geological past is still an outstanding problem in mantle convection. The resolution of this problem requires models of 3-D mantle evolution that yield maximum consistency with a wide suite of geophysical constraints. Quantifying the robustness of the reconstructed thermal evolution is another major concern. We have carried out mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulations (Glišović & Forte, EPSL 2014) using a pseudo-spectral solution for compressible-flow thermal convection in 3-D spectral geometry that directly incorporate: 1) joint seismic-geodynamic inversions of mantle density structure with constraints provided by mineral physics data (Simmons et al., GJI 2009); and 2) constraints on mantle viscosity inferred by inversion of a suite of convection-related and glacial isostatic adjustment data sets (Mitrovica & Forte, EPSL 2004) characterised by Earth-like Rayleigh numbers. These time-reversed convection simulations reveal how the buoyancy associated with hot, active upwellings is a major driver of the mantle-wide convective circulation and the changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the Earth's surface. These simulations reveal, for example, a stable and long-lived superplume under the East Pacific Rise (centred under the Easter and Pitcairn hotspots) that was previously identified by Rowley et al. (AGU 2011, Nature in review) on the basis of plate kinematic data. We also present 65 Myr reconstructions of the Reunion plume that gave rise to the Deccan Traps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17318256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17318256"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> changes in corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its influence on the point-spread function of the eye.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siedlecki, Damian; Kasprzak, Henryk; Pierscionek, Barbara K</p> <p>2007-03-10</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes of the anterior surface of the eye are investigated. A Twyman-Green interferometer is used to record topographic images at 40 ms intervals. A method of analysis of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes in <span class="hlt">topography</span> by use of Zernike polynomials enables a general distinction to be made between <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> alterations in the shape of the cornea itself and the changes in the layer of the tears. The influence of deviations in the shape of the anterior surface of the eye on the retinal image is estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApOpt..46.1361S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApOpt..46.1361S"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> changes in corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its influence on the point-spread function of the eye</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siedlecki, Damian; Kasprzak, Henryk; Pierscionek, Barbara K.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes of the anterior surface of the eye are investigated. A Twyman-Green interferometer is used to record topographic images at 40 ms intervals. A method of analysis of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes in <span class="hlt">topography</span> by use of Zernike polynomials enables a general distinction to be made between <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> alterations in the shape of the cornea itself and the changes in the layer of the tears. The influence of deviations in the shape of the anterior surface of the eye on the retinal image is estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRF..120.1485T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRF..120.1485T"><span>Simulating depth-averaged, one-dimensional turbidity current <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> using natural <span class="hlt">topographies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Traer, M. M.; Fildani, A.; McHargue, T.; Hilley, G. E.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This study simulates turbidity currents through natural submarine <span class="hlt">topographies</span> using a steady, one-dimensional, depth-averaged model to determine if modeled flows might traverse the length of channel forms observed at the seafloor or in shallow seismic data sets. To accomplish this, we calculated flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> based on 50,000 sets of initial conditions drawn randomly between prescribed bounds and identified those conditions that allowed flows to traverse the naturally observed systems. We also used flow height and velocity to rule out initial conditions that produced flows that would be broadly accepted as unrealistic. We found that a small percentage (2.3-9.7%) of flows traversed the measured portion of these natural systems and maintained plausible peak depth-averaged velocities when laboratory-derived clear-water entrainment rules were used. However, even these flows reached peak heights that were many times (10-200) greater than that of the channel bottom to levee crest relief. When clear-water entrainment was removed from the model, a larger percentage of flows (34.5-41.6%) traversed the measured channel geometries, maintained lower ranges of flow height, and typically had higher flow velocities. Alternate entrainment relationships allowed flows to maintain realistic flow heights and velocities. We speculate that the unrealistic flows produced using clear-water entrainment rules arise because flow loss through stripping and/or overbank collapse is neglected in this one-dimensional model, or extrapolating laboratory-measured clear-water entrainment rules to the field is problematic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810938R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810938R"><span>The Alongshore Tilt of Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Implications for Nearshore Circulation and Regional Vorticity Balance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Renkl, Christoph; Thompson, Keith R.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Coastal tide gauge observations in combination with the latest generation of geoid models are providing observations of the alongshore tilt of mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) with unprecedented accuracy. Additionally, high-resolution ocean models are providing better representations of nearshore circulation and the associated tilt of MDT along their coastal boundaries. The alongshore tilt of MDT is an important component of the alongshore momentum balance. As shown by Stewart (1989), it can also be related to the stress gradient at the coastal boundary and vorticity transport to the ocean interior. In this study we explore how different boundary conditions and stress parameterizations affect the alongshore tilt of MDT and, conversely, what the observed tilts of MDT can tell us about nearshore circulation and regional distributions of vorticity. Using a regional-scale configuration of the NEMO ocean model with a grid spacing of 1/36°, the tilt of MDT along the coast of Nova Scotia and Gulf of Maine is predicted, using different lateral boundary conditions and stress parameterizations, and then compared to independent estimates of MDT based on tide gauge observations referenced to the Canadian Gravimetric Geoid model (CGG2013). We first show that the observed and predicted tilts are in good agreement. It is next shown that the nearshore circulation depends on the form of the coastal boundary condition but, somewhat counterintuitively, the associated alongshore tilt of MDT does not. Reasons for this are given. The alongshore tilt is next related to the regional distributions of vorticity and the possibility of using observed alongshore tilts of MDT to validate ocean models, and monitor shelf circulation, is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI53A..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI53A..01L"><span>Reconcile Mantle <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Models with Compositionally Distinct and Stable LLSVPs with the Observations of the Geoid and <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, X.; Zhong, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The geoid has been well explained in mantle flow models with the buoyancy inferred from seismic models that in turn place constraints on mantle viscosity structure (e.g., Hager & Richards, 1989). These models often assume a whole-mantle convection with uniform composition and 1-D viscosity. However, seismic and geochemical observations suggest possible existence of chemically distinct piles under Africa and Pacific which extends hundreds of kilometers above the CMB (i.e., LLSVPs). As compositional heterogeneity would significantly alter the interpretation of seismic anomalies as buoyancy structure, important questions are whether a thermochemical mantle model based on seismic velocity anomalies can reconcile the geoid and how this may impact inference of mantle viscosity structure. In this study, we formulate mantle flow models that use buoyancy derived from seismic model S40RTS (Ritsema et al., 2011), assuming that the LLSVPs are stable with negative buoyancy. The models use temperature-, depth- and composition-dependent viscosity and are computed for the geoid, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and flow velocity using CitcomS. Seismic anomalies are converted to buoyancy using thermal conversion factor cT for the whole mantle materials and composition conversion factor cc for the chemical piles defined as the domains with seismic slow anomaly <-0.5% and a maximum height of 500 km. The temperature-dependence viscosity gives rise to 3 orders of magnitude variations in viscosity, and horizontally averaged viscosity profile is consistent with the inferred 1-D viscosity from the geoid. The viscosity in the chemical piles is further reduced by a factor of Cvisc to represent the compositional effect. We measure the stability of the chemical piles by the RMS vertical velocities on the piles boundary. Our preferred thermochemical models with stable chemical piles reach similar variance reduction of geoid at ~64% to that for the uniform composition models. In the preferred model, cT is ~0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513657S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513657S"><span>Mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> models for Venus - comparison of spatial and spectral characteristics of inferred gravity anomalies and <span class="hlt">topography</span> with observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinberger, Bernhard; Werner, Stephanie C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Venus and Earth have similar size and probably also core radius, such that many results that have been obtained for Earth's mantle could apply to Venus as well. Yet a fundamental difference between the two planets is that Earth features plate tectonics, whereas Venus appears to be in the rigid lid regime. From a variety of constraints, a substantial increase of viscosity with depth in the Earth's mantle, reaching around 10**23 Pas in the lower mantle above D'', can be inferred. Mantle convection models with a sufficiently high temperature as boundary condition at the core-mantle-boundary invariably yield thermal plumes. With a rigid lid as upper boundary and the high lower mantle viscosity, mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> models typically yield around 10 plumes, which are long-lived (hundreds of Myr lifespan) and slowly moving (typically < 1cm/yr). These modelling results appear to match well with the distribution of volcanism in space and time as inferred from observations. Besides volcanism, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity anomalies can yield further insights towards the internal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of Venus: If we assume the same spectrum (in terms of spherical harmonic expansion) of thermal density anomalies, as inferred from tomography models on Earth, and a similar radial viscosity structure, except without viscosity jump at the spinel-perovskite transition on Venus, we find that we can match most of both the gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> spectrum on Venus up to about degree 40. This probably implies that - in contrast to Earth - <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Venus is mostly <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> supported from within. The main exception is degree two gravity on Venus, which is much less than predicted, implying that the mantle on Venus has much less degree-two structure, and therefore probably no features corresponding to the Earth's Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs). Here we focus on predictions from <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> models: We compare model predictions of mantle density anomaly spectra for both Earth (where we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeo...98...53S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeo...98...53S"><span>Implications for anomalous mantle pressure and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from lithospheric stress patterns in the North Atlantic Realm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bom</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>With convergent plate boundaries at some distance, the sources of the lithospheric stress field of the North Atlantic Realm are mainly mantle tractions at the base of the lithosphere, lithospheric density structure and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Given this, we estimate horizontal deviatoric stresses using a well-established thin sheet model in a global finite element representation. We adjust the lithospheric thickness and the sub-lithospheric pressure iteratively, comparing modelled in plane stress with the observations of the World Stress Map. We find that an anomalous mantle pressure associated with the Iceland and Azores melt anomalies, as well as <span class="hlt">topography</span> are able to explain the general pattern of the principle horizontal stress directions. The Iceland melt anomaly overprints the classic ridge push perpendicular to the Mid Atlantic ridge and affects the conjugate passive margins in East Greenland more than in western Scandinavia. The <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> support of <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows a distinct maximum of c. 1000 m in Iceland and amounts <150 m along the coast of south-western Norway and 250-350 m along the coast of East Greenland. Considering that large areas of the North Atlantic Realm have been estimated to be sub-aerial during the time of break-up, two components of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> seem to have affected the area: a short-lived, which affected a wider area along the rift system and quickly dissipated after break-up, and a more durable in the close vicinity of Iceland. This is consistent with the appearance of a buoyancy anomaly at the base of the North Atlantic lithosphere at or slightly before continental breakup, relatively fast dissipation of the fringes of this, and continued melt generation below Iceland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1995118','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1995118"><span>Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> method for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> free energy of liquids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>White, Ronald P.; Meirovitch, Hagai</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The hypothetical scanning (HS) method is a general approach for calculating the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> entropy, S, and free energy, F, by analyzing Boltzmann samples obtained by Monte Carlo (MC) or molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD) techniques. With HS applied to a fluid, each configuration i of the sample is reconstructed by gradually placing the molecules in their positions at i using transition probabilities (TPs). With our recent version of HS, called HSMC-EV, each TP is calculated from MC simulations, where the simulated particles are excluded from the volume reconstructed in previous steps. In this paper we remove the excluded volume (EV) restriction, replacing it by a “free volume” (FV) approach. For liquid argon, HSMC-FV leads to an improvement in efficiency over HSMC-EV by a factor of 2–3. Importantly, the FV treatment greatly simplifies the HS implementation for liquids, allowing a much more natural application of the method for MD simulations. Given the success and popularity of MD, the present development of the HSMD method for liquids is an important advancement for HS methodology. Results for the HSMD-FV approach presented here agree well with our HSMC and thermodynamic integration results. The efficiency of HSMD-FV is equivalent to HSMC-EV. The potential use of HSMC(MD)-FV in protein systems with explicit water is discussed. PMID:16774320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...595L...5A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...595L...5A"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined <span class="hlt">dynamically</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving <span class="hlt">absolute</span> densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> information that is due to the short time span of the K2 light curve. We achieve a precision of around 22% for the radii of the star and the transiting planets, between 40% and 60% for their masses, and between 1.5% and 38% for their densities. All values agree with previously reported measurements. When theoretical stellar models are included, the system parameters are determined with a precision that exceeds that achieved by previous studies, thanks to the self-consistent modelling of light curve and radial velocity data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI51A4347R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI51A4347R"><span>Combining Mantle Convection Modeling With Gravity and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Spectra to Constrain the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rolf, T.; Werner, S. C.; Steinberger, B. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>From some perspective the terrestrial planets of our Solar System appear very similar, for instance in their bulk composition and the differentiation in core, silicate mantle and crust. However, from other perspectives they appear significantly different, perhaps most strikingly in their current tectonic mode: while Earth is the only planet with currently ongoing plate tectonics, Venus is likely to be in a regime of episodic resurfacing. Mars features the stagnant lid mode and so might Mercury, if its mantle is still undergoing large-scale convection at all. Understanding the similarities and differences in the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> evolution of the different planets can thus provide important information about the conditions needed to initialize and maintain plate tectonics and shed light on the question why Earth is unique in this respect. Reliable constraints for planets other than Earth are difficult to make and are mostly limited to the planetary surface. However, measuring a planet's gravity field provides one, though not unique, way to constrain the internal structure of a planet. Additionally, the planet's moment of inertia factor and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> may help to limit the number of possible structures. All of these, moment of inertia, gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> are reasonably well known for the terrestrial planets from various satellite missions. Here, we use such measurements to constrain the radial structure of the planetary mantles. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> forward modeling is then used to analyze the different evolutions and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> features that cause the inferred structures and the resulting geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> spectra to evolve. Using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> models also enables us to estimate the role of lateral variations, particularly in viscosity. In this first step, we focus on a comparison between the Earth and Venus.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=2&id=EJ1070880','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=2&id=EJ1070880"><span>Easy <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Values? <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238896"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> localization and negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> conductance in terahertz driven semiconductor superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keay, B.J.; Allen, S.J.; Campman, K.L.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>We report the first observation of Negative <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Conductance (NAC), <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> localization and multiphoton stimulated emission assisted tunneling in terahertz driven semiconductor superlattices. Theories predicting NAC in semiconductor superlattices subjected to AC electric fields have existed for twenty years, but have never been verified experimentally. Most theories are based upon semiclassical arguments and are only valid for superlattices in the miniband or coherent tunneling regime. We are not aware of models predicting NAC in superlattices in the sequential tunneling regime, although there has been recent theoretical work on double-barrier structures. Perhaps the most remarkable result is found in the power dependence of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics near zero DC bias. As the laser power is increased the current decreases towards zero and then becomes negative. This result implies that the electrons are absorbing energy from the laser field, producing a net current in the direction opposite to the applied voltage. NAC around zero DC bias is a particularly surprising observation considering photon-assisted tunneling is not expected to be observable between the ground states of neighboring quantum wells in a semiconductor superlattice. Contrary to this believe our results are most readily attributable to photon absorption and multiphoton emission between ground states of neighboring wells. The I-V characteristics measured in the presence of terahertz radiation at low DC bias also contain steps and plateaus analogous to photon-assisted steps observed in superconducting junctions. As many as three steps have been clearly resolved corresponding to stimulated emission into the terahertz field by a three-photon process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.4201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMB....61.4201L"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> dosimetry on a <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> scanned sample for synchrotron radiotherapy using graphite calorimetry and ionization chambers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lye, J. E.; Harty, P. D.; Butler, D. J.; Crosbie, J. C.; Livingstone, J.; Poole, C. M.; Ramanathan, G.; Wright, T.; Stevenson, A. W.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose delivered to a <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> scanned sample in the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter anticipated to be established as a primary standard for synchrotron dosimetry. The calorimetry was compared to measurements using a free-air chamber (FAC), a PTW 31 014 Pinpoint ionization chamber, and a PTW 34 001 Roos ionization chamber. The IMBL beam height is limited to approximately 2 mm. To produce clinically useful beams of a few centimetres the beam must be scanned in the vertical direction. In practice it is the patient/detector that is scanned and the scanning velocity defines the dose that is delivered. The calorimeter, FAC, and Roos chamber measure the dose area product which is then converted to central axis dose with the scanned beam area derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and film measurements. The Pinpoint chamber measures the central axis dose directly and does not require beam area measurements. The calorimeter and FAC measure dose from first principles. The calorimetry requires conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water using MC calculations with the EGSnrc code. Air kerma measurements from the free air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. The two ionization chambers are secondary standards requiring calibration with kilovoltage x-ray tubes. The Roos and Pinpoint chambers were calibrated against the Australian primary standard for air kerma at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). Agreement of order 2% or better was obtained between the calorimetry and ionization chambers. The FAC measured a dose 3-5% higher than the calorimetry, within the stated uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27192396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27192396"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> dosimetry on a <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> scanned sample for synchrotron radiotherapy using graphite calorimetry and ionization chambers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lye, J E; Harty, P D; Butler, D J; Crosbie, J C; Livingstone, J; Poole, C M; Ramanathan, G; Wright, T; Stevenson, A W</p> <p>2016-06-07</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose delivered to a <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> scanned sample in the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter anticipated to be established as a primary standard for synchrotron dosimetry. The calorimetry was compared to measurements using a free-air chamber (FAC), a PTW 31 014 Pinpoint ionization chamber, and a PTW 34 001 Roos ionization chamber. The IMBL beam height is limited to approximately 2 mm. To produce clinically useful beams of a few centimetres the beam must be scanned in the vertical direction. In practice it is the patient/detector that is scanned and the scanning velocity defines the dose that is delivered. The calorimeter, FAC, and Roos chamber measure the dose area product which is then converted to central axis dose with the scanned beam area derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and film measurements. The Pinpoint chamber measures the central axis dose directly and does not require beam area measurements. The calorimeter and FAC measure dose from first principles. The calorimetry requires conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water using MC calculations with the EGSnrc code. Air kerma measurements from the free air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. The two ionization chambers are secondary standards requiring calibration with kilovoltage x-ray tubes. The Roos and Pinpoint chambers were calibrated against the Australian primary standard for air kerma at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). Agreement of order 2% or better was obtained between the calorimetry and ionization chambers. The FAC measured a dose 3-5% higher than the calorimetry, within the stated uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980223942','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980223942"><span>The Development of a Degree 360 Expansion of the <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the POCM_4B Global Circulation Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rapp, Richard H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This paper documents the development of a degree 360 expansion of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DOT) of the POCM_4B ocean circulation model. The principles and software used that led to the final model are described. A key principle was the development of interpolated DOT values into land areas to avoid discontinuities at or near the land/ocean interface. The power spectrum of the POCM_4B is also presented with comparisons made between orthonormal (ON) and spherical harmonic magnitudes to degree 24. A merged file of ON and SH computed degree variances is proposed for applications where the DOT power spectrum from low to high (360) degrees is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22581348','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22581348"><span>Reduced dose measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial blood flow using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> SPECT imaging in a porcine model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Timmins, Rachel; Klein, Ran; Petryk, Julia; Marvin, Brian; Kemp, Robert A. de; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn; Wei, Lihui</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>Purpose: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements provide important additional information over traditional relative perfusion imaging. Recent advances in camera technology have made this possible with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). Low dose protocols are desirable to reduce the patient radiation risk; however, increased noise may reduce the accuracy of MBF measurements. The authors studied the effect of reducing dose on the accuracy of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> SPECT MBF measurements. Methods: Nineteen 30–40 kg pigs were injected with 370 + 1110 MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin or 37 + 111 MBq of Tl-201 at rest + stress. Microspheres were injected simultaneously to measure MBF. The pigs were imaged in list-mode for 11 min starting at the time of injection using a Discovery NM 530c camera (GE Healthcare). Each list file was modified so that 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 of the original counts were included in the projections. Modified projections were reconstructed with CT-based attenuation correction and an energy window-based scatter correction and analyzed with FlowQuant kinetic modeling software using a 1-compartment model. A modified Renkin-Crone extraction function was used to convert the tracer uptake rate K1 to MBF values. The SPECT results were compared to those from microspheres. Results: Correlation between SPECT and microsphere MBF values for the full injected activity was r ≥ 0.75 for all 3 tracers and did not significantly degrade over all count levels. The mean MBF and MFR and the standard errors in the estimates were not significantly worse than the full-count data at 1/4-counts (Tc99m-tracers) and 1/2-counts (Tl-201). Conclusions: <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> SPECT measurement of MBF and MFR in pigs can be performed with 1/4 (Tc99m-tracers) or 1/2 (Tl-201) of the standard injected activity without significantly reducing accuracy and precision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...72M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...72M"><span>Interplay between <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and flexure along the U.S. Atlantic passive margin: Insights from landscape evolution modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moucha, Robert; Ruetenik, Gregory A.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Global backwards-in time models of mantle convection have resulted in vastly different interpretations of the transient state of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the U.S. Atlantic passive margin (Moucha et al., 2008; Spasojević et al., 2008; Rowley et al., 2013; Rovere et al., 2015). However, reconciling these geodynamic models with the observed offshore sedimentary record directly is complex because the sedimentary record integrates changes in climate, sea level, lithology, and tectonics. To circumvent this, we instead focus on modeling the observed deformation of the Orangeburg scarp, a well-documented 3.5 million year old mid-Pliocene shoreline (e.g. Rovere et al., 2015). Herein, we present results from a new landscape evolution model and demonstrate that flexural effects along this margin are comparable to changes in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (Rowley et al., 2013) and are required to fully explain deformation of the Orangeburg scarp. Moreover, using the Orangeburg scarp as a datum subject to glacial isostatic adjustment, we demonstrate that a 15 m mid-Pliocene sea level above present-day is most consistent with interspersed coastal plain sediment and surface deformation derived from mantle convection and flexural-isostasy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010002520&hterms=frank+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dfrank%2Bsmith','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010002520&hterms=frank+smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dfrank%2Bsmith"><span>Structure and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of the Polar Regions of Mars from MGS <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has been engaged in systematic mapping of Mars since insertion into Mars orbit in September, 1997. The objectives of the MGS mission are to globally map Mars as well as to quantify seasonal changes on the planet. MGS geophysical/geodetic observations of <span class="hlt">topography</span> from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and gravity from the Radio Science investigation are providing significant new insights on both static and time-varying aspects of the polar regions of Mars. These observations have implications for polar processes on diurnal seasonal and climatic timescales. Thus far, MOLA has collected over 300 million precise measurements of Martian <span class="hlt">topography</span> and cloud heights. The instrument has also provided measurements of the width of the backscattered optical pulse and of the 1064 nm reflectivity of the Martian surface and atmosphere. The along-track resolution of MOLA ground shots is approx. 300 m and the across-track spacing in the polar regions is a maximum of about four kilometers. The vertical accuracy of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is determined by the precision recovery of spacecraft orbits from the Radio Science investigation, which includes MOLA altimetry in the form of crossovers. This accuracy is currently approx. one meter. The gravity field is derived from X-band Doppler tracking with typical accuracy of 0.03 to 0.05 mm/s averaged over ten seconds. Current Mars gravity fields are to approximately degree and order 80 but are interpretable to the approximate degree and order 60 (spatial resolution < 180 km), which represents an estimate of the approximate coefficient limit of a field that can be produced without a power law constraint on the gravitational field inversion, which is commonly imposed for solution stability. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910031976&hterms=equation+state&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dequation%2Bof%2Bstate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910031976&hterms=equation+state&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dequation%2Bof%2Bstate"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> effects from equation of state on <span class="hlt">topographies</span> and geoid anomalies due to internal loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Hanjing; Yuen, David A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Using a Cartesian compressible model, the effects of compressibility on geoid anomalies and of deformations on the topographic signatures caused by internal loading in the mantle are quantitatively investigated by examining different types of the equation of state. Also considered are different types of density laws with variations of thermodynamical parameters taken into play. It is shown that surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are not changed much by the effects of mantle compressibility and that the deformation of bottom boundary is not significantly influenced except for long wavelengths and large viscosity contrasts between the upper and lower mantles. On the other hand, mantle compressibility can greatly affect geoid signals with horizontal wavelengths exceeding 10,000 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Tecto..22.1046J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Tecto..22.1046J"><span>Formation of the Maturín Foreland Basin, eastern Venezuela: Thrust sheet loading or subduction <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>JáCome, Maria I.; Kusznir, Nick; Audemard, Felipe; Flint, Steve</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>The Maturín Basin in eastern Venezuela is considered a good example of a peripheral foreland basin. Earthquake and tomographic data indicate that eastern Venezuela is affected by the oblique subduction of the South American Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate. New forward flexural isostatic modeling of eastern Venezuela has been carried out in order to determine whether the Maturín Basin was generated purely by thrust sheet loading from the Serranía and Monagas Foreland Thrust Belts. A sequence of forward models from middle Miocene to Present was generated for 3 profiles across the Serranía del Interior Thrust Belt, the Monagas Foreland Thrust Belt, and the Maturín Foreland Basin. The predictions of these models are constrained using seismic reflection and well data. The flexural isostatic modeling shows that thrust sheet loading associated with the Serranía del Interior and Monagas Foreland thrust belts is insufficient to generate the observed subsidence within the Maturín Basin. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> fluid flow modeling of subduction related <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of eastern Venezuela has been used to investigate the influence of South American Plate subduction on the generation of the accommodation space observed in the Maturín Basin. Fluid flow modeling of subduction related <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> suggests that the subduction of the South American lithospheric mantle caused downward deflection of the South American crust affecting the Maturín Basin and the Serranía Thrust Belt. This modeling suggests that the Maturín Basin subsidence has two components: 55% related to thrust sheet loading and 45% driven by continental subduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC52C..06G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC52C..06G"><span>Sediment Transport, Complex <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, and Hydrokinetic Turbines: Bedform <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>, Local Scour, and the Effect on Turbine Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guala, M.; Hill, C.; Kozarek, J. L.; Sotiropoulos, F.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Multi-scale experiments on the interactions between axial-flow marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines, sediment transport and complex channel <span class="hlt">topography</span> were performed at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), University of Minnesota. Model axial-flow three-bladed turbines (rotor diameters, dT = 0.15m and 0.5m) were installed in open channel flumes with both erodible and non-erodible substrates. In erodible channels, device-induced local scour was monitored over several hydraulic conditions (clear water vs. live bedload transport) and material sizes. Synchronous velocity, bed elevation and turbine performance measurements provide an indication into the effect channel <span class="hlt">topography</span> has on device performance. A novel data acquisition imaging system provided methods for monitoring the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of bedform transport as they approached and migrated past an operating axial-flow turbine. Experiments were also performed in a realistic meandering outdoor research channel with active sediment transport to investigate MHK turbine interactions with bedform migration and turbulent flow in asymmetric channels, providing new insight into turbine-sediment interactions and turbine wake behavior in curving channels. Results provide the foundation for investigating advanced turbine control strategies for optimal power production in non-stationary environments, while also providing robust data for computational model validation enabling further investigations into the interactions between energy conversion devices and the physical environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402907','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402907"><span>Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. II. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> density <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. The present, second, paper of the study is related to the discharge characterization in terms of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> density of species using resonant absorption spectroscopy. The results on the time-resolved density evolution of the neutral and singly-ionized Ti ground state atoms as well as the metastable Ti and Ar atoms during the discharge on- and off-time are presented. Among the others, the questions related to the inversion of population of the Ti energy sublevels, as well as to re-normalization of the two-dimensional density maps in terms of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> density of species, are stressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OptLE..91..227A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OptLE..91..227A"><span>Double domain wavelength multiplexed Fizeau interferometer with high resolution <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sensing and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> length detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antonacci, Julián; Arenas, Gustavo F.; Duchowicz, Ricardo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In this work, we present a simple photonic instrument that has the ability of measuring positions, distances and vibrations with very high resolution by means of two Fizeau interferometers (FI), both using the same optical fiber end as a probe tip itself. On the one hand we have a time domain FI powered with a 1310 nm laser and monitored by an InGaAs detector providing displacement information with resolution around a tenth of nm but regardless of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> position of object and of the displacement sense. On the other, a spectral domain FI version based on a super luminescent source (SLED) centred at 800 nm with bandwidth of nearly 40 nm is analysed in real time by means of a digital spectrometer. Each spectrum is acquired in a very small time interval and provides information of both length of the cavity as well as its correct sense of evolution. Resolution of this system is lower than its complementary temporal case, but distance and sense measurements are <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and can be determined successfully by adequate processing of spectral signal.Both interferometers are optically coupled to a single fiber optic probe and are wavelength modulated.Therefore, combination of both sensors results in a new one which allows the correct knowledge of an object or surfaces under test, i.e. a high resolution of displacement data plus its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> position and true sense of movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26094805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26094805"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Proteome Composition and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> during Dormancy and Resuscitation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schubert, Olga T; Ludwig, Christina; Kogadeeva, Maria; Zimmermann, Michael; Rosenberger, George; Gengenbacher, Martin; Gillet, Ludovic C; Collins, Ben C; Röst, Hannes L; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Sauer, Uwe; Aebersold, Ruedi</p> <p>2015-07-08</p> <p>Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a health concern due to its ability to enter a non-replicative dormant state linked to drug resistance. Understanding transitions into and out of dormancy will inform therapeutic strategies. We implemented a universally applicable, label-free approach to estimate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cellular protein concentrations on a proteome-wide scale based on SWATH mass spectrometry. We applied this approach to examine proteomic reorganization of M. tuberculosis during exponential growth, hypoxia-induced dormancy, and resuscitation. The resulting data set covering >2,000 proteins reveals how protein biomass is distributed among cellular functions during these states. The stress-induced DosR regulon contributes 20% to cellular protein content during dormancy, whereas ribosomal proteins remain largely unchanged at 5%-7%. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> protein concentrations furthermore allow protein alterations to be translated into changes in maximal enzymatic reaction velocities, enhancing understanding of metabolic adaptations. Thus, global <span class="hlt">absolute</span> protein measurements provide a quantitative description of microbial states, which can support the development of therapeutic interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.G1327P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.G1327P"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, Alfred, Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.6029S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.6029S"><span>The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the Mississippi River plume: Impact of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, wind and offshore forcing on the fate of plume waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schiller, R. V.; Kourafalou, V. H.; Hogan, P.; Walker, N. D.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>High-resolution numerical simulations of the northern Gulf of Mexico region using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) were employed to investigate the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> processes controlling the fate of the Mississippi River plume, in particular the conditions that favor cross-marginal transport. The study focuses on the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, wind-driven and eddy-driven circulation on the offshore removal of plume waters. A realistically forced simulation (nested in a data-assimilative regional Gulf of Mexico HYCOM model) reveals that the offshore removal is a frequent plume pathway. Eastward wind-driven currents promote large freshwater transport toward the shelf break and the DeSoto Canyon, where eddies with diameters ranging from 50 to 130 km interact with the buoyant plume and effectively entrain the riverine waters. Our estimates show that the offshore removal by eddies can be as large as the wind-driven shelf transport. The proximity of eddies to the shelf break is a sufficient condition for offshore removal, and shelf-to-offshore interaction is facilitated by the steep bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> near the delta. Strong eddy-plume interactions were observed when the Loop Current System impinged against the shelf break, causing the formation of coherent, narrow low-salinity bands that extended toward the gulf interior. The offshore pathways depend on the position of the eddies near the shelf edge, their life span and the formation of eddy pairs that generate coherent cross-shelf flows. This study elucidates the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> that initiate a unique cross-marginal removal mechanism of riverine low-salinity, nutrient-rich waters, allowing their export along connectivity pathways, induced by a large-scale current system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27138207','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27138207"><span>Multidirectional and <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-based <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span>-scale Varifold Representations with Application to Matching Developing Cortical Surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rekik, Islem; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang</p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>The human cerebral cortex is marked by great complexity as well as substantial <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes during early postnatal development. To obtain a fairly comprehensive picture of its age-induced and/or disorder-related cortical changes, one needs to match cortical surfaces to one another, while maximizing their anatomical alignment. Methods that geodesically shoot surfaces into one another as currents (a distribution of oriented normals) and varifolds (a distribution of non-oriented normals) provide an elegant Riemannian framework for generic surface matching and reliable statistical analysis. However, both conventional current and varifold matching methods have two key limitations. First, they only use the normals of the surface to measure its geometry and guide the warping process, which overlooks the importance of the orientations of the inherently convoluted cortical sulcal and gyral folds. Second, the 'conversion' of a surface into a current or a varifold operates at a fixed scale under which geometric surface details will be neglected, which ignores the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> scales of cortical foldings. To overcome these limitations and improve varifold-based cortical surface registration, we propose two different strategies. The first strategy decomposes each cortical surface into its normal and tangent varifold representations, by integrating principal curvature direction field into the varifold matching framework, thus providing rich information of the orientation of cortical folding and better characterization of the complex cortical geometry. The second strategy explores the informative cortical geometric features to perform a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>-scale measurement of the cortical surface that depends on the local surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> (e.g., principal curvature), thereby we introduce the concept of a <span class="hlt">topography</span>-based <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>-scale varifold. We tested the proposed varifold variants for registering 12 pairs of <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> developing cortical surfaces from 0 to 6 months of age. Both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6466P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6466P"><span>The effect of rheological approximations on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in 3D subduction-collision models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Most of the major mountain belts and orogenic plateaus are found within the overlying plate of active or fossil subduction and/or collision zones. Moreover, they evolve differently from one another as the result of specific combinations of surface and mantle processes. These differences arise for several reasons, such as different rheological properties, different amounts of regional isostatic compensation, and different mechanisms by which forces are applied to the convergent plates. Previous 3D geodynamic models of subduction/collision processes have used various rheological approximations, making numerical results difficult to compare, since there is no clear image on the extent of these approximations on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Here, we employ the code LaMEM to perform high-resolution long-term 3D simulations of subduction/continental collision in an integrated lithospheric and upper-mantle scale model. We test the effect of rheological approximations on mantle and lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in a geometrically simplified model setup that resembles a tectonic map of the India-Asia collision zone. We use the "sticky-air" approach to allow for the development of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of subduction and collision is entirely driven by slab-pull (i.e. "free subduction"). The models exhibit a wide range of behaviours depending on the rheological law employed: from linear to temperature-dependent visco-elasto-plastic rheology that takes into account both diffusion and dislocation creep. For example, we find that slab <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> varies drastically between end member models: in viscous approximations, slab detachment is slow following a viscous thinning, while for a non-linear visco-elasto-plastic rheology, slab detachment is relatively fast, inducing strong mantle flow in the slab window. We also examine the stress states in the subducting and overriding plates and <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution in the upper plate, and we discuss the implications on lithosphere <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at convergent margins</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990035993&hterms=Fluidization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFluidization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990035993&hterms=Fluidization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFluidization"><span>Inferences on the Emplacement <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Martian Impact Crater Ejecta: Constraints from Mola <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garvin, J. B.; Baloga, S. M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Lobate ejecta deposits surround many of the younger impact craters on Mars. Viking Orbiter images indicate the distal parts of the ejecta blankets of these lobate craters are characterized by ramparts. In the absence of detailed topographic data for characterizing the topology of these apparently fluidized ejecta deposits, physical models have relied upon their morphologic characteristics. The most widely accepted model for the formation of such rampart ejecta deposits on Mars invokes fluidization of the ejecta to produce one or more viscous flow lobes. The availability of high-precision topographic data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter [4,51 facilitates a more quantitative examination of the physical processes involved in the formation of rampart ejecta deposits on Mars. Here we investigate the emplacement constraints that can be developed from the dimensions, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and morphology of martian rampart craters. The primary assumptions we have adopted are: (1) the ejecta blanket is emplaced as a continuum flow over the martian surface, rather than an airfall deposit, and (2) that the observable dimensions of the deposits are indicative of flow dimensions during emplacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H14B..05J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H14B..05J"><span>Linking catchment structure to hydrologic function: Implications of catchment <span class="hlt">topography</span> for patterns of landscape hydrologic connectivity and stream flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jencso, K. G.; McGlynn, B. L.; Marshall, L. A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The relationship between catchment structure (<span class="hlt">topography</span> and topology), stream network hydrologic connectivity, and runoff response remains poorly understood. Hillslope-riparian-stream (HRS) water table connectivity serves as the hydrologic linkage between a catchment’s uplands and the channel network and facilitates the transmission of water and solutes to streams. While there has been tremendous interest in the concept of hydrological connectivity to characterize catchments, there are relatively few studies that have quantified hydrologic connectivity at the stream network and catchment scales. Here, we examine how catchment <span class="hlt">topography</span> influenced patterns of stream network HRS connectivity and resultant runoff <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> across 11 nested headwater catchments in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), MT. This study extends the empirical findings of Jencso et al. (2009) who found a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.92) between the upslope accumulated area (UAA) and annual duration of shallow ground water table connectivity observed across 24 HRS transects (146 groundwater recording wells) within the TCEF. We applied this relationship to the entire stream network to quantify the frequency distribution of stream network connectivity through time (as a function of UAA) and ascertain its relationship to catchment-scale runoff <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Each catchment’s estimated connectivity duration curve (CDC) was highly related to its flow duration curve (FDC); albeit the rate of change of runoff with respect to stream network connectedness varied significantly across catchments. To ascertain potential reasons for these differences we compared the slope of each catchment’s CDC-FDC relationship (annual, peak, transition and baseflow periods) in multiple linear models against median values of common terrain indices and land cover-vegetation characteristics. Significant predictors (p<0.05) included the flow path distance to the creek (DFC), the flow path gradient to the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53B0313F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53B0313F"><span>Geological Influences on Bedrock <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and East Antarctic Ice Sheet <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferraccioli, F.; Armadillo, E.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Jordan, T. A.; Balbi, P.; Bozzo, E.; Siegert, M. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Wilkes Subglacial Basin (WSB) extends for 1,400 km from George V Land into the interior of East Antarctica and hosts several major glaciers that drain a large sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). This region is of key significance for the long-term stability of the ice sheet in East Antarctica, as it lies well below sea level and its bedrock deepens inland, making it potentially prone to marine ice sheet instability, much like areas of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) that are presently experiencing significant mass loss. We present new enhanced potential field images of the WSB combined with existing radar imaging to study geological controls on bedrock <span class="hlt">topography</span> and ice flow regimes in this key sector of the ice sheet. These images reveal mayor Precambrian and Paleozoic basement faults that exert tectonic controls both on the margins of the basin and its sub-basins. Several major sub-basins can be recognised: the Eastern Basin, the Central Basins and the Western Basins. Using ICECAP aerogeophysical data we show that these tectonically controlled interior basins connect to newly identified basins underlying the Cook Ice Shelf region. This connection implies that any ocean-induced changes at the margin of the EAIS could potentially propagate rapidly further into the interior. With the aid of simple magnetic and gravity models we show that the WSB does not presently include major post Jurassic sedimentary infill. Its bedrock geology is highly variable and includes Proterozoic basement, Neoproterozoic and Cambrian sediments, intruded by Cambrian arc rocks, and cover rocks formed by Beacon sediments intruded by Jurassic Ferrar sills. Enhanced ice flow in this part of the EAIS occurs therefore in a area of mixed and spatially variable bedrock geology. This contrasts with some regions of the WAIS where more extensive sedimentary basins may represent a geological template for the onset and maintenance of fast glacial flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017427','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017427"><span>Future Antarctic Bed <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Its Implications for Ice Sheet <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adhikari, Surendra; Ivins, Erik R.; Larour, Eric Y.; Seroussi, Helene L.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Antarctic bedrock is evolving as the solid Earth responds to the past and ongoing evolution of the ice sheet. A recently improved ice loading history suggests that the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) has generally been losing its mass since the Last Glacial Maximum. In a sustained warming climate, the AIS is predicted to retreat at a greater pace, primarily via melting beneath the ice shelves.We employ the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) capability of the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) to combine these past and future ice loadings and provide the new solid Earth computations for the AIS.We find that past loading is relatively less important than future loading for the evolution of the future bed <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Our computations predict that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may uplift by a few meters and a few tens of meters at years AD 2100 and 2500, respectively, and that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is likely to remain unchanged or subside minimally except around the Amery Ice Shelf. The Amundsen Sea Sector in particular is predicted to rise at the greatest rate; one hundred years of ice evolution in this region, for example, predicts that the coastline of Pine Island Bay will approach roughly 45mmyr-1 in viscoelastic vertical motion. Of particular importance, we systematically demonstrate that the effect of a pervasive and large GIA uplift in the WAIS is generally associated with the flattening of reverse bed slope, reduction of local sea depth, and thus the extension of grounding line (GL) towards the continental shelf. Using the 3-D higher-order ice flow capability of ISSM, such a migration of GL is shown to inhibit the ice flow. This negative feedback between the ice sheet and the solid Earth may promote stability in marine portions of the ice sheet in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Tectp.699..213E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Tectp.699..213E"><span>Evolution of the broadly rifted zone in southern Ethiopia through gravitational collapse and extension of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Emishaw, Luelseged; Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Gao, Stephen S.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The Broadly Rifted Zone (BRZ) is a 315 km wide zone of extension in southern Ethiopia. It is located between the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift and the Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) represented by the Kenya-Turkana Rift. The BRZ is characterized by NE-trending ridges and valleys superimposed on regionally uplifted ( 2 km average elevation) terrain. Previous studies proposed that the BRZ is an overlap zone resulted from northward propagation of the Kenya-Turkana Rift and southward propagation of the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift. To understand the relationship between the BRZ's extensional style and its crustal and upper mantle structures, this work first estimated the Moho depth using the two-dimensional (2D) radially-averaged power spectral analysis of the World Gravity Map. Verification of these results was accomplished through lithospheric-scale 2D forward gravity models along E-W profiles. This work found that the Moho <span class="hlt">topography</span> beneath the BRZ depicts a dome-like shape with a minimum depth of 27 km in the center of the dome. This work proposes that the Moho doming, crustal arching underlying the BRZ and associated topographic uplift are the result of asthenospheric mantle upwelling beneath the BRZ. This upwelling changed to a NE-directed lateral mantle flow at shallower depth. This is supported by seismic tomography imaging which shows slow S-wave velocity anomaly at lithospheric depth of 75 km to 150 km stretching in a NE-SW direction from beneath the BRZ to the Afar Depression. This work proposes that the asthenospheric upwelling created gravitationally unstable <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> that triggered extensional gravitational collapse leading to the formation of the BRZ as a wide rift within the narrow rift segments of the EARS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..147A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..147A"><span>Sea level change since the Pliocene - a new formalism for predicting sea level in the presence of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and isostasy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Austermann, Jacqueline; Rovere, Alessio; Moucha, Robert; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Rowley, David B.; Forte, Alessandro M.; Raymo, Maureen E.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DT), as reflected in local sea level change, provides a unique lens for studying the imprint of deep Earth <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on the Earth's surface. The elevation of paleo-shorelines over long time scales is, however, not only perturbed by DT but also by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and eustatic changes in sea level. Isolating these contributions is essential for efforts to constrain past changes in ice volume or mantle convection models. Previous studies have performed this separation by modeling <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and superimposing the signal on the elevation of a GIA-corrected paleo-shoreline. However, this approach neglects deformation of the Earth in response to changes in the ocean load and geometry driven by DT. We describe a generalized, gravitationally self-consistent framework for computing sea-level changes that incorporates DT and GIA. The formalism is based on a sea-level theory developed within the GIA community that takes accurate account of viscoelastic deformation of the solid Earth, perturbations in the gravity field, migration of shorelines and the feedback into sea-level of contemporaneous (load-induced) changes in Earth rotation. Specifically, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is introduced as a perturbation to the elevation of the solid surface that does not load the Earth because it is <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> supported. However, water that is displaced by DT is allowed to redistribute, perturb the gravitational field and load (or unload) the ocean floor wherever the water column is increased (or decreased). The problem is complicated by plate tectonics, which (in a tectonic reference frame) leaves changes in <span class="hlt">topography</span> and DT undefined in areas of the ocean floor where plates have been subducted. We interpolate these regions by imposing mass conservation of both the solid Earth and water on the reconstructed <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We use the new formalism to calculate sea level change since the mid-Pliocene (3 Ma) using recent global simulations of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.807F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.807F"><span>Advances in large-scale ocean <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from a decade of satellite altimetric measurement of ocean surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, L.; Menard, Y.</p> <p></p> <p>The past decade has seen the most intensive observations of the global ocean surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> from satellite altimeters. The Joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) Mission has become the longest radar mission ever flown in space, providing the most accurate measurements for the study of ocean <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> since October, 1992. The European Space Agency's ERS-1 and -2 Mission also provided altimetric observations from 1991 -2000. The combined data from T/P and ERS provide a synergistic description of the global ocean variability with higher resolution and greater coverage than the individual missions. Major advances in large -scale ocean <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> from these observations will be reviewed in the presentation, including the evolution of the El Niño Southern Oscillation cycles as well as the emerging decadal variability, the various roles of wind forcing in large -scale ocean variability, assimilation of altimeter data by ocean general circulation models, global sea level rise, internal tides and internal gravity waves</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28j6602H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhFl...28j6602H"><span>Beach vortices near circular <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hinds, A. K.; Johnson, E. R.; McDonald, N. R.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Finite-area monopolar vortices which propagate around <span class="hlt">topography</span> without change in shape are computed for circular seamounts and wells including the limiting cases of each: islands and infinitely deep wells. The time-dependent behaviour of vortex pairs propagating toward circular <span class="hlt">topography</span> is also examined. Trajectories of point-vortex pairs exterior to the <span class="hlt">topography</span> are found and compared to trajectories of vortex patches computed using contour <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.3305B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.3305B"><span>Study of spin-orbit, inner <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the moon: lunar missions applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barkin, Yu.; Gusev, A.; Nefed'Ev, Yu.; Petrova, N.; Rizvanov, N.</p> <p></p> <p>At present days, the Moon has become the targets of several space missions and focus the attention of researchers in Astronomy and Planetology. The main scientific objectives of Kazan-Moscow Lunar Project lay in subject of main purpose of planed Lunar missions (SMART, Lunar-A, SELENE and others): to investigate and describe particularities of orbital-rotational and inner <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of Moon as composite deformable celestial body, to suggest more effective model, analytical description, numerical approach and programs for lunar mission for more exact and effective determinations of gravitational field parameters, parameters of resonant Moon librations, parameters of its inner and surface structure. More exact data about gravitational field, figure, physical fields will be obtained from this mission and will give new possibility for new <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> studies. For effective using of expected large data set preliminary studies of different possible phenomena and structures must be realized with more details than earlier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31A1130Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31A1130Z"><span>Forecasting spatial plant <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> under future climate change in a semiarid savanna ecosystem with complex <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, X.; Fatichi, S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The space and time <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of savanna ecosystems in semiarid regions is tightly related to fluctuations and changes in the climate, and the competition strategies of individual plants for resources. In most parts of the southwest U.S., various General Circulation Models (GCMs) predict general warming trends with reduced annual precipitation amounts, and increased frequency of extreme droughts and wet periods in the 21st century. Despite the potential risks posed by climate change on vegetation patterns and hydrology, our ability to predict such changes at the catchment and regional scales is limited. In this study, we used a recently developed spatially explicit Cellular Automata Tree-Grass-Shrub Simulator (CATGraSS) to investigate the impacts of climate change on plant <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in a semiarid catchment (>3km2) located in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in central New Mexico, USA. In the catchment north-facing slopes are characterized by a juniper-grass savanna, and south-facing slopes by creosote bush and grass species. Initialized by LIDAR-derived tree locations and simulated grass and shrub patterns obtained from model calibration, CATGraSS is forced by a weather generator, AWE-GEN, used to downscale an ensemble of eight different GCM outputs at the study basin, producing multiple stochastic realizations of a transient climate scenario for the next hundred years. The ensemble simulations are used to examine the uncertainty in vegetation response and develop probabilistic plant distribution maps in relation to landscape morphology. This study highlights the importance of understanding local scale plant-to-plant interactions and the role of climate variability in determining climate change impacts on vegetation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at varying spatial scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750050989&hterms=gravitation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgravitation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750050989&hterms=gravitation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgravitation"><span>Mariner 9 - An instrument of <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> science. [for Mars gravitation and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, J. F.; Lorell, J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>We review and evaluate the contributions of Mariner 9 in improving our knowledge of the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> characteristics of Mars and its two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Primary results include the discovery of the large gravitational and topographical bulge in the Tharsis region, the development of a detailed gravity model representable as coefficients in a spherical harmonic expansion, the development of a topographic model exhibiting a three kilometer displacement of the center of figure from the center of mass, and the determination of the size, shape and motion of Phobos and Deimos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26615687"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Solvation Free Energies using Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Free Energy Perturbation and the OPLS Force Field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shivakumar, Devleena; Williams, Joshua; Wu, Yujie; Damm, Wolfgang; Shelley, John; Sherman, Woody</p> <p>2010-05-11</p> <p>The accurate prediction of protein-ligand binding free energies is a primary objective in computer-aided drug design. The solvation free energy of a small molecule provides a surrogate to the desolvation of the ligand in the thermodynamic process of protein-ligand binding. Here, we use explicit solvent molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> free energy perturbation to predict the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> solvation free energies of a set of 239 small molecules, spanning diverse chemical functional groups commonly found in drugs and drug-like molecules. We also compare the performance of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> solvation free energies obtained using the OPLS_2005 force field with two other commonly used small molecule force fields-general AMBER force field (GAFF) with AM1-BCC charges and CHARMm-MSI with CHelpG charges. Using the OPLS_2005 force field, we obtain high correlation with experimental solvation free energies (R(2) = 0.94) and low average unsigned errors for a majority of the functional groups compared to AM1-BCC/GAFF or CHelpG/CHARMm-MSI. However, OPLS_2005 has errors of over 1.3 kcal/mol for certain classes of polar compounds. We show that predictions on these compound classes can be improved by using a semiempirical charge assignment method with an implicit bond charge correction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000121260','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000121260"><span>A New Clinical Instrument for The Early Detection of Cataract Using <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Light Scattering and Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ansari, Rafat R.; Datiles, Manuel B., III; King, James F.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A growing cataract can be detected at the molecular level using the technique of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> light scattering (DLS). However, the success of this method in clinical use depends upon the precise control of the scattering volume inside a patient's eye and especially during patient's repeat visits. This is important because the scattering volume (cross-over region between the scattered fight and incident light) inside the eye in a high-quality DLS set-up is very small (few microns in dimension). This precise control holds the key for success in the longitudinal studies of cataract and during anti-cataract drug screening. We have circumvented these problems by fabricating a new DLS fiber optic probe with a working distance of 40 mm and by mounting it inside a cone of a corneal analyzer. This analyzer is frequently used in mapping the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> during PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) procedures in shaping of the cornea to correct myopia. This new instrument and some preliminary clinical tests on one of us (RRA) showing the data reproducibility are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173..871S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PApGe.173..871S"><span>Improving Surface Geostrophic Current from a GOCE-Derived Mean <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Using Edge-Enhancing Diffusion Filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sánchez-Reales, J. M.; Andersen, O. B.; Vigo, M. I.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>With increased geoid resolution provided by the gravity and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) mission, the ocean's mean <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MDT) can be now estimated with an accuracy not available prior to using geodetic methods. However, an altimetric-derived MDT still needs filtering in order to remove short wavelength noise unless integrated methods are used in which the three quantities are determined simultaneously using appropriate covariance functions. We studied nonlinear anisotropic diffusive filtering applied to the oceańs MDT and a new approach based on edge-enhancing diffusion (EED) filtering is presented. EED filters enable controlling the direction and magnitude of the filtering, with subsequent enhancement of computations of the associated surface geostrophic currents (SGCs). Applying this method to a smooth MDT and to a noisy MDT, both for a region in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean, we found that EED filtering provides similar estimation of the current velocities in both cases, whereas a non-linear isotropic filter (the Perona and Malik filter) returns results influenced by local residual noise when a difficult case is tested. We found that EED filtering preserves all the advantages that the Perona and Malik filter have over the standard linear isotropic Gaussian filters. Moreover, EED is shown to be more stable and less influenced by outliers. This suggests that the EED filtering strategy would be preferred given its capabilities in controlling/preserving the SGCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GMS....82...33Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GMS....82...33Z"><span>Fitting Ocean Tide <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> to Gravimetric and Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zahel, Wilfried</p> <p></p> <p>A data assimilation procedure, which has successfully been applied to fictive and realistic scenarios of tidal elevation data, is generalized to also allow for the assimilation of gravity loading data. The assimilation procedure is based on the minimization of a functional made up by the residuals of data and <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equations, and it guarantees exact conservation of mass. The realistic global ocean tide model into which both kinds of data are assimilated includes the full loading and self-attraction effect, whence consistent fields of tidal elevation and gravity are obtained. Pelagic tidal elevation data as well as tidal gravity loading data from the `Trans World Tidal Gravity Profile' and from other measurements have been assimilated into models of the O1 and M2 tide. The rms error of the model results, as computed with respect to data solely used for comparison, is reduced by up to more than a factor three by assimilating data. The influence of individual data as well as the influence of the different kinds of data on alterations of the oscillation systems is studied allowing to draw conclusions on the quality of the data and on the compatibility of data and tidal model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019781','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019781"><span>Determination of some dominant parameters of the global <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> from GEOS-3 altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mather, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Rizos, C.; Masters, E. G.; Hirsch, B.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The 1977 altimetry data bank is analyzed for the geometrical shape of the sea surface expressed as surface spherical harmonics after referral to the higher reference model defined by GEM 9. The resulting determination is expressed as quasi-stationary <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> SST. Solutions are obtained from different sets of long arcs in the GEOS-3 altimeter data bank as well as from sub-sets related to the September 1975 and March 1976 equinoxes assembled with a view to minimizing seasonal effects. The results are compared with equivalent parameters obtained from the hydrostatic analysis of sporadic temperature, pressure and salinity measurements of the oceans and the known major steady state current systems with comparable wavelengths. The most clearly defined parameter (the zonal harmonic of degree 2) is obtained with an uncertainty of + or - 6 cm. The preferred numerical value is smaller than the oceanographic value due to the effect of the correction for the permanent earth tide. Similar precision is achieved for the zonal harmonic of degree 3. The precision obtained for the fourth degree zonal harmonic reflects more closely the accuracy expected from the level of noise in the orbital solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9879A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.9879A"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Land use Type on the Soil Organic Carbon <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> in Zala County, Hungary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adhikari, K.; Toth, G.; Guadagnini, A.; Makó, A.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Soil organic carbon (SOC) content is an important soil property for land, plant production and environment and ecosystem management. Soil fertility and many other physio-chemical and biological properties of soils are directly/indirectly linked with carbon content of the soil. We analyze the impact of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and land use practice on the spatial variability of top soil SOC over a mixed agricultural, forestry and grassland area from Zala County in Hungary. The spatial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of SOC display a high variability over the study area. A characteristic value for the SOC of the topsoil is calculated as a weighted average of the measured SOC content of soil horizons identified within the first 30 cm of soil. Topographic features of the area are extracted from a digital elevation model (5 Ã- 5 m resolution). Information on land use type is obtained on the basis of remote sensing images and is also recorded during the field sampling campaign. Classical statistical, geostatistical and Geographical Information System (GIS) based tools have been used to study the distribution and spatial correlation features of SOC as well as its relationship with local <span class="hlt">topography</span> and land use type. The average SOC in the study area is 1.49 % and is associated with a standard deviation of 0.73. SOC values display moderately high (i.e., 0.48) coefficient of variation (CV). SOC is typically associated with a spherical model variogram with a relatively large nugget (i.e., 0.42). The range of spatial correlation for SOC is found to be about 3.5 kilometers. The local ground slope and land use type are key parameters in determining the spatial distribution of SOC over the study area. The highest SOC content is found in a flat and low land area characterized by grass land whereas collected SOC values appear to gradually decrease with increasing values of local terrain slope. Crop lands show moderate amount of SOC. Peat excavation pits have also been recorded in the flat areas and are characterized</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121..674K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121..674K"><span>Sea surface height and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the ice-covered oceans from CryoSat-2: 2011-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwok, Ron; Morison, James</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examine 4 years (2011-2014) of sea surface heights (SSH) from CryoSat-2 (CS-2) over the ice-covered Arctic and Southern Oceans. Results are from a procedure that identifies and determines the heights of sea surface returns. Along 25 km segments of satellite ground tracks, variability in the retrieved SSHs is between ˜2 and 3 cm (standard deviation) in the Arctic and is slightly higher (˜3 cm) in the summer and the Southern Ocean. Average sea surface tilts (along these 25 km segments) are 0.01 ± 3.8 cm/10 km in the Arctic, and slightly lower (0.01 ± 2.0 cm/10 km) in the Southern Ocean. Intra-seasonal variability of CS-2 <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ocean <span class="hlt">topography</span> (DOT) in the ice-covered Arctic is nearly twice as high as that of the Southern Ocean. In the Arctic, we find a correlation of 0.92 between 3 years of DOT and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> heights (DH) from hydrographic stations. Further, correlation of 4 years of area-averaged CS-2 DOT near the North Pole with time-variable ocean-bottom pressure from a pressure gauge and from GRACE, yields coefficients of 0.83 and 0.77, with corresponding differences of <3 cm (RMS). These comparisons contrast the length scale of baroclinic and barotropic features and reveal the smaller amplitude barotropic signals in the Arctic Ocean. Broadly, the mean DOT from CS-2 for both poles compares well with those from the ICESat campaigns and the DOT2008A and DTU13MDT fields. Short length scale topographic variations, due to oceanographic signals and geoid residuals, are especially prominent in the Arctic Basin but less so in the Southern Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020807','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020807"><span>Coseismic temporal changes of slip direction: the effect of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stress on <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Spudich, P.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of rupture at low-stress level. We show that one main difference between the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of high- and low-stress events is the amount of coseismic temporal rake rotation occurring at given points on the fault. Curved stations on exposed fault surfaces and earthquake dislocation models derived from ground-motion inversion indicate that the slip direction may change with time at a pointon the fault during <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture. We use a 3D boundary integral method to model temporal rake variations during <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> rupture propagation assuming a slip-weakening friction law and isotropic friction. The points at which the slip rotates most are characterized by an initial shear stress direction substantially different from the average stress direction over the fault plane. We show that for a given value of stress drop, the level of initial shear stress (i.e., the fractional stress drop) determines the amount of rotation in slip direction. We infer that seismic events that show evidence of temporal rake rorations are characterized by a low initial shear-stress level with spatially variable direction on the fault (possibly due to changes in fault surface geometry) and an almost complete stress drop. Our models motivate a new interpretation of curved and cross-cutting striations and put new constraints on their analysis. The initial rake is in general collinear with the initial stress at the hypocenter zone, supporting the assumptions made in stress-tensor inversion from first-motion analysis. At other points on the fualt, especially away from the hypocenter, the initial slip rake may not be collinear with the initial shear stress, contradicting a common assumption of structural geology. On the other hand, the later part of slip in our models is systematically more aligned withi the average stress direction than the early slip. Our modeling suggests that the length of the straight part of curved striations is usually an upper bound of the slip</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1914Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1914Z"><span>Influence of bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> on <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of river plumes in semi-enclosed domains: Case study in Taiwan Strait</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zavialov, Peter; Korotenko, Konstantin; Osadchiev, Alexander; Kao, Ruei-Chi; Ding, Chung-Feng</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes the results of a Russian-Taiwan research project focused on the role of continental discharges into the Taiwan Strait, an important channel in the western Pacific Ocean transporting water between the South China Sea and the East China Sea. Another critically important hydrographic feature in the area is the discharge of freshwater from multiple rivers of the western coast of Taiwan. With its long-term average discharge rate of 210 m3/s, the Zhuoshui River is the biggest of the rivers bringing a large amount of pollutants and nutrients into the Strait. The northern extremity of Zhuoshui River's plume often merges with that of the Wu River (also known as Dudu River) whose average discharge rate is about 120 m3/s. Oceanic waters in the area experience significant anthropogenic pressures, traceable to the distance of a few km offshore and tens of km along the shore. This is manifested, in particular, in strongly elevated concentrations of copper, iron, and other trace metals. The corresponding quantitative estimates are obtained. The newly obtained in situ data from a field campaign were also used to implement 2 numerical models aimed at simulating the pathways of the continental waters in the study region. One of them, based on the Princeton Ocean Model, was coupled with a regional barotropic tidal model for the Taiwan Strait. The other one, a fully Lagrangian model STRiPE is based on applying a complete set of momentum equations to individual "particles" of river water released into the ocean. Both models demonstrated reasonable good agreement with the in situ data and each other. The bathymetry, tides and winds significantly affect the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the Wu and Zhuoshui river plumes, acting together in a complex interactive manner. The Zhuoshui River plume stretches in a narrow alongshore belt both to the south and north from the river mouth while the larger, round-shaped Wu River's plume elongates mostly north of its mouth. The difference is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...20912001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...20912001D"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “<span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023549','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023549"><span>Constraining the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We present a three-dimensional (3-D) <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990hst..prop.2823H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990hst..prop.2823H"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Photometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartig, George</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensitivity of the FOS will be determined in SV by observing 2 stars at 3 epochs, first in 3 apertures (1.0", 0.5", and 0.3" circular) and then in 1 aperture (1.0" circular). In cycle 1, one star, BD+28D4211 will be observed in the 1.0" aperture to establish the stability of the sensitivity and flat field characteristics and improve the accuracy obtained in SV. This star will also be observed through the paired apertures since these are not calibrated in SV. The stars will be observed in most detector/grating combinations. The data will be averaged to form the inverse sensitivity functions required by RSDP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001041','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001041"><span>Does <span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> Downscaling Introduce Novel Information in Climate Model Simulations of Recipitation Change over a Complex <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Region?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tselioudis, George; Douvis, Costas; Zerefos, Christos</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Current climate and future climate-warming runs with the RegCM Regional Climate Model (RCM) at 50 and 11 km-resolutions forced by the ECHAM GCM are used to examine whether the increased resolution of the RCM introduces novel information in the precipitation field when the models are run for the mountainous region of the Hellenic peninsula. The model results are inter-compared with the resolution of the RCM output degraded to match that of the GCM, and it is found that in both the present and future climate runs the regional models produce more precipitation than the forcing GCM. At the same time, the RCM runs produce increases in precipitation with climate warming even though they are forced with a GCM that shows no precipitation change in the region. The additional precipitation is mostly concentrated over the mountain ranges, where orographic precipitation formation is expected to be a dominant mechanism. It is found that, when examined at the same resolution, the elevation heights of the GCM are lower than those of the averaged RCM in the areas of the main mountain ranges. It is also found that the majority of the difference in precipitation between the RCM and the GCM can be explained by their difference in topographic height. The study results indicate that, in complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> regions, GCM predictions of precipitation change with climate warming may be dry biased due to the GCM smoothing of the regional <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212575G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212575G"><span>Mantle convection, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Golle, Olivia; Dumoulin, Caroline; Choblet, Gaël.; Cadek, Ondrej</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The internal evolution of planetary bodies often include solid-state convection. This phenomenon may have a large impact on the various interfaces of these bodies (<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> occurs). It also affects their gravity field (and the geoid). Since both geoid and <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be measured by a spacecraft, and are therefore available for several planetary bodies (while seismological measurements are still lacking for all of them but the Moon and the Earth), these are of the first interest for the study of internal structures and processes. While a classical approach now is to combine gravity and altimetry measurements to infer the internal structure of a planet [1], we propose to complement it by the reverse problem, i.e., producing synthetic geoid and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from numerical models of convection as proposed by recent studies (e.g. for the CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Earth,[2]). This procedure first include a simple evaluation of the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid from the viscous flow obtained by the 3D numerical tool OEDIPUS [3] modeling convection in a spherical shell. An elastic layer will then be considered and coupled to the viscous model - one question being whether the elastic shell shall be included 'on top' of the convective domain or within it, in the cold 'lithospheric' outer region. What we will present here corresponds to the first steps of this work: the comparison between the response functions of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the geoid obtained from the 3D convection program to the results evaluated by a spectral method handling radial variations of viscosity [4]. We consider the effect of the elastic layer whether included in the convective domain or not. The scale setting in the context of a full thermal convection model overlaid by an elastic shell will be discussed (thickness of the shell, temperature at its base...). References [1] A.M. Wieczorek, (2007), The gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the terrestrial planets, Treatise on Geophysics, 10, 165-206. [2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1457...71E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1457...71E"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements of MEMS up to 25 MHz, through transparent window, and in liquid by Digital Holographic Microscope (DHM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Emery, Yves; Aspert, Nicolas; Marquet, François</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>DHMs have unique features especially relevant for MEMS characterization. They provide 3D <span class="hlt">topography</span> for large vertical ranges with interferometric resolution, in a single acquisition, without any lateral or vertical scanning. Any standard microscopic objective can be mounted on them, including those with correction for cover glass thickness. In this paper, DHM is operated in conjunction with a laser pulsed stroboscopic module providing synchronization of camera acquisition and shutter, laser pulses with length down to 7.5 ns, and MEMS excitation signal up to 25 MHz. These systems can measure fast movements over large vertical amplitude, in-and out-of-plane motions of device with complex geometry, provide a statistical analysis of multiple single devices, and can measure under vacuum or in liquid and/or through transparent window. This is illustrated with the presentation of the measurements of a cantilever, an ultrasonic transducer, a variable capacitor, and a gyroscope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSAES..50...93H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSAES..50...93H"><span>Comment on "<span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in South America" by Federico M. Dávila & Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hechenleitner, E. Martín; Fiorelli, Lucas E.; Larrovere, Mariano A.; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Carignano, Ana P.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In their article Dávila and Lithgow-Bertelloni (2013) propose that the Andes have been isostatically uncompensated throughout the Cenozoic and that additional forces induced by mantle flow were required to explain the observed <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. Although this hypothesis seems plausible, they provide a regional model of "the Bermejo-Pampas foreland of Argentina" which implies that the deposition of the Los Llanos Formation (in La Rioja, NW Argentina) occurred during Miocene. However, this age is incongruent with the presence of a neosauropod nesting site at Sanagasta and a Cretaceous faunal assemblage in Tama both in Los Llanos Formation and well documented in recent publications. Therefore, the proposed model for "the Bermejo-Pampas foreland of Argentina" appears incorrect. Moreover, the Cretaceous exposures at Sanagasta and Tama foster the need of revising the alleged Cenozoic age of the Los Llanos Formation in La Rioja and neighboring provinces, and the tectonic models associated with this formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T13B2380N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T13B2380N"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the western Great Plains: landscape evidence for mantle-driven uplift associated with the Jemez lineament of NE New Mexico and SE Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nereson, A. L.; Karlstrom, K. E.; McIntosh, W. C.; Heizler, M. T.; Kelley, S. A.; Brown, S. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> results when viscous stresses created by flow within the mantle are transmitted through the lithosphere and interact with, and deform, the Earth's surface. Because <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> is characterized by low amplitudes and long wavelengths, its subtle effects may be best recorded in low-relief areas such as the Great Plains of the USA where they can be readily observed and measured. We apply this concept to a unique region of the western Great Plains in New Mexico and Colorado where basalt flows of the Jemez lineament (Raton-Clayton and Ocate fields) form mesas (inverted <span class="hlt">topography</span>) that record the evolution of the Great Plains surface through time. This study uses multiple datasets to evaluate the mechanisms which have driven the evolution of this landscape. Normalized channel steepness index (ksn) analysis identifies anomalously steep river gradients across broad (50-100 km) convexities within a NE- trending zone of differential river incision where higher downstream incision rates in the last 1.5 Ma suggest headwater uplift. At 2-8 Ma timescales, 40Ar/39Ar ages of basalt-capped paleosurfaces in the Raton-Clayton and Ocate volcanic fields indicate that rates of denudation increase systematically towards the NW from a NE-trending zone of approximately zero denudation (that approximately coincides with the high ksn zone), also suggestive of regional warping above the Jemez lineament. Onset of more rapid denudation is observed in the Raton-Clayton field beginning at ca. 3.6 Ma. Furthermore, two 300-400-m-high NE-trending erosional escarpments impart a staircase-like topographic profile to the region. Tomographic images from the EarthScope experiment show that NE-trending topographic features of this region correspond to an ~8 % P-wave velocity gradient of similar trend at the margin of the low-velocity Jemez mantle anomaly. We propose that the erosional landscapes of this unique area are, in large part, the surface expression of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mantle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198...55C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198...55C"><span>Seismic waveform inversion for core-mantle boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colombi, Andrea; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Boschi, Lapo; Giardini, Domenico</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is directly linked to the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of both the mantle and the outer core, although it is poorly constrained and understood. Recent studies have produced <span class="hlt">topography</span> models with mutual agreement up to degree 2. A broad-band waveform inversion strategy is introduced and applied here, with relatively low computational cost and based on a first-order Born approximation. Its performance is validated using synthetic waveforms calculated in theoretical earth models that include different <span class="hlt">topography</span> patterns with varying lateral wavelengths, from 600 to 2500 km, and magnitudes (˜10 km peak-to-peak). The source-receiver geometry focuses mainly on the Pdiff, PKP, PcP and ScS phases. The results show that PKP branches, PcP and ScS generally perform well and in a similar fashion, while Pdiff yields unsatisfactory results. We investigate also how 3-D mantle correction influences the output models, and find that despite the disturbance introduced, the models recovered do not appear to be biased, provided that the 3-D model is correct. Using cross-correlated traveltimes, we derive new <span class="hlt">topography</span> models from both P and S waves. The static corrections used to remove the mantle effect are likely to affect the inversion, compromising the agreement between models derived from P and S data. By modelling traveltime residuals starting from sensitivity kernels, we show how the simultaneous use of volumetric and boundary kernels can reduce the bias coming from mantle structures. The joint inversion approach should be the only reliable method to invert for CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span> using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cross-correlation traveltimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9972E..0JC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9972E..0JC"><span>Temporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of sand dune bidirectional reflectance characteristics for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration of optical remote sensing data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coburn, Craig A.; Logie, Gordon; Beaver, Jason</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The use of Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) for establishing the radiometric trending of optical remote sensing systems has a long history of successful implementation. Past studies have shown that the PICS method is useful for evaluating the trend of sensors over time or cross-calibration of sensors but was not considered until recently for deriving <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration. Current interest in using this approach to establish <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration stems from recent research that indicates that with empirically derived models of the surface properties and careful atmospheric characterisation Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance values can be predicted and used for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensor radiometric calibration. Critical to the continued development of this approach is the accurate characterization of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of PICS sites. This paper presents BRDF data collected by a high-performance portable goniometer system in order to develop a temporal BRDF model for the Algodones Dunes in California. The results demonstrated that the BRDF of a reasonably simple sand surface was complex with changes in anisotropy taking place in response to changing solar zenith angles. The nature of these complex interactions would present challenges to future model development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737346"><span>A million-plus neuron model of the hippocampal dentate gyrus: Dependency of spatio-temporal network <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hendrickson, Phillip J; Yu, Gene J; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a million-plus granule cell compartmental model of the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, including excitatory, perforant path input from the entorhinal cortex, and feedforward and feedback inhibitory input from dentate interneurons. The model includes experimentally determined morphological and biophysical properties of granule cells, together with glutamatergic AMPA-like EPSP and GABAergic GABAA-like IPSP synaptic excitatory and inhibitory inputs, respectively. Each granule cell was composed of approximately 200 compartments having passive and active conductances distributed throughout the somatic and dendritic regions. Modeling excitatory input from the entorhinal cortex was guided by axonal transport studies documenting the topographical organization of projections from subregions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, plus other important details of the distribution of glutamatergic inputs to the dentate gyrus. Results showed that when medial and lateral entorhinal cortical neurons maintained Poisson random firing, dentate granule cells expressed, throughout the million-cell network, a robust, non-random pattern of spiking best described as spatiotemporal "clustering". To identify the network property or properties responsible for generating such firing "clusters", we progressively eliminated from the model key mechanisms such as feedforward and feedback inhibition, intrinsic membrane properties underlying rhythmic burst firing, and/or topographical organization of entorhinal afferents. Findings conclusively identified topographical organization of inputs as the key element responsible for generating a spatio-temporal distribution of clustered firing. These results uncover a functional organization of perforant path afferents to the dentate gyrus not previously recognized: <span class="hlt">topography</span>-dependent clusters of granule cell activity as "functional units" that organize the processing of entorhinal signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AnPhy.326.1941A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AnPhy.326.1941A"><span>The analysis of space-time structure in QCD vacuum II: <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of polarization and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> X-distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alexandru, Andrei; Draper, Terrence; Horváth, Ivan; Streuer, Thomas</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>We propose a framework for quantitative evaluation of <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> tendency for polarization in an arbitrary random variable that can be decomposed into a pair of orthogonal subspaces. The method uses measures based on comparisons of given <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> to its counterpart with statistically independent components. The formalism of previously considered X-distributions is used to express the aforementioned comparisons, in effect putting the former approach on solid footing. Our analysis leads to the definition of a suitable correlation coefficient with clear statistical meaning. We apply the method to the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> induced by pure-glue lattice QCD in local left-right components of overlap Dirac eigenmodes. It is found that, in finite physical volume, there exists a non-zero physical scale in the spectrum of eigenvalues such that eigenmodes at smaller (fixed) eigenvalues exhibit convex X-distribution (positive correlation), while at larger eigenvalues the distribution is concave (negative correlation). This chiral polarization scale thus separates a regime where <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> enhances chirality relative to statistical independence from a regime where it suppresses it, and gives an objective definition to the notion of "low" and "high" Dirac eigenmode. We propose to investigate whether the polarization scale remains non-zero in the infinite volume limit, in which case it would represent a new kind of low energy scale in QCD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.421..107S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.421..107S"><span>Australian plate motion and <span class="hlt">topography</span> linked to fossil New Guinea slab below Lake Eyre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schellart, W. P.; Spakman, W.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Unravelling causes for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate velocity change and continental <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> change is challenging because of the interdependence of large-scale geodynamic driving processes. Here, we unravel a clear spatio-temporal relation between latest Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic subduction at the northern edge of the Australian plate, Early Cenozoic Australian plate motion changes and Cenozoic <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution of the Australian continent. We present evidence for a ∼4000 km wide subduction zone, which culminated in ophiolite obduction and arc-continent collision in the New Guinea-Pocklington Trough region during subduction termination, coinciding with cessation of spreading in the Coral Sea, a ∼5 cm/yr decrease in northward Australian plate velocity, and slab detachment. Renewed northward motion caused the Australian plate to override the sinking subduction remnant, which we detect with seismic tomography at 800-1200 km depth in the mantle under central-southeast Australia at a position predicted by our <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate reconstructions. With a numerical model of slab sinking and mantle flow we predict a long-wavelength subsidence (negative <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>) migrating southward from ∼50 Ma to present, explaining Eocene-Oligocene subsidence of the Queensland Plateau, ∼330 m of late Eocene-early Oligocene subsidence in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Oligocene-Miocene subsidence of the Marion Plateau, and providing a first-order fit to the present-day, ∼200 m deep, topographic depression of the Lake Eyre Basin and Murray-Darling Basin. We propound that <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution provides an independent means to couple geological processes to a mantle reference frame. This is complementary to, and can be integrated with, other approaches such as hotspot and slab reference frames.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRF..117.4016S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRF..117.4016S"><span>Coupled <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the co-evolution of gravel bed <span class="hlt">topography</span>, flow turbulence and sediment transport in an experimental channel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Arvind; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Porté-Agel, Fernando; Wilcock, Peter R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A series of flume experiments were conducted in a large experimental channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory to understand the coupled <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of flow and bed forms above the sediment-water interface. Simultaneous high resolution measurements of velocity fluctuations, bed elevations and sediment flux at the downstream end of the channel, were made for a range of discharges. The probability density functions (pdfs) of bed elevation increments and instantaneous Reynolds stress reveal a power law tail behavior and a wavelet cross-correlation analysis depicts a strong dependence of these series across a range of scales, indicating a feedback between bed form <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and near-bed turbulence. These results complement our previous findings in which the signature of bed form evolution on the near-bed velocity fluctuations was confirmed via the presence of a spectral gap and two distinct power law scaling regimes in the spectral density of velocity fluctuations. We report herein a strong asymmetry in the probability distribution of bed elevation increments and instantaneous Reynolds stresses, the latter being further analyzed and interpreted via a quadrant analysis of velocity fluctuations in the longitudinal and vertical directions. We also report the presence of intermittency (multifractality) in bed elevation increments and interpret it, in view of the asymmetric nature of the pdfs, as the result of scale coupling. In other words, the geometric asymmetry at the bed form scale gets transferred down to a probabilistic asymmetry at all smaller scales indicating a local anisotropy in the energy transfer. Finally, we propose a predictive relationship between bed form averaged sediment transport rates and bed form averaged instantaneous Reynolds stress and validate it using our experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21583323','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21583323"><span>The analysis of space-time structure in QCD vacuum II: <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of polarization and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> X-distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alexandru, Andrei; Draper, Terrence; Horvath, Ivan; Streuer, Thomas</p> <p>2011-08-15</p> <p>Highlights: > We propose a method to compute the polarization for a multi-dimensional random distribution. > We apply the method to the eigenemodes of the Dirac operator in pure glue QCD. > We compute the chiral polarization for these modes and study its scale dependence. > We find that in a finite volume there is a scale where the polarization tendency changes. > We study the continuum limit of this chiral polarization scale. - Abstract: We propose a framework for quantitative evaluation of <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> tendency for polarization in an arbitrary random variable that can be decomposed into a pair of orthogonal subspaces. The method uses measures based on comparisons of given <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> to its counterpart with statistically independent components. The formalism of previously considered X-distributions is used to express the aforementioned comparisons, in effect putting the former approach on solid footing. Our analysis leads to the definition of a suitable correlation coefficient with clear statistical meaning. We apply the method to the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> induced by pure-glue lattice QCD in local left-right components of overlap Dirac eigenmodes. It is found that, in finite physical volume, there exists a non-zero physical scale in the spectrum of eigenvalues such that eigenmodes at smaller (fixed) eigenvalues exhibit convex X-distribution (positive correlation), while at larger eigenvalues the distribution is concave (negative correlation). This chiral polarization scale thus separates a regime where <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> enhances chirality relative to statistical independence from a regime where it suppresses it, and gives an objective definition to the notion of 'low' and 'high' Dirac eigenmode. We propose to investigate whether the polarization scale remains non-zero in the infinite volume limit, in which case it would represent a new kind of low energy scale in QCD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3888926','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3888926"><span>Neuronal correlates of decisions to speak and act: Spontaneous emergence and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span> in a computational model of frontal and temporal areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garagnani, Max; Pulvermüller, Friedemann</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The neural mechanisms underlying the spontaneous, stimulus-independent emergence of intentions and decisions to act are poorly understood. Using a neurobiologically realistic model of frontal and temporal areas of the brain, we simulated the learning of perception–action circuits for speech and hand-related actions and subsequently observed their spontaneous behaviour. Noise-driven accumulation of reverberant activity in these circuits leads to their spontaneous ignition and partial-to-full activation, which we interpret, respectively, as model correlates of action intention emergence and action decision-and-execution. Importantly, activity emerged first in higher-association prefrontal and temporal cortices, subsequently spreading to secondary and finally primary sensorimotor model-areas, hence reproducing the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of cortical correlates of voluntary action revealed by readiness-potential and verb-generation experiments. This model for the first time explains the cortical origins and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of endogenous action decisions, and the natural emergence of functional specialisation in the cortex, as mechanistic consequences of neurobiological principles, anatomical structure and sensorimotor experience. PMID:23489583</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=robert&pg=7&id=EJ1000865','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=robert&pg=7&id=EJ1000865"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Meaningfully</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wade, Angela</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>What is the meaning of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations? <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4363941','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4363941"><span>Membrane related <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the formation of actin in cells growing on micro-<span class="hlt">topographies</span>: a spatial computational model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p> to be verified in wet-lab experiments. Conclusion Letting cells grow on surface structures is a possibility to shed new light on the intricate mechanisms that relate membrane and actin related <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in the cell. Our results demonstrate the need for declarative expressive spatial modeling approaches that allow probing different hypotheses, and the central role of the focal adhesion complex not only for nucleating actin filaments, but also for regulating possible severing agents locally. PMID:25200251</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6280E..1TS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6280E..1TS"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> measurements and applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Junfeng; Vorburger, Theodore</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Based on auto- and cross-correlation functions (ACF and CCF), a new surface parameter called profile (or <span class="hlt">topography</span>) difference, D s, has been developed for quantifying differences between 2D profiles or between 3D <span class="hlt">topographies</span> with a single number. When D s = 0, the two compared 2D profiles or 3D <span class="hlt">topographies</span> must be exactly the same (point by point). A 2D and 3D <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement system was established at NIST. This system includes data acquisition stations using a stylus instrument and a confocal microscope, and a correlation program using the proposed parameters D s and the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max. Applications in forensic science and surface metrology are described; those include profile signature measurements for 40 NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 standard bullets, and comparisons of profile measurements with four different techniques. An approach to optimizing the Gaussian filter long wavelength cutoff, λc, is proposed for <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413998B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413998B"><span>Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850021137&hterms=sigma+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsigma%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850021137&hterms=sigma+model&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsigma%2Bmodel"><span>Derivation of Model <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Balgovind, R. C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The Fourth-Order model necessitates representation of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The problem of the representation of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> at grid points is addressed. The attempted was to derive an envelope <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The TI is obtained by taking local mean plus one standard deviation at each grid point and sigma filtering it. The method was greatly influenced by large standard deviations at steep mountains. The O1 <span class="hlt">topography</span> is the local mean. The S1 is obtained by Sigma filtering in both latitude and longitude the mean O1. The S2 is when the operation is applied twice and S3 thrice, the Q3 is the sigma filtered local mean of the upper third quantile of the source data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4419...50M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4419...50M"><span>Moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> in odontology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno Yeras, A.</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>For several decades measurement optical techniques have been used in different branches of Science and Technology and in medicine. One of these techniques is the so-called Moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> that allows the accurate measurement of different parts of the human body <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This investigation presents the measurement of <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of teeth and gums using an automated system of shadow moire, with which precision can be reached up to the order of the microns by the phase shift instrumentation in an original way. Advantages and disadvantages of using the Moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its comparison with other techniques used in the optical metrology are presented. Also, some positive and negative aspects of the implementation of this technique are shown in dentistry.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4848..455B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4848..455B"><span>Database applicaton for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrophotometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define <span class="hlt">absolute</span> energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95a2318B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95a2318B"><span><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> classical spin states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We introduce the concept of "<span class="hlt">absolutely</span> classical" spin states, in analogy to <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> separable states of bipartite quantum systems. <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> separable states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875366','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/875366"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Site Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L</p> <p>2004-07-15</p> <p>The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> site effect (as a function of frequency) by removing the source spectrum (moment-rate spectrum) from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010845','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010845"><span>The Dawn <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raymond, C. A.; Jaumann, R.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, E; Scholten, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H.-U.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Mastrodemos, N.; Mottola, S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the Dawn <span class="hlt">topography</span> investigation is to derive the detailed shapes of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres in order to create orthorectified image mosaics for geologic interpretation, as well as to study the asteroids' landforms, interior structure, and the processes that have modified their surfaces over geologic time. In this paper we describe our approaches for producing shape models, plans for acquiring the needed image data for Vesta, and the results of a numerical simulation of the Vesta mapping campaign that quantify the expected accuracy of our results. Multi-angle images obtained by Dawn's framing camera will be used to create topographic models with 100 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 10 m height accuracy at Vesta, and 200 m/pixel horizontal resolution and 20 m height accuracy at Ceres. Two different techniques, stereophotogrammetry and stereophotoclinometry, are employed to model the shape; these models will be merged with the asteroidal gravity fields obtained by Dawn to produce geodetically controlled topographic models for each body. The resulting digital <span class="hlt">topography</span> models, together with the gravity data, will reveal the tectonic, volcanic and impact history of Vesta, and enable co-registration of data sets to determine Vesta's geologic history. At Ceres, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> will likely reveal much about processes of surface modification as well as the internal structure and evolution of this dwarf planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...85..593K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...85..593K"><span>Exploring LiDAR data for mapping the micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> and tidal hydro-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of mangrove systems: An example from southeast Queensland, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knight, Jon M.; Dale, Pat E. R.; Spencer, John; Griffin, Lachlan</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The aim was to explore the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to map the micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> of an intertidal wetland in southeast Queensland Australia. The driver for this was the need to identify and map the habitats of the immature stages of an aedine disease vector mosquito ( Aedes vigilax (Skuse)). We derived a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data set at a vertical resolution of 0.05 m from LiDAR data. The relative accuracy of the DEM across the site was tested by comparing water depth predictions derived from the DEM against in-situ water depth readings from pressure sensors over a 10-day tidal cycle, which included high spring tides. We found that the field observations of micro-topographic units important for mosquito management matched those delineated from the DEM. The micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> included a low berm or central ridge that was more or less continuous across the site, a shallow back basin and fringing mangroves. The fringing mangroves had unimpeded connection to the tidal source, however the central ridge blocked tidal water from the back basin for all but the highest tides. Eggshell survey indicated that the back basin was the area suitable for immature mosquitoes. We conclude that LiDAR data has application for understanding and mapping the structure of mangrove wetlands. We have also demonstrated (in a small area) that LiDAR is useful for modelling the effect of sea level changes on the coastal fringe. LiDAR may be the only method to inform research on changes to land use and ecosystems caused by sea level change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25305691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25305691"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative blindsight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8209E..1US','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8209E..1US"><span>Toward optical coherence <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sayegh, Samir; Jiang, Yanshui</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Commercial OCT systems provide pachymetry measurements. Full corneal topographic information of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces for use in cataract surgery and refractive procedures is a desirable goal and would add to the usefulness of anterior and posterior segment evaluation. While substantial progress has been made towards obtaining "average" central corneal power (D Huang), power in different meridians and <span class="hlt">topography</span> are still missing. This is usually reported to be due to eye movement. We analyze the role of centration, eye movements and develop a model that allows for the formulation of criteria for obtaining reliable topographic data within ¼ diopter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhS.237..347C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhS.237..347C"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575"><span>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moody, A.</p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000110271&hterms=statistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstatistics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000110271&hterms=statistics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstatistics"><span>Implications of MOLA Global Roughness, Statistics, and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aharonson, O.; Zuber, M. T.; Neumann, G. A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>New insights are emerging as the ongoing high-quality measurements of the Martian surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> by Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft increase in coverage, resolution, and diversity. For the first time, a global characterization of the statistical properties of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is possible. The data were collected during the aerobreaking hiatus, science phasing, and mapping orbits of MGS, and have a resolution of 300-400 m along track, a range resolution of 37.5 cm, a range precision of 1-10 m for surface slopes up to 30 deg., and an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of <span class="hlt">topography</span> of 13 m. The spacecraft's orbit inclination dictates that nadir observations have latitude coverage of about 87.1S to 87.1N; the addition of observations obtained during a period of off-nadir pointing over the north pole extended coverage to 90N. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050170605','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050170605"><span>RADAR Reveals Titan <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kirk, R. L.; Callahan, P.; Seu, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Paganelli, F.; Lopes, R.; Elachi, C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Cassini Titan RADAR Mapper is a K(sub u)-band (13.78 GHz, lambda = 2.17 cm) linear polarized RADAR instrument capable of operating in synthetic aperture (SAR), scatterometer, altimeter and radiometer modes. During the first targeted flyby of Titan on 26 October, 2004 (referred to as Ta) observations were made in all modes. Evidence for topographic relief based on the Ta altimetry and SAR data are presented here. Additional SAR and altimetry observations are planned for the T3 encounter on 15 February, 2005, but have not been carried out at this writing. Results from the T3 encounter relevant to <span class="hlt">topography</span> will be included in our presentation. Data obtained in the Ta encounter include a SAR image swath</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00740&hterms=Dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDark%2Bweb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00740&hterms=Dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDark%2Bweb"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Io (color)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The images used to create this color composite of Io were acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter and are part of a sequence of images designed to map the <span class="hlt">topography</span> or relief on Io and to monitor changes in the surface color due to volcanic activity. Obtaining images at low illumination angles is like taking a picture from a high altitude around sunrise or sunset. Such lighting conditions emphasize the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the volcanic satellite. Several mountains up to a few miles high can be seen in this view, especially near the upper right. Some of these mountains appear to be tilted crustal blocks. Most of the dark spots correspond to active volcanic centers.<p/>North is to the top of the picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. . The resolution is 8.3 kilometers per picture element. The image was taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 817,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846206"><span>Lake <span class="hlt">topography</span> and wind waves determining seasonal-spatial <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of total suspended matter in turbid Lake Taihu, China: assessment using long-term high-resolution MERIS data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r(2) = 0.720, p<0.001, and n = 73). The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) were 36.9% and 31.6%, respectively, based on an independent validation dataset that produced reliable estimations of the TSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r(2)= 0.685, p<0.001, and n = 50), suggesting a critical role of wind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were controlled by the lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028274','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028274"><span>Lake <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Wind Waves Determining Seasonal-Spatial <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> of Total Suspended Matter in Turbid Lake Taihu, China: Assessment Using Long-Term High-Resolution MERIS Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r2 = 0.720, p<0.001, and n = 73). The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) were 36.9% and 31.6%, respectively, based on an independent validation dataset that produced reliable estimations of the TSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r2 = 0.685, p<0.001, and n = 50), suggesting a critical role of wind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> were controlled by the lake <span class="hlt">topography</span>, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution. PMID:24846206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022836"><span><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> relative or relatively <span class="hlt">absolute</span>: violations of value invariance in human decision making.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Making decisions based on relative rather than <span class="hlt">absolute</span> information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values subject to the temporal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRE..120..287J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRE..120..287J"><span>Support of long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Mercury inferred from MESSENGER measurements of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>James, Peter B.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>To explore the mechanisms of support of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Mercury, we have determined the admittances and correlations of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and gravity in Mercury's northern hemisphere from measurements obtained by NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. These admittances and correlations can be interpreted in the context of a number of theoretical scenarios, including flexural loading and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> flow. We find that long-wavelength (spherical harmonic degree l < 15) surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Mercury is primarily supported through a combination of crustal thickness variations and deep mass anomalies. The deep mass anomalies may be interpreted either as lateral variations in mantle density or as relief on compositional interfaces. Domical topographic swells are associated with high admittances and are compensated at 300-400 km depth in the lower reaches of Mercury's mantle. Quasi-linear topographic rises are primarily associated with shallow crustal compensation and are weakly correlated with positive mass anomalies in the mantle. The center of the Caloris basin features some of the thinnest crust on the planet, and the basin is underlain by a large negative mass anomaly. We also explore models of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> flow in the presence of compositional stratification above the liquid core. If there is substantial compositional stratification in Mercury's solid outer shell, relaxation of perturbed compositional interfaces may be capable of creating and sustaining long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mea&pg=7&id=EJ025631','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mea&pg=7&id=EJ025631"><span>Comparative vs. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Judgments of Trait Desirability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hofstee, Willem K. B.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Reversals of trait desirability are studied. Terms indicating conservativw behavior appeared to be judged relatively desirable in comparative judgement, while traits indicating <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and expansive behavior benefited from <span class="hlt">absolute</span> judgement. The reversal effect was shown to be a general one, i.e. reversals were not dependent upon the specific…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2958..412J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2958..412J"><span>Shuttle radar <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapper (SRTM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, Rolando L.; Caro, Edward R.; Kim, Yunjin; Kobrick, Michael; Shen, Yuhsyen; Stuhr, Frederick V.; Werner, Marian U.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>The use of interferometric SAR (IFSAR) to measure elevation is one of the most powerful and promising capabilities of radar. A properly equipped spaceborne IFSAR system can produce a highly accurate global digital elevation map, including cloud-covered areas, in significantly less time and at significantly lower cost than with other systems. For accurate <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the interferometric measurements must be performed simultaneously in physically sperate receive system, since measurements made at different times with the same system suffer significant decorrelation. The US/German/Italian spaceborne imaging radar C/X-band SAR (SIR-C/X-SAR), successfully flown twice in 1994 aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor, offers a unique opportunity for global multifrequency elevation mapping by the year 2000. With appropriate augmentation, SIR-C/X-SAR is capable of producing an accurate elevation map covering 80 percent of the Earth's land surface in a single 10-day Shuttle flight. The existing US SIR-C SCANSAR mode provides a 225-km swath at C-band, which makes this coverage possible. Addition of a C-band receive antenna, extended from the Shuttle bay on a mast and operating in concert with the existing SIR-C antenna, produces an interferometric pair. Accuracy is enhanced by utilizing the SIR-C dual polarizations simultaneously to form separate SCANSAR beams. Due to the practical limitation of approximately 60 meters for the mast length, the longer SIR-C L-band wavelength does not produce useful elevation measurement accuracy. IFSAR measurements can also be obtained by the German/Italian X-SAR, simultaneously with SIR-C, by utilizing an added outboard antenna at X-band to produce a swath coverage of about 50 km. Accuracy can be enhanced at both frequencies by processing both ascending and descending data takes. It is estimated that the 90 percent linear <span class="hlt">absolute</span> elevation error achievable is less that 16 meters for elevation postings of 30 meters. This will be the first use of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013051','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013051"><span>Electronic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Cartesian Autocollimator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leviton, Douglas B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>An electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term <span class="hlt">absolute</span> in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GGAS...69.....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GGAS...69.....B"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> airborne gravimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baumann, Henri</p> <p></p> <p>This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimetry is feasible and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23907862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23907862"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>-structure reports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flack, Howard D</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5556414','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5556414"><span>High-resolution sup 13 C NMR study of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of methionine residues in detergent-solubilized bacteriorhodopsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seigneuret, M.; Neumann, J.M.; Levy, D.; Rigaud, J.L. )</p> <p>1991-04-23</p> <p>The proton transport membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin has been biosynthetically labeled with (methyl-{sup 13}C)methionine and studied by high-resolution {sup 13}C NMR after solubilization in the detergent Triton X-100. The nine methionine residues of bacteriorhodopsin give rise to four well-resolved {sup 13}C resonances, two of which are shifted upfield or downfield due to nearby aromatic residues. Methionine residues located on the hydrophilic surfaces, on the hydrophobic surface, and in the interior of the protein could be discriminated by studying the effects of papain proteolysis, glycerol-induced viscosity increase, and paramagnetic broadening by spin-labels on NMR spectra. Such data were used to evaluate current models of the bacteriorhodopsin transmembrane folding and tertiary structure. T{sub 2} and NOE measurements were performed to study the local <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of methionine residues in bacteriorhodopsin. For the detergent-solubilized protein, hydrophilic and hydrophobic external residues undergo a relatively large extent of side chain wobbling motion while most internal residues are less mobile. In the native purple membrane and in reconstituted bacteriorhodopsin liposomes, almost all methionine residues have their wobbling motion severely restricted, indicating a large effect of the membrane environment on the protein internal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060043634&hterms=model+Digital+elevation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmodel%2BDigital%2Belevation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060043634&hterms=model+Digital+elevation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmodel%2BDigital%2Belevation"><span>Satellite remote sensing of landscape freeze/thaw state <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> for complex <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Fire Disturbance Areas Using multi-sensor radar and SRTM digital elevation models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Podest, Erika; McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Randerson, James</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We characterize differences in radar-derived freeze/thaw state, examining transitions over complex terrain and landscape disturbance regimes. In areas of complex terrain, we explore freezekhaw <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> related to elevation, slope aspect and varying landcover. In the burned regions, we explore the timing of seasonal freeze/thaw transition as related to the recovering landscape, relative to that of a nearby control site. We apply in situ biophysical measurements, including flux tower measurements to validate and interpret the remotely sensed parameters. A multi-scale analysis is performed relating high-resolution SAR backscatter and moderate resolution scatterometer measurements to assess trade-offs in spatial and temporal resolution in the remotely sensed fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium Entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shebalin, John V.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The entropy associated with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15323838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15323838"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> driven spreading.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McHale, G; Shirtcliffe, N J; Aqil, S; Perry, C C; Newton, M I</p> <p>2004-07-16</p> <p>Roughening a hydrophobic surface enhances its nonwetting properties into superhydrophobicity. For liquids other than water, roughness can induce a complete rollup of a droplet. However, topographic effects can also enhance partial wetting by a given liquid into complete wetting to create superwetting. In this work, a model system of spreading droplets of a nonvolatile liquid on surfaces having lithographically produced pillars is used to show that superwetting also modifies the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of spreading. The edge speed-<span class="hlt">dynamic</span> contact angle relation is shown to obey a simple power law, and such power laws are shown to apply to naturally occurring surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MeScT..28d5005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MeScT..28d5005M"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> multilateration between spheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4927413','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4927413"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Myocardial Blood Flow in Humans Using <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> Cardiac SPECT and 99mTc-tetrofosmin: Method and Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shrestha, Uttam; Sciammarella, Maria; Alhassen, Fares; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Ellin, Justin; Verdin, Emily; Boyle, Andrew; Seo, Youngho; Botvinick, Elias H.; Gullberg, Grant T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background The objective of this study was to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) in humans using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> SPECT using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a group of 16 patients. The SPECT data were reconstructed using a 4D-spatiotemporal iterative reconstruction method. The data corresponding to 9 patients were used to determine the flow-extraction curve for 99mTc-tefrofosmin while data from the remaining 7 patients were used for method validation. The nonlinear tracer correction parameters A and B for 99mTc-tefrofosmin were estimated for the 9 patients by fitting the flow-extraction curve K1=F(1−Aexp(−BF)) for K1 values estimated with 99mTc-tefrofosmin using SPECT and MBF values estimated with 13N-NH3 using PET. These parameters were then used to calculate MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in three coronary territories (LAD, RCA, and LCX) using SPECT for an independent cohort of 7 patients. The results were then compared with that estimated with 13N-NH3 PET. The flow dependent permeability surface-area product (PS) for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was also estimated. Results The estimated flow extraction parameters for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was found to be A=0.91±0.11, B=0.34±0.20 (R2 = 0.49). The range of MBF in LAD, RCA, and LCX was 0.44 ml/min/g to 3.81 ml/min/g. The MBF between PET and SPECT in the group of independent cohort of 7 patients showed statistically significant correlation, r = 0.71 (p < 0.001). However, the corresponding CFR correlation was moderate r = 0.39 yet statistically significant (p = 0.037). The PS for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was (0.091 ± 0.10) * MBF = (0.32 ± 0.16). Conclusions <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span> cardiac SPECT using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and a clinical two-headed SPECT/CT scanner can be a useful tool for estimation of MBF. PMID:26715603</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41C3058W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41C3058W"><span>The Role of African <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the South Asian Monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, H. H.; Bordoni, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Somali cross-equatorial jet is estimated to contribute up to half of the mass flux crossing the equator during the Asian monsoon season. Previous studies have argued that the Somali jet is strengthened by the East African Highlands, which act as a wall and accelerate the flow (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1976, Sashegyi and Geisler 1987). Besides, observational studies have shown a positive correlation between the strength of the Somali jet and the South Asian Monsoon (SAM) precipitation (e.g., Findlater 1969, Halpern and Woiceshyn 2001). These imply that the existence of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> would relate to a stronger SAM. However, in a more recent study, Chakraborty et al. (2002) found that if the African <span class="hlt">topography</span> is removed in a comprehensive general circulation model (GCM), the SAM strengthens. In this study, we use the GFDL AM2.1 GCM to conduct experiments with and without <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Africa, to further examine its influence on the cross-equatorial Somali jet and the SAM. We find that when the African <span class="hlt">topography</span> is removed, the SAM precipitation increases, consistent with the results in Chakraborty et al. (2002). Interestingly, our results also show that the cross-equatorial Somali jet does weaken in the absence of the African <span class="hlt">topography</span>, in agreement with previous studies. The moisture budget shows that the increase in precipitation in the no-African <span class="hlt">topography</span> experiment is primarily due to stronger wind convergence. The <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the cross-equatorial Somali jet is investigated within the framework of the Potential Vorticity (PV) budget, showing the contribution of the changes in friction and diabatic heating to the circulation as the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is removed. A backward trajectory analysis is also conducted to further examine the influence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on both the material tendencies of the PV budget and trajectories of parcels reaching the Indian subcontinent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186903"><span>Asymmetric three-dimensional <span class="hlt">topography</span> over mantle plumes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burov, Evgueni; Gerya, Taras</p> <p>2014-09-04</p> <p>The role of mantle-lithosphere interactions in shaping surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> has long been debated. In general, it is supposed that mantle plumes and vertical mantle flows result in axisymmetric, long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span>, which strongly differs from the generally asymmetric short-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> created by intraplate tectonic forces. However, identification of mantle-induced <span class="hlt">topography</span> is difficult, especially in the continents. It can be argued therefore that complex brittle-ductile rheology and stratification of the continental lithosphere result in short-wavelength modulation and localization of deformation induced by mantle flow. This deformation should also be affected by far-field stresses and, hence, interplay with the 'tectonic' <span class="hlt">topography</span> (for example, in the 'active/passive' rifting scenario). Testing these ideas requires fully coupled three-dimensional numerical modelling of mantle-lithosphere interactions, which so far has not been possible owing to the conceptual and technical limitations of earlier approaches. Here we present new, ultra-high-resolution, three-dimensional numerical experiments on <span class="hlt">topography</span> over mantle plumes, incorporating a weakly pre-stressed (ultra-slow spreading), rheologically realistic lithosphere. The results show complex surface evolution, which is very different from the smooth, radially symmetric patterns usually assumed as the canonical surface signature of mantle upwellings. In particular, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> exhibits strongly asymmetric, small-scale, three-dimensional features, which include narrow and wide rifts, flexural flank uplifts and fault structures. This suggests a dominant role for continental rheological structure and intra-plate stresses in controlling <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>, mantle-lithosphere interactions, and continental break-up processes above mantle plumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25937822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25937822"><span>Hybrid Steered Molecular <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Approach to Computing <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Binding Free Energy of Ligand-Protein Complexes: A Brute Force Approach That Is Fast and Accurate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Liao Y</p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>Computing the free energy of binding a ligand to a protein is a difficult task of essential importance for which purpose various theoretical/computational approaches have been pursued. In this paper, we develop a hybrid steered molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (hSMD) method capable of resolving one ligand–protein complex within a few wall-clock days with high enough accuracy to compare with the experimental data. This hSMD approach is based on the relationship between the binding affinity and the potential of mean force (PMF) in the established literature. It involves simultaneously steering n (n = 1, 2, 3, ...) centers of mass of n selected segments of the ligand using n springs of infinite stiffness. Steering the ligand from a single initial state chosen from the bound state ensemble to the corresponding dissociated state, disallowing any fluctuations of the pulling centers along the way, one can determine a 3n-dimensional PMF curve connecting the two states by sampling a small number of forward and reverse pulling paths. This PMF constitutes a large but not the sole contribution to the binding free energy. Two other contributors are (1) the partial partition function containing the equilibrium fluctuations of the ligand at the binding site and the deviation of the initial state from the PMF minimum and (2) the partial partition function containing rotation and fluctuations of the ligand around one of the pulling centers that is fixed at a position far from the protein. We implement this hSMD approach for two ligand–protein complexes whose structures were determined and whose binding affinities were measured experimentally: caprylic acid binding to bovine β-lactoglobulin and glutathione binding to Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase tyrosine 7 to phenylalanine mutant. Our computed binding affinities agree with the experimental data within a factor of 1.5. The total time of computation for these two all-atom model systems (consisting of 96K and 114K atoms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SGeo...37..339P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SGeo...37..339P"><span>Toward a High-Resolution Monitoring of Continental Surface Water Extent and <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span>, at Global Scale: from GIEMS (Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites) to SWOT (Surface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prigent, Catherine; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Aires, Filipe; Papa, Fabrice</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Up to now, high-resolution mapping of surface water extent from satellites has only been available for a few regions, over limited time periods. The extension of the temporal and spatial coverage was difficult, due to the limitation of the remote sensing technique [e.g., the interaction of the radiation with vegetation or cloud for visible observations or the temporal sampling with the synthetic aperture radar (SAR)]. The advantages and the limitations of the various satellite techniques are reviewed. The need to have a global and consistent estimate of the water surfaces over long time periods triggered the development of a multi-satellite methodology to obtain consistent surface water all over the globe, regardless of the environments. The Global Inundation Extent from Multi-satellites (GIEMS) combines the complementary strengths of satellite observations from the visible to the microwave, to produce a low-resolution monthly dataset (0.25^circ × 0.25^circ) of surface water extent and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Downscaling algorithms are now developed and applied to GIEMS, using high-spatial-resolution information from visible, near-infrared, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images, or from digital elevation models. Preliminary products are available down to 500-m spatial resolution. This work bridges the gaps and prepares for the future NASA/CNES Surface Water Ocean <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (SWOT) mission to be launched in 2020. SWOT will delineate surface water extent estimates and their water storage with an unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy, thanks to a SAR in an interferometry mode. When available, the SWOT data will be adopted to downscale GIEMS, to produce a long time series of water surfaces at global scale, consistent with the SWOT observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA283535','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA283535"><span>Tidal <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> and Mixing Over Steep <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>controlled barotropic tidal flow while RSNSXINDIVIDUAL 22 g~L oweau Ares am =Coe971 00 FONM 1473, A" a APR edo may be Wed WA d SECURfIY CLMSIFICATION OF THIS...ocean fluxes. Both ships used Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation with 50m accuracy. Simultaneous satellite Advanced Very High Resolution...processing using MATLAB software. To characterize the features mentioned in the previous section, the following methodology was employed: 1. Develop an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.A1004K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.A1004K"><span>Parameterizing turbulence over abrupt <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klymak, Jody</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Stratified flow over abrupt <span class="hlt">topography</span> generates a spectrum of propagating internal waves at large scales, and non-linear overturning breaking waves at small scales. For oscillating flows, the large scale waves propagate away as internal tides, for steady flows the large-scale waves propagate away as standing "columnar modes". At small-scales, the breaking waves appear to be similar for either oscillating or steady flows, so long as in the oscillating case the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is significantly steeper than the internal tide angle of propagation. The size and energy lost to the breaking waves can be predicted relatively well from assuming that internal modes that propagate horizontally more slowly than the barotropic internal tide speed are arrested and their energy goes to turbulence. This leads to a recipe for dissipation of internal tides at abrupt <span class="hlt">topography</span> that is quite robust for both the local internal tide generation problem (barotropic forcing) and for the scattering problem (internal tides incident on abrupt <span class="hlt">topography</span>). Limitations arise when linear generation models break down, an example of which is interference between two ridges. A single "super-critical" ridge is well-modeled by a single knife-edge <span class="hlt">topography</span>, regardless of its actual shape, but two supercritical ridges in close proximity demonstrate interference of the high modes that makes knife-edfe approximations invalid. Future direction of this research will be to use more complicated linear models to estimate the local dissipation. Of course, despite the large local dissipation, many ridges radiate most of their energy into the deep ocean, so tracking this low-mode radiated energy is very important, particularly as it means dissipation parameterizations in the open ocean due to these sinks from the surface tide cannot be parameterized locally to where they are lost from the surface tide, but instead lead to non-local parameterizations. US Office of Naval Research; Canadian National Science and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007713','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007713"><span>A scanning radar altimeter for mapping continental <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dixon, T. H.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Topographic information constitutes a fundamental data set for the Earth sciences. In the geological and geophysical sciences, <span class="hlt">topography</span> combined with gravitational information provides an important constraint on the structure and rheologic properties of the crust and lithosphere. Detailed <span class="hlt">topography</span> data can also be used to map offsets associated with faulting and to reveal the effects of tectonic deformation. In the polar regions, elevation data form a crucial but as yet largely unavailable resource for studying ice sheet mass balance and ice flow <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. The vast Antarctic ice sheet is the largest fresh water reservoir on Earth and is an important influence on ocean circulation and global climate. However, our knowledge of its stability is so limited that we cannot even specify whether the Antarctic ice sheet is growing or shrinking. It is clear that there is need for high quality global <span class="hlt">topography</span> data. A summary of potential applications with their resolution requirements is shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011267','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011267"><span>Linear baroclinic instability in the presence of large scale <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reynolds, Nathaniel Dunton</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The effect of a planetary-scale, wavenumber 2 <span class="hlt">topography</span> on baroclinically active disturbances is investigated for a channel domain in a two-layer, quasi-geostrophic context. When the lower-layer zonal velocity is nonzero, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> influences the disturbances by forcing a stationary wave, and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the forced wave influence the growth rates and the spatial structures of the time-dependent solutions. The case of zero zonal velocity in the lower layer was also investigated, for which no forced wave exists. Asymptotic forms of the equations, valid when the topographic effect (governed by the ratio of the nondimensional topographic height to the rotational Froude number) is small, are used to obtain both the stationary and time-dependent solutions. The latter are also obtained using a numerical approach, in which is determined the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a matrix representing the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> equations. Agreement is good between the two approaches. Recent laboratory experiments with a baroclinic annulus in which there is a false bottom with wavenumber 2 <span class="hlt">topography</span>, are used to select governing parameters. The simultaneous presence of a stationary forced wave of wavenumber 2 and a time-dependent baroclinic wave of wavenumber 4, which has wavenumber 2 and 6 sidebands due to the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, yields a flow field that exhibits some principal features of the laboratory experiments. The position of the forced wave and the location of an excursion in latitude of the storm track show qualitative resemblance to those features observed in the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990076710&hterms=mars+gravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmars%2Bgravity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990076710&hterms=mars+gravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmars%2Bgravity"><span>Mars Gravity and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Interpretations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Phillips, Roger J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>New models of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Mars and its gravity field from the Mars Global Surveyor mission are shedding new light on the structure of the planet and the state of isostatic compensation. Gravity field observations over the flat northern hemisphere plains show a number of anomalies at the 100 to 200 mGal level that have no apparent manifestation in the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We believe that these anomalies are probably the result of ancient impacts and represent regions of denser material buried beneath the outer depositional crust. Similar anomalies are also found in the region of the north polar ice cap even though a gravity anomaly resulting from the 3 km high icecap has not been uniquely identified. This leads us to speculate that the ice cap is largely compensated and is older than the timescale of isostatic compensation, about 10(exp 15) years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010125617&hterms=GROUP+PRESSURE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGROUP%2BPRESSURE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010125617&hterms=GROUP+PRESSURE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DGROUP%2BPRESSURE"><span>Cryogenic, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>, High Pressure Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensing configuration. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001054','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001054"><span>Earth rotation and core <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hager, Bradford H.; Clayton, Robert W.; Spieth, Mary Ann</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Geodynamics program has as one of its missions highly accurate monitoring of polar motion, including changes in length of day (LOD). These observations place fundamental constraints on processes occurring in the atmosphere, in the mantle, and in the core of the planet. Short-timescale (t less than or approx 1 yr) variations in LOD are mainly the result of interaction between the atmosphere and the solid earth, while variations in LOD on decade timescales result from the exchange of angular momentum between the mantle and the fluid core. One mechanism for this exchange of angular momentum is through topographic coupling between pressure variations associated with flow in the core interacting with <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the core-mantel boundary (CMB). Work done under another NASA grant addressing the origin of long-wavelength geoid anomalies as well as evidence from seismology, resulted in several models of CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The purpose of work supported by NAG5-819 was to study further the problem of CMB <span class="hlt">topography</span>, using geodesy, fluid mechanics, geomagnetics, and seismology. This is a final report.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012271','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012271"><span>Mapping of sea bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Calkoen, C. J.; Wensink, G. J.; Hesselmans, G. H. F. M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Under suitable conditions the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> of shallow seas is visible in remote sensing radar imagery. Two experiments were performed to establish which remote sensing technique or combination yields optimal imaging of bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> and which hydro-meteorological conditions are favorable. A further goal is to gain experience with these techniques. Two experiments were performed over an area in the North Sea near the measuring platform Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN). The bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the test area is dominated by sand waves. The crests of the sand waves are perpendicular to the coast line and the dominating (tidal-)current direction. A 4x4 sq km wide section of the test area was studied in more detail. The first experiment was undertaken on 16 Aug. 1989. During the experiment the following remote sensing instruments were used: Landsat-Thematic Mapper, and NASA/JPL Airborne Imaging Radar (AIR). The hydro-meteorological conditions; current, wind, wave, and air and water temperature were monitored by MPN, a ship of Rijkswaterstaat (the OCTANS), and a pitch-and-roll WAVEC-buoy. The second experiment took place on 12 July 1992. During this experiment data were collected with the NASA/JPL polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and a five-band helicopter-borne scatterometer. Again the hydro-meteorological conditions were monitored at MPN and the OCTANS. Furthermore, interferometric radar data were collected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000025063&hterms=Combined+gravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCombined%2Bgravity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000025063&hterms=Combined+gravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCombined%2Bgravity"><span>Preliminary Correlations of Gravity and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from Mars Global Surveyor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zuber, M. T.; Tyler, G. L.; Smith, D. E.; Balmino, G. S.; Johnson, G. L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Phillips, R. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Solomon, S. C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft is currently in a 400-km altitude polar mapping orbit and scheduled to begin global mapping of Mars in March of 1999. Doppler tracking data collected in this Gravity Calibration Orbit prior to the nominal mapping mission combined with observations from the MGS Science Phasing Orbit in Spring - Summer 1999 and the Viking and mariner 9 orbiters has led to preliminary high resolution gravity fields. Spherical harmonic expansions have been performed to degree and order 70 and are characterized by the first high spatial resolution coverage of high latitudes. Topographic mapping by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on MGS is providing measurements of the height of the martian surface with sub-meter vertical resolution and 5-30 m <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy. Data obtained during the circular mapping phase are expected to provide the first high resolution measurements of surface heights in the southern hemisphere. The combination of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements provides information on the structure of the planetary interior, i.e. the rigidity and distribution of internal density. The observations can also be used to address the mechanisms of support of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Preliminary results of correlations of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> at long planetary wavelengths will be presented and the implications for internal structure will be addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SuTMP...4c5003G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SuTMP...4c5003G"><span>Robust evaluation of statistical surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> parameters using focus-variation microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grossman, E. N.; Gould, M.; Mujica-Schwann, N. P.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Spatial bandwidth limitations frequently introduce large biases into the estimated values of rms roughness and autocorrelation length that are extracted from <span class="hlt">topography</span> data on random rough surfaces. The biases can be particularly severe for focus-variation microscopy data because of the reduced lateral resolution (and therefore <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range) inherent in the technique. In this paper, we describe a measurement protocol—something similar to a deconvolution algorithm—that greatly reduces these biases. The measurement protocol is developed for the case of surfaces that are isotropic, and whose <span class="hlt">topography</span> displays an autocovariance function that is exponential, with a single autocorrelation length. The protocol is first validated against Monte Carlo-generated mock surfaces of this form that have been filtered so as to simulate the lateral resolution and field-of-view limits of a particular commercial focus-variation microscope. It is found that accurate values of roughness and autocorrelation length can be extracted over a four octave range in autocorrelation length by applying the protocol, whereas errors without applying the protocol are a minimum of 30% even at the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optimum autocorrelation length. Then, microscopy data on eleven examples of rough, outdoor building materials are analyzed using the protocol. Even though the samples were not in any way selected to conform to the model’s assumptions, we find that applying the protocol yields extracted values of roughness and autocorrelation length for each surface that are highly consistent among datasets obtained at different magnifications (i.e. datasets obtained with different spatial bandpass limits). Publication of the US Government, not subject to copyright.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016849','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016849"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Cell Response, and Nerve Regeneration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoffman-Kim, Diane; Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the body, cells encounter a complex milieu of signals, including topographical cues. Imposed <span class="hlt">topography</span> can affect cells on surfaces by promoting adhesion, spreading, alignment, morphological changes, and changes in gene expression. Neural response to <span class="hlt">topography</span> is complex, and depends on the dimensions and shapes of physical features. Looking toward repair of nerve injuries, strategies are being explored to engineer guidance conduits with precise surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. How neurons and other cell types sense and interpret <span class="hlt">topography</span> remains to be fully elucidated. Studies reviewed here include those of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on cellular organization and function as well as potential cellular mechanisms of response. PMID:20438370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25500860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25500860"><span>Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> matching by iterative registration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Junjie; Elsheikh, Ahmed; Davey, Pinakin G; Wang, Weizhuo; Bao, Fangjun; Mottershead, John E</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Videokeratography is used for the measurement of corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> in overlapping portions (or maps) which must later be joined together to form the overall <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the cornea. The separate portions are measured from different viewpoints and therefore must be brought together by registration of measurement points in the regions of overlap. The central map is generally the most accurate, but all maps are measured with uncertainty that increases towards the periphery. It becomes the reference (or static) map, and the peripheral (or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>) maps must then be transformed by rotation and translation so that the overlapping portions are matched. The process known as registration, of determining the necessary transformation, is a well-understood procedure in image analysis and has been applied in several areas of science and engineering. In this article, direct search optimisation using the Nelder-Mead algorithm and several variants of the iterative closest/corresponding point routine are explained and applied to simulated and real clinical data. The measurement points on the static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> maps are generally different so that it becomes necessary to interpolate, which is done using a truncated series of Zernike polynomials. The point-to-plane iterative closest/corresponding point variant has the advantage of releasing certain optimisation constraints that lead to persistent registration and alignment errors when other approaches are used. The point-to-plane iterative closest/corresponding point routine is found to be robust to measurement noise, insensitive to starting values of the transformation parameters and produces high-quality results when using real clinical data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24243093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24243093"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on sulfate redistribution in Cumulonimbus cloud development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vujović, Dragana; Vučković, Vladan; Curić, Mlađen</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>An aqueous chemical module is created and included into a complex three-dimensional atmospheric cloud-resolving mesoscale model. In the chemical module, oxidation of S(IV) by ozone and hydrogen peroxide in cloud-water and rainwater, as important process of the sulfate production is included. To examine the impact of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the sulfate redistribution in a clean and a polluted environment, the complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Serbia is included in the model. Numerical simulations of an isolated summer Cumulonimbus cloud shows that thunderstorms generate very strong vertical sulfate redistribution from the planetary boundary layer to the upper troposphere. This redistribution is sensitive to cloud <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>, while cloud microphysics and precipitation determine wet removal of the chemical species. In simulations with realistic <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the chemical species are transported over larger distances close to the surface, while in the upper atmosphere, there is no difference compared to the simulations without <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The sensitivity tests of cloud chemistry to the physical processes are made. Omission of nucleation and impact scavenging of aerosols in the model simulations shows that 75.8 and 62.5 % of total sulfur mass deposited in the base experiment for the clean and the polluted environment, respectively, is the result of other processes. Exclusion of oxidation accounted for 19.2 and 37.7 % of total sulfur deposited for clean and polluted environment. Ignoring the ice phase almost not change mass of deposited sulfur: there is an increase of 2.9 and 1.5 % for clean and polluted atmosphere, respectively. Real <span class="hlt">topography</span> conditions affect the sulfate redistribution in the sense of greater possibilities of transport. Numerical simulations without real <span class="hlt">topography</span> give an artificial increase of deposited sulfur mass of about 25-30 %.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SPIE.1036...99Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SPIE.1036...99Y"><span>Precision Measurement Of Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoder, Paul R.; Macri, Timothy F.; Telfair, William B.; Bennett, Peter S.; Martin, Clifford A.; Warner, John W.</p> <p>1989-05-01</p> <p>We describe a new electro-optical device being developed to provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the human cornea. This device, called a digital keratoscope, is intended primarily for use in preparing for and determining the effect of corneal surgery procedures such as laser refractive keratectomy, radial keratotomy or corneal transplant on the refractive power of the cornea. It also may serve as an aid in prescribing contact lenses. The basic design features of the hardware and of the associated computer software are discussed, the means for alignment and calibration are described and typical results are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED11B3407G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED11B3407G"><span>The <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Tub Learning Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glesener, G. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Understanding the basic elements of a topographic map (i.e. contour lines and intervals) is just a small part of learning how to use this abstract representational system as a resource in geologic mapping. Interpretation of a topographic map and matching its features with real-world structures requires that the system is utilized for visualizing the shapes of these structures and their spatial orientation. To enrich students' skills in visualizing <span class="hlt">topography</span> from topographic maps a spatial training activity has been developed that uses 3D objects of various shapes and sizes, a sighting tool, a plastic basin, water, and transparencies. In the first part of the activity, the student is asked to draw a topographic map of one of the 3D objects. Next, the student places the object into a plastic tub in which water is added to specified intervals of height. The shoreline at each interval is used to reference the location of the contour line the student draws on a plastic inkjet transparency directly above the object. A key part of this activity is the use of a sighting tool by the student to assist in keeping the pencil mark directly above the shoreline. It (1) ensures the accurate positioning of the contour line and (2) gives the learner experience with using a sight before going out into the field. Finally, after the student finishes drawing the contour lines onto the transparency, the student can compare and contrast the two maps in order to discover where improvements in their visualization of the contours can be made. The teacher and/or peers can also make suggestions on ways to improve. A number of objects with various shapes and sizes are used in this exercise to produce contour lines representing the different types of <span class="hlt">topography</span> the student may encounter while field mapping. The intended outcome from using this visualization training activity is improvement in performance of visualizing <span class="hlt">topography</span> as the student moves between the topographic representation and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930063997&hterms=classification+algorithm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dclassification%2Balgorithm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930063997&hterms=classification+algorithm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dclassification%2Balgorithm"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> classification with unsupervised clustering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...S21B02G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...S21B02G"><span>Simultaneous inversion for mantle shear velocity and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of transition zone discontinuities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gu, Y. J.; Dziewonski, A. M.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>A method is presented for the simultaneous inversions of shear velocity in the mantle and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of transition zone discontinuities. Each travel time residual, corrected for crust and free surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, is modeled as resulting from contributions from three-dimensional shear velocity perturbations to a spherical Earth model and boundary undulations to the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. This approach minimizes tradeoffs between velocity and <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We expand the lateral variations in velocity and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of each discontinuity using 362 spherical B-splines; we expand the radial variations using 14 cubic B-splines. To increase the reliability of the measurements, particularly in the undersampled southern hemisphere, we re-examine the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the 410- and 660 km discontinuities from more than 21,000 SH-component records. This new data set is significantly larger than those used earlier studies of SS precursors. The long-wavelength features of our new <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities are compatible with results of earlier studies: the large-scale patterns are dominated by low degree spherical harmonics, particularly at degrees 1 and 2. We also include an independent measurement of the global transition zone thickness for additional constraints on the structure in the transition zone. The best-fit model from the joint inversion reduces the variance of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and differential travel times of S, SS and ScS by 40 to 70 %, and the differential travel times of SS precursors by up to 90%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012466','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012466"><span>Photogrammetric portrayal of Mars <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wu, S.S.C.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Special photogrammetric techniques have been developed to portray Mars <span class="hlt">topography</span>, using Mariner and Viking imaging and nonimaging topographic information and earth-based radar data. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> is represented by the compilation of maps at three scales: global, intermediate, and very large scale. The global map is a synthesis of topographic information obtained from Mariner 9 and earth-based radar, compiled at a scale of 1:25,000,000 with a contour interval of 1 km; it gives a broad quantitative view of the planet. At intermediate scales, Viking Orbiter photographs of various resolutions are used to compile detailed contour maps of a broad spectrum of prominent geologic features; a contour interval as small as 20 m has been obtained from very high resolution orbital photography. Imagery from the Viking lander facsimile cameras permits construction of detailed, very large scale (1:10) topographic maps of the terrain surrounding the two landers; these maps have a contour interval of 1 cm. This paper presents several new detailed topographic maps of Mars.-Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=conformity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconformity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=conformity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconformity"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> transition probabilities of phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ265369.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ265369.pdf"><span>Relativistic <span class="hlt">Absolutism</span> in Moral Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vogt, W. Paul</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B8.1407L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B8.1407L"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Standards for Climate Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leckey, J.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764639"><span>Understanding the mechanisms of solid-water reactions through analysis of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bandstra, Joel Z; Brantley, Susan L</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a reactive surface contains information about the reactions that form or modify the surface and, therefore, it should be possible to characterize reactivity using <span class="hlt">topography</span> parameters such as surface area, roughness, or fractal dimension. As a test of this idea, we consider a two-dimensional (2D) lattice model for crystal dissolution and examine a suite of <span class="hlt">topography</span> parameters to determine which may be useful for predicting rates and mechanisms of dissolution. The model is based on the assumption that the reactivity of a surface site decreases with the number of nearest neighbors. We show that the steady-state surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in our model system is a function of, at most, two variables: the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with two neighbors versus three neighbors (d(2)/d(3)) and the ratio of the rate of loss of sites with one neighbor versus three neighbors (d(1)/d(3)). This means that relative rates can be determined from two parameters characterizing the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a surface provided that the two parameters are independent of one another. It also means that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rates cannot be determined from measurements of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> alone. To identify independent sets of <span class="hlt">topography</span> parameters, we simulated surfaces from a broad range of d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) and computed a suite of common <span class="hlt">topography</span> parameters for each surface. Our results indicate that the fractal dimension D and the average spacing between steps, E[s], can serve to uniquely determine d(1)/d(3) and d(2)/d(3) provided that sufficiently strong correlations exist between the steps. Sufficiently strong correlations exist in our model system when D>1.5 (which corresponds to D>2.5 for real 3D reactive surfaces). When steps are uncorrelated, surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> becomes independent of step retreat rate and D is equal to 1.5. Under these conditions, measures of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> are not independent and any single <span class="hlt">topography</span> parameter contains all of the available mechanistic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNG23A1772O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMNG23A1772O"><span>Spectral <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Generation for Arbitrary Grids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oh, T. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">topography</span> generation tool utilizing spectral transformation technique for both structured and unstructured grids is presented. For the source global digital elevation data, the NASA Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM) 15 arc-second dataset (gap-filling by Jonathan de Ferranti) is used and for land/water mask source, the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 30 arc-second land water mask dataset v5 is used. The original source data is coarsened to a intermediate global 2 minute lat-lon mesh. Then, spectral transformation to the wave space and inverse transformation with wavenumber truncation is performed for isotropic <span class="hlt">topography</span> smoothness control. Target grid <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapping is done by bivariate cubic spline interpolation from the truncated 2 minute lat-lon <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Gibbs phenomenon in the water region can be removed by overwriting ocean masked target coordinate grids with interpolated values from the intermediate 2 minute grid. Finally, a weak smoothing operator is applied on the target grid to minimize the land/water surface height discontinuity that might have been introduced by the Gibbs oscillation removal procedure. Overall, the new <span class="hlt">topography</span> generation approach provides spectrally-derived, smooth <span class="hlt">topography</span> with isotropic resolution and minimum damping, enabling realistic <span class="hlt">topography</span> forcing in the numerical model. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> is generated for the cubed-sphere grid and tested on the KIAPS Integrated Model (KIM).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApPhL..94o1916W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApPhL..94o1916W"><span>Wrinkled surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of electrospun polymer fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Lifeng; Pai, Chia-Ling; Boyce, Mary C.; Rutledge, Gregory C.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Electrospun polymer fibers are shown to have wrinkled surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> that result from buckling instabilities during processing. A glassy shell forms on the surface of the gel-like core during solvent evaporation; continued evaporation leads to a contraction mismatch between the core and shell that triggers buckling of the shell. The wrinkled <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are quantified in terms of the critical buckling wave number and wavelength. The results explain the observed wrinkled <span class="hlt">topographies</span> and provide a framework for designing fibers with high specific surface areas and textured/patterned surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to enhance surface dominated properties in fibers and fibrous mats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CRGeo.338.1029M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CRGeo.338.1029M"><span>High-resolution land <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Massonnet, Didier; Elachi, Charles</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>After a description of the background, methods of production and some scientific uses of high-resolution land <span class="hlt">topography</span>, we present the current status and the prospect of radar interferometry, regarded as one of the best techniques for obtaining the most global and the most accurate topographic maps. After introducing briefly the theoretical aspects of radar interferometry - principles, limits of operation and various capabilities -, we will focus on the topographic applications that resulted in an almost global topographic map of the earth: the SRTM map. After introducing the Interferometric Cartwheel system, we will build on its expected performances to discuss the scientific prospects of refining a global topographic map to sub-metric accuracy. We also show how other fields of sciences such as hydrology may benefit from the products generated by interferometric radar systems. To cite this article: D. Massonnet, C. Elachi, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.9113M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.9113M"><span>Venus - Global gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McNamee, J. B.; Borderies, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>A new gravity field determination that has been produced combines both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Magellan Doppler radio data. Comparisons between this estimate, a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 21, and previous models show that significant improvements have been made. Results are displayed as gravity contours overlaying a topographic map. We also calculate a new spherical harmonic model of <span class="hlt">topography</span> based on Magellan altimetry, with PVO altimetry included where gaps exist in the Magellan data. This model is also of degree and order 21, so in conjunction with the gravity model, Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps can be produced. These results are very consistent with previous results, but reveal more spatial resolution in the higher latitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical flats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sommargren, Gary E.</p> <p>2005-04-05</p> <p>The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase error of the optical flat is obtained.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp"><span>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kogut, A. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95a2125A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95a2125A"><span>Physics of negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94a3808D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94a3808D"><span>Optomechanics for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davuluri, Sankar</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T43E..05L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T43E..05L"><span>Rejuvenation of Appalachian <span class="hlt">topography</span> due to subsidence induced differential erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In ancient orogens, such as the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States, the difference between the high and low points—topographic relief—can continue to increase long after the tectonic forces that created the range have become inactive. Climatic forcing and mantle-induced <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift are proposed to drive formation of relief, but clear evidence is lacking in the Appalachian Mountains. Here I use a numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in North America, combined with reconstructions of the sedimentation history from the Gulf of Mexico, to show that rejuvenation of topographic relief in the Appalachian Mountains since the Palaeogene period could have been caused by mantle-induced <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence associated with sinking of the subducted Farallon slab. Specifically, I show that patterns of continental erosion and the eastward migration of sediment deposition centres in the Gulf of Mexico closely follow the locus of predicted <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence. Furthermore, pulses of rapid sediment deposition in the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic correlate with enhanced erosion in the Appalachian Mountains during the Miocene epoch, caused by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> tilting of the continent. Calculations show that such subsidence-induced differential erosion caused flexural-isostatic adjustments of Appalachian <span class="hlt">topography</span> that led to the development of both relief and elevation. I propose that <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> induced continental tilting may provide a mechanism for topographic rejuvenation in ancient orogens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28213146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28213146"><span>Linear ultrasonic motor for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/terrainmodeling/ds_136.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://geology.er.usgs.gov/eespteam/terrainmodeling/ds_136.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Landforms of Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3243778','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3243778"><span>The Cortical <span class="hlt">Topography</span> of Local Sleep</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Murphy, Michael; Huber, Reto; Esser, Steve; Riedner, Brady A.; Massimini, Marcello; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Tononi, Giulio</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In a recent series of experiments, we demonstrated that a visuomotor adaptation task, 12 hours of left arm immobilization, and rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) during waking can each induce local changes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave activity (SWA) during subsequent non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, the poor spatial resolution of EEG and the difficulty of relating scalp potentials to the activity of the underlying cortex limited the interpretation of these results. In order to better understand local cortical regulation of sleep, we used source modeling to show that plastic changes in specific cortical areas during waking produce correlated changes in SWA during sleep in those same areas. We found that implicit learning of a visuomotor adaptation task induced an increase in SWA in right premotor and sensorimotor cortices when compared to a motor control. These same areas have previously been shown to be selectively involved in the performance of this task. We also found that arm immobilization resulted in a decrease in SWA in sensorimotor cortex. Inducing cortical potentiation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) caused an increase in SWA in the targeted area and a decrease in SWA in the contralateral cortex. Finally, we report the first evidence that these modulations in SWA may be related to the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of individual slow waves. We conclude that there is a local, plasticity dependent component to sleep regulation and confirm previous inferences made from the scalp data. PMID:21906021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2009/3087/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2009/3087/"><span>Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2003/0071/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2003/0071/report.pdf"><span>Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is now distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project between NASA and NIMA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at a level of detail unprecedented for such a large area. Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle Endeavour February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60? N. and 56? S. latitude. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected specifically with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02031&hterms=utopia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dutopia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02031&hterms=utopia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dutopia"><span>Maps of Mars Global <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p><p/>Maps of Mars' global <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The projections are Mercator to 70o latitude and stereographic at the poles with the south pole at left and north pole at right. Note the elevation difference between the northern and southern hemispheres. The Tharsis volcano-tectonic province is centered near the equator in the longitude range 220o E to 300o E and contains the vast east-west trending Valles Marineris canyon system and several major volcanic shields including Olympus Mons (18o N, 225o E), Alba Patera (42o N, 252o E), Ascraeus Mons (12o N, 248o E), Pavonis Mons (0o, 247o E), and Arsia Mons (9o S, 239o E). Regions and structures discussed in the text include Solis Planum (25o S, 270o E), Lunae Planum (10o N, 290o E), and Claritas Fossae (30o S, 255o E). Major impact basins include Hellas (45o S, 70o E), Argyre (50o S, 320o E), Isidis (12o N, 88o E), and Utopia (45o N, 110o E). This analysis uses an areocentric coordinate convention with east longitude positive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950027808&hterms=stereo+vision&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dstereo%2Bvision','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950027808&hterms=stereo+vision&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dstereo%2Bvision"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> from shading and stereo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horn, Berthold P.; Caplinger, Michael</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Methods exploiting photometric information in images that have been developed in machine vision can be applied to planetary imagery. Present techniques, however, focus on one visual cue, such as shading or binocular stereo, and produce results that are either not very accurate in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sense or provide information only at few points on the surface. We plan to integrate shape from shading, binocular stereo and photometric stereo to yield a robust system for recovering detailed surface shape and surface reflectance information. Such a system will be useful in producing quantitative information from the vast volume of imagery being received, as well as in helping visualize the underlying surface. The work will be carried out on a popular computing platform so that it will be easily accessible to other workers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930016614&hterms=stereo+vision&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dstereo%2Bvision','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930016614&hterms=stereo+vision&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dstereo%2Bvision"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> from shading and stereo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horn, Berthold P.; Caplinger, Michael</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Methods exploiting photometric information in images that have been developed in machine vision can be applied to planetary imagery. Present techniques, however, focus on one visual cue, such as shading or binocular stereo, and produce results that are either not very accurate in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sense or provide information only at few points on the surface. We plan to integrate shape from shading, binocular stereo and photometric stereo to yield a robust system for recovering detailed surface shape and surface reflectance information. Such a system will be useful in producing quantitative information from the vast volume of imagery being received, as well as in helping visualize the underlying surface. The work will be carried out on a popular computing platform so that it will be easily accessible to other workers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20779136','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20779136"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical tweezers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.</p> <p>2006-03-27</p> <p>As a step toward <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..342...11H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..342...11H"><span>High-precision drop shape analysis (HPDSA) of quasistatic contact angles on silanized silicon wafers with different surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> during inclining-plate measurements: Influence of the surface roughness on the contact line <span class="hlt">dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heib, F.; Hempelmann, R.; Munief, W. M.; Ingebrandt, S.; Fug, F.; Possart, W.; Groß, K.; Schmitt, M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Contact angles and wetting of solid surfaces are strongly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the surfaces. These influence quantities are difficult to distinguish from each other if contact angle measurements are performed by measuring only the advancing θa and the receding θr contact angle. In this regard, time-dependent water contact angles are measured on two hydrophobic modified silicon wafers with different physical surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. The first surface is nearly atomically flat while the second surface is patterned (alternating flat and nanoscale rough patterns) which is synthesized by a photolithography and etching procedure. The different surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> are characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FTIRRAS) and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The resulting set of contact angle data obtained by the high-precision drop shape analysis approach is further analyzed by a Gompertzian fitting procedure and a statistical counting procedure in dependence on the triple line velocity. The Gompertzian fit is used to analyze overall properties of the surface and dependencies between the motion on the front and the back edge of the droplets. The statistical counting procedure results in the calculation of expectation values E(p) and standard deviations σ(p) for the inclination angle φ, contact angle θ, triple line velocity vel and the covered distance of the triple line dis relative to the first boundary points XB,10. Therefore, sessile drops during the inclination of the sample surface are video recorded and different specific contact angle events in dependence on the acceleration/deceleration of the triple line motion are analyzed. This procedure results in characteristically density distributions in dependence on the surface properties. The used procedures lead to the possibility to investigate influences on contact</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3801007','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3801007"><span>Genetic <span class="hlt">topography</span> of brain morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Chi-Hua; Fiecas, Mark; Gutiérrez, E. D.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Thompson, Wesley K.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Neale, Michael C.; Franz, Carol E.; Lyons, Michael J.; Fischl, Bruce; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Kremen, William S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Animal data show that cortical development is initially patterned by genetic gradients largely along three orthogonal axes. We previously reported differences in genetic influences on cortical surface area along an anterior-posterior axis using neuroimaging data of adult human twins. Here, we demonstrate differences in genetic influences on cortical thickness along a dorsal-ventral axis in the same cohort. The phenomenon of orthogonal gradations in cortical organization evident in different structural and functional properties may originate from genetic gradients. Another emerging theme of cortical patterning is that patterns of genetic influences recapitulate the spatial <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the cortex within hemispheres. The genetic patterning of both cortical thickness and surface area corresponds to cortical functional specializations. Intriguingly, in contrast to broad similarities in genetic patterning, two sets of analyses distinguish cortical thickness and surface area genetically. First, genetic contributions to cortical thickness and surface area are largely distinct; there is very little genetic correlation (i.e., shared genetic influences) between them. Second, organizing principles among genetically defined regions differ between thickness and surface area. Examining the structure of the genetic similarity matrix among clusters revealed that, whereas surface area clusters showed great genetic proximity with clusters from the same lobe, thickness clusters appear to have close genetic relatedness with clusters that have similar maturational timing. The discrepancies are in line with evidence that the two traits follow different mechanisms in neurodevelopment. Our findings highlight the complexity of genetic influences on cortical morphology and provide a glimpse into emerging principles of genetic organization of the cortex. PMID:24082094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.G22B0214F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.G22B0214F"><span>The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farr, T. G.; Kobrick, M.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the German and Italian Space Agencies. The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m horizontal resolution and better than 15 m vertical errors. Two ortho-rectified C-band image mosaics are also planned. Data processing will be completed by the end of 2002. SRTM used a modification of the radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory that flew twice on the Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the interferometric data, a 60 m mast, additional C-band antenna, and improved tracking and navigation devices were added. A second X-band antenna was also added by the German Space Agency, and produced higher resolution topographic measurements in strips nested within the full, C-band coverage. First results indicate that the radars and ancillary instruments worked very well. Data played back to the ground during the flight were processed to DEMs and products released hours after acquisition. An extensive program for calibration and verification of the SRTM data is now underway. When complete later this year, systematic processing of the data will begin, with final products emerging a continent at a time. Products will be transferred to the US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center for civilian archive and distribution. NIMA will handle Department of Defense distribution. * Work performed under contract to NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...B41C08F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...B41C08F"><span>The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farr, T. G.; Kobrick, M.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM), which flew successfully aboard Endeavour in February 2000, is a cooperative project between NASA and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). The mission was designed to use a single-pass radar interferometer to produce a digital elevation model of the Earth's land surface between about 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south latitude. The DEM will have 30 m horizontal resolution and about 15 m vertical errors. Two ortho-rectified C-band image mosaics are also planned. SRTM used a modification of the radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Radar Laboratory that flew twice on the Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the interferometric data, a 60 m mast, additional C-band antenna, and improved tracking and navigation devices were added. A second X-band antenna was also added by the German Space Agency, and produced higher resolution topographic measurements in strips nested within the full, C-band coverage. First results indicate that the radars and ancillary instruments worked very well. Data played back to the ground during the flight were processed to DEMs and products released hours after acquisition. An extensive program for calibration and verification of the SRTM data is now underway. When complete later this year, systematic processing of the data will begin, with final products emerging a continent at a time. Data processing will be completed by the end of 2002. Products will be transferred to the US Geological Survey's EROS Data Center for civilian archive and distribution. NIMA will handle Department of Defense distribution. * Work performed under contract to NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980018849','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980018849"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> of the Moon from the Clementine Lidar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Lemoine, Frank G.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Range measurements from the lidar instrument carried aboard the Clementine spacecraft have been used to produce an accurate global topographic model of the Moon. This paper discusses the function of the lidar; the acquisition, processing, and filtering of observations to produce a global topographic model; and the determination of parameters that define the fundamental shape of the Moon. Our topographic model: a 72nd degree and order spherical harmonic expansion of lunar radii, is designated Goddard Lunar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Model 2 (GLTM 2). This topographic field has an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vertical accuracy of approximately 100 m and a spatial resolution of 2.5 deg. The field shows that the Moon can be described as a sphere with maximum positive and negative deviations of approx. 8 km, both occurring on the farside, in the areas of the Korolev and South Pole-Aitken (S.P.-Aitken) basins. The amplitude spectrum of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows more power at longer wavelengths as compared to previous models, owing to more complete sampling of the surface, particularly the farside. A comparison of elevations derived from the Clementine lidar to control point elevations from the Apollo laser altimeters indicates that measured relative topographic heights generally agree to within approx. 200 in over the maria. While the major axis of the lunar gravity field is aligned in the Earth-Moon direction, the major axis of <span class="hlt">topography</span> is displaced from this line by approximately 10 deg to the cast and intersects the farside 24 deg north of the equator. The magnitude of impact basin <span class="hlt">topography</span> is greater than the lunar flattening (approx. 2 km) and equatorial ellipticity (approx. 800 m), which imposes a significant challenge to interpreting the lunar figure. The floors of mare basins are shown to lie close to an equipotential surface, while the floors of unflooded large basins, except for S.P.-Aitken, lie above this equipotential. The radii of basin floors are thus consistent with a hydrostatic mechanism</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815003A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815003A"><span>The influence of deep mantle heterogeneity on the rhythms and scales of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnould, Maëlis; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Earth's surface, the interface between external processes and internal <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (lithosphere motions and mantle convection), is continuously reorganised. A large part of Earth's <span class="hlt">topography</span> is generated by mantle motions and lithospheric stresses [1], which impacts for instance the global sea-level, the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of sedimentary basins and the geoid. Studying how surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolves in both space and time thus not only provides information on the rhythms and scales of evolution of those processes, but would also be a tool for the study of the mantle motions and properties from which it originates [2]. In this study, we propose to characterise the spatial and temporal scales of evolution of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> in 2D spherical annulus numerical models of mantle convection developing a plate-like behaviour. We use the geodynamical code StagYY [3] to first determine a mantle convection regime generating a surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> with Earth-like amplitudes and realistic mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at first order (e.g. high Rayleigh number, reasonable lithosphere thickness, pseudo-plastic lithosphere rheology generating plate tectonics). We then use this convection regime to investigate how the presence of stable deep-rooted thermochemical heterogeneities influence the rhythms of evolution of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. We analyse our results to identify how the timescales of evolution are connected with the lengthscales of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, in light of the tectonic histories produced by the models. References: [1] M. Gurnis, Long-term controls of eustatic and epeirogenic motions by mantle convection, GSA Today, 2(7):141-157, 1992. [2] B.H. Hager, R.W. Clayton, M.A. Richards, R.P. Comer, and A.M. Dziewonski, Lower mantle heterogeneity, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the geoid, Nature, 313:541-545, 1985. [3] J.W. Hernlund and P.J. Tackley, Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 171(1):48-54, 2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1031324"><span>Enhanced Characterization of Niobium Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen Xu, Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> characterization is a continuing issue for the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) particle accelerator community. Efforts are underway to both to improve surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and its characterization and analysis using various techniques. In measurement of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, Power Spectral Density (PSD) is a promising method to quantify typical surface parameters and develop scale-specific interpretations. PSD can also be used to indicate how chemical processes modifiesy the roughnesstopography at different scales. However, generating an accurate and meaningful topographic PSD of an SRF surface requires careful analysis and optimization. In this report, polycrystalline surfaces with different process histories are sampled with AFM and stylus/white light interferometer profilometryers and analyzed to indicate trace <span class="hlt">topography</span> evolution at different scales. evolving during etching or polishing. Moreover, Aan optimized PSD analysis protocol will be offered to serve the SRF surface characterization needs is presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6526G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6526G"><span>Geophysical, petrological and mineral physics constraints on Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guerri, Mattia; Cammarano, Fabio; Tackley, Paul J.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Earth's surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> is controlled by isostatically compensated density variations within the lithosphere, but <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> - i.e. the <span class="hlt">topography</span> due to adjustment of surface to mantle convection - is an important component, specially at a global scale. In order to separate these two components it is fundamental to estimate crustal and mantle density structure and rheological properties. Usually, crustal density is constrained from interpretation of available seismic data (mostly VP profiles) based on empirical relationships such those in Brocher [2005]. Mantle density structure is inferred from seismic tomography models. Constant coefficients are used to interpret seismic velocity anomalies in density anomalies. These simplified methods are unable to model the effects that pressure and temperature variations have on mineralogical assemblage and physical properties. Our approach is based on a multidisciplinary method that involves geophysical observables, mineral physics constraints, and petrological data. Mantle density is based on the thermal interpretation of global seismic tomography models assuming various compositional structures, as in Cammarano et al. [2011]. We further constrain the top 150 km by including heat-flow data and considering the thermal evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Crustal density is calculated as in Guerri and Cammarano [2015] performing thermodynamic modeling of various average chemical compositions proposed for the crust. The modeling, performed with the code PerpleX [Connolly, 2005], relies on the thermodynamic dataset from Holland and Powell [1998]. Compressional waves velocity and crustal layers thickness from the model CRUST 1.0 [Laske et al., 2013] offer additional constrains. The resulting lithospheric density models are tested against gravity (GOCE) data. Various crustal and mantle density models have been tested in order to ascertain the effects that uncertainties in the estimate of those features have on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1014367','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1014367"><span>Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-09-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">topography</span> on the ocean general circulation is challenging because of the multiscale nature of the flow interactions. Small- scale details of the...<span class="hlt">topography</span>, and the waves, drag, and turbulence generated at the boundary, from meter scale to mesoscale, interact in the boundary layers to influence the...larger- scale flow. We are using modern modeling and state estimation methods at multiple scales for collaborative study of the interaction of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...08..060V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...08..060V"><span>Cosmology with negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......154L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......154L"><span>Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements for biometric applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, Nathan D.</p> <p></p> <p>The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measured. Human subject <span class="hlt">topography</span> data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. <span class="hlt">Topography</span> data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing <span class="hlt">topography</span> data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2535J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...46.2535J"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on tropical African vegetation coverage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Gerlinde; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Hominid evolution in the late Miocene has long been hypothesized to be linked to the retreat of the tropical rainforest in Africa. One cause for the climatic and vegetation change often considered was uplift of Africa, but also uplift of the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau was suggested to have impacted rainfall distribution over Africa. Recent proxy data suggest that in East Africa open grassland habitats were available to the common ancestors of hominins and apes long before their divergence and do not find evidence for a closed rainforest in the late Miocene. We used the coupled global general circulation model CCSM3 including an interactively coupled <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> vegetation module to investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on African hydro-climate and vegetation. We performed sensitivity experiments altering elevations of the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau as well as of East and Southern Africa. The simulations confirm the dominant impact of African <span class="hlt">topography</span> for climate and vegetation development of the African tropics. Only a weak influence of prescribed Asian uplift on African climate could be detected. The model simulations show that rainforest coverage of Central Africa is strongly determined by the presence of elevated African <span class="hlt">topography</span>. In East Africa, despite wetter conditions with lowered African <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the conditions were not favorable enough to maintain a closed rainforest. A discussion of the results with respect to other model studies indicates a minor importance of vegetation-atmosphere or ocean-atmosphere feedbacks and a large dependence of the simulated vegetation response on the land surface/vegetation model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.408..362H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.408..362H"><span>Evaluating Marie Byrd Land stability using an improved basal <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holschuh, N.; Pollard, D.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Prior understanding of the ice-sheet setting in Marie Byrd Land (MBL) was derived primarily from geologic and geochemical studies of the current nunataks, with very few geophysical surveys imaging the ice covered regions. The geologic context suggested that the ice rests on a broad regional high, in contrast to the deep basins and trenches that characterize the majority of West Antarctica. This assumed <span class="hlt">topography</span> would favor long-term stability for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) in MBL. Airborne geophysical data collected in 2009 reveal a much deeper bed than previously estimated, including a significant trough underlying DeVicq Glacier and evidence for extensive glacial erosion. Using these data, we produce a new map of subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span>, with which we model the sensitivity of WAIS to a warming ocean using the ice-sheet model of Pollard and DeConto (2012b). We compare the results to estimates of ice loss during WAIS collapse using the previously defined subglacial <span class="hlt">topography</span>, to determine the impact of the newly discovered subglacial features. Our results indicate that the topographic changes are not sufficient to destabilize the northern margin of MBL currently feeding the Getz Ice Shelf; the majority of ice loss occurs from flow toward the Siple Coast. However, despite only slight <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> differences, using the new bed as a boundary condition results in an additional 8 cm of sea-level rise during major glacial retreat, an increase of just over 2%. Precise estimation of past and future ice retreat, as well as a complete understanding of the geologic history of the region, will require a higher resolution picture of the bed <span class="hlt">topography</span> around the Executive Committee mountains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP33B1231C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP33B1231C"><span>Reconstructing Pliocene coastlines, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and bathymetry: A geodynamic perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chandan, D.; Peltier, W. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The middle Pliocene period (~3.3-3.0 Mya) was characterized by warm temperatures (2-3℃ higher) and high carbon-dioxide (~400 ppmv) concentrations which has led to its recognition as a possible analogue for the future climate. Under the auspices of the Pliocene Modeling and Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP), general circulation models (GCM's) are being employed to simulate mid-Pliocene climate to better understand the biases in these models, which are presently used to make future climate predictions. Necessary boundary conditions for these simulations — land mask, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, surface albedo and vegetation cover are being provided by the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) project. Bathymetry, which is not part of the PRISM supplied dataset has been adjusted by raising the sea-level by an assumed constant eustatic amount. At present the PRISM land mask, <span class="hlt">topography</span> and bathymetry reconstructions do not incorporate the gravitationally self consistent changes that would be required to account for the mass loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets that produced the assumed rise in eustatic sea level. The effects of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> induced corrections, due to the action of the mantle convection process, have also been neglected.The influence of these corrections on the predictions of Pliocene climate using modern GCM's remains unexplored. The continuing failure of these models to simulate proxy inferred levels of warming in high-latitude [Dowsett et al., 2013, Sci. Rep.] regions where the magnitude of the required corrections are expected to be largest make it especially important that their impact be assessed. Here, we present the results from a preliminary of the required modifications to the boundary condition data sets.We compute the gravitationally self consistent corrections using the viscoelastic theory of global, glacial isostatic adjustment and relative sea level history for a spherically symmetric Earth model. <span class="hlt">Dynamic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14.1905M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14.1905M"><span>Numerical modeling and analysis of the effect of complex Greek <span class="hlt">topography</span> on tornadogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsangouras, I. T.; Pytharoulis, I.; Nastos, P. T.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p> accompanied by analysis of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vorticity budget. Numerical simulations revealed that the complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> constituted an important factor during the 17 November 2007 and 12 February 2010 events, based on EHI, SRH, BRN, and MCAPE analyses. Conversely, <span class="hlt">topography</span> around the 20 September 2011 event was characterized as the least significant factor based on EHI, SRH, BRN, and MCAPE analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESD...2.1433M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESD...2.1433M"><span>Numerical modeling and analysis of the effect of Greek complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> on tornado genesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsangouras, I. T.; Pytharoulis, I.; Nastos, P. T.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Tornadoes have been reported in Greece over the last decades in specific sub-geographical areas and have been associated with strong synoptic forcing. It is well known that meteorological conditions over Greece are affected at various scales by the significant variability of <span class="hlt">topography</span>, the Ionian Sea at the west and the Aegean Sea at the east. However, there is still uncertainty regarding <span class="hlt">topography</span>'s importance on tornadic generation and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in significant tornado genesis events that were triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over Greece. Three tornado events that occurred over the last years in Thiva (Boeotia, 17 November 2007), Vrastema (Chalkidiki, 12 February 2010) and Vlychos (Lefkada, 20 September 2011) have been selected for numerical experiments. These events were associated with synoptic scale forcing, while their intensity was T4-T5 (Torro scale) and caused significant damage. The simulations were performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized with ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso scale. In the experiments the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the inner grid was modified by: (a) 0% (actual <span class="hlt">topography</span>) and (b) -100% (without <span class="hlt">topography</span>). The aim was to determine whether the occurrence of tornadoes - mainly identified by various severe weather instability indices - could be indicated by modifying <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The main utilized instability variables concerned the Bulk Richardson number shear (BRN), the energy helicity index (EHI), the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH) and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcel with maximum theta-e). Additional a verification of model was conducted for every sensitivity experiment accompanied with analysis <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vorticity budget. Numerical simulations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26053075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26053075"><span>Electronic Cigarette <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in the Natural Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robinson, R J; Hensel, E C; Morabito, P N; Roundtree, K A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff <span class="hlt">topography</span> characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff <span class="hlt">topography</span> characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span>, suggesting that a range of representative puffing <span class="hlt">topography</span> patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.430....9F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.430....9F"><span>Influence of subduction history on South American <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flament, Nicolas; Gurnis, Michael; Müller, R. Dietmar; Bower, Dan J.; Husson, Laurent</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Cenozoic evolution of South American <span class="hlt">topography</span> is marked by episodes of large-scale uplift and subsidence not readily explained by lithospheric deformation. The drying up of the inland Pebas system, the drainage reversal of the Amazon river, the uplift of the Sierras Pampeanas and the uplift of Patagonia have all been linked to the evolution of mantle flow since the Miocene in separate studies. Here we investigate the evolution of long-wavelength South American <span class="hlt">topography</span> as a function of subduction history in a time-dependent global geodynamic model. This model is shown to be consistent with these inferred changes, as well as with the migration of the Chaco foreland basin depocentre, that we partly attribute to the inboard migration of subduction resulting from Andean mountain building. We suggest that the history of subduction along South America has had an important influence on the evolution of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the continent because time-dependent mantle flow models are consistent with the history of vertical motions as constrained by the geological record at four distant areas over a whole continent. Testing alternative subduction scenarios reveals flat slab segments are necessary to reconcile inferred Miocene shorelines with a simple model paleogeography. As recently suggested, we find that the flattening of a subduction zone results in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift between the leading edge of the flat slab segment and the trench, and in a wave of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence associated with the inboard migration of the leading edge of flat subduction. For example, the flattening of the Peruvian subduction contributed to the demise of Pebas shallow-water sedimentation, while continental-scale tilting also contributed to the drainage reversal of the Amazon River. The best correlation to P-wave tomography models for the Peruvian flat slab segment is obtained for a case when the asthenosphere, here considered to be 150 km thick and 10 times less viscous than the upper mantle, is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869846"><span>Simultaneous measurement of refractive index distribution and <span class="hlt">topography</span> by integrated transmission and reflection digital holographic microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Chaojie; Di, Jianglei; Zhang, Jiwei; Li, Ying; Xi, Teli; Li, Enpu; Zhao, Jianlin</p> <p>2016-11-20</p> <p>We propose a method for simultaneously measuring <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes of the refractive index distribution and surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, which integrates the transmission and reflection digital holographic microscopy based on polarization and angular multiplexing techniques. The complex amplitudes of the transmitted and reflected object waves can be simultaneously retrieved. The phase information of the reflected object wave is directly used to determine the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the specimen which corresponds to its physical thickness. Assuming that the refractive index distribution is uniform in the direction of the specimen thickness, the refractive index distribution can be deduced from the phase distributions of the transmitted and reflected object waves without any approximation. The refractive index distribution and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> changes of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a tiny deionized water droplet have been measured for the availability of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003OptLE..40..143M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003OptLE..40..143M"><span>Moiré <span class="hlt">topography</span> in odontology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno Yeras, A.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>For several decades, measurement of optical techniques has been used in different branches of science and technology. One of these techniques is the so-called moiré <span class="hlt">topography</span> (MT) that enables the accurate measurement of different parts of the human body <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This investigation presents the measurement of <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of teeth and gums using an automated system of shadow moiré and the phase shift method in an original way. The fringe patterns used to compute the shape and the shape matrix itself are presented in the article. The phase shift method ensures precisions up to the order of microns. Advantages and disadvantages of using the MT are included. Besides, some positive and negative aspects concerned with the implementation of this technique in odontology are shown in the article.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II5..301H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAn.II5..301H"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> Restoration of Historic City Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>ho, L. Sung; soo, H. Dong</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The preservation of historic cities requires a balance between conservation and development because the urban structures of the old and new city are interwoven on same space. Existing restoration plans rely on old records and excavation reports and are based on the present <span class="hlt">topography</span>. However, historic cities have undergone significant natural and anthropogenic topographic changes such as alluvial sediment accumulation and uneven terrain construction. Therefore, considering only the present <span class="hlt">topography</span> is misleading. Thus, to understand a historic city's structure more appropriately, it is necessary to comprehend the ancient geographic environment. This study provides an analysis and GIS visualization of the ancient <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a historic city, Sabi capital city of the Baekje Dynasty, which collapsed 1,500 years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDM13007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDM13007L"><span>Modulation of energetic coherent motions by large-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, Wing; Hamed, Ali M.; Troolin, Dan; Chamorro, Leonardo P.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The distinctive characteristics and <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the large-scale coherent motions induced over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls were explored experimentally with time-resolved volumetric PIV, and selected wall-normal high-resolution stereo PIV in a refractive-index-matching channel. The 2D wall consists of a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/ λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave in the spanwise direction with a/ λy = 0.1. The ?ow was characterized at Re 8000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls are such that the amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio is a/ δ99 0.1, which resemble geophysical-like <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Insight on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the coherent motions, Reynolds stress and spatial interaction of sweep and ejection events will be discussed in terms of the wall <span class="hlt">topography</span> modulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDKP1046B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDKP1046B"><span>Experimental Gravity Currents Propagating Downslope Over A Synthetic <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burgos Cuevas, Andrea; Ruiz-Angulo, Angel; Palacios-Morales, Carlos</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Lock-release gravity currents are studied experimentally in order to investigate their <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the mixing process between them and the ambient fluid. We produced these currents in a laboratory tank and allow them to propagate downslope first in a flat slope and then in a rough one with a synthetic <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This <span class="hlt">topography</span> is similar to the one of a side of a mountain near mexico's valley. Our aim is to investigate the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of gravity currents as similar as possible to the mountain breezes that can develop around this valley. To the best of our knowledge, there are few experimental investigations that take into account the roughness of the slope. For each experiment, we obtain the instantaneous velocity fields using the standard piv technique. From the velocity fields, we estimate the entrainment coefficient time series. We found that this coefficient depends on the roughness of the surface where the current propagates. Besides, pressure time series were obtained in synthetic stations along the rough profile. These series showed a very clear signal of the gravity current propagating along the slope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........79V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........79V"><span>Effects of patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> on biofilm formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasudevan, Ravikumar</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell <span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, <span class="hlt">topographies</span> tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic <span class="hlt">topography</span> shapes. In this study patterned <span class="hlt">topography</span> was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested <span class="hlt">topography</span> based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria <span class="hlt">topography</span> characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4855S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4855S"><span>Reservoir properties inversion in a karst aquifer using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sabrina, Deville; Thomas, Jacob; Jean, Chery; Roger, Bayer; Cedric, Champollion; Moigne Nicolas, Le</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Direct estimate of water storage and transfer in karst aquifers are difficult to obtain due to the extreme permeability variation of the medium. In this study, we aim to quantify water transfer properties in a karst aquifer of the Larzac plateau (South Massif Central, France) using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity monitoring. Our measurements are cutting edge as they directly measure the integrated water content below the gravimeter. We analyze monthly repeated FG5 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements (1-2 microGal precision) over a three-year period at three sites on the karst aquifer. Important precipitation events lead to significant gravity increases which peak up to several weeks after the events depending on the site. Also, gravity decreases in a different manner at each site during drier periods. We consider the different gravity responses at each site to relate to water transfer properties between the surface and the unsaturated zone beneath. Within this scope, the gravity signal is used to invert for those water transfer properties. A simple two-tank reservoir model including a ‘soil' reservoir that feeds into a ‘subsurface' reservoir is used as the forward model in a Monte Carlo simulation. Reservoir discharge proceeds according to Maillet's law. Water levels within the reservoirs are converted into a gravity signal considering an infinite slab scaled by a factor that accounts for both the surrounding topographic effects and the water interception by the building where the measurements are made. Inverted parameters are the discharge constants and the scaling factors. Model input is rainfall measured with rain gauges at each site minus estimated evapotranspiration. The inversion leads to scaling factors much smaller than 1 for the attraction of the surface reservoir. The effects of the surrounding <span class="hlt">topography</span> and those of the building on gravity are compared to the inversion result of the ‘surface reservoir' scaling factors. We discuss if the forward model and underlying</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=lay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=lay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlay"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0612065','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0612065"><span>ON A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> CONTINUITY.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The formulation of a condition which yields <span class="hlt">absolute</span> continuity when combined with continuity and bounded variation is the problem considered in the...Briefly, the formulation is achieved through a discussion which develops a proof by contradiction of a sufficiently theorem for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> continuity which uses in its hypothesis the condition of continuity and bounded variation .</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=International+AND+Journal+AND+Computing&pg=7&id=EJ1050985','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=International+AND+Journal+AND+Computing&pg=7&id=EJ1050985"><span>Introducing the Mean <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Deviation "Effect" Size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gorard, Stephen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1261596','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1261596"><span>Monolithically integrated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency comb laser system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wanke, Michael C.</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3a3001L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3a3001L"><span>Open questions in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement: a roadmap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leach, Richard; Evans, Christopher; He, Liangyu; Davies, Angela; Duparré, Angela; Henning, Andrew; Jones, Christopher W.; O'Connor, Daniel</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p> principles for statistically stationary, random surfaces. For rougher surfaces, correlations can be found experimentally for specific manufacturing processes. Improvements in computational methods encourage us to revisit light scattering as a powerful and versatile tool to investigate surface and thin film <span class="hlt">topographies</span>, potentially providing information on both <span class="hlt">topography</span> and defects over large areas at high speed. Future scattering techniques will be applied for complex film systems and for sub-surface damage measurement, but more research is required to quantify and standardise such measurements. A fundamental limitation of all <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurement systems is their finite spatial bandwidth, which limits the slopes that they can detect. The third section ‘Optical measurements of surfaces containing high slope angles’ discusses this limitation and potential methods to overcome it. In some cases, a rough surface can allow measurement of slopes outside the classical optics limit, but more research is needed to fully understand this process. The last section ‘What are the challenges for high <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range surface measurement?’ presents the challenge facing metrologists by the use of surfaces that need measurement systems with very high spatial and temporal bandwidths, for example, those found in roll-to-roll manufacturing. High resolution, large areas and fast measurement times are needed, and these needs are unlikely to be fulfilled by developing a single all-purpose instrument. A toolbox of techniques needs to be developed which can be applied for any specific manufacturing scenario. The functional significance of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been known for centuries. Mirrors are smooth. Sliding behaviour depends on roughness. We have been measuring surfaces for centuries, but we still face many challenges. New manufacturing paradigms suggest that we need to make rapid measurements online that relate to the functional performance of the surface. This first </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24007078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24007078"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J M</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScI...84h3906X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScI...84h3906X"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J. M.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform <span class="hlt">absolute</span> normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033615&hterms=zero+absolute&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dzero%2Babsolute','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033615&hterms=zero+absolute&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dzero%2Babsolute"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability of the Gaussian wake profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20725334"><span>Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the hirschberg test.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brodie, S E</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>A simple trigonometric analysis of the Hirschberg test with the assumption that the corneal surface is spherical predicts a sinusoidal dependence of the corneal reflex displacement on the angle of ocular rotation. A comparison with corneal reflex photographs demonstrates that at angles larger than 50 prism diopters (26 deg) the reflex displacements are larger than predicted by the spherical model. This discrepancy may be accounted for by incorporating a more general description of the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> into the geometric analysis. The linear Hirschberg relation that is seen in typical data is accounted for by a relative flattening of the peripheral cornea by ~ 20% of the apical curvature. This geometric analysis of the functional dependence of the Hirschberg relation on the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be expressed as an integral equation. Differentiation yields a second-order differential equation for the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> in terms of the Hirschberg data. If the Hirschberg relation is assumed to be linear, a quadratic dependence is found for the corneal curvature. A similar differential approach can be formulated for the Placido disk. In this sense the corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> problem given in terms of Placido disk data is shown to be wellformulated. The relative simplicity of the Hirschberg geometry is seen to stem from the alignment of the light source with the eye of the observer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27288809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27288809"><span>Spike voltage <span class="hlt">topography</span> in temporal lobe epilepsy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R</p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>We investigated the voltage <span class="hlt">topography</span> of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether <span class="hlt">topography</span> was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630990','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630990"><span>Internal Tide Generation by Steep <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-06-07</p> <p>ridges and the continental slope (Kunze and Llewellyn Smith 2004). A prominent interaction which creates large currents and temperature fluctuations that...S.G. Llewellyn Smith , 2004: The role of smallscale <span class="hlt">topography</span> in turbulent mixing of the global ocean. Oceanography, 17(1), 51-60. E. Kunze, E</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982DSRA...29.1085J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982DSRA...29.1085J"><span>Quasigeostrohpic flow over isolated elongated <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, E. R.</p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>The finite amplitude perturbations to a uniform stream caused by the presence of elongated <span class="hlt">topography</span> is considered using two simple models. The first considers elliptic seamounts with scales L and l ( L ⪖ l) and gives a smooth interpolation between axisymmetric models L ; l at one extreme and infinite ridges of fixed cross-section L å l at the other. Basing the Rossby number of the flow on the shorter scale gives blocking heights of order unity for all elongations, whereas it is the longer scale that determines the horizontal extent of the region affected by the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The second model considers greatly elongated <span class="hlt">topography</span> (L å l) of variable cross section showing that the topographic velocity parallel to the ridges is given by ƒ A∗/2d , where A∗ is the local cross-section area, d the depth, and f the Coriolis parameter. The component perpendicular to the ridge is obtained directly from the parallel component via a linear transform. Topographically generated velocities may thus be obtained rapidly from contours of bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> and an example is given using the seamount 'Brontosaurus Bump' from GOULD, HENDRY AND HUPPERT (Deep-Sea Research, 28, 409-440, 1981).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25930697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25930697"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more <span class="hlt">absolute</span> protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amount of a protein PTM isoform from the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amounts of a few PTM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122..651H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122..651H"><span>Parameterizing surface wind speed over complex <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Helbig, N.; Mott, R.; Herwijnen, A.; Winstral, A.; Jonas, T.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Subgrid parameterizations are used in coarse-scale meteorological and land surface models to account for the impact of unresolved <span class="hlt">topography</span> on wind speed. While various parameterizations have been suggested, these were generally validated on a limited number of measurements in specific geographical areas. We used high-resolution wind fields to investigate which terrain parameters most affect near-surface wind speed over complex <span class="hlt">topography</span> under neutral conditions. Wind fields were simulated using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) on Gaussian random fields as model <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to cover a wide range of terrain characteristics. We computed coarse-scale wind speed, i.e., a spatial average over the large grid cell accounting for influence of unresolved <span class="hlt">topography</span>, using a previously suggested subgrid parameterization for the sky view factor. We only require correlation length of subgrid topographic features and mean square slope in the coarse grid cell. Computed coarse-scale wind speed compared well with domain-averaged ARPS wind speed. To further statistically downscale coarse-scale wind speed, we use local, fine-scale topographic parameters, namely, the Laplacian of terrain elevations and mean square slope. Both parameters showed large correlations with fine-scale ARPS wind speed. Comparing downscaled numerical weather prediction wind speed with measurements from a large number of stations throughout Switzerland resulted in overall improved correlations and distribution statistics. Since we used a large number of model <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to derive the subgrid parameterization and the downscaling framework, both are not scale dependent nor bound to a specific geographic region. Both can readily be implemented since they are based on easy to derive terrain parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012272','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940012272"><span>Sea bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> imaging with SAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vanderkooij, M. W. A.; Wensink, G. J.; Vogelzang, J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that under favorable meteorological and hydrodynamical conditions the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> of shallow seas can be mapped with airborne or spaceborne imaging radar. This phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1969 by de Loor and co-workers in Q-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery of sandwaves in the North Sea. It is now generally accepted that the imaging mechanism consists of three steps: (1) interaction between (tidal) current and bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> causes spatial modulations in the surface current velocity; (2) modulations in the surface current velocity give rise to variations in the spectrum of wind-generated waves, as described by the action balance equation; and (3) variations in the wave spectrum show up as intensity modulations in radar imagery. In order to predict radar backscatter modulations caused by sandwaves, an imaging model, covering the three steps, was developed by the Dutch Sea Bottom <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Group. This model and some model results will be shown. On 16 Aug. 1989 an experiment was performed with the polarimetric P-, L-, and C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of NASA/JPL. One scene was recorded in SAR mode. On 12 Jul. 1991 another three scenes were recorded, of which one was in the ATI-mode (Along-Track Interferometer). These experiments took place in the test area of the Sea Bottom <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Group, 30 km off the Dutch coast, where the bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> is dominated by sand waves. In-situ data were gathered by a ship in the test area and on 'Measuring Platform Noordwijk', 20 km from the center of the test area. The radar images made during the experiment were compared with digitized maps of the bottom. Furthermore, the profiles of radar backscatter modulation were compared with the results of the model. During the workshop some preliminary results of the ATI measurements will be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7656E..2JL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7656E..2JL"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> realization of low BRDF value</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zilong; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Low BRDF value is widespread used in many critical domains such as space and military fairs. These values below 0.1 Sr-1 . So the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> realization of these value is the most critical issue in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement of BRDF. To develop the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value realization theory of BRDF , defining an arithmetic operators of BRDF , achieving an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement Eq. of BRDF based on radiance. This is a new theory method to solve the realization problem of low BRDF value. This theory method is realized on a self-designed common double orientation structure in space. By designing an adding structure to extend the range of the measurement system and a control and processing software, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> realization of low BRDF value is achieved. A material of low BRDF value is measured in this measurement system and the spectral BRDF value are showed within different angles allover the space. All these values are below 0.4 Sr-1 . This process is a representative procedure about the measurement of low BRDF value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis of this measurement data is given depend on the new theory of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> realization and the performance of the measurement system. The relative expand uncertainty of the measurement data is 0.078. This uncertainty analysis is suitable for all measurements using the new theory of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> realization and the corresponding measurement system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4530887','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4530887"><span>NMR and MD Studies Reveal That the Isolated Dengue NS3 Protease Is an Intrinsically Disordered Chymotrypsin Fold Which <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> Requests NS2B for Correct Folding and Functional <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gupta, Garvita; Lim, Liangzhong; Song, Jianxing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Dengue genome encodes a two component protease complex (NS2B-NS3pro) essential for the viral maturation/infectivity, thus representing a key drug target. Previously, due to its “complete insolubility”, the isolated NS3pro could not be experimentally studied and it remains elusive what structure it adopts without NS2B and why NS2B is indispensable. Here as facilitated by our previous discovery, the isolated NS3pro has been surprisingly deciphered by NMR to be the first intrinsically-disordered chymotrypsin-like fold, which exists in a loosely-packed state with non-native long-range interactions as revealed by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE). The disordered NS3pro appears to be needed for binding a human host factor to trigger the membrane remodeling. Moreover, we have in vitro refolded the NS3pro in complex with either NS2B (48–100) or the full-length NS2B (1–130) anchored into the LMPC micelle, and the two complexes have similar activities but different <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. We also performed molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> (MD) simulations and the results revealed that NS2B shows the highest structural fluctuations in the complex, thus providing the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> basis for the observation on its conformational exchange between open and closed states. Remarkably, the NS2B cofactor plays a central role in maintaining the correlated motion network required for the catalysis as we previously decoded for the SARS 3CL protease. Indeed, a truncated NS2B (48–100;Δ77–84) with the flexible loop deleted is able to trap the NS2B-NS3pro complex in a highly <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and catalytically-impotent state. Taken together, our study implies potential strategies to perturb the NS2B-NS3pro interface for design of inhibitors for treating dengue infection. PMID:26258523</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27354728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27354728"><span>Why re-entrant surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> is needed for robust oleophobicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat</p> <p>2016-08-06</p> <p>Surface patterns affect wetting properties of solid materials allowing manipulation of the phase state of an adjacent fluid. The best known example of this effect is the superhydrophobic composite (Cassie-Baxter) interface with vapour/air pockets between the solid and liquid. Mathematically, the effect of surface micropatterns can be studied by an averaging technique similarly to the method of separation of motions in <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. However, averaged parameters are insufficient for robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces because additional <span class="hlt">topography</span> features are important: hierarchical organization and re-entrant roughness. The latter is crucial for the oleophobicity because it enhances the stability of a composite interface. The re-entrant <span class="hlt">topography</span> can be achieved by various methods. Understanding the role of re-entrant surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> gives us new insights on the multitude of wetting scenarios beyond the standard Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter models.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/978296"><span>Structural Characterization of Doped GaSb Single Crystals by X-ray <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Honnicke, M.G.; Mazzaro, I.; Manica, J.; Benine, E.; M da Costa, E.; Dedavid, B. A.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X. R.</p> <p>2009-09-13</p> <p>We characterized GaSb single crystals containing different dopants (Al, Cd and Te), grown by the Czochralski method, by x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> and high angular resolution x-ray diffraction. Lang <span class="hlt">topography</span> revealed dislocations parallel and perpendicular to the crystal's surface. Double-crystal GaSb 333 x-ray <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows dislocations and vertical stripes than can be associated with circular growth bands. We compared our high-angular resolution x-ray diffraction measurements (rocking curves) with the findings predicted by the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> theory of x-ray diffraction. These measurements show that our GaSb single crystals have a relative variation in the lattice parameter ({Delta}d/d) on the order of 10{sup -5}. This means that they can be used as electronic devices (detectors, for example) and as x-ray monochromators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT........18S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT........18S"><span>Gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Venusian highlands: Implications for formation mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smrekar, Suzanne Elizabeth</p> <p></p> <p>Gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> data are used to determine the apparent compensation depths (ADC's) of thirteen venusian regions. The depths are interpreted in terms of the likely tectonic origins of each area. First, three geologically distinct regions are studied in detail by inverting Pioneer Venus line of sight gravity data to obtain a model of vertical gravity over Bell Regio (possible hot spot), Tellus Regio (tessera terrain), and Leda Planitia (plains). The admittance spectra, the geoid to <span class="hlt">topography</span> ratio (GTR), and the ADC for each region are found. Each area has a distinct gravity signature. The shallow ADC at Tellus Regio (approximately 25 km) indicates that crustal compensation, possibly with some thermal compensation, is most likely. The large ADC (approximately 175 km) and GTR (20 m/km) along with an unusual admittance spectra at Bell Regio indicate that some <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> compensation is necessary; crustal or thermal compensation may also be present. Leda Planitia has an intermediate ADC (approximately 65 km), which indicates either thermal or crustal compensation. Second, ADC's and GTR's for 12 venusian highland regions are estimated directly from the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and line of sight gravity data. These features are: Asteria, Atla, Bell, Beta, Ovda, Phoebe, Tellus, Thetis, and Ulfrun Regiones; Nokomis, Gula, and Sappho Montes. The ADC's range is 50-270 km; the GTR's range is 7-31 m/km. Two distinct GTR groups are apparent. The lower GTR group is best modeled by compensation due to thermal thinning of the lithosphere; some minor component of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> or crustal compensation may also be present. A fit to the upper GTR group requires <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> compensation; a lesser contribution from thermal or crustal compensation may also be present. Upper mantle convection without a low viscosity zone can fit the data. Although the convection parameters are not well constrained, the best fit occurs for a conductive lid thickness of 105 km and a Rayleigh number of 105. These results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chiral&pg=4&id=EJ288694','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Chiral&pg=4&id=EJ288694"><span>A New Gimmick for Assigning <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Configuration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ayorinde, F. O.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068622','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068622"><span>Magnifying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instruments for optically homogeneous regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tyc, Tomas</p> <p>2011-09-15</p> <p>We propose a class of magnifying <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Husserl&pg=3&id=EJ118696','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Husserl&pg=3&id=EJ118696"><span>The Simplicity Argument and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Morality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mijuskovic, Ben</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> system of morality. (Author/RK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993CoPhC..77..396C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993CoPhC..77..396C"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cross sections of compound nucleus reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capurro, O. A.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cross sections of any exit channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EJPh...22..325E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EJPh...22..325E"><span>Kelvin and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erlichson, Herman</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>This paper describes the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature scale of Kelvin (William Thomson). Kelvin found that Carnot's axiom about heat being a conserved quantity had to be abandoned. Nevertheless, he found that Carnot's fundamental work on heat engines was correct. Using the concept of a Carnot engine Kelvin found that Q1/Q2 = T1/T2. Thermometers are not used to obtain <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures since they are calculated temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51eEF04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JaJAP..51eEF04K"><span>Spatial Fourier Transform Analysis of Polishing Pad Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khajornrungruang, Panart; Kimura, Keiichi; Okuzono, Takahisa; Suzuki, Keisuke; Kushida, Takashi</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The spatial Fourier transform analysis is proposed to quantitatively evaluate the irregular <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the conditioned chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad surface. We discuss the power spectrum in the spatial wavelengths of the surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> corresponding to polishing time. We conclude that the spatial wavelength of less than 5 µm in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> yielded high material removal rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...94..400C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...94..400C"><span>Impact of watershed <span class="hlt">topography</span> on hyporheic exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caruso, Alice; Ridolfi, Luca; Boano, Fulvio</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Among the interactions between surface water bodies and aquifers, hyporheic exchange has been recognized as a key process for nutrient cycling and contaminant transport. Even though hyporheic exchange is strongly controlled by groundwater discharge, our understanding of the impact of the regional groundwater flow on hyporheic fluxes is still limited because of the complexity arising from the multi-scale nature of these interactions. In this work, we investigate the role of watershed <span class="hlt">topography</span> on river-aquifer interactions by way of a semi-analytical model, in which the landscape <span class="hlt">topography</span> is used to approximate the groundwater head distribution. The analysis of a case study shows how the complex topographic structure is the direct cause of a substantial spatial variability of the aquifer-river exchange. Groundwater upwelling along the river corridor is estimated and its influence on the hyporheic zone is discussed. In particular, the fragmentation of the hyporeic corridor induced by groundwater discharge at the basin scale is highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8011E..24C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8011E..24C"><span>New null screen design for corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campos-García, Manuel; Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>In this work we report the design of a null screen for corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Here we assume that the corneal surface is an ellipsoid with a diameter of 12 mm and a curvature radius of 7.8 mm. To avoid the difficulties in the alignment of the test system due to the face contour (eyebrows, nose, or eyelids), we design a conical null-screen with spots (similar to ellipses) drawn on it in such a way that its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact radial array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Additionally, we performed a numerical simulation introducing Gaussian random errors in the coordinates of the centroids of the spots on the image plane, and in the coordinates of the sources (spots on the null-screen) in order to obtain the conical null-screen that reduces the error in the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA598640','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA598640"><span>Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-09-30</p> <p>understand the effects of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the ocean general circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales in the interactions. The small-scale...influence the larger-scale flow. We will study these issues through ocean model simulations, adjoint sensitivity experiments, and state estimation...using measurements in the region surrounding an island in the westward-flowing limb of the subtropical gyre . OBJECTIVES The objectives of this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021047','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880021047"><span>Diffraction imaging (<span class="hlt">topography</span>) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steiner, Bruce; Kuriyama, Masao; Dobbyn, Ronald C.; Laor, Uri</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Structural information of special interest to crystal growers and device physicists is now available from high resolution monochromatic synchrotron diffraction imaging (<span class="hlt">topography</span>). In the review, the importance of superior resolution in momentum transfer and in space is described, and illustrations are taken from a variety of crystals: gallium arsenide, cadmium telluride, mercuric iodide, bismuth silicon oxide, and lithium niobate. The identification and understanding of local variations in crystal growth processes are shown. Finally, new experimental opportunities now available for exploitation are indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980216243&hterms=Herbs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHerbs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980216243&hterms=Herbs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHerbs"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> over South America from ERS altimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The results of the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/450/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/450/"><span>ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Mississippi, 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/418/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/418/"><span>ATM Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Alabama 2001</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22905865"><span>Determination of ¹⁵N-incorporation into plant proteins and their <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation: a new tool to study nitrogen flux <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and protein pool sizes elicited by plant-herbivore interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ullmann-Zeunert, Lynn; Muck, Alexander; Wielsch, Natalie; Hufsky, Franziska; Stanton, Mariana A; Bartram, Stefan; Böcker, Sebastian; Baldwin, Ian T; Groten, Karin; Svatoš, Aleš</p> <p>2012-10-05</p> <p>Herbivory leads to changes in the allocation of nitrogen among different pools and tissues; however, a detailed quantitative analysis of these changes has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that a mass spectrometric data-independent acquisition approach known as LC-MS(E), combined with a novel algorithm to quantify heavy atom enrichment in peptides, is able to quantify elicited changes in protein amounts and (15)N flux in a high throughput manner. The reliable identification/quantitation of rabbit phosphorylase b protein spiked into leaf protein extract was achieved. The linear <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range, reproducibility of technical and biological replicates, and differences between measured and expected (15)N-incorporation into the small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and RuBisCO activase 2 (RCA2) of Nicotiana attenuata plants grown in hydroponic culture at different known concentrations of (15)N-labeled nitrate were used to further evaluate the procedure. The utility of the method for whole-plant studies in ecologically realistic contexts was demonstrated by using (15)N-pulse protocols on plants growing in soil under unknown (15)N-incorporation levels. Additionally, we quantified the amounts of lipoxygenase 2 (LOX2) protein, an enzyme important in antiherbivore defense responses, demonstrating that the approach allows for in-depth quantitative proteomics and (15)N flux analyses of the metabolic <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> elicited during plant-herbivore interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1375/start.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1375/start.html"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Cape Cod National Seashore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains 90 Lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for the Cape Cod National Seashore. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4715517','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4715517"><span>Neurofunctional <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the human hippocampus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Robinson, Jennifer L.; Barron, Daniel S.; Kirby, Lauren A. J.; Bottenhorn, Katherine L.; Hill, Ashley C.; Murphy, Jerry E.; Katz, Jeffrey S.; Salibi, Nouha; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Much of what we assume about the functional <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the hippocampus was derived from a single case study over half a century ago. Given advances in the imaging sciences, a new era of discovery is underway, with potential to transform our understanding of healthy processing as well as our ability to treat disorders. We employed coactivation based parcellation, a meta-analytic approach, and ultra-high field, high-resolution functional and structural neuroimaging to characterize the neurofunctional <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the hippocampus. Data revealed strong support for an evolutionarily preserved <span class="hlt">topography</span> along the long-axis. Specifically, the left hippocampus was segmented into three distinct clusters: an emotional processing cluster supported by structural and functional connectivity to the amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, a cognitive operations cluster, with functional connectivity to the anterior cingulate and inferior frontal gyrus, and a posterior perceptual cluster with distinct structural connectivity patterns to the occipital lobe coupled with functional connectivity to the precuneus and angular gyrus. The right hippocampal segmentation was more ambiguous, with plausible 2- and 5-cluster solutions plausible. Segmentations shared connectivity with brain regions known to support the correlated processes. This represents the first neurofunctional topographic model of the hippocampus using a robust, bias-free, multi-modal approach. PMID:26350954</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820055390&hterms=terrestrial+gravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dterrestrial%2Bgravity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820055390&hterms=terrestrial+gravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dterrestrial%2Bgravity"><span>Long wavelength gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> anomalies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Watts, A. B.; Daly, S. F.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>It is shown that gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> anomalies on the earth's surface may provide new information about deep processes occurring in the earth, such as those associated with mantle convection. Two main reasons are cited for this. The first is the steady improvement that has occurred in the resolution of the long wavelength gravity field, particularly in the wavelength range of a few hundred to a few thousand km, mainly due to increased coverage of terrestrial gravity measurements and the development of radar altimeters in orbiting satellites. The second reason is the large number of numerical and laboratory experiments of convection in the earth, including some with deformable upper and lower boundaries and temperature-dependent viscosity. The oceans are thought to hold the most promise for determining long wavelength gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> anomalies, since their evolution has been relatively simple in comparison with that of the continents. It is also shown that good correlation between long wavelength gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> anomalies exists over some portions of the ocean floor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211784Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211784Z"><span>Solutions of barotropic trapped waves over <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zavala Sanson, Luis</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Solutions of free, barotropic waves over variable <span class="hlt">topography</span> are derived. In particular, we examine two cases: waves around axisymmetric seamounts and waves along a sloping bottom. Even though these types of oscillations have been studied before, we revisit the problem because of two main reasons: (i) The linear, barotropic, shallow-water equations with a rigid lid are now solved with no further approximations, in contrast with previous studies. (ii) The solutions are applied to a wide family of seamounts and bottom slopes with profiles proportional to exp(rs) and ys, respectively, where r is the radial distance from the centre of the mountain, y is the direction perpendicular to the slope, and s is an arbitrary positive real number. Most of previous works on seamounts are restricted to the special case s = 2. By varying the shape parameter one can study trapped waves around flat-topped seamounts or guyots (s > 2) or sharp, cone-shaped <span class="hlt">topographies</span> (s < 2). Similarly, most of previous studies on sloping bottoms report cases with s = 1 (linear slopes), whilst the present results are applied to more general bottom profiles. The resulting dispersion relation in both cases possess a remarkable simplicity that reveals a number of wave characteristics as a function of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1176/start.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1176/start.html"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Assateague Island National Seashore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains 58 lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for the Assateague Island National Seashore. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1177/start.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1177/start.html"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Thomas Stone National Historic Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> (first return and bare earth) maps and GIS files for Thomas Stone National Historic Site in Maryland. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1179/start.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1179/start.html"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: George Washington Birthplace National Monument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> (first return and bare earth) maps and GIS files for George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1422/start.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1422/start.html"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Gulf Islands National Seashore: Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains 33 lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for the Gulf Islands National Seashore-Florida. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1178/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1178/"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Gateway National Recreation Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> (bare earth) maps and GIS files for the Sandy Hook Unit within Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1431/start.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1431/start.html"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Padre Island National Seashore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains 116 Lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for Padre Island National Seashore-Texas. These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) Gulf Coast Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1377/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1377/"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Gulf Islands National Seashore: Mississippi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Matt; Wilson, Iris; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains 30 lidar-derived bare earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for the Gulf Islands National Seashore-Mississippi. These lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, Florida, the National Park Service (NPS) Gulf Coast Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDG35010L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDG35010L"><span>Directional droplet transport at high temperature mediated by structural <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Jing; Hou, Youmin; Chaudhury, Manoj; Yao, Shuhuai; Wang, Zuankai</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Controlling droplet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> on textured surfaces is of significant importance for a broad range of applications. Despite extensive advances, our ability to control droplet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at high temperature remains limited, in part due to the emergence of complex wetting states complicated by the phase change process at the triple-phase interfaces. When the temperature of the surface is above a critical temperature, a continuous vapor layer separates the droplet from the hot surface, greatly reducing the heat transfer between the droplet and hot surface. In this work, we show that two concurrent wetting states (Leidenfrost and contact boiling) can be manifested in a single droplet by simply manipulating the structural <span class="hlt">topography</span>. As a result, droplet vectors automatically towards the boiling region that is associated with a large heat transfer efficiency between the liquid and solid. Coupled with a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> Leidenfrost model, we show experimentally and analytically that the droplet directional motion depends on the interplay between surface structure and its imposed thermal state. Our basic understanding and ability to control the droplet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at high temperature would find many potential applications in high temperature systems such as spray cooling and fuel injection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993QuEle..23..535V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993QuEle..23..535V"><span>EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Optical visualization of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of a crater formed on a solid sample by a laser pulse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasil'ev, Sergei V.; Ivanov, A. Yu; Lyalikov, A. M.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>A fringe projection method has been used to determine the shape of a crater formed by applying laser light to a metal plate. The crater <span class="hlt">topography</span> should be taken into account in thermal, acoustic, and plasma-<span class="hlt">dynamics</span> calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJMES..45..923S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJMES..45..923S"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value equations - what can we learn from their graphical representation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stupel, Moshe; Ben-Chaim, David</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Understanding graphical representations of algebraic equations, particularly graphical representations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations, significantly improves students' mathematical comprehension and ignites within them an appreciation of the beauty and aesthetics of mathematics. In this paper, we focus on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations of linear and quadratic expressions, by examining various cases, presenting different methods of solving them by graphical representation, exhibiting the advantage of using <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> software such as GeoGebra in solving them, and illustrating some examples of interesting graphical solutions. We recommend that teachers take advantage of the rapid development in technology to help learners tangibly visualize the solutions of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations before proceeding to the analytical solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..469..531M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..469..531M"><span>EEG based <span class="hlt">topography</span> analysis in string recognition task</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Xiaofei; Huang, Xiaolin; Shen, Yuxiaotong; Qin, Zike; Ge, Yun; Chen, Ying; Ning, Xinbao</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Vision perception and recognition is a complex process, during which different parts of brain are involved depending on the specific modality of the vision target, e.g. face, character, or word. In this study, brain activities in string recognition task compared with idle control state are analyzed through <span class="hlt">topographies</span> based on multiple measurements, i.e. sample entropy, symbolic sample entropy and normalized rhythm power, extracted from simultaneously collected scalp EEG. Our analyses show that, for most subjects, both symbolic sample entropy and normalized gamma power in string recognition task are significantly higher than those in idle state, especially at locations of P4, O2, T6 and C4. It implies that these regions are highly involved in string recognition task. Since symbolic sample entropy measures complexity, from the perspective of new information generation, and normalized rhythm power reveals the power distributions in frequency domain, complementary information about the underlying <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> can be provided through the two types of indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhD...48T5308E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhD...48T5308E"><span>Evolution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> and material removal during nanoscale grinding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eder, S. J.; Cihak-Bayr, U.; Vernes, A.; Betz, G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this work we perform molecular <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> simulations to quantify and parametrize the evolution of a bcc Fe work piece <span class="hlt">topography</span> during nanometric grinding with multiple hard abrasive particles. The final surface quality depends on both the normal pressure and the abrasive geometry. We fit the time development of the substrate’s root mean squared roughness to an exponential function, allowing the definition of a run-in regime, during which the surface ‘forgets’ about its initial state, and a steady-state regime where the roughness no longer changes. The time constants associated with smoothing and material removal are almost inversely proportional to each other, highlighting the distinctiveness of these two simultaneously occurring processes. We also describe an attempt to reduce the time required to achieve the smoothest possible surface finish by periodically re-adjusting the normal pressure during the grinding process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.246..394G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geomo.246..394G"><span>Reenvisioning cross-sectional at-a-station hydraulic geometry as spatially explicit hydraulic <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, R. L.; Pasternack, G. B.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Transect-based hydraulic geometry is well established but depends on a complex set of subjective fieldwork and computational decisions that sometimes go unexplained. As a result, it is ripe for reenvisioning in the light of the emergence of meter-scale, spatially explicit data and algorithmic geospatial analysis. This study developed and evaluated a new spatially explicit method for analyzing discharge-dependent hydraulics coined 'hydraulic <span class="hlt">topography</span>' that not only increases accuracy but also eliminates several sample- and assumption-based inconsistencies. Using data and hydrodynamic simulations from the regulated, gravel-cobble-bed lower Yuba River in California, power functions were fitted to discharge-dependent average width, depth, and depth-weighted velocity for three spatial scales and then their corresponding exponents and coefficients were compared across scales and against ones computed using traditional approaches. Average hydraulic values from cross sections at the segment scale spanned up to 1.5 orders of magnitude for a given discharge. Transect-determined exponents for reach-scale depth and velocity relations were consistently over- and underestimated, respectively, relative to the hydraulic <span class="hlt">topography</span> benchmark. Overall, 73% of cross-sectional power regression parameters assessed fell between 10 and 50 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> percent error with respect to the spatially explicit hydraulic <span class="hlt">topography</span> baseline. Although traditional transect-based sampling may be viable for certain uses, percent errors of this magnitude could compromise engineering applications in river management and training works.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513326C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513326C"><span>Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Data and Processing Tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>High-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar <span class="hlt">topography</span> data. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span>. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> has become a hub for high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..282F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..282F"><span>Decoupling of modern shortening rates, climate, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Caucasus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forte, Adam M.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Rossi, Matthew W.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p> to <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> from detachment of the north-directed Greater Caucasus slab or to a recent slowing of convergence rates. Large-scale spatial gradients in climate are not reflected in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the Caucasus and do not seem to exert any significant control on the tectonics or structure of either range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CG.....37.1793H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CG.....37.1793H"><span>An algorithm for generalizing <span class="hlt">topography</span> to grids while preserving subscale morphologic characteristics—creating a glacier bed DEM for Jakobshavn trough as low-resolution input for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> ice-sheet models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herzfeld, Ute C.; Wallin, Bruce F.; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Plummer, Joel</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to derive an algorithm for preserving important subscale morphologic characteristics at grids of lower-resolution, in particular for linear features such as canyons and ridge lines. The development of such an algorithm is necessitated by applications that require reduced spatial resolution, as is common in cartographic generalization, GIS applications, and geophysical modeling. Since any algorithm that results in weighted averages, including optimum interpolation and ordinary kriging, cannot reproduce correct depths, a new algorithm is designed based on principles of mathematical morphology. The algorithm described here is applied to derive a subglacial bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet that includes the trough of Jakobshavn Isbræ as a continuous canyon at correct depth in a low-resolution (5-km) digital elevation model (DEM). Data from recent airborne radar measurements of the elevation of the subglacial bed as part of the CReSIS project are utilized. The morphologic algorithm is designed with geophysical ice-sheet modeling in mind, in the following context. Currently occurring changes in the Earth's climate and the cryosphere cause changes in sea level, and the societal relevance of these natural processes motivates estimation of maximal sea-level rise in the medium-term future. The fast-moving outlet glaciers are more sensitive to climatic change than other parts of the Greenland ice sheet. Jakobshavn Isbrae, the fastest-moving ice stream in Greenland, follows a subglacial geologic trough. Since the existence of the trough causes the acceleration of the slow-moving inland ice in the Jakobshavn region and the formation of the ice stream, correct representation of the trough in a DEM is essential to model changes in the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the ice sheet and resultant sea-level predictions, even if current ice-sheet models can typically be run only at 5-km resolution. The DEM resultant from this study helps to bridge the conceptual gap between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19831037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19831037"><span>Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span> from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ufm..conf..509K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ufm..conf..509K"><span>Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Modern Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostro, Ludwik</p> <p></p> <p>The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24117660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24117660"><span>Quantitative standards for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> linguistic universals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish <span class="hlt">absolute</span> properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI33A2615I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMDI33A2615I"><span>A Global Study of Inner Core Boundary <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and its Temporal Variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ibourichene, A.; Romanowicz, B. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The inner core boundary (ICB) separates the solid inner core from the surrounding liquid outer core. Its detailed properties, such as its shape, the density jump across it or its <span class="hlt">topography</span> are key for understanding the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the core and, ultimately, the generation and sustained character of the Earth's magnetic field. The determination of the ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span> and its variation with time could also enhance our understanding of the inner core growth and its past history.Seismology makes use of two phases to study the shallow inner core : the PKiKP, reflected at the ICB and the PKIKP, refracted into the inner core. The PKiKP/PKIKP amplitude ratio and the travel time residual of these phases characterize the vicinity of the ICB and may help constrain ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Different studies propose various wavelengths for this <span class="hlt">topography</span>: from hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers. Several parameters can affect PKiKP/PKIKP amplitude ratios and the corresponding differential travel time, such as the quality factor of the shallow inner core, the density jump at the ICB, the geometry of the ray paths or even the reflection coefficient at the ICB. We present a global map of PKiKP/PKIKP amplitude ratios and differential travel times filtered in different pass-bands, with regional densification based, in particular, on the relatively short wavelength sampling afforded by large aperture broadband arrays, such as USArray, and discuss their spatial variability and interpretation in terms of ICB <span class="hlt">topography</span>, as appropriate.We also have assembled a catalog of high quality doublets which provide a reference for the stability of the measurements, and point to possible time variability of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPa..10.1221M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CliPa..10.1221M"><span>Dependence of Eemian Greenland temperature reconstructions on the ice sheet <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merz, N.; Born, A.; Raible, C. C.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The influence of a reduced Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on Greenland's surface climate during the Eemian interglacial is studied using a set of simulations with different GrIS realizations performed with a comprehensive climate model. We find a distinct impact of changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> on Greenland's surface air temperatures (SAT) even when correcting for changes in surface elevation, which influences SAT through the lapse rate effect. The resulting lapse-rate-corrected SAT anomalies are thermodynamically driven by changes in the local surface energy balance rather than <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> caused through anomalous advection of warm/cold air masses. The large-scale circulation is indeed very stable among all sensitivity experiments and the Northern Hemisphere (NH) flow pattern does not depend on Greenland's <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Eemian. In contrast, Greenland's surface energy balance is clearly influenced by changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span> and this impact is seasonally diverse. In winter, the variable reacting strongest to changes in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> is the sensible heat flux (SHF). The reason is its dependence on surface winds, which themselves are controlled to a large extent by the shape of the GrIS. Hence, regions where a receding GrIS causes higher surface wind velocities also experience anomalous warming through SHF. Vice-versa, regions that become flat and ice-free are characterized by low wind speeds, low SHF, and anomalous low winter temperatures. In summer, we find surface warming induced by a decrease in surface albedo in deglaciated areas and regions which experience surface melting. The Eemian temperature records derived from Greenland proxies, thus, likely include a temperature signal arising from changes in the GrIS <span class="hlt">topography</span>. For the Eemian ice found in the NEEM core, our model suggests that up to 3.1 °C of the annual mean Eemian warming can be attributed to these <span class="hlt">topography</span>-related processes and hence is not necessarily linked to large-scale climate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.tmp..751C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.tmp..751C"><span>Seismic waveform sensitivity to global boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colombi, Andrea; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Boschi, Lapo; Giardini, Domenico</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>We investigate the implications of lateral variations in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of global seismic discontinuities, in the framework of high-resolution forward modelling and seismic imaging. We run 3-D wave-propagation simulations accurate at periods of 10 s and longer, with Earth models including core-mantle boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span> anomalies of ˜1000 km spatial wavelength and up to 10 km height. We obtain very different waveform signatures for PcP (reflected) and Pdiff (diffracted) phases, supporting the theoretical expectation that the latter are sensitive primarily to large-scale structure, whereas the former only to small scale, where large and small are relative to the frequency. PcP at 10 s seems to be well suited to map such a small-scale perturbation, whereas Pdiff at the same frequency carries faint signatures that do not allow any tomographic reconstruction. Only at higher frequency, the signature becomes stronger. We present a new algorithm to compute sensitivity kernels relating seismic traveltimes (measured by cross-correlation of observed and theoretical seismograms) to the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of seismic discontinuities at any depth in the Earth using full 3-D wave propagation. Calculation of accurate finite-frequency sensitivity kernels is notoriously expensive, but we reduce computational costs drastically by limiting ourselves to spherically symmetric reference models, and exploiting the axial symmetry of the resulting propagating wavefield that collapses to a 2-D numerical domain. We compute and analyse a suite of kernels for upper and lower mantle discontinuities that can be used for finite-frequency waveform inversion. The PcP and Pdiff sensitivity footprints are in good agreement with the result obtained cross-correlating perturbed and unperturbed seismogram, validating our approach against full 3-D modelling to invert for such structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26553885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26553885"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> Influences Adherent Cell Regulation of Osteoclastogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nagasawa, M; Cooper, L F; Ogino, Y; Mendonca, D; Liang, R; Yang, S; Mendonca, G; Uoshima, K</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The importance of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in the process of osseointegration has not been widely considered. In this study, cell culture was used to investigate the hypothesis that the function of implant-adherent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in osteoclastogenesis is influenced by surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>. BMSCs isolated from femur and tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto 3 types of titanium surfaces (smooth, micro, and nano) and a control surface (tissue culture plastic) with or without osteogenic supplements. After 3 to 14 d, conditioned medium (CM) was collected. Subsequently, rat bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were cultured in media supplemented with soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) as well as BMSC CM from each of the 4 surfaces. Gene expression levels of soluble RANKL, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor α, and M-CSF in cultured BMSCs at different time points were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The number of differentiated osteoclastic cells was determined after tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Analysis of variance and t test were used for statistical analysis. The expression of prominent osteoclast-promoting factors tumor necrosis factor α and M-CSF was increased by BMSCs cultured on both micro- and nanoscale titanium <span class="hlt">topographies</span> (P < 0.01). BMSC CM contained a heat-labile factor that increased BMMs osteoclastogenesis. CM from both micro- and nanoscale surface-adherent BMSCs increased the osteoclast number (P < 0.01). Difference in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> altered BMSC phenotype and influenced BMM osteoclastogenesis. Local signaling by implant-adherent cells at the implant-bone interface may indirectly control osteoclastogenesis and bone accrual around endosseous implants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030067822&hterms=Snell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSnell','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030067822&hterms=Snell&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSnell"><span>Macromolecular <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Leaps into the Digital Age</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A low-cost, real-time digital <span class="hlt">topography</span> system is under development which will replace x-ray film and nuclear emulsion plates. The imaging system is based on an inexpensive surveillance camera that offers a 1000x1000 array of 8 im square pixels, anti-blooming circuitry, and very quick read out. Currently, the system directly converts x-rays to an image with no phosphor. The system is small and light and can be easily adapted to work with other crystallographic equipment. Preliminary images have been acquired of cubic insulin at the NSLS x26c beam line. NSLS x26c was configured for unfocused monochromatic radiation. Six reflections were collected with stills spaced from 0.002 to 0.001 degrees apart across the entire oscillation range that the reflections were in diffracting condition. All of the reflections were rotated to the vertical to reduce Lorentz and beam related effects. This particular CCD is designed for short exposure applications (much less than 1 sec) and so has a relatively high dark current leading to noisy raw images. The images are processed to remove background and other system noise with a multi-step approach including the use of wavelets, histogram, and mean window filtering. After processing, animations were constructed with the corresponding reflection profile to show the diffraction of the crystal volume vs. the oscillation angle as well as composite images showing the parts of the crystal with the strongest diffraction for each reflection. The final goal is to correlate features seen in reflection profiles captured with fine phi slicing to those seen in the <span class="hlt">topography</span> images. With this development macromolecular <span class="hlt">topography</span> finally comes into the digital age.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070035064&hterms=lay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070035064&hterms=lay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlay"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging) is a new system for measuring <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/393/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/393/"><span>EAARL Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> - Sandy Hook 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SuTMP...1a0201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SuTMP...1a0201L"><span>Welcome to Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Metrology and Properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leach, Richard</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its <span class="hlt">topography</span> is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface <span class="hlt">Topography</span>: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983262','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983262"><span>Carbon contamination <span class="hlt">topography</span> analysis of EUV masks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fan, Y.-J.; Yankulin, L.; Thomas, P.; Mbanaso, C.; Antohe, A.; Garg, R.; Wang, Y.; Murray, T.; Wuest, A.; Goodwin, F.; Huh, S.; Cordes, A.; Naulleau, P.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Gullikson, E.; Denbeaux, G.</p> <p>2010-03-12</p> <p>The impact of carbon contamination on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks is significant due to throughput loss and potential effects on imaging performance. Current carbon contamination research primarily focuses on the lifetime of the multilayer surfaces, determined by reflectivity loss and reduced throughput in EUV exposure tools. However, contamination on patterned EUV masks can cause additional effects on absorbing features and the printed images, as well as impacting the efficiency of cleaning process. In this work, several different techniques were used to determine possible contamination <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Lithographic simulations were also performed and the results compared with the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044472&hterms=importance+gravity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dimportance%2Bgravity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044472&hterms=importance+gravity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dimportance%2Bgravity"><span>Gravity/<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Admittances and Lithospheric Evolution on Mars: The Importance of Finite-Amplitude <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, J. W., III; Phillips, Roger J.; Simons, Mark</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We calculate localized gravity/<span class="hlt">topography</span> admittances for Mars, in order to estimate elastic lithosphere thickness. A finite-amplitude correction to modeled gravity is required to properly interpret admittances in high-relief regions of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4245..113F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4245..113F"><span>Measurement of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of human cadaver lenses using the PAR corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez, Viviana; Manns, Fabrice; Zipper, Stanley; Sandadi, Samith; Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>To measure the radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surfaces of crystalline lenses of human Eye-Bank eyes using the PAR Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> System. The measured values will be used in an optical model of the eye for lens refilling procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950057699&hterms=Subduction+zones&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSubduction%2Bzones','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950057699&hterms=Subduction+zones&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DSubduction%2Bzones"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and subduction geometry in the central Andes: Clues to the mechanics of a noncollisional orogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gephart, John W.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The central Andeean orogen between 12 deg and 32 deg S latitude exhibits a high degree of spatial order: principally an extraordinary bilateral symmetry that is common to the Earth's surface, the underlying Wadati-Benioff zone, and the Nazca/South America plate kinematics, which has been stable since the mid-Tertiary. This spatial order must reflect the physical mechanisms of mountain building in this noncollisional orogen. The shapes of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and subduction zone can be reduced to symmetric and antisummeric components relative to any verical symmetry plane; the particular plaen which minimizes the antisymmetry (and maximizes the symmetry) is well resolved and is essentially coincident with the stable Euler equator of Nacza/South America relative motion since the mid-Tertiary. That the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, subduction geometry, and persistent mid-Tertiary plate kinematics share common spatial and geometric elements suggests that he distribution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in this orogen depends strongly on the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of subduction. Other factors that might affect the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and underlying tectonics, such as climate and inherited strutura fabric, which have different spatial characterisitcs, must be of less significance at a continental scale. Furthermore, the small components of asymmetry among the various elements of the orogen appear to be mutually relate in a simple way; it is possible that this coupled asymmetry is associated with a late Teriary change in plate kinematics. These observations suggest that there is a close connection between plate tectonics and the form of the Earth's surface in this noncollisional setting. It follows hta the distribution of <span class="hlt">topography</span> near convergent plate boundaries may provide a powerful constraing for understanding the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of subduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E4507R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E4507R"><span>Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking <span class="hlt">topography</span> of model membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4124864','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4124864"><span>Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking <span class="hlt">topography</span> of model membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA129285','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA129285"><span>New Techniques for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gravity Measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-01-07</p> <p>Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cost+AND+measurement&pg=4&id=EJ848934','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cost+AND+measurement&pg=4&id=EJ848934"><span>An <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Electrometer for the Physics Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Straulino, S.; Cartacci, A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A low-cost, easy-to-use <span class="hlt">absolute</span> electrometer is presented: two thin metallic plates and an electronic balance, usually available in a laboratory, are used. We report on the very good performance of the device that allows precise measurements of the force acting between two charged plates. (Contains 5 footnotes, 2 tables, and 6 figures.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Learning+AND+Probabilities&pg=3&id=EJ1099263','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Learning+AND+Probabilities&pg=3&id=EJ1099263"><span>Stimulus Probability Effects in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA278093','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA278093"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Positioning Using the Global Positioning System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has becom a useful tool In providing relativ survey...Includes the development of a low cost navigator for wheeled vehicles. ABSTRACT The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has become a useful tool In providing...technique of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> or point positioning involves the use of a single Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver to determine the three-dimenslonal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1326/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1326/"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-Colonial National Historical Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nayegandhi, Amar; Stevens, Sara; Travers, Laurinda J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>These Lidar-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program, Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs, barrier islands, and various nearshore coastal environments for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to coastal resource managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1429...39I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991SPIE.1429...39I"><span>Evaluation of facial palsy by moire <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Inokuchi, Ikuo; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Maeta, Manabu; Masuda, Yu</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>Society of Facial Research is used frequently. It is of great value clinically, but the method has several weak points concerning objective and quantitative assessment. This study uses moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> to solve these problems. mA moire camera, FM3013, of the lattice irradiation type was used for measurement of the face. Five moire photographs were taken: at rest, wrinkling the forehead, closing the eyes lightly, blowing out the cheeks and grinning. The degree of facial palsy was determined by the Asymmetry Index (AI) as a measure of the degree of facial deviation. Total AI was expressed as the average AI based on calculations of the measurement in 5 photos. Severe paralysis is represented by an AI of more than 20%. Partial paralysis has a range of 20-8%. Nearly normal is judged to be less than 8%. Ten normal individuals are measured as control and show an AI of 3% or less. Moire <span class="hlt">topography</span> is useful in assessing the recovery process because it has the benefit of making the site and grade of palsy easily achieved by the AI and the deviation in its patterns. The authors propose that the moire method is better for an objective and quantitative evaluation than the society's method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3c5004H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SuTMP...3c5004H"><span>Uncertainty in measurement of surface <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haitjema, Han</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) roughness parameters were standardized in 2012. With their increasing use in science and industry, the request for traceability and uncertainty evaluation for these parameters follows logically. This paper gives an overview of the problems and possibilities that appear when uncertainties have to be associated with values that are derived from a measured surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, such as the Ra-value of a periodic specimen, the RSm value of a type-D standard, and the Sa-value of a single cutoff length of a type D standard. It is shown that straightforward implementation of the methods described in the ‘Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement’ (GUM) leads to impossible and impracticable equations because of the correlations between some millions of measurement points. A practical solution is found by considering the main aspects of uncertainty, as these are given in the recent ISO 25178 standards series, and applying these to a measured surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> as a whole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.A1001P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFD.A1001P"><span>Internal Wave Breaking in Stratified Flow over <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peltier, W. Richard</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In both atmosphere and oceans, internal waves generated by stratified flow over <span class="hlt">topography</span> "break" when a critical Froude number is exceeded. In the oceans, the global field of such waves forced by the flow of the barotropic tide over bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span> constitutes an "internal tide", the turbulent dissipation of which contributes significantly to the diapycnal diffusivity of mass in the abyss. In the atmosphere, the vertical flux of horizontal momentum in the wave field plays an important role in mediating the strength of the mid-latitude jet streams in the troposphere through the "gravity wave drag" that is applied to the mean zonal flow when the waves break. Early work on the atmospheric problem based upon the application of LES methods demonstrated that, in the restricted case of topographically forces 2-D flows, wave breaking aloft led to the development of an intense low level jet in the lee of the topographic maximum, in which an intense secondary instability of Kelvin-Helmholtz type developed which became intensely turbulent. The same methods were later applied to the oceans, initially to develop an understanding of the tidally induced breaking wave mechanics in the Knight Inlet "flume". Similar <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> interactions, to those observed in the atmosphere in connection with severe downslope windstorm formation, have been observed to occur in the deep ocean in the lee of ocean bottom topographic extrema. Current work is underway to determine the extent to which DNS methods applied to the oceanographic context are able to recover the phenomenology revealed by the atmospheric LES analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED23A0547F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED23A0547F"><span>Swath Measurements of Ice Sheet Bottom <span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Radar Reflectivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freeman, A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Jezek, K. C.; Rodriguez, E.; Wu, X.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Ice sheet thickness is a fundamental measurement for understanding the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of large ice sheets (terrestrial or extraterrestrial). Radar is the primary tool used to measure ice thickness but a major challenge is accurately measuring the arrival time of the basal echo in the presence of surface clutter, which may arise from processes such as wind driven deposition and erosion or crevassing. Essentially, the basal echo strength, which is weak because of attenuation through the ice, becomes comparable to the surface scattering signal even though the coincident surface return comes from a large, off-nadir angle. During the past 4 years, we explored three surface clutter rejection techniques and applied them to data collected with 150/450 MHz radars operated from aircraft over the Greenland Ice Sheet. We also investigated how the techniques could be used to go beyond nadir sounding of ice sheets and, when operated used with broad-beam antennas, could successfully acquire 3-dimensional intensity images of the ice sheet base. In this paper, we describe experiments to image the ice sheet base using: synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferogram filtering; SAR tomography; and beam steering. For the case of a broad beam antenna array, we show that interferograms filtering provides the highest quality topographic data from both the left and right sides of the aircraft but only under optimal conditions. We show that a beam-steering/radar tomography hybrid algorithm provides the most robust <span class="hlt">topography</span> and also yields an intensity map. We provide example <span class="hlt">topographies</span> for the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet and suggest how the approach could be used for future sounding of extraterrestrial ice. The research described in this paper was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 3-d radar image of the base of the ice sheet. Scene is an orthorectified mosaic located just</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17683427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17683427"><span>Expected relative fitness and the adaptive <span class="hlt">topography</span> of fluctuating selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lande, Russell</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Wright's adaptive <span class="hlt">topography</span> describes gene frequency evolution as a maximization of mean fitness in a constant environment. I extended this to a fluctuating environment by unifying theories of stochastic demography and fluctuating selection, assuming small or moderate fluctuations in demographic rates with a stationary distribution, and weak selection among the types. The demography of a large population, composed of haploid genotypes at a single locus or normally distributed phenotypes, can then be approximated as a diffusion process and transformed to produce the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of population size, N, and gene frequency, p, or mean phenotype, . The expected evolution of p or is a product of genetic variability and the gradient of the long-run growth rate of the population, , with respect to p or . This shows that the expected evolution maximizes , the mean Malthusian fitness in the average environment minus half the environmental variance in population growth rate. Thus, as a function of p or represents an adaptive <span class="hlt">topography</span> that, despite environmental fluctuations, does not change with time. The haploid model is dominated by environmental stochasticity, so the expected maximization is not realized. Different constraints on quantitative genetic variability, and stabilizing selection in the average environment, allow evolution of the mean phenotype to undergo a stochastic maximization of . Although the expected evolution maximizes the long-run growth rate of the population, for a genotype or phenotype the long-run growth rate is not a valid measure of fitness in a fluctuating environment. The haploid and quantitative character models both reveal that the expected relative fitness of a type is its Malthusian fitness in the average environment minus the environmental covariance between its growth rate and that of the population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/384/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/384/"><span>EAARL Coastal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> - Northern Gulf of Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Abby; Wright, C. Wayne; Travers, Laurinda J.; Lebonitte, James</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey areas for the purposes of geomorphic change studies following major storm events. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program's National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project is a multi-year undertaking to identify and quantify the vulnerability of U.S. shorelines to coastal change hazards such as effects of severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat. Airborne Lidar surveys conducted during periods of calm weather are compared to surveys collected following extreme storms in order to quantify the resulting coastal change. Other applications of high-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> include habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, volumetric change detection, and event assessment. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal areas, acquired on September 19, 2004, immediately following Hurricane Ivan. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532 nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, <span class="hlt">topography</span>, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking RGB (red-green-blue) digital camera, a high-resolution multi</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900027966&hterms=steiner&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsteiner','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900027966&hterms=steiner&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsteiner"><span><span class="hlt">Dynamical</span> diffraction imaging (<span class="hlt">topography</span>) with X-ray synchrotron radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuriyama, M.; Steiner, B. W.; Dobbyn, R. C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>By contrast to electron microscopy, which yields information on the location of features in small regions of materials, X-ray diffraction imaging can portray minute deviations from perfect crystalline order over larger areas. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray optics technology uses a highly parallel incident beam to eliminate ambiguities in the interpretation of image details; scattering phenomena previously unobserved are now readily detected. Synchrotron diffraction imaging renders high-resolution, real-time, in situ observations of materials under pertinent environmental conditions possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJT....38...61B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJT....38...61B"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiation Thermometry in the NIR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21321435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21321435"><span>Cantilever tilt causing amplitude related convolution in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mode atomic force microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Chunmei; Sun, Jielin; Itoh, Hiroshi; Shen, Dianhong; Hu, Jun</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that the <span class="hlt">topography</span> in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a convolution of the tip's shape and the sample's geometry. The classical convolution model was established in contact mode assuming a static probe, but it is no longer valid in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mode AFM. It is still not well understood whether or how the vibration of the probe in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mode affects the convolution. Such ignorance complicates the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Here we propose a convolution model for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mode by taking into account the typical design of the cantilever tilt in AFMs, which leads to a different convolution from that in contact mode. Our model indicates that the cantilever tilt results in a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> convolution affected by the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value of the amplitude, especially in the case that corresponding contact convolution has sharp edges beyond certain angle. The effect was experimentally demonstrated by a perpendicular SiO(2)/Si super-lattice structure. Our model is useful for quantitative characterizations in <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> mode, especially in probe characterization and critical dimension measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcMod..81...65L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014OcMod..81...65L"><span>Interpreting layer thickness advection in terms of eddy-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Chuanyu; Köhl, Armin; Stammer, Detlef</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>A parameterization for the spatial pattern of the eddy induced thickness advection parameter estimated from a <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> consistent data assimilation procedure is presented. Values of the thickness advection parameter are predominantly negative (positive) over seamounts, and positive (negative) over the deep ocean in the southern (northern) hemisphere along strong currents; its magnitude is large at high latitudes but low in the tropical regions. Those characteristics motivate a parameterization based on the Coriolis parameter, the bottom depth and an eddy length scale. As a parameterization for an eddy streamfunction, the associated bolus velocities advect density anti-cyclonically (cyclonically) around seamounts (troughs). Although the parameterization has the same form as Holloway’s streamfunction for the Neptune effect, and is also related to eddy-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interactions, Holloway’s streamfunction is in contrast applied to the momentum equation. The parameterization is independently confirmed by the flux-mean gradient relation from the output of a high resolution model. The effect of the proposed scheme is investigated using a channel model with idealized bottom <span class="hlt">topographies</span> and a global ocean circulation model with realistic bottom <span class="hlt">topography</span>. In agreement with the high resolution model, our scheme generates cold (warm) domes and cyclonic circulations over seamounts (troughs), which is consistent with the eddy movement in presence of the topographic β effect. This provides a different mechanism for eddy-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction than the Neptune effect, which generates circulations of opposing sign.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5157191','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5157191"><span>The effect of changing <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the coordinated marching of locust nymphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Amichay, Guy; Ariel, Gil</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Collective motion has traditionally been studied in the lab in homogeneous, obstacle-free environments, with little work having been conducted with changing landscapes or <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Here, the impact of spatial heterogeneity on the collective motion exhibited by marching desert locust nymphs was studied under controlled lab conditions. Our experimental circular arenas, incorporating a funnel-like narrowing followed by re-widening, did not constitute a major barrier to the locusts but, rather, mimicked a changing <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the natural environment. We examined its effects on macroscopic features of the locust collective behavior, as well as the any changes in their marching kinematics. A major finding was that of the limited extent to which the changing <span class="hlt">topography</span> affected system-level features of the marching locust group, such as the order parameter and the fraction of walking individuals, despite increased crowding at the funnel. Overall, marching kinematics was also very little affected, suggesting that locust marching bands adjust to the environment, with little effect on the overall <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of the group. These findings are in contrast to recent theoretical results predicting that environmental heterogeneities qualitatively alter the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of collectively moving particles; and highlight the crucial role of rapid individual plasticity and adaptability in the <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of flocks and swarms. Our study has revealed other important features of the marching behavior of the desert locust in addition to its robustness: the locusts demonstrated both, clear thigmotaxis and a tendency to spread-out and fill the available space. PMID:27994966</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033697','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033697"><span>STS-99 Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission Stability and Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamelin, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Mark C.; Kirchwey, Christopher B.; Pileggi, Roberto A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM) flew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor February 2000 and used interferometry to map 80% of the Earth's landmass. SRTM employed a 200-foot deployable mast structure to extend a second antenna away from the main antenna located in the Shuttle payload bay. Mapping requirements demanded precision pointing and orbital trajectories from the Shuttle on-orbit Flight Control System (PCS). Mast structural <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> interaction with the FCS impacted stability and performance of the autopilot for attitude maneuvers and pointing during mapping operations. A damper system added to ensure that mast tip motion remained with in the limits of the outboard antenna tracking system while mapping also helped to mitigate structural <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> interaction with the FCS autopilot. Late changes made to the payload damper system, which actually failed on-orbit, required a redesign and verification of the FCS autopilot filtering schemes necessary to ensure rotational control stability. In-flight measurements using three sensors were used to validate models and gauge the accuracy and robustness of the pre-mission notch filter design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280530','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22280530"><span>Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S. Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S.</p> <p>2014-01-27</p> <p>We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.5560B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.5560B"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> versus temporal anomaly and percent of saturation soil moisture spatial variability for six networks worldwide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brocca, L.; Zucco, G.; Mittelbach, H.; Moramarco, T.; Seneviratne, S. I.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The analysis of the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture can be carried out considering the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> (original) soil moisture values or relative values, such as the percent of saturation or temporal anomalies. Over large areas, soil moisture data measured at different sites can be characterized by large differences in their minimum, mean, and maximum <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values, even though in relative terms their temporal patterns are very similar. In these cases, the analysis considering <span class="hlt">absolute</span> compared with percent of saturation or temporal anomaly soil moisture values can provide very different results with significant consequences for their use in hydrological applications and climate science. In this study, in situ observations from six soil moisture networks in Italy, Spain, France, Switzerland, Australia, and United States are collected and analyzed to investigate the spatial soil moisture variability over large areas (250-150,000 km2). Specifically, the statistical and temporal stability analyses of soil moisture have been carried out for <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, temporal anomaly, and percent of saturation values (using two different formulations for temporal anomalies). The results highlight that the spatial variability of the soil moisture <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> (i.e., temporal anomalies) is significantly lower than that of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> soil moisture values. The spatial variance of the time-invariant component (temporal mean of each site) is the predominant contribution to the total spatial variance of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> soil moisture data. Moreover, half of the networks show a minimum in the spatial variability for intermediate conditions when the temporal anomalies are considered, in contrast with the widely recognized behavior of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> soil moisture data. The analyses with percent saturation data show qualitatively similar results as those for the temporal anomalies because of the applied normalization which reduces spatial variability induced by differences in mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> soil moisture</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27766459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27766459"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Power Spectral Density Changes in the Magnetoencephalographic Activity During the Transition from Childhood to Adulthood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gómez, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena I; Fernández, Alberto; Maestú, Fernando; Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to define the pattern of reduction in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> power spectral density (PSD) of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals throughout development. Specifically, we wanted to explore whether the human skull's high permeability for electromagnetic fields would allow us to question whether the pattern of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> PSD reduction observed in the human electroencephalogram is due to an increase in the skull's resistive properties with age. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of the MEG signals during maturation was explored, providing additional insights about the areas and brain rhythms related to late maturation in the human brain. To attain these goals, spontaneous MEG activity was recorded from 148 sensors in a sample of 59 subjects divided into three age groups: children/adolescents (7-14 years), young adults (17-20 years) and adults (21-26 years). Statistical testing was carried out by means of an analysis of variance (ANOVA), with "age group" as between-subject factor and "sensor group" as within-subject factor. Additionally, correlations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> PSD with age were computed to assess the influence of age on the spectral content of MEG signals. Results showed a broadband PSD decrease in frontal areas, which suggests the late maturation of this region, but also a mild increase in high frequency PSD with age in posterior areas. These findings suggest that the intensity of the neural sources during spontaneous brain activity decreases with age, which may be related to synaptic pruning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1244/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1244/"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Dry Tortugas National Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This lidar-derived submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> map was produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs for the purposes of habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, ad event assessment (for example: bleaching, hurricanes, disease outbreaks). As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring water depth and conducting cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to managers of coastal tropical habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1118/start.htm','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1118/start.htm"><span>EAARL submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Biscayne National Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd; Harris, Melanie S.; Mosher, Lance</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This lidar-derived submarine <span class="hlt">topography</span> map was produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs for the purposes of habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment (for example: bleaching, hurricanes, disease outbreaks). As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring water depth and conducting cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to managers of coastal tropical habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3534185','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3534185"><span>Architecture and development of olivocerebellar circuit <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reeber, Stacey L.; White, Joshua J.; George-Jones, Nicholas A.; Sillitoe, Roy V.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The cerebellum has a simple tri-laminar structure that is comprised of relatively few cell types. Yet, its internal micro-circuitry is anatomically, biochemically, and functionally complex. The most striking feature of cerebellar circuit complexity is its compartmentalized <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Each cell type within the cerebellar cortex is organized into an exquisite map; molecular expression patterns, dendrite projections, and axon terminal fields divide the medial-lateral axis of the cerebellum into topographic sagittal zones. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that establish zones and highlight how gene expression and neural activity contribute to cerebellar pattern formation. We focus on the olivocerebellar system because its developmental mechanisms are becoming clear, its topographic termination patterns are very precise, and its contribution to zonal function is debated. This review deconstructs the architecture and development of the olivocerebellar pathway to provide an update on how brain circuit maps form and function. PMID:23293588</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24125958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24125958"><span><span class="hlt">Topographies</span> of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Engstrom, Eric J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the <span class="hlt">topography</span> and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930005783&hterms=wegeners&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwegeners','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930005783&hterms=wegeners&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwegeners"><span>Assimilation of altimeter <span class="hlt">topography</span> into oceanic models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Demey, Pierre; Menard, Yves; Pinardi, Nadia; Schroeter, J.; Verron, J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The primary goals of the authors are to build an intuition for assimilation techniques and to investigate the impact of variable altimeter <span class="hlt">topography</span> on simple or complex oceanic models. In particular, applying various techniques and sensitivity studies to model and data constraints plays a key role. We are starting to use quasi-geostrophic, semigeostrophic, and primitive-equation (PE) models and to test the schemes in regions of interest to the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), as well as in the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The impact of scatterometer wind forcing on the results is also investigated. The use of Geosat, European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-1), and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry data is crucial in fine tuning the models and schemes to the selected areas of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1007/start.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1007/start.html"><span>EAARL <span class="hlt">topography</span>: Fire Island National Seashore</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This Web site contains 31 LIDAR-derived first return <span class="hlt">topography</span> maps and GIS files for Fire Island National Seashore. These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006DPS....38.3009G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006DPS....38.3009G"><span>An Assessment of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Measurements on Europa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenberg, Richard; Hurford, T.; Foley, M.</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Many small patches of chaotic terrain on Europa appear to be bulged upward, giving qualitative impressions that chaos might represent "cryovolcanic" and/or convective upwelling. The same bulged appearance is explained by the oceanic melt-through model, as simply the <span class="hlt">topography</span> expected after refreezing and buoyant equilibrium. Greenberg et al. suggested an observational test to discriminate between these models, based on whether the up-bulged chaos is higher than the typical tectonic terrain in the region (for up-welling) or only higher than its immediate moat-like surroundings (melt-through and refreezing). Several authors have taken up this challenge, presenting topographic maps to refute the melt-through model by showing high elevations for chaos. However, details on the methods (based on combinations of stereo images and photoclinometry) have been sketchy, and without quantitative analyses of precision. For example, near Tyre, topographic maps and profiles reportedly show elevated chaos areas. Yet the elevations differ between published results by much more than the purported 10m precision. Moreover, high-elevation portions of profiles that were labeled as chaos are actually tectonic terrain. Stereo actually shows that major chaos areas are lower than the tectonic terrain in the area. Also, variations in elevation within the tectonic terrain are so great that differences from chaotic terrain are in the noise. Moreover, our error-analyses for both stereo and photoclinometry indicate that uncertainties are greater than reported differences between elevations of chaotic and tectonic terrain. For example, stereo-based models may exaggerate the height of chaos by favoring rafts as tie features, and photoclinometry is sensitive to an uncertain photometric function and to sub-pixel slope variations. To paraphrase Mark Twain, reports of the death of the melt-through model have been greatly exaggerated. Any results based on <span class="hlt">topography</span> should not be accepted until the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3447K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3447K"><span>Episodic growth of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in eastern Tibet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirby, E.; Furlong, K.; Wang, E.; Shi, X.; van Soest, M.; Xu, G.; Kamp, P.; Hodges, K.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with the eastern portions of the Tibetan Plateau is thought to have developed as eastward flow of deep crust from beneath central Tibet drove crustal thickening and attendant surface uplift along the periphery of the plateau. The onset of rapid Late Miocene exhumation (ca. 10-15 Ma) in deep canyons of eastern Tibet is inferred to herald surface uplift which enabled rapid fluvial incision and the development of high topographic relief. Although consistent with geophysical data, this model struggles to explain the timing and amount of Cenozoic shortening adjacent to the Sichuan Basin. Here we report cooling histories of rocks currently exposed along a ~3 km vertical section adjacent to the Sichuan Basin derived from multiple low-temperature thermochronologic systems including apatite and zircon fission-track and (U-Th)/He. Our results reveal that this margin of the plateau was subject to slow, steady exhumation during early Cenozoic time, requiring that limited topographic relief (<1000m) was present prior to initial collision of India and Asia. Moreover, thermal models of exhumation-driven cooling demonstrate that subsequent exhumation of >10 km occurred in two temporally-distinct episodes, during Oligocene (~30-25 Ma) and Late Miocene (~10-15 Ma) time, separated by a hiatus of at least 10 Ma. These results challenge the notion that the plateau in eastern Tibet developed as a singular consequence of lower crustal flow. Rather, our findings require a punctuated history of mountain building that potentially reconciles conflicting models for relative roles of upper crustal shortening and lower crustal flow in the development of <span class="hlt">topography</span> adjacent to the Sichuan Basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9635E..0GS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9635E..0GS"><span>Absorber <span class="hlt">topography</span> dependence of phase edge effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shanker, Aamod; Sczyrba, Martin; Connolly, Brid; Waller, Laura; Neureuther, Andy</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Mask <span class="hlt">topography</span> contributes to phase at the wafer plane, even for OMOG binary masks currently in use at the 22nm node in deep UV (193nm) lithography. Here, numerical experiments with rigorous FDTD simulation are used to study the impact of mask 3D effects on aerial imaging, by varying the height of the absorber stack and its sidewall angle. Using a thin mask boundary layer model to fit to rigorous simulations it is seen that increasing the absorber thickness, and hence the phase through the middle of a feature (bulk phase) monotonically changes the wafer-plane phase. Absorber height also influences best focus, revealed by an up/down shift in the Bossung plot (linewidth vs. defocus). Bossung plot tilt, however, responsible for process window variability at the wafer, is insensitive to changes in the absorber height (and hence also the bulk phase). It is seen to depend instead on EM edge diffraction from the thick mask edge (edge phase), but stays constant for variations in mask thickness within a 10% range. Both bulk phase and edge phase are also independent of sidewall angle fluctuation, which is seen to linearly affect the CD at the wafer, but does not alter wafer phase or the defocus process window. Notably, as mask <span class="hlt">topography</span> varies, the effect of edge phase can be replicated by a thin mask model with 8nm wide boundary layers, irrespective of absorber height or sidewall angle. The conclusions are validated with measurements on phase shifting masks having different topographic parameters, confirming the strong dependence of phase variations at the wafer on bulk phase of the mask absorber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P21B1598P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P21B1598P"><span>The <span class="hlt">topography</span> of chaos terrain on Europa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, G.; Prockter, L. M.; Schenk, P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Chaos terrain and lenticulae are commonly observed surface features unique to the Galilean satellite Europa. Chaos terrain occurs as discrete regions of the satellite’s surface 10s to 100s of km in size that are disrupted into isolated plates surrounded by hummocky matrix material. Lenticulae occur as positive- or negative-relief domes km to 10s of km in diameter that can disrupt the original surface in a manner similar to chaos terrain. Evidence suggests that they each form via an endogenic process involving the interaction of a mobile substrate with the brittle surface and it has been proposed that ice shell thinning or surface yielding coupled with brine production represents the most plausible mechanism for the formation of these features. These similarities in morphology and formation mechanism indicate they may represent a continuum process. We explore whether larger chaos terrain represent the coalescence of smaller lenticulae by examining <span class="hlt">topography</span> within chaos to determine whether it contains domes on length scales similar to lenticulae. Schenk and Pappalardo (2004) alluded to the presence of several prominent domes within Conamara Chaos and we have previously shown that at least 4 and as many as 9 domes with length scales similar to lenticulae are present within and along the margins of the feature. This was accomplished by using Fourier analysis to decompose the topographic signature of Conamara Chaos and the surrounding terrain into discrete wavelength components. A low-pass filter was then used to strip away shorter wavelength components of the <span class="hlt">topography</span> associated with the region and determine if longer wavelength features were present within the terrain. Here we present new work identifying the presence, size, and distribution of domes within the boundaries of other chaos terrains across the surface of Europa and discuss implications for chaos formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011123','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011123"><span>From Hubble's NGSL to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatPh..10...67D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatPh..10...67D"><span>Consistent thermostatistics forbids negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunkel, Jörn; Hilbert, Stefan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Over the past 60 years, a considerable number of theories and experiments have claimed the existence of negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature in spin systems and ultracold quantum gases. This has led to speculation that ultracold gases may be dark-energy analogues and also suggests the feasibility of heat engines with efficiencies larger than one. Here, we prove that all previous negative temperature claims and their implications are invalid as they arise from the use of an entropy definition that is inconsistent both mathematically and thermodynamically. We show that the underlying conceptual deficiencies can be overcome if one adopts a microcanonical entropy functional originally derived by Gibbs. The resulting thermodynamic framework is self-consistent and implies that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature remains positive even for systems with a bounded spectrum. In addition, we propose a minimal quantum thermometer that can be implemented with available experimental techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5972..138A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5972..138A"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurement of length with nanometric resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Apostol, D.; Garoi, F.; Timcu, A.; Damian, V.; Logofatu, P. C.; Nascov, V.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Laser interferometer displacement measuring transducers have a well-defined traceability route to the definition of the meter. The laser interferometer is de-facto length scale for applications in micro and nano technologies. However their physical unit -half lambda is too large for nanometric resolution. Fringe interpolation-usual technique to improve the resolution-lack of reproducibility could be avoided using the principles of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> distance refers to the use of interferometric techniques for determining the position of an object without the necessity of measuring continuous displacements between points. The interference pattern as produced by the interference of two point-like coherent sources is fitted to a geometric model so as to determine the longitudinal location of the target by minimizing least square errors. The longitudinal coordinate of the target was measured with accuracy better than 1 nm, for a target position range of 0.4μm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003670"><span>Asteroid <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and slope parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tedesco, Edward F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A new listing of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20062247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20062247"><span>Computer processing of spectrograms for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guttman, A; Golden, J; Galbraith, H J</p> <p>1967-09-01</p> <p>A computer program was developed to process photographically recorded spectra for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity. Test and calibration films are subjected to densitometric scans that provide digitally recorded densities on magnetic tapes. The nonlinear calibration data are fitted by least-squares cubic polynomials to yield a good approximation to the monochromatic H&D curves for commonly used emulsions (2475 recording film, Royal-X, Tri-X, 4-X). Several test cases were made. Results of these cases show that the machine processed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensities are accurate to within 15%o. Arbitrarily raising the sensitivity threshold by 0.1 density units above gross fog yields cubic polynomial fits to the H&D curves that are radiometrically accurate within 10%. In addition, curves of gamma vs wavelength for 2475, Tri-X, and 4-X emulsions were made. These data show slight evidence of the photographic Purkinje effect in the 2475 emulsion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O"><span>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito</p> <p></p> <p>It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no <span class="hlt">absolute</span> general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423049"><span>Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spin polarization at the nanoscale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus</p> <p>2014-12-10</p> <p>Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1546...70C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1546...70C"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative dosimetry for ELIMED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410350','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410350"><span>Silicon <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> X-Ray Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie</p> <p>2010-06-23</p> <p>The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> x-ray detectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DMP.J2010B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DMP.J2010B"><span>Negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature for mobile particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Braun, Simon; Ronzheimer, Philipp; Schreiber, Michael; Hodgman, Sean; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> temperature is usually bound to be strictly positive. However, negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature states, where the occupation probability of states increases with their energy, are possible in systems with an upper energy bound. So far, such states have only been demonstrated in localized spin systems with finite, discrete spectra. We realized a negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature state for motional degrees of freedom with ultracold bosonic 39K atoms in an optical lattice, by implementing the attractive Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. This new state strikingly revealed itself by a quasimomentum distribution that is peaked at maximum kinetic energy. The measured kinetic energy distribution and the extracted negative temperature indicate that the ensemble is close to degeneracy, with coherence over several lattice sites. The state is as stable as a corresponding positive temperature state: The negative temperature stabilizes the system against mean-field collapse driven by negative pressure. Negative temperatures open up new parameter regimes for cold atoms, enabling fundamentally new many-body states. Additionally, they give rise to several counterintuitive effects such as heat engines with above unity efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SolED...3...43D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SolED...3...43D"><span>Measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity acceleration in Firenze</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1795..371N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993SPIE.1795..371N"><span>System for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements by interferometric sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norton, Douglas A.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>The most common problem of interferometric sensors is their inability to measure <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path imbalance. Presented in this paper is a signal processing system that gives <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, unambiguous reading of optical path difference for almost any style of interferometric sensor. Key components are a wide band (incoherent) optical source, a polychromator, and FFT electronics. Advantages include no moving parts in the signal processor, no active components at the sensor location, and the use of standard single mode fiber for sensor illumination and signal transmission. Actual <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path imbalance of the interferometer is determined without using fringe counting or other inferential techniques. The polychromator extracts the interference information that occurs at each discrete wavelength within the spectral band of the optical source. The signal processing consists of analog and digital filtering, Fast Fourier analysis, and a peak detection and interpolation algorithm. This system was originally designed for use in a remote pressure sensing application that employed a totally passive fiber optic interferometer. A performance qualification was made using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercially available laser interferometer to measure the reference displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070087','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20070087"><span>Chemical composition of French mimosa <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas</p> <p>2010-02-10</p> <p>Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2386761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2386761"><span>Constrained Least <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Deviation Neural Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation (LAD) criterion or L1-norm used for estimation of parameters is characterized by robustness, i.e., the estimated parameters are totally resistant (insensitive) to large changes in the sampled data. This is an extremely useful feature, especially, when the sampled data are known to be contaminated by occasionally occurring outliers or by spiky noise. In our previous works, we have proposed the least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation neural network (LADNN) to solve unconstrained LAD problems. The theoretical proofs and numerical simulations have shown that the LADNN is Lyapunov-stable and it can globally converge to the exact solution to a given unconstrained LAD problem. We have also demonstrated its excellent application value in time-delay estimation. More generally, a practical LAD application problem may contain some linear constraints, such as a set of equalities and/or inequalities, which is called constrained LAD problem, whereas the unconstrained LAD can be considered as a special form of the constrained LAD. In this paper, we present a new neural network called constrained least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation neural network (CLADNN) to solve general constrained LAD problems. Theoretical proofs and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed CLADNN is Lyapunov stable and globally converges to the exact solution to a given constrained LAD problem, independent of initial values. The numerical simulations have also illustrated that the proposed CLADNN can be used to robustly estimate parameters for nonlinear curve fitting, which is extensively used in signal and image processing. PMID:18269958</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatGe...7..518L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatGe...7..518L"><span>Rejuvenation of Appalachian <span class="hlt">topography</span> caused by subsidence-induced differential erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Lijun</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>In ancient orogens, such as the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States, the difference between the high and low points--topographic relief--can continue to increase long after the tectonic forces that created the range have become inactive. Climatic forcing and mantle-induced <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift could drive formation of relief, but clear evidence is lacking in the Appalachian Mountains. Here I use a numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> in North America, combined with reconstructions of the sedimentation history from the Gulf of Mexico, to show that rejuvenation of topographic relief in the Appalachian Mountains since the Palaeogene period could have been caused by mantle-induced <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence associated with sinking of the subducted Farallon slab. Specifically, I show that patterns of continental erosion and the eastward migration of sediment deposition centres in the Gulf of Mexico closely follow the locus of predicted <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence. Furthermore, pulses of rapid sediment deposition in the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic correlate with enhanced erosion in the Appalachian Mountains during the Miocene epoch, caused by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> tilting of the continent. The model predicts that such subsidence-induced differential erosion caused flexural-isostatic adjustments of Appalachian <span class="hlt">topography</span> that led to the development of 400 m of relief and more than 200 m of elevation. I propose that <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> induced continental tilting may provide a mechanism for topographic rejuvenation in ancient orogens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433054','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433054"><span>Representation of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in spectral climate models and its effect on simulated precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lindberg, C.; Broccoli, A.J.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Spectral climate models are distinguished by their representation of variables as finite sums of spherical harmonics, with coefficients computed by an orthogonal projection of the variables onto the spherical harmonics. Representing the surface elevation in this manner results in its contamination by Gibbs-like truncation artifacts, which appear as spurious valleys and mountain chains in the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. These {open_quotes}Gibbs ripples{close_quotes} are present in the surface <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of spectral climate models from a number of research institutions. Integrations of the Geophysical Fluid <span class="hlt">Dynamics</span> Laboratory (GFDL) climate model over a range of horizontal resolutions indicate that the Gibbs ripples lead to spurious, small-scale extrema in the spatial distribution of precipitation. This {open_quotes}cellular precipitation pathology{close_quotes} becomes more pronounced with increasing horizontal resolution, causing a deterioration in the fidelity of simulated precipitation in higher resolution models. A method is described for reducing the Gibbs ripples that occur when making an incomplete spherical harmonic expansion of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The new spherical harmonic representations of <span class="hlt">topography</span> are formed by fitting a nonuniform spherical smoothing spline to geodetic data and found by solving a fixed-point problem. This regularization technique results in less distortion of features such as mountain height and continental boundaries than previous smoothing methods. These new expansions of the <span class="hlt">topography</span>, when used as a lower boundary surface in the GFDL climate model, substantially diminish the cellular precipitation pathology and produce markedly more realistic simulations of precipitation. These developments make the prospect of using higher resolution spectral models for studies of regional hydrologic climate more attractive. 34 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23F..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T23F..03M"><span>High-resolution modelling and error analysis of late-Cenozoic African <span class="hlt">topography</span> driven by mantle convection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moucha, R.; Forte, A. M.; Rowley, D. B.; Mitrovica, J.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.; Glisovic, P.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>An outstanding problem in African continental <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> is the delineation of the mantle convective flow below the African plate and its relationship to the evolution of continental <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Over the last decade numerous studies have focused on modelling the present-day African <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> using seismic-tomography based mantle convection simulations (e.g. Lithgow-Bertolini et al., 1998; Gurnis et al., 2000; Daradich et al., 2003; Forte et al., 2010). However, the majority of these investigations of tomography-based convection below Africa have been based on long wavelength global tomography models, which resolve structures with scale lengths generally in excess of 1000 km. This spatial resolution is insufficient for mapping out a detailed connection between the surface manifestations of African hotspot magmatism, topographic anomalies and the sublithospheric mantle flow pattern below the African plate. Substantial progress has recently been made in deriving a seismic tomography model which approaches the horizontal resolution needed to address these modelling challenges (e.g. Simmons et al., 2009). This tomography model provides explicit estimates of both thermal and chemical contributions to mantle buoyancy and we employ it in a mantle convection simulation that satisfies the combined set of geodynamic constraints related to the present-day surface gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> anomalies. Utilizing this present-day geodynamic model we reconstruct the late Cenozoic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> of Africa by carrying out backward-in-time mantle flow simulations. Uncertainties in our reconstruction of <span class="hlt">topography</span> that originate from the starting models of mantle heterogeneity, rheology and different plate reconstructions are fully investigated and compared with the geological record. The consideration of such uncertainties was usually ignored in previous studies, but we demonstrate their importance in evaluating the robustness of the time-dependent <span class="hlt">topography</span> reconstructions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019234"><span>Simulation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8587772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8587772"><span>PAR Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> System (PAR CTS): the clinical application of close-range photogrammetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belin, M W; Cambier, J L; Nabors, J R; Ratliff, C D</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>The PAR Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system which uses close-range photogrammetry (rasterphotogrammetry) to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The PAR CTS makes direct point-by-point measurements of surface elevation using a stereo-triangulation technique. The CTS uses a grid pattern composed of horizontal and vertical lines spaced about 0.2 mm (200 microns) apart. Each grid intersection comprises a surface feature which can be located in multiple images and used to generate an (x,y,z) coordinate. Unlike placido disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. In addition to surface elevation, the PAR CTS computes axial and tangential curvatures and refractive power. Difference maps are available in all curvatures, refractive power, and in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> elevation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMP....53i5205A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JMP....53i5205A"><span><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aizenman, Michael; Warzel, Simone</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>We discuss the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093718"><span><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aizenman, Michael; Warzel, Simone</p> <p>2012-09-15</p> <p>We discuss the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910006329','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910006329"><span>Mantle <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and geodesy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Albee, Arden</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Both completed work and work that is still in progress are presented. The completed work presented includes: (1) core-mantle boundary <span class="hlt">topography</span>; (2) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value for mantle viscosity; (3) code development; (4) lateral heterogeneity of subduction zone rheology; and (5) planning for the Coolfront meeting. The work presented that is still in progress includes: (1) geoid anomalies for a chemically stratified mantle; and (2) geoid anomalies with lateral variations in viscosity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf.1018G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf.1018G"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and geoid induced by a convecting mantle beneath an elastic lithosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Golle, O.; Dumoulin, C.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Thermal convection that occurs in terrestrial planetary bodies induces density anomalies but also <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topographies</span> of the main interfaces. Both contribute to the shape of the geoid. While a classical approach now is to combine gravity and altimetry measurements to infer the internal structure of a planet [1], our complementary approach consists in computing synthetic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid from thermal convection calculations in order to understand their relationship. Here, we couple the deformation of an elastic shell (mimicking a planetary lithosphere) with the viscous convective flow below it. The viscous flow is computed using a 3D numerical tool for a spherical shell (OEDIPUS [2]) using a finite difference method that allows large lateral viscosity variations. The deformation of the elastic layer is computed using a semispectral method. We show that introducing the total traction force (instead of a simplified coupling involving only the radial component of the traction force as often assumed in earlier studies) results in a larger filtering effect caused by the elastic lithosphere (especially for thin elastic layers). In a last step, we will apply our hybrid tool to simple thermal convection calculations and compute the associated <span class="hlt">topography</span> and geoid maps. Spectral characteristics of these synthetic signals are presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02765&hterms=infrared+images+dry+eye&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Bimages%2Bdry%2Beye','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02765&hterms=infrared+images+dry+eye&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Bimages%2Bdry%2Beye"><span>Stereo Pair: Inverted <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Patagonia, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> The Meseta de Somuncura is a broad plateau capped by basalt. Near its western edge is evidence of multiple volcanic events and a complex erosion history. Most notable are the long, narrow-, and winding lava flows that run across most of the right side of the image. These formed from low-viscosity lava that flowed down gullies over fairly flat terrain. Later, erosion of the landscape continued and the solidified flows were more resistant than the older surrounding rocks. Consequently, the flows became the ridges we see here. This natural process of converting gullies to ridges is called topographic inversion. See image PIA02755 (upper left corner) for a good example of topographic inversion in its earlier stages.<p/>Other features seen here include numerous and varied closed depressions. The regional drainage is not well integrated, and drainage ends up in salty lakes (blue if shallow, black if deep). Wind streaks indicate that winds blow toward the east (right) and blow salt grains off the lakebeds when dry. The bowtie pattern in the upper left has resulted from differing grazing practices among fenced fields.<p/>This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7satellite color image. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.<p/>Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.G13B0659S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.G13B0659S"><span>New Global Bathymetry and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Model Grids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, W. H.; Sandwell, D. T.; Marks, K. M.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>A new version of the "Smith and Sandwell" global marine <span class="hlt">topography</span> model is available in two formats. A one-arc-minute Mercator projected grid covering latitudes to +/- 80.738 degrees is available in the "img" file format. Also available is a 30-arc-second version in latitude and longitude coordinates from pole to pole, supplied as tiles covering the same areas as the SRTM30 land <span class="hlt">topography</span> data set. The new effort follows the Smith and Sandwell recipe, using publicly available and quality controlled single- and multi-beam echo soundings where possible and filling the gaps in the oceans with estimates derived from marine gravity anomalies observed by satellite altimetry. The altimeter data have been reprocessed to reduce the noise level and improve the spatial resolution [see Sandwell and Smith, this meeting]. The echo soundings database has grown enormously with new infusions of data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO), the National Geospatial-intelligence Agency (NGA), hydrographic offices around the world volunteering through the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), and many other agencies and academic sources worldwide. These new data contributions have filled many holes: 50% of ocean grid points are within 8 km of a sounding point, 75% are within 24 km, and 90% are within 57 km. However, in the remote ocean basins some gaps still remain: 5% of the ocean grid points are more than 85 km from the nearest sounding control, and 1% are more than 173 km away. Both versions of the grid include a companion grid of source file numbers, so that control points may be mapped and traced to sources. We have compared the new model to multi-beam data not used in the compilation and find that 50% of differences are less than 25 m, 95% of differences are less than 130 m, but a few large differences remain in areas of poor sounding control and large-amplitude gravity anomalies. Land values in the solution are taken from SRTM30v2, GTOPO30 and ICESAT data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00738&hterms=Dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDark%2Bweb','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA00738&hterms=Dark+web&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDark%2Bweb"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Volcanoes on Io (color)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The images used to create this enhanced color composite of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. Low sun angles near the terminator (day-night boundary near the left side of the image) offer lighting conditions which emphasize the <span class="hlt">topography</span> or relief on the volcanic satellite. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> appears very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horse-shoe shaped feature near the terminator) while a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere. The big reddish-orange ring in the lower right is formed by material deposited from the eruption of Pele, Io's largest volcanic plume.<p/>North is to the top of this picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The resolution is 6.1 kilometers per picture element. The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a range of 600,000 kilometers.<p/>The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).<p/>Concurrent results from Galileo's exploration of Io appear in the October 15th, 1997 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. The papers are: Temperature and Area Constraints of the South Volund Volcano on Io from the NIMS and SSI Instruments during the Galileo G1 Orbit, by A.G. Davies, A.S. McEwen, R. Lopes-Gautier, L. Keszthelyi, R.W. Carlson and W.D. Smythe. High-temperature hot spots on Io as seen by the Galileo Solid-State Imaging (SSI) experiment, by A. McEwen, D. Simonelli, D. Senske, K. Klassen, L. Keszthelyi, T. Johnson, P. Geissler, M. Carr, and M. Belton. Io: Galileo evidence for major variations in regolith properties, by D. Simonelli, J. Veverka, and A. McEwen.<p/>This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085798"><span>Tonal frequency affects amplitude but not <span class="hlt">topography</span> of rhesus monkey cranial EEG components.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teichert, Tobias</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The rhesus monkey is an important model of human auditory function in general and auditory deficits in neuro-psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia in particular. Several rhesus monkey studies have described homologs of clinically relevant auditory evoked potentials such as pitch-based mismatch negativity, a fronto-central negativity that can be observed when a series of regularly repeating sounds is disrupted by a sound of different tonal frequency. As a result it is well known how differences of tonal frequency are represented in rhesus monkey EEG. However, to date there is no study that systematically quantified how <span class="hlt">absolute</span> tonal frequency itself is represented. In particular, it is not known if frequency affects rhesus monkey EEG component amplitude and <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the same way as previously shown for humans. A better understanding of the effect of frequency may strengthen inter-species homology and will provide a more solid foundation on which to build the interpretation of frequency MMN in the rhesus monkey. Using arrays of up to 32 cranial EEG electrodes in 4 rhesus macaques we identified 8 distinct auditory evoked components including the N85, a fronto-central negativity that is the presumed homolog of the human N1. In line with human data, the amplitudes of most components including the N85 peaked around 1000 Hz and were strongly attenuated above ∼1750 Hz. Component <span class="hlt">topography</span>, however, remained largely unaffected by frequency. This latter finding may be consistent with the known absence of certain anatomical structures in the rhesus monkey that are believed to cause the changes in <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the human by inducing a rotation of generator orientation as a function of tonal frequency. Overall, the findings are consistent with the assumption of a homolog representation of tonal frequency in human and rhesus monkey EEG.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H43G1337D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H43G1337D"><span>The Topographic Mapping Flash Lidar for micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> of river systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donley, B.; Ramond, T.; Weimer, C. S.; Ruppert, L.; Delker, T.; Applegate, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Topographic Mapping Flash Lidar (TMFL) instrument built by Ball Aerospace is a pushbroom lidar operating at 1064nm that provides the ability to map the topographic structure of river beds and surrounding terrain. The receiver is a pixilated array, allowing small-scale resolution of micro-<span class="hlt">topography</span> that is critical to understanding river <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> and the biodiversity of the area. The instrument uses no mechanical scanning, which is a key feature allowing the design to be applicable to space flight like the NASA Decadal Survey mission LIST. The TMFL instrument has been flown on a Twin Otter aircraft. This poster will exhibit examples of river <span class="hlt">topography</span> over dry and wet riverbeds. Examples are given of imaging a river even when partially obscured under trees in an area of high canopy density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..1DS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..1DS"><span>Clock time is <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Xinhang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070032798&hterms=Rutherford&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DRutherford','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070032798&hterms=Rutherford&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DRutherford"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005478&hterms=Climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DClimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005478&hterms=Climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DClimate%2Bchange"><span>Achieving Climate Change <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Accuracy in Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214544C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214544C"><span>Enabling Access to High-Resolution Lidar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> for Earth Science Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Baru, Chaitan</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>High-resolution <span class="hlt">topography</span> data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging a.k.a. laser scanning) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the geomorphic processes acting along the Earth's surface. These data, acquired from either an airborne platform or from a tripod-mounted scanner, are emerging as a fundamental tool for research on a variety of topics ranging from earthquake hazards to ice sheet <span class="hlt">dynamics</span>. Lidar <span class="hlt">topography</span> data allow earth scientists to study the processes that contribute to landscape evolution at resolutions not previously possible yet essential for their appropriate representation. These datasets also have significant implications for earth science education and outreach because they provide an accurate digital representation of landforms and geologic hazards. However, along with the potential of lidar <span class="hlt">topography</span> comes an increase in the volume and complexity of data that must be efficiently managed, archived, distributed, processed and integrated in order for them to be of use to the community. A single lidar data acquisition may generate terabytes of data in the form of point clouds, digital elevation models (DEMs), and derivative imagery. This massive volume of data is often difficult to manage and poses significant distribution challenges when trying to allow access to the data for a large scientific user community. Furthermore, the datasets can be technically challenging to work with and may require specific software and computing resources that are not readily available to many users. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is an online data access and processing system designed to address the challenges posed by lidar data, and to democratize access to these data for the scientific user community. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including raw lidar point cloud data, standard DEMs, and easily accessible Google</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP41B3535N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP41B3535N"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span> and Vegetation Characterization using Dual-Wavelength Airborne Lidar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neuenschwander, A. L.; Bradford, B.; Magruder, L. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Monitoring Earth surface <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> at an ever increasing resolution has helped to support the characterization of local <span class="hlt">topography</span>, including vegetated and urban environments. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to characterize vegetation and landscapes as it provides detailed three-dimensional spatial data with multiple elevation recordings for each laser pulse. The full waveform LIDAR receiver is unique in this aspect as it can capture and record the complete temporal history of the reflected signal, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and ground surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the utility of co-collected, dual-wavelength, full waveform LIDAR data to characterize vegetation and landscapes through the extraction of waveform features, including total waveform energy, canopy energy distribution, and foliage penetration metrics. Assessments are performed using data collected in May 2014 over Monterey, CA, including the Naval Postgraduate School campus area as well as the Point Lobos State Natural Reserve situated on the Monterey coast. The surveys were performed with the Chiroptera dual-laser LIDAR mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), which can collect both green (515nm) and near infrared (1064nm) waveforms simultaneously. Making use of the dual waveforms allows for detailed characterization of the vegetation and landscape not previously possible with airborne LIDAR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD32004C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDD32004C"><span>On the turbulent boundary layer over geophysical-like <span class="hlt">topographies</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Hamed, Ali M.; Castillo, Luciano</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The developing and developed flows over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls were experimentally studied with high-resolution planar PIV in a refractive-index-matching channel. The 2D wall is described by a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/ λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave in the spanwise direction with a/ λy = 0.1. The flow was characterized at Re = 4000 and 40000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls have amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio a /δ99 0 . 1 and resemble large-scale and geophysical-like roughnesses found in rivers and natural terrain. Instantaneous velocity fields and time-averaged turbulence quantities reveal strong coupling between large-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the turbulence <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> near the wall, and the presence of a well-structured shear layer that enhances the turbulence for both walls. However, the 3D wall exhibits spanwise flow that is thought to be responsible for distinctive flow features, including comparatively reduced spanwise vorticity and decreased turbulence levels. Further insight is drawn in the developed and developing regions through proper orthogonal decomposition and quadrant analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145s4104M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145s4104M"><span>Non-adiabatic transition probability dependence on conical intersection <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malhado, João Pedro; Hynes, James T.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We derive a closed form analytical expression for the non-adiabatic transition probability for a distribution of trajectories passing through a generic conical intersection (CI), based on the Landau-Zener equation for the non-adiabatic transition probability for a single straight-line trajectory in the CI's vicinity. We investigate the non-adiabatic transition probability's variation with topographical features and find, for the same crossing velocity, no intrinsic difference in efficiency at promoting non-adiabatic decay between peaked and sloped CIs, a result in contrast to the commonly held view. Any increased efficiency of peaked over sloped CIs is thus due to <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> effects rather than to any increased transition probability of topographical origin. It is also shown that the transition probability depends in general on the direction of approach to the CI, and that the coordinates' reduced mass can affect the transition probability via its influence on the CI <span class="hlt">topography</span> in mass-scaled coordinates. The resulting predictions compare well with surface hopping simulation results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27875884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27875884"><span>Non-adiabatic transition probability dependence on conical intersection <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malhado, João Pedro; Hynes, James T</p> <p>2016-11-21</p> <p>We derive a closed form analytical expression for the non-adiabatic transition probability for a distribution of trajectories passing through a generic conical intersection (CI), based on the Landau-Zener equation for the non-adiabatic transition probability for a single straight-line trajectory in the CI's vicinity. We investigate the non-adiabatic transition probability's variation with topographical features and find, for the same crossing velocity, no intrinsic difference in efficiency at promoting non-adiabatic decay between peaked and sloped CIs, a result in contrast to the commonly held view. Any increased efficiency of peaked over sloped CIs is thus due to <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> effects rather than to any increased transition probability of topographical origin. It is also shown that the transition probability depends in general on the direction of approach to the CI, and that the coordinates' reduced mass can affect the transition probability via its influence on the CI <span class="hlt">topography</span> in mass-scaled coordinates. The resulting predictions compare well with surface hopping simulation results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17826923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17826923"><span>Superficial <span class="hlt">topography</span> of wound: a determinant of underlying biological events?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farahani, Ramin Mostofi Zadeh; Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Kloth, Luther C</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional configuration of wounds varies considerably according to the etiology. Wounding of skin is proceeded by release of dermal pretension. Subsequent disruption of physical equilibrium with resulting development of force vectors alters the primary shape of wound to maintain a new <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> physical equilibrium. This leads to the development of stress-relaxation and stress-concentration areas throughout the wound milieu. Mechanical strain produces piezoelectric current which is maximal in stress-relaxation regions due to lower tissue stiffness and higher mobility. Early surge in the tissue level of TGF-beta would be exaggerated through synergistic interaction with piezoelectric current in stress-relaxation areas. Subsequently, fibroblasts migrate to these areas due to galvanotaxis. The gradual dissipation of tissue tension, due to irreversible loss of viscous strain, reduces the synergistic action of TGF-beta and piezoelectricity. However, a similar pattern of activity of TGF-beta due to the polarized migration of fibroblasts, which are the main source of TGF-beta during secondary surge, may be continued. It seems that a biological-mechanical continuum exists for wounds so that even the superficial <span class="hlt">topography</span> of wounds may affect the underlying biological activity and final healing outcome during healing of dermal wounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.436..928R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.436..928R"><span>Brownian motion: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> negative particle mobility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force (`<span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSMTE..01.3201C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSMTE..01.3201C"><span>Arbitrary segments of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ruyin; Nie, Linru; Chen, Chongyang; Wang, Chaojie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In previous research work, investigators have reported only one or two segments of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility (ANM) in a periodic potential. In fact, many segments of ANM also occur in the system considered here. We investigate transport of an inertial particle in a gating ratchet periodic potential subjected to a constant bias force. Our numerical results show that its mean velocity can decrease with the bias force increasing, i.e. ANM phenomenon. Furthermore, the ANM can take place arbitrary segments, even up to more than thirty. Intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for arbitrary segments of ANM to occur are discussed in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27444500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27444500"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantification of myocardial blood flow.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara</p> <p>2016-07-21</p> <p>With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900066048&hterms=Pelton&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPelton','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900066048&hterms=Pelton&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPelton"><span>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radius scale for Saturn's rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radii are in error by no more than 2 km.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARY29005W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARY29005W"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Rate Theories of Epigenetic Stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, Jose N.; Wolynes, Peter G.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape, and the transmission factor, depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PNAS..10218926W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PNAS..10218926W"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> rate theories of epigenetic stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010730','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010730"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> method of measuring magnetic susceptibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.</p> <p>1959-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009acse.book..955S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009acse.book..955S"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Priority for a Vehicle in VANET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad</p> <p></p> <p>In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760017027','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760017027"><span>Influence of planetary-scale <span class="hlt">topography</span> on the diurnal thermal tide during the 1971 Martian dust storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Conrath, B. J.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Data obtained with the Mariner 9 infrared spectroscopy experiment during the Martian Dust Storm of 1971 to 1972 are examined for evidence of topographic influence on the atmospheric thermal structure. Temperature perturbations which are well correlated with the planetary scale <span class="hlt">topography</span> are found superposed on the large amplitude diurnal thermal tide. Applications of tidal theory to the data indicate that the observed perturbations result from the kinematic interaction of the westward traveling diurnal wave with the large scale components of <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The dominant mode is excited by the wave-number two <span class="hlt">topography</span> component and is a vertically evanescent eastward traveling wave with an equivalent depth comparable to the atmospheric scale height. The principle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> effect of this mode is the enhancement of the amplitude of the near-surface diurnal wind to over 40m/sec in limited areas near 30 deg south latitude. It appears likely that dust was injected into the atmosphere in these regions during the storm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010124827&hterms=RANGING&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DRANGING','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010124827&hterms=RANGING&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DRANGING"><span>Mercury's Global <span class="hlt">Topography</span> from Radar Ranging Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.; Asmar, S. W.; Jurgens, R. F.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Slade, M. A., III; Standish, E. M., Jr.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>When Mercury's radius is expanded in Legendre functions to the second degree and order, the systematic error in radar ranging data is reduced substantially. Previously, data spanning an observing interval from 1966 to 1990 were used to infer an equatorial ellipticity (a - b)/a = (540 +/- 54) X 10(exp -6) and a center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset of (640 +/- 78) m. The magnitude of this equatorial center of figure offset implies an excess crustal thickness of 12 km or less, comparable to the Moon's excess. By comparing the equatorial ellipticity with the Mariner 10 gravity field, and assuming Airy isostatic compensation, bounds on crustal thickness can be derived. Mercury's crustal thickness is in the range from 100 to 300 km. The Mercury radar ranging observing interval has been extended from 1966 to the present. In addition, improvements in data reduction techniques have resulted in a set of Mercury ranging data less affected by systematic error, in particular the biases introduced by local topographic variations. We use this new set of reduced ranging data to improve Mercury's global <span class="hlt">topography</span> and center-of-figure minus center-of-mass offset. New results on crustal thickness are derived, and prospects for further improvement with Mercury Orbiter data are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SPIE.1161..409K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SPIE.1161..409K"><span>Imaging, Reconstruction, And Display Of Corneal <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klyce, Stephen D.; Wilson, Steven E.</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>The cornea is the major refractive element in the eye; even minor surface distortions can produce a significant reduction in visual acuity. Standard clinical methods used to evaluate corneal shape include keratometry, which assumes the cornea is ellipsoidal in shape, and photokeratoscopy, which images a series of concentric light rings on the corneal surface. These methods fail to document many of the corneal distortions that can degrade visual acuity. Algorithms have been developed to reconstruct the three dimensional shape of the cornea from keratoscope images, and to present these data in the clinically useful display of color-coded contour maps of corneal surface power. This approach has been implemented on a new generation video keratoscope system (Computed Anatomy, Inc.) with rapid automatic digitization of the image rings by a rule-based approach. The system has found clinical use in the early diagnosis of corneal shape anomalies such as keratoconus and contact lens-induced corneal warpage, in the evaluation of cataract and corneal transplant procedures, and in the assessment of corneal refractive surgical procedures. Currently, ray tracing techniques are being used to correlate corneal surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> with potential visual acuity in an effort to more fully understand the tolerances of corneal shape consistent with good vision and to help determine the site of dysfunction in the visually impaired.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6873599','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6873599"><span>Inversion of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Martian highland terrains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>De Hon, R.A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Ring furrows are flat-floored trenches, circulate in plan view, forming rings 7 to 50 km in diameter. Typically, ring furrows, which are 0.5 km deep and 2 to 10 km wide, surround a central, flat-topped, circular mesa or plateau. The central plateau is about the same elevation or lower than the plain outside the ring. Ring furrows are unique features of the dissected martian uplands. Related landforms range from ring furrows with fractured central plateaus to circular mesas without encircling moats. Ring furrows are superposed on many types of materials, but they are most common cratered plateau-type materials that are interpreted as volcanic flow material overlying ancient cratered terrain. The ring shape and size suggest that they are related to craters partially buried by lava flows. Ring furrows were formed by preferential removal of exposed rims of partially buried craters. Evidence of overland flow of water is lacking except within the channels. Ground ice decay and sapping followed by fluvial erosion are responsible for removal of the less resistant rim materials. Thus, differential erosion has caused a reversal of <span class="hlt">topography</span> in which the originally elevated rim is reduced to negative relief.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11308547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11308547"><span>Basins of attraction on random <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schorghofer, N; Rothman, D H</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>We investigate the consequences of fluid flowing on a continuous surface upon the geometric and statistical distribution of the flow. We find that the ability of a surface to collect water by its mere geometrical shape is proportional to the curvature of the contour line divided by the local slope. Consequently, rivers tend to lie in locations of high curvature and flat slopes. Gaussian surfaces are introduced as a model of random <span class="hlt">topography</span>. For Gaussian surfaces the relation between convergence and slope is obtained analytically. The convergence of flow lines correlates positively with drainage area, so that lower slopes are associated with larger basins. As a consequence, we explain the observed relation between the local slope of a landscape and the area of the drainage basin geometrically. To some extent, the slope-area relation comes about not because of fluvial erosion of the landscape, but because of the way rivers choose their path. Our results are supported by numerically generated surfaces as well as by real landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2858020','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2858020"><span>Nano-<span class="hlt">topography</span> sensing by osteoclasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Geblinger, Dafna; Addadi, Lia; Geiger, Benjamin</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Bone resorption by osteoclasts depends on the assembly of a specialized, actin-rich adhesive ‘sealing zone’ that delimits the area designed for degradation. In this study, we show that the level of roughness of the underlying adhesive surface has a profound effect on the formation and stability of the sealing zone and the associated F-actin. As our primary model substrate, we use ‘smooth’ and ‘rough’ calcite crystals with average <span class="hlt">topography</span> values of 12 nm and 530 nm, respectively. We show that the smooth surfaces induce the formation of small and unstable actin rings with a typical lifespan of ~8 minutes, whereas the sealing zones formed on the rough calcite surfaces are considerably larger, and remain stable for more than 6 hours. It was further observed that steps or sub-micrometer cracks on the smooth surface stimulate local ring formation, raising the possibility that similar imperfections on bone surfaces may stimulate local osteoclast resorptive activity. The mechanisms whereby the physical properties of the substrate influence osteoclast behavior and their involvement in osteoclast function are discussed. PMID:20375065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P21B..07I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P21B..07I"><span>The Interior of Enceladus from Gravity and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iess, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The combination of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> has been the method of choice to obtain quantitative information on the interior of Enceladus, but its application was challenging because of the small mass of the moon and the short gravitational interaction time with the Cassini spacecraft. The main observable quantity used in the estimation of the gravity field was the spacecraft range rate, measured by the antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network to an accuracy of about 0.03 mm/s (at 60 s integration time). In spite of these challenges and thanks to the careful design of three gravity flybys, Cassini was able to catch the essential features of Enceladus's gravity field, in particular to estimate its quadrupole and detect the sought-for hemispherical asymmetry [1]. Crucial for the correct fit of the Doppler data was the inclusion in the <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> model of the drag acceleration from the plume's neutral particles. Although the largest quadrupole coefficients indicate only a mild deviation from hydrostatic equilibrium (J2/C22=3.55±0.05), a reliable determination of the MOIF uses J3 to separate the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic components of the quadrupole field. The application of this method results in a MOIF (0.336) compatible with a differentiated structure. (An admittance analysis leads to a similar value.) The magnitude and the sign of J3 indicate that the gravity anomaly associated to the striking topographic depression (-1 km) in the southern polar regions is largely compensated by denser material at depth. The obvious (but not the only) interpretation points to a liquid water mass, denser than the surrounding ice and sandwiched between the ice shell and the rocky core. The gravity field and the <span class="hlt">topography</span> provide also rough estimate of the size of the water mass and the depth at which it is located. Starting from the consideration that the hydrostatic J2/C22 ratio for a fast rotator like Enceladus is about 3.25 and not 10/3, a recent work [2] offers some adjustments</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AAS...18510401C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AAS...18510401C"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24969531"><span>Why to compare <span class="hlt">absolute</span> numbers of mitochondria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671617','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3671617"><span>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold of cone vision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We report measurements of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone <span class="hlt">absolute</span> threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19491514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19491514"><span>[Estimation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> risk for fracture].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujiwara, Saeko</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Osteoporosis treatment aims to prevent fractures and maintain the QOL of the elderly. However, persons at high risk of future fracture cannot be effectively identified on the basis of bone density (BMD) alone, although BMD is used as an diagnostic criterion. Therefore, the WHO recommended that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> risk for fracture (10-year probability of fracture) for each individual be evaluated and used as an index for intervention threshold. The 10-year probability of fracture is calculated based on age, sex, BMD at the femoral neck (body mass index if BMD is not available), history of previous fractures, parental hip fracture history, smoking, steroid use, rheumatoid arthritis, secondary osteoporosis and alcohol consumption. The WHO has just announced the development of a calculation tool (FRAX: WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) in February this year. Fractures could be prevented more effectively if, based on each country's medical circumstances, an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> risk value for fracture to determine when to start medical treatment is established and persons at high risk of fracture are identified and treated accordingly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22180221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22180221"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> stereochemistry of altersolanol A and alterporriols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanamaru, Saki; Honma, Miho; Murakami, Takanori; Tsushima, Taro; Kudo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Nihei, Ken-Ichi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Masaru</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stereochemistry of altersolanol A (1) was established by observing a positive exciton couplet in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the C3,C4-O-bis(2-naphthoyl) derivative 10 and by chemical correlations with known compound 8. Before the discussion, the relative stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The shielding effect at C7'-OMe group by C1-O-benzoylation established the relative stereochemical relationship between the C8-C8' axial bonding and the C1-C4/C1'-C4' polyol moieties of alterporriols E (3), an atropisomer of the C8-C8' dimer of 1. As 3 could be obtained by dimerization of 1 in vitro, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of its central chirality elements (C1-C4) must be identical to those of 1. Spectral comparison between the experimental and theoretical CD spectra supported the above conclusion. Axial stereochemistry of novel C4-O-deoxy dimeric derivatives, alterporriols F (4) and G (5), were also revealed by comparison of their CD spectra to those of 2 and 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..APRB16007K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..APRB16007K"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6086416','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6086416"><span>Standardization of the cumulative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> velocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. )</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP51A3699C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP51A3699C"><span>Swarm's <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Scalar Magnetometers Burst Mode Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coisson, P.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.; Crespo Grau, R.; Brocco, L.; Lalanne, X.; Sirol, O.; Leger, J. M.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Boness, A.; Fratter, I.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Each of the three Swarm satellites embarks an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scalar measurements of the magnetic field with high accuracy and stability. Nominal data acquisition of these ASMs is 1 Hz. But they can also run in a so-called "burst mode" and provide data at 250 Hz. During the commissioning phase of the mission, seven burst mode acquisition campaigns have been run simultaneously for all satellites, obtaining a total of ten days of burs-mode data. These campaigns allowed the identification of issues related to the operations of the piezo-electric motor and the heaters connected to the ASM, that do not impact the nominal 1 Hz scalar data. We analyze the burst mode data to identify high frequency geomagnetic signals, focusing the analysis in two regions: the low latitudes, where we seek signatures of ionospheric irregularities, and the high latitudes, to identify high frequency signals related to polar region currents. Since these campaigns have been conducted during the initial months of the mission, the three satellites where still close to each other, allowing to analyze the spatial coherency of the signals. Wavelet analysis have revealed 31 Hz signals appearing in the night-side in the equatorial region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9204E..08R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9204E..08R"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> height measurement of specular surfaces with modified active fringe reflection photogrammetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Hongyu; Jiang, Xiangqian; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Zonghua</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Deflectometric methods have been studied for more than a decade for slope measurement of specular freeform surfaces through utilization of the deformation of a sample pattern after reflection from a tested sample surface. Usually, these approaches require two-directional fringe patterns to be projected on a LCD screen or ground glass and require slope integration, which leads to some complexity for the whole measuring process. This paper proposes a new mathematical measurement model for measuring <span class="hlt">topography</span> information of freeform specular surfaces, which integrates a virtual reference specular surface into the method of active fringe reflection photogrammetry and presents a straight-forward relation between height of the tested surface and phase signals. This method only requires one direction of horizontal or vertical sinusoidal fringe patterns to be projected from a LCD screen, resulting in a significant reduction in capture time over established methods. Assuming the whole system has been precalibrated during the measurement process, the fringe patterns are captured separately via the virtual reference and detected freeform surfaces by a CCD camera. The reference phase can be solved according to the spatial geometric relation between the LCD screen and the CCD camera. The captured phases can be unwrapped with a heterodyne technique and optimum frequency selection method. Based on this calculated unwrapped-phase and that proposed mathematical model, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> height of the inspected surface can be computed. Simulated and experimental results show that this methodology can conveniently calculate <span class="hlt">topography</span> information for freeform and structured specular surfaces without integration and reconstruction processes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22732539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22732539"><span>Extracting infrared <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reflectance from relative reflectance measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berets, Susan L; Milosevic, Milan</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> reflectance measurements are valuable to the optics industry for development of new materials and optical coatings. Yet, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reflectance measurements are notoriously difficult to make. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of extracting the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reflectance from a relative reflectance measurement using a reference material with known refractive index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=zero+AND+absolute&id=EJ920859','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=zero+AND+absolute&id=EJ920859"><span>A Conceptual Approach to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Equations and Inequalities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations and inequalities. When <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN51B0405A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMIN51B0405A"><span>The Global Multi-Resolution <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (GMRT) Synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arko, R.; Ryan, W.; Carbotte, S.; Melkonian, A.; Coplan, J.; O'Hara, S.; Chayes, D.; Weissel, R.; Goodwillie, A.; Ferrini, V.; Stroker, K.; Virden, W.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Topographic maps provide a backdrop for research in nearly every earth science discipline. There is particular demand for bathymetry data in the ocean basins, where existing coverage is sparse. Ships and submersibles worldwide are rapidly acquiring large volumes of new data with modern swath mapping systems. The science community is best served by a global <span class="hlt">topography</span> compilation that is easily accessible, up-to-date, and delivers data in the highest possible (i.e. native) resolution. To meet this need, the NSF-supported Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS; www.marine-geo.org) has partnered with the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC; www.ngdc.noaa.gov) to produce the Global Multi-Resolution <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (GMRT) synthesis - a continuously updated digital elevation model that is accessible through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC; www.opengeospatial.org) Web services. GMRT had its genesis in 1992 with the NSF RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis (RMBS); later grew to include the Antarctic Multibeam Synthesis (AMBS); expanded again to include the NSF Ridge 2000 and MARGINS programs; and finally emerged as a global compilation in 2005 with the NSF Legacy of Ocean Exploration (LOE) project. The LOE project forged a permanent partnership between MGDS and NGDC, in which swath bathymetry data sets are routinely published and exchanged via the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH; www.openarchives.org). GMRT includes both color-shaded relief images and underlying elevation values at ten different resolutions as high as 100m. New data are edited, gridded, and tiled using tools originally developed by William Haxby at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Global and regional data sources include the NASA Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM; http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/); Smith & Sandwell Satellite Predicted Bathymetry (http://topex.ucsd.edu/marine_topo/); SCAR Subglacial Topographic Model of the Antarctic (BEDMAP; http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/bedmap/); and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02764&hterms=infrared+images+dry+eye&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Bimages%2Bdry%2Beye','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02764&hterms=infrared+images+dry+eye&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Bimages%2Bdry%2Beye"><span>SRTM Anaglyph: Inverted <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Patagonia, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> The Meseta de Somuncura is a broad plateau capped by basalt. Near its western edge is evidence of multiple volcanic events and a complex erosion history. Most notable are the long, narrow, and winding lava flows that run across most of the right side of the image. These formed from low-viscosity lava that flowed down gullies over fairly flat terrain. Later, erosion of the landscape continued, and the solidified flows were more resistant than the older surrounding rocks. Consequently, the flows became the ridges we see here. This natural process of converting gullies to ridges is called topographic inversion. See image PIA02755 (upper left corner) for a good example of topographic inversion in its earlier stages.<p/>Other features seen here include numerous and varied closed depressions. The regional drainage is not well integrated, but instead the drainage ends up in salty lakes (dark water, some with bright shores). Wind streaks indicate that winds blow toward the east (right) and blow salt grains off the lake beds when dry. The bowtie pattern in the upper left has resulted from differing grazing practices among fenced fields.<p/>This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.<p/>Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10143&hterms=Spider&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSpider','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10143&hterms=Spider&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DSpider"><span>Science in Motion: Isolated Araneiform <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 <p/> Have you ever found that to describe something you had to go to the dictionary and search for just the right word? <p/> The south polar terrain is so full of unearthly features that we had to visit Mr. Webster to find a suitable term. 'Araneiform' means 'spider-like'. These are channels that are carved in the surface by carbon dioxide gas. We do not have this process on Earth. <p/> The channels are somewhat radially organized (figure 1) and widen and deepen as they converge. In the past we've just refered to them as 'spiders.' 'Isolated araneiform <span class="hlt">topography</span>' means that our features look like spiders that are not in contact with each other. <p/> Observation Geometry Image PSP_003087_0930 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 24-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -87.1 degrees latitude, 126.3 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.4 km (152.8 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.5 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 73 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 08:22 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 81 degrees, thus the sun was about 9 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 206.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4736031','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4736031"><span>Epithelial <span class="hlt">topography</span> for repetitive tooth formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gaete, Marcia; Fons, Juan Manuel; Popa, Elena Mădălina; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Tucker, Abigail S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial <span class="hlt">topography</span> involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells. PMID:26538639</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=festinger&id=EJ808734','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=festinger&id=EJ808734"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Comparative Performance Feedback in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Comparative Judgments and Decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Which matters more--beliefs about <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..278...25D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JVGR..278...25D"><span>Pyroclastic density currents and local <span class="hlt">topography</span> as seen with the conveyer model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doronzo, Domenico M.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are multiphase flows generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and they move down the volcano, and over the surrounding <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The flow-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction can play a fundamental role in the sedimentary processes, and in the resulting deposit facies architecture, as well as can play a dramatic role in the flow behavior, and in the associated volcanic hazard. This paper aims at discussing the PDC-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction theme from the viewpoint of both deposits and flow structure, by accounting for appropriate literature, and revising the concepts in light of the theoretical conveyer model of Doronzo and Dellino (2013) on sedimentation and deposition in particulate density currents. First the effects, then the causes of the flow-<span class="hlt">topography</span> interaction are discussed, in order to follow the historical development of theme concepts. The discussion is relative in terms of inertial and forced currents, which are defined on the basis of a dimensionless quantity (SD) representing the conservation of mass. Momentum equation relating depositional unit thickness, flow shear velocity, and density contrast shows that the flow is the cause of PDC motion, whereas the density contrast sustains the momentum, and the deposits are the process effect. In particular, the flow structure is described into three parts, flow-substrate boundary zone, boundary layer (lower part), and wake region (upper part) of the current. The facies architecture of PDC deposits, and the volcanic hazard depend on fluid <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> and hydraulic behavior represented, in light of the conveyer model, by the balance of sedimentation and deposition rates through transport and erosion (“sedimentation-deposition” ratio, SD). This balance acts between flow-substrate boundary zone and boundary layer. The paper discussion mainly applies to small-to-intermediate volume eruptions. Field and modeling examples of Vulcano tuff cone and Colli Albani maar (Italy) constrain the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92c2122C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92c2122C"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nonlocality via distributed computing without communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nonlocality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23082298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23082298"><span>In vivo absorption spectroscopy for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Furukawa, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Takashi</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>In in vivo spectroscopy, there are differences between individual subjects in parameters such as tissue scattering and sample concentration. We propose a method that can provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value of a particular substance concentration, independent of these individual differences. Thus, it is not necessary to use the typical statistical calibration curve, which assumes an average level of scattering and an averaged concentration over individual subjects. This method is expected to greatly reduce the difficulties encountered during in vivo measurements. As an example, for in vivo absorption spectroscopy, the method was applied to the reflectance measurement in retinal vessels to monitor their oxygen saturation levels. This method was then validated by applying it to the tissue phantom under a variety of absorbance values and scattering efficiencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhTea..46..206G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhTea..46..206G"><span>Determining <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero Using a Tuning Fork</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldader, Jeffrey D.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1°C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273°C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales using a simple, well-known physics experiment. By making multiple measurements of the speed of sound at different temperatures, using the classic physics experiment of determining the speed of sound with a tuning fork and variable-length tube, they can determine the temperature at which the speed of sound is zero—<span class="hlt">absolute</span> zero.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820002595','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820002595"><span>MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensor alignment determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Acuna, M. H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A procedure is described for accurately determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000000444','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000000444"><span>Micron Accurate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging System: Range Extension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20815606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20815606"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Yttrium is presented as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3619386','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3619386"><span>Engineering microscale <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to control the cell–substrate interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nikkhah, Mehdi; Edalat, Faramarz; Manoucheri, Sam; Khademhosseini, Ali</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cells in their in vivo microenvironment constantly encounter and respond to a multitude of signals. While the role of biochemical signals has long been appreciated, the importance of biophysical signals has only recently been investigated. Biophysical cues are presented in different forms including <span class="hlt">topography</span> and mechanical stiffness imparted by the extracellular matrix and adjoining cells. Microfabrication technologies have allowed for the generation of biomaterials with microscale <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to study the effect of biophysical cues on cellular function at the cell–substrate interface. <span class="hlt">Topographies</span> of different geometries and with varying microscale dimensions have been used to better understand cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation at the cellular and sub-cellular scales. Furthermore, quantification of cell-generated forces has been illustrated with micropillar <span class="hlt">topographies</span> to shed light on the process of mechanotransduction. In this review, we highlight recent advances made in these areas and how they have been utilized for neural, cardiac, and musculoskeletal tissue engineering application. PMID:22521491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/674/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/674/"><span>EAARL coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span>--North Shore, Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Barras, J.A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This DVD contains lidar-derived coastal <span class="hlt">topography</span> GIS datasets of a portion of the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. These datasets were acquired on February 28, March 1, and March 5, 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5330583','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5330583"><span>Golden angle based scanning for robust corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> with OCT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wagner, Joerg; Goldblum, David; Cattin, Philippe C.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> allows the assessment of the cornea’s refractive power which is crucial for diagnostics and surgical planning. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> is still limited. One limitation is the susceptibility to disturbances like blinking of the eye. This can result in partially corrupted scans that cannot be evaluated using common methods. We present a new scanning method for reliable corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from partial scans. Based on the golden angle, the method features a balanced scan point distribution which refines over measurement time and remains balanced when part of the scan is removed. The performance of the method is assessed numerically and by measurements of test surfaces. The results confirm that the method enables numerically well-conditioned and reliable corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from partially corrupted scans and reduces the need for repeated measurements in case of abrupt disturbances. PMID:28270961</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0270.photos.168461p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0270.photos.168461p/"><span>23. SPILLWAY NO. 1 LOWER END <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> AND SECTIONS. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>23. SPILLWAY NO. 1 - LOWER END <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> AND SECTIONS. February 1934. Reference BS-150. - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa0105.photos.141202p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa0105.photos.141202p/"><span>2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RELATION OF BRIDGE TO THE <span class="hlt">TOPOGRAPHY</span> OF THE APPROACH ROAD. - Speicher Bridge, Church Road over Tulpehocken Creek between Penn & North Heidelberg Townships, Bernville, Berks County, PA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270961"><span>Golden angle based scanning for robust corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> with OCT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagner, Joerg; Goldblum, David; Cattin, Philippe C</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> allows the assessment of the cornea's refractive power which is crucial for diagnostics and surgical planning. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> is still limited. One limitation is the susceptibility to disturbances like blinking of the eye. This can result in partially corrupted scans that cannot be evaluated using common methods. We present a new scanning method for reliable corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from partial scans. Based on the golden angle, the method features a balanced scan point distribution which refines over measurement time and remains balanced when part of the scan is removed. The performance of the method is assessed numerically and by measurements of test surfaces. The results confirm that the method enables numerically well-conditioned and reliable corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from partially corrupted scans and reduces the need for repeated measurements in case of abrupt disturbances.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26271245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26271245"><span>Tectonic control on the persistence of glacially sculpted <span class="hlt">topography</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasicek, Günther; Larsen, Isaac J; Montgomery, David R</p> <p>2015-08-14</p> <p>One of the most fundamental insights for understanding how landscapes evolve is based on determining the extent to which <span class="hlt">topography</span> was shaped by glaciers or by rivers. More than 10(4) years after the last major glaciation the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of mountain ranges worldwide remains dominated by characteristic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys, but an understanding of the persistence of such landforms is lacking. Here we use digital topographic data to analyse valley shapes at sites worldwide to demonstrate that the persistence of U-shaped valleys is controlled by the erosional response to tectonic forcing. Our findings indicate that glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountain ranges is rapidly replaced by fluvial <span class="hlt">topography</span> and hence valley forms do not reflect the cumulative action of multiple glacial periods, implying that the classic physiographic signature of glaciated landscapes is best expressed in, and indeed limited by, the extent of relatively low-uplift terrain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=306874','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=306874"><span>Influence of local <span class="hlt">topography</span> on precision irrigation management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local <span class="hlt">topography</span>, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2731455','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2731455"><span>Stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence theory: Foundations and extensions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McIlvane, William J.; Dube, William V.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. This paper summarizes the rationale for analyses of discrimination learning outcomes in terms of stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence and briefly reviews some of the foundational studies that led to this perspective. We also suggest directions for future research, including pursuit of conceptual and methodological challenges to a complete stimulus control <span class="hlt">topography</span> coherence analysis of processes involved in discriminated and generalized operants. ImagesFigure 3Figure 5 PMID:22478402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4557346','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4557346"><span>Tectonic control on the persistence of glacially sculpted <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prasicek, Günther; Larsen, Isaac J.; Montgomery, David R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>One of the most fundamental insights for understanding how landscapes evolve is based on determining the extent to which <span class="hlt">topography</span> was shaped by glaciers or by rivers. More than 104 years after the last major glaciation the <span class="hlt">topography</span> of mountain ranges worldwide remains dominated by characteristic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys, but an understanding of the persistence of such landforms is lacking. Here we use digital topographic data to analyse valley shapes at sites worldwide to demonstrate that the persistence of U-shaped valleys is controlled by the erosional response to tectonic forcing. Our findings indicate that glacial <span class="hlt">topography</span> in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountain ranges is rapidly replaced by fluvial <span class="hlt">topography</span> and hence valley forms do not reflect the cumulative action of multiple glacial periods, implying that the classic physiographic signature of glaciated landscapes is best expressed in, and indeed limited by, the extent of relatively low-uplift terrain. PMID:26271245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G21A0870N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.G21A0870N"><span>Measured and modelled <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity in Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15819461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15819461"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> bioavailability of quinine formulations in Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Babalola, C P; Bolaji, O O; Ogunbona, F A; Ezeomah, E</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>This study compared the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of quinine sulphate as capsule and as tablet against the intravenous (i.v.) infusion of the drug in twelve male volunteers. Six of the volunteers received intravenous infusion over 4 h as well as the capsule formulation of the drug in a cross-over manner, while the other six received the tablet formulation. Blood samples were taken at predetermined time intervals and plasma analysed for quinine (QN) using reversed-phase HPLC method. QN was rapidly absorbed after the two oral formulations with average t(max) of 2.67 h for both capsule and tablet. The mean elimination half-life of QN from the i.v. and oral dosage forms varied between 10 and 13.5 hr and were not statistically different (P > 0.05). On the contrary, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC) from capsule were comparable to those from i.v. (P > 0.05), while these values were markedly higher than values from tablet formulation (P < 0.05). The therapeutic QN plasma levels were not achieved with the tablet formulation. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability (F) were 73% (C.l., 53.3 - 92.4%) and 39 % (C.I., 21.7 - 56.6%) for the capsule and tablet respectively and the difference was significant (P < 0.05). The subtherapeutic levels obtained from the tablet form used in this study may cause treatment failure during malaria and caution should be taken when predictions are made from results obtained from different formulations of QN.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..563R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..563R"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramillien, G.</p> <p></p> <p>A new inverse approach for restoring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5100918','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5100918"><span>Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Time on Titanium <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, Chemistry, Wettability, and Cell Adhesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zahran, R.; Rosales Leal, J. I.; Rodríguez Valverde, M. A.; Cabrerizo Vílchez, M. A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Titanium implant surface etching has proven an effective method to enhance cell attachment. Despite the frequent use of hydrofluoric (HF) acid, many questions remain unresolved, including the optimal etching time and its effect on surface and biological properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of HF acid etching time on Ti <span class="hlt">topography</span>, surface chemistry, wettability, and cell adhesion. These data are useful to design improved acid treatment and obtain an improved cell response. The surface <span class="hlt">topography</span>, chemistry, <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> wetting, and cell adhesiveness of polished Ti surfaces were evaluated after treatment with HF acid solution for 0, 2; 3, 5, 7, or 10 min, revealing a time-dependent effect of HF acid on their <span class="hlt">topography</span>, chemistry, and wetting. Roughness and wetting increased with longer etching time except at 10 min, when roughness increased but wetness decreased. Skewness became negative after etching and kurtosis tended to 3 with longer etching time. Highest cell adhesion was achieved after 5–7 min of etching time. Wetting and cell adhesion were reduced on the highly rough surfaces obtained after 10-min etching time. PMID:27824875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJEaS.tmp...38C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJEaS.tmp...38C"><span>Heat-flow anomaly and residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> in the Mascarene hotspot swell (Indian Ocean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiozzi, P.; Verdoya, M.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We review the sea-bottom heat-flow determinations and present a new heat-flow observation on the Mauritius island, which is part of the long-lived Reunion hotspot track. The marine heat flow is on average 66 ± 11 mW m-2 and is consistent with the on-land value of 61 ± 18 mW m-2 found in Mauritius. Since these values do not significantly deviate from the reference cooling-plate model, lithosphere erosion does not seem a likely mechanism for the swell formation. The lack of significant reheating due to a mantle plume impacting the lithosphere base is confirmed by thermal modelling. Moreover, the coherency between on-land and marine data is argument against advective redistribution of heat near the axis of the swell. We also analyse the large-scale features of the ocean lithosphere, which are not simply a function of the plate cooling and can reflect variations in mantle <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span>. The predicted <span class="hlt">topography</span> variation along the swell shows amplitude and wavelength comparable to other hotspots. Both the topographic swell magnitude and the wavelength increase northwards with the increase of the age of volcanism. The estimated flux of material from the mantle follows the same trend, being larger in the northern part of the swell. The result that residual <span class="hlt">topography</span> and the buoyancy flux are smaller at the active volcano of Reunion could be evidence that the activity of the plume has decreased with time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812838N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812838N"><span>Resilience in heterogeneous landscapes: The effect of <span class="hlt">topography</span> on resilience of carbon uptake in northern peatlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nijp, Jelmer; Temme, Arnaud; van Voorn, George; Teuling, Ryan; Soons, Merel; Kooistra, Lammert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Northern peatlands contain and store enormous amounts of carbon, and therefore represent an important component of the carbon cycle of the earth. In these wetland ecosystems, the quality of the soil added to the soil surface is determined by the type of peat-forming plants, and affects the carbon accumulated in the peat soil later formed and overall ecosystem functioning. Peatland vegetation is frequently organized in alternating dry hummocks with wet hollows. Such patterned vegetation is associated with different soil carbon accumulation rates, and may develop due to various self-regulating processes originating from ecohydrological feedbacks. Simulation models have shown that vegetation patterning may promote the resilience of peatlands to environmental change (climate, land use), hence maintaining their function as carbon sink. Critically, the results of these model studies rely on the fundamental assumption that environmental conditions are spatially homogeneous. Yet, in real landscape settings, catchment <span class="hlt">topography</span> has a major impact on water flow and nutrient availability, and is expected to alter vegetation patterning. However, whether, where and how <span class="hlt">topography</span> affects vegetation patterning in peatlands and associated resilience of ecosystem service provision remains unknown. By combining field observations, remote sensing, and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> simulation models (used both as 'sandbox' and 'resilience calculator' for given geomorphological settings), we determine how landscape <span class="hlt">topography</span> affects ecohydrological processes, vegetation patterning, and associated resilience to environmental change in northern peatlands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.260....4C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.260....4C"><span>Reproducibility of UAV-based earth <span class="hlt">topography</span> reconstructions based on Structure-from-Motion algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clapuyt, Francois; Vanacker, Veerle; Van Oost, Kristof</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Combination of UAV-based aerial pictures and Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithm provides an efficient, low-cost and rapid framework for remote sensing and monitoring of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> natural environments. This methodology is particularly suitable for repeated topographic surveys in remote or poorly accessible areas. However, temporal analysis of landform <span class="hlt">topography</span> requires high accuracy of measurements and reproducibility of the methodology as differencing of digital surface models leads to error propagation. In order to assess the repeatability of the SfM technique, we surveyed a study area characterized by gentle <span class="hlt">topography</span> with an UAV platform equipped with a standard reflex camera, and varied the focal length of the camera and location of georeferencing targets between flights. Comparison of different SfM-derived <span class="hlt">topography</span> datasets shows that precision of measurements is in the order of centimetres for identical replications which highlights the excellent performance of the SfM workflow, all parameters being equal. The precision is one order of magnitude higher for 3D topographic reconstructions involving independent sets of ground control points, which results from the fact that the accuracy of the localisation of ground control points strongly propagates into final results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5098591','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5098591"><span><span class="hlt">Topography</span>-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the <span class="hlt">topography</span> versus standard clinical refraction in myopic <span class="hlt">topography</span>-guided LASIK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and contralateral eye comparison of <span class="hlt">topography</span>-guided myopic LASIK with two different refraction treatment strategies. Setting Private clinical ophthalmology practice. Patients and methods A total of 100 eyes (50 patients) in consecutive cases of myopic <span class="hlt">topography</span>-guided LASIK procedures with the same refractive platform (FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers) were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A) and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (<span class="hlt">topography</span>-modified treatment refraction; group B). All cases were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for the following parameters: refractive error, best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), <span class="hlt">topography</span> (Placido-disk based) and tomography (Scheimpflug-image based), wavefront analysis, pupillometry, and contrast sensitivity. Follow-up visits were conducted for at least 12 months. Results Mean refractive error was −5.5 D of myopia and −1.75 D of astigmatism. In group A versus group B, respectively, the average UDVA improved from 20/200 to 20/20 versus 20/16; post-operative CDVA was 20/20 and 20/13.5; 1 line of vision gained was 27.8% and 55.6%; and 2 lines of vision gained was 5.6% and 11.1%. In group A, 27.8% of eyes had over −0.50 diopters of residual refractive astigmatism, in comparison to 11.7% in group B (P<0.01). The residual percentages in both groups were measured with refractive astigmatism of more than −0.5 diopters. Conclusion <span class="hlt">Topography</span>-modified refraction (TMR): topographic adjustment of the amount and axis of astigmatism treated, when different from the clinical refraction, may offer superior outcomes in <span class="hlt">topography</span>-guided myopic LASIK. These findings may change the current clinical paradigm of the optimal subjective refraction utilized in laser vision correction. PMID:27843292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMES..44..587S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMES..44..587S"><span>A special application of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value techniques in authentic problem solving</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stupel, Moshe</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value expressions are involved, the definition that is most helpful is the one involving solving by intervals and evaluating critical points. In point of fact, application of this technique is one reason that the topic of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value is important in mathematics in general and in mathematics teaching in particular. We present here an authentic practical problem that is solved using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values and the 'intervals' method, after which the solution is generalized with surprising results. This authentic problem also lends itself to investigation using educational technological tools such as GeoGebra <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> geometry software: mathematics teachers can allow their students to initially cope with the problem by working in an inductive environment in which they conduct virtual experiments until a solid conjecture has been reached, after which they should prove the conjecture deductively, using classic theoretical mathematical tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27649497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27649497"><span>Tri-Variate Relationships among Vegetation, Soil, and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> along Gradients of Fluvial Biogeomorphic Succession.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Daehyun; Kupfer, John A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This research investigated how the strength of vegetation-soil-<span class="hlt">topography</span> couplings varied along a gradient of biogeomorphic succession in two distinct fluvial systems: a forested river floodplain and a coastal salt marsh creek. The strength of couplings was quantified as tri-variance, which was calculated by correlating three singular axes, one each extracted using three-block partial least squares from vegetation, soil, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> data blocks. Within each system, tri-variance was examined at low-, mid-, and high-elevation sites, which represented early-, intermediate-, and late-successional phases, respectively, and corresponded to differences in ongoing disturbance frequency and intensity. Both systems exhibited clearly increasing tri-variance from the early- to late-successional stages. The lowest-lying sites underwent frequent and intense hydrogeomorphic forcings that <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> reworked soil substrates, restructured surface landforms, and controlled the colonization of plant species. Such conditions led vegetation, soil, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> to show discrete, stochastic, and individualistic behaviors over space and time, resulting in a loose coupling among the three ecosystem components. In the highest-elevation sites, in contrast, disturbances that might disrupt the existing biotic-abiotic relationships were less common. Hence, ecological succession, soil-forming processes, and landform evolution occurred in tight conjunction with one another over a prolonged period, thereby strengthening couplings among them; namely, the three behaved in unity over space and time. We propose that the recurrence interval of physical disturbance is important to-and potentially serves as an indicator of-the intensity and mechanisms of vegetation-soil-<span class="hlt">topography</span> feedbacks in fluvial biogeomorphic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5029874','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5029874"><span>Tri-Variate Relationships among Vegetation, Soil, and <span class="hlt">Topography</span> along Gradients of Fluvial Biogeomorphic Succession</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Daehyun; Kupfer, John A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This research investigated how the strength of vegetation–soil–<span class="hlt">topography</span> couplings varied along a gradient of biogeomorphic succession in two distinct fluvial systems: a forested river floodplain and a coastal salt marsh creek. The strength of couplings was quantified as tri-variance, which was calculated by correlating three singular axes, one each extracted using three-block partial least squares from vegetation, soil, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> data blocks. Within each system, tri-variance was examined at low-, mid-, and high-elevation sites, which represented early-, intermediate-, and late-successional phases, respectively, and corresponded to differences in ongoing disturbance frequency and intensity. Both systems exhibited clearly increasing tri-variance from the early- to late-successional stages. The lowest-lying sites underwent frequent and intense hydrogeomorphic forcings that <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> reworked soil substrates, restructured surface landforms, and controlled the colonization of plant species. Such conditions led vegetation, soil, and <span class="hlt">topography</span> to show discrete, stochastic, and individualistic behaviors over space and time, resulting in a loose coupling among the three ecosystem components. In the highest-elevation sites, in contrast, disturbances that might disrupt the existing biotic–abiotic relationships were less common. Hence, ecological succession, soil-forming processes, and landform evolution occurred in tight conjunction with one another over a prolonged period, thereby strengthening couplings among them; namely, the three behaved in unity over space and time. We propose that the recurrence interval of physical disturbance is important to—and potentially serves as an indicator of—the intensity and mechanisms of vegetation–soil–<span class="hlt">topography</span> feedbacks in fluvial biogeomorphic systems. PMID:27649497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRG..113.2005S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRG..113.2005S"><span>Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange: Influence of mesoscale <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sonnentag, O.; Chen, J. M.; Roulet, N. T.; Ju, W.; Govind, A.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Carbon <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> in peatlands are controlled, in large part, by their wetness as defined by water table depth and volumetric liquid soil moisture content. A common type of peatland is raised bogs that typically have a multiple-layer canopy of vascular plants over a Sphagnum moss ground cover. Their convex form restricts water supply to precipitation and water is shed toward the margins, usually by lateral subsurface flow. The hydraulic gradient for lateral subsurface flow is governed by the peat surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> at the mesoscale (˜200 m to 5 km). To investigate the influence of mesoscale <span class="hlt">topography</span> on wetness, evapotranspiration (ET), and gross primary productivity (GPP) in a bog during the snow-free period, we compare the outputs of a further developed version of the daily Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) with observations made at the Mer Bleue peatland, located near Ottawa, Canada. Explicitly considering mesoscale <span class="hlt">topography</span>, simulated total ET and GPP correlate well with measured ET (r = 0.91) and derived gross ecosystem productivity (GEP; r = 0.92). Both measured ET and derived GEP are simulated similarly well when mesoscale <span class="hlt">topography</span> is neglected, but daily simulated values are systematically underestimated by about 10% and 12% on average, respectively, due to greater wetness resulting from the lack of lateral subsurface flow. Owing to the differences in moss surface conductances of water vapor and carbon dioxide with increasing moss water content, the differences in the spatial patterns of simulated total ET and GPP are controlled by the mesotopographic position of the moss ground cover.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4032H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4032H"><span>Isidis Basin, Mars: Geology and <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Building on Bridges et al. [2003, JGR 108], we are currently studying the general geologic history and evolution of the Isidis basin based on topographic and imaging data obtained by orbiting spacecraft such as Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey. This study complements our recently completed analyses on Syrtis Major to the west [Hiesinger and Head, 2002, LPSC 1063] and the transition between Syrtis Major and Isidis [Ivanov and Head, 2002, LPSC 1341]. We are interested in a number of scientific questions, for example, what are the characteristics of the Isidis rim and what caused its present morphology? What is the role and fate of volatiles in the Isidis basin and what are the characteristics of the uppermost surface layer? Does the floor of the Isidis basin primarily consist of volcanic plains as indicated by wrinkle ridges and cone-like features, material deposited by a catastrophic collapse of the rim as proposed by Tanaka et al. [2000, GRL 29], or of sediments deposited in an ocean as suggested by Parker et al. [1989, Icarus 82]? What is the stratigraphy of the deposits within the Isidis basin and what processes were responsible for its present appearance? For our study we used MOLA <span class="hlt">topography</span> data with a spatial resolution of 128 pixel/deg. The data allowed us to obtain a detailed view of the Isidis basin, its structure, stratigraphy, geologic history and its evolution. Our preliminary investigation let us conclude that (1) the basin floor is tilted towards the southwest with about 0.015 degree, (2) there are 2 types of ridges within the Isidis basin, (3) ridges of the thumbprint terrain are ~10-50 m high, less than ~5-7 km wide, and occur at narrowly constrained elevations of ~-3600 to -3700 m, (4) these ridges occur only within the innermost ring structure and most of them are not exposed at the lowest elevations, (5) wrinkle ridges are ~75-100 m high, less than ~70 km wide, hundreds of kilometers long and occur over a wide range of elevations, (6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040073468&hterms=Cirques&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCirques','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040073468&hterms=Cirques&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCirques"><span>Evolution of <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Glaciated Mountain Ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brocklehurst, Simon H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009037','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009037"><span>Shuttle <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Data Inform Solar Power Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The next time you flip on a light switch, there s a chance that you could be benefitting from data originally acquired during the Space Shuttle Program. An effort spearheaded by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) in 2000 put together the first near-global elevation map of the Earth ever assembled, which has found use in everything from 3D terrain maps to models that inform solar power production. For the project, called the Shuttle Radar <span class="hlt">Topography</span> Mission (SRTM), engineers at JPL designed a 60-meter mast that was fitted onto Shuttle Endeavour. Once deployed in space, an antenna attached to the end of the mast worked in combination with another antenna on the shuttle to simultaneously collect data from two perspectives. Just as having two eyes makes depth perception possible, the SRTM data sets could be combined to form an accurate picture of the Earth s surface elevations, the first hight-detail, near-global elevation map ever assembled. What made SRTM unique was not just its surface mapping capabilities but the completeness of the data it acquired. Over the course of 11 days, the shuttle orbited the Earth nearly 180 times, covering everything between the 60deg north and 54deg south latitudes, or roughly 80 percent of the world s total landmass. Of that targeted land area, 95 percent was mapped at least twice, and 24 percent was mapped at least four times. Following several years of processing, NASA released the data to the public in partnership with NGA. Robert Crippen, a member of the SRTM science team, says that the data have proven useful in a variety of fields. "Satellites have produced vast amounts of remote sensing data, which over the years have been mostly two-dimensional. But the Earth s surface is three-dimensional. Detailed topographic data give us the means to visualize and analyze remote sensing data in their natural three-dimensional structure, facilitating a greater understanding of the features</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233512&keyword=AIDS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78777631&CFTOKEN=33796782','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233512&keyword=AIDS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78777631&CFTOKEN=33796782"><span>Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JaJAP..44.6304Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JaJAP..44.6304Y"><span>Observation on Effect of Optical Stimulation to Human Using Optical <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yanai, Hiro-Fumi; Yorimoto, Akiyoshi; Kubota, Toshio; Fujii, Kan-ichi; Kawaguchi, Fumio; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ichikawa, Noriyoshi; Koshino, Yoshihumi</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>We have observed the time course features of cerebral response while a subject is performing the visual tracking task or visual tracking plus finger tapping task using Optiocal <span class="hlt">Topography</span> (OT). The distribution maps of both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobins are demonstrated in contrast with the time course diagram. The response of the cerebrum differs, depending on whether the optical stimulation is static or <span class="hlt">dynamic</span>, even when the overall nature of the pattern and intensity of the stimulation is the same. The cerebral response to a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> optical stimulation is very rapid and clear, and greater in magnitude than that to static optical stimulation, but it is suppressed when an auxiliary finger tapping task is also performed. From these results, it was confirmed that OT is sensitive to both static and <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> optical stimulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.7889S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRB..119.7889S"><span>Circum-Arctic mantle structure and long-wavelength <span class="hlt">topography</span> since the Jurassic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shephard, G. E.; Flament, N.; Williams, S.; Seton, M.; Gurnis, M.; Müller, R. D.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The circum-Arctic is one of the most tectonically complex regions of the world, shaped by a history of ocean basin opening and closure since the Early Jurassic. The region is characterized by contemporaneous large-scale Cenozoic exhumation extending from Alaska to the Atlantic, but its driving force is unknown. We show that the mantle flow associated with subducted slabs of the South Anuyi, Mongol-Okhotsk, and Panthalassa oceans have imparted long-wavelength deflection on overriding plates. We identify the Jurassic-Cretaceous South Anuyi slab under present-day Greenland in seismic tomography and numerical mantle flow models. Under North America, we propose the "Farallon" slab results from Andean-style ocean-continent convergence around ~30°N and from a combination of ocean-continent and intraoceanic subduction north of 50°N. We compute circum-Arctic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> through time from subduction-driven convection models and find that slabs have imparted on average <1-16 m/Myr of <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence across the region from at least 170 Ma to ~50 Ma. With the exception of Siberia, the main phase of circum-Arctic <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence has been followed either by slowed subsidence or by uplift of <1-6 m/Myr on average to present day. Comparing these results to geological inferences suggest that subduction-driven <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> <span class="hlt">topography</span> can account for rapid Middle to Late Jurassic subsidence in the Slave Craton and North Slope (respectively, <15 and 21 m/Myr, between 170 and 130 Ma) and for <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> subsidence (<7 m/Myr, ~170-50 Ma) followed by <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> uplift (<6 m/Myr since 50 Ma) of the Barents Sea region. Combining detailed kinematic reconstructions with geodynamic modeling and key geological observations constitutes a powerful tool to investigate the origin of vertical motion in remote regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..90a3825D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..90a3825D"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of forces in optical tweezers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960028558','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960028558"><span>Elevation correction factor for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger <span class="hlt">absolute</span> errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP11A..01V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP11A..01V"><span>What is Needed for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Paleointensity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valet, J. P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Many alternative approaches to the Thellier and Thellier technique for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> paleointensity have been proposed during the past twenty years. One reason is the time consuming aspect of the experiments. Another reason is to avoid uncertainties in determinations of the paleofield which are mostly linked to the presence of multidomain grains. Despite great care taken by these new techniques, there is no indication that they always provide the right answer and in fact sometimes fail. We are convinced that the most valid approach remains the original double heating Thellier protocol provided that natural remanence is controlled by pure magnetite with a narrow distribution of small grain sizes, mostly single domains. The presence of titanium, even in small amount generates biases which yield incorrect field values. Single domain grains frequently dominate the magnetization of glass samples, which explains the success of this selective approach. They are also present in volcanic lava flows but much less frequently, and therefore contribute to the low success rate of most experiments. However the loss of at least 70% of the magnetization at very high temperatures prior to the Curie point appears to be an essential prerequisite that increases the success rate to almost 100% and has been validated from historical flows and from recent studies. This requirement can easily be tested by thermal demagnetization while low temperature experiments can document the detection of single domain magnetite using the δFC/δZFC parameter as suggested (Moskowitz et al, 1993) for biogenic magnetite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001683"><span>Gyrokinetic Statistical <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium and Turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett</p> <p>2011-01-10</p> <p>A paradigm based on the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006426','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006426"><span>Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leckey, John P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016762','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870016762"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> flux measurements for swift atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33A1034C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33A1034C"><span>Visualization of High-Resolution LiDAR <span class="hlt">Topography</span> in Google Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Arrowsmith, R.; Blair, J. L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>. This method provides seamlessly access to hillshaded imagery for both bare earth and first return terrain models with various angles of illumination. Seamless access to LiDAR-derived imagery in Google Earth has proven to be the most popular product available in the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> Portal. The hillshade KMZ files have been downloaded over 3000 times by users ranging from earthquake scientists to K-12 educators who wish to introduce cutting edge real world data into their earth science lessons. Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> also provides <span class="hlt">dynamically</span> generated KMZ visualizations of LiDAR data products produced when users choose to use the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> point cloud access and processing system. These Google Earth compatible products allow users to quickly visualize the custom terrain products they have generated without the burden of loading the data into a GIS environment. For users who have installed the Google Earth browser plug-in, these visualizations can be launched directly from the Open<span class="hlt">Topography</span> results page and viewed directly in the browser.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227359','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227359"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055713','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055713"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA</p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.203a2133F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.203a2133F"><span>Positioning, alignment and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fehr, F.; Distefano, C.; Antares Collaboration</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A precise detector alignment and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4293043','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4293043"><span>MARQUIS: A Multiplex Method for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Quantification of Peptides and Post-Translational Modifications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Curran, Timothy G; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Daniel J.; Sarkaria, Jann N.; White, Forest M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantification of protein expression and post-translational modifications by mass spectrometry has been challenging due to a variety of factors, including the potentially large <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range of phosphorylation response. To address these issues, we have developed MARQUIS — Multiplex <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regressed Quantification with Internal Standards — a novel mass spectrometry-based approach using a combination of isobaric tags and heavy-labeled standard peptides to construct internal standard curves for peptides derived from key nodes in signal transduction networks. We applied MARQUIS to quantify phosphorylation <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> within the EGFR network at multiple time points following stimulation with several ligands, enabling a quantitative comparison of EGFR phosphorylation sites and demonstrating that receptor phosphorylation is qualitatively similar but quantitatively distinct for each EGFR ligand tested. MARQUIS was also applied to quantify the effect of EGFR kinase inhibition on glioblastoma patient derived xenografts. MARQUIS is a versatile method, broadly applicable and extendable to multiple mass spectrometric platforms. PMID:25581283</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009897"><span>Gravity, <span class="hlt">Topography</span>, and Magnetic Field of Mercury from Messenger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn; Goosens, Sander; Hauck, Steven A., II; Head, James W., III; Johnson, Catherine L.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Margot, Jean-Luc; McNutt, Ralph; Mazarico, Erwan M.; Oberst, Jurgen; Peale, Stanley J.; Perry, Mark; Purucker, Michael E.; Rowlands, David D.; Torrence, Mark H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a 12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60 deg N, and apoapsis at approximately 15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a <span class="hlt">dynamic</span> range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and <span class="hlt">topography</span> have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68 deg N, 33 deg E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR2 = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M=3.30 x 10(exp 23) kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of Cm/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010004369','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010004369"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, S. P.; Hudman, M.; Chen, J. N.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The existence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability in a liquid jet has been predicted for some time. The disturbance grows in time and propagates both upstream and downstream in an <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable liquid jet. The image of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability is captured in the NASA 2.2 sec drop tower and reported here. The transition from convective to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability is observed experimentally. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions on the transition Weber number as functions of the Reynolds number. The role of interfacial shear relative to all other relevant forces which cause the onset of jet breakup is explained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233243','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3233243"><span>Corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ortiz, Sergio; Siedlecki, Damian; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Chia, Noelia; de Castro, Alberto; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We present a method to obtain accurate corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> from a spectral optical coherence tomography (sOCT) system. The method includes calibration of the device, compensation of the fan (or field) distortion introduced by the scanning architecture, and image processing analysis for volumetric data extraction, segmentation and fitting. We present examples of three-dimensional (3-D) surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> measurements on spherical and aspheric lenses, as well as on 10 human corneas in vivo. Results of sOCT surface <span class="hlt">topography</span> (with and without fan-distortion correction) were compared with non-contact profilometry (taken as reference) on a spherical lens, and with non-contact profilometry and state-of-the art commercial corneal <span class="hlt">topography</span> instruments on aspheric lenses and on subjects. Corneal elevation maps from all instruments were fitted by quadric surfaces (as well as by tenth-order Zernike polynomials) using custom routines. We found that the discrepancy in the estimated radius of curvature from nominal values in artificial corneas decreased from 4.6% (without fan distortion correction) to 1.6% (after fan distortion correction), and the difference in the asphericity decreased from 130% to 5%. In human corneas, the estimated corneal radius of curvature was not statistically significantly different across instruments. However, a Bland-Altman analysis showed consistent differences in the estimated asphericity and corneal shape between sOCT <span class="hlt">topographies</span> without fan distortion correction and the rest of the measurements. PMID:22162814</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25942752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25942752"><span>Methods for <span class="hlt">topography</span> artifacts compensation in scanning thermal microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martinek, Jan; Klapetek, Petr; Campbell, Anna Charvátová</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Thermal conductivity contrast images in scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) are often distorted by artifacts related to local sample <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This is pronounced on samples with sharp topographic features, on rough samples and while using larger probes, for example, Wollaston wire-based probes. The <span class="hlt">topography</span> artifacts can be so high that they can even obscure local thermal conductivity variations influencing the measured signal. Three methods for numerically estimating and compensating for topographic artifacts are compared in this paper: a simple approach based on local sample geometry at the probe apex vicinity, a neural network analysis and 3D finite element modeling of the probe-sample interaction. A local <span class="hlt">topography</span> and an estimated probe shape are used as source data for the calculation in all these techniques; the result is a map of false conductivity contrast signals generated only by sample <span class="hlt">topography</span>. This map can be then used to remove the <span class="hlt">topography</span> artifacts from measured data or to estimate the uncertainty of conductivity measurements using SThM. The accuracy of the results and the computational demands of the presented methods are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL29002Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL29002Z"><span>Internal wave generation by tidal flow over random <span class="hlt">topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Jiajun; Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The irregularity of oceanic <span class="hlt">topography</span> plays a critical role in determining the power in internal waves generated by tidal flow over the seafloor. We conduct numerical simulations (for a fluid with a constant buoyancy frequency) for different synthetic random <span class="hlt">topographies</span>. For <span class="hlt">topography</span> with small rms height Hrms and small slopes the simulations yield a quadratic dependence of the power on Hrms, in accord with linear theory. However, for tall <span class="hlt">topography</span> with steep slopes the internal wave power is found to vary linearly with Hrms. The transition from quadratic to linear scaling of the radiated internal wave power on Hrms occurs when the ``valley slope'' exceeds the internal wave slope. (The valley slope, to be defined in this talk, characterizes the maximum slope of <span class="hlt">topography</span> between adjacent peaks.) The simulations also reveal that the radiated power saturates with increasing topographic resolution, as conjectured in previous studies. The present results should be helpful in improving estimates of the total internal wave power generated by the world's oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3805754','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3805754"><span>Smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> and abstinence in adult female smokers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span>) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown <span class="hlt">topography</span> to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of <span class="hlt">topography</span> were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak <span class="hlt">topography</span>-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24018226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24018226"><span>Smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> and abstinence in adult female smokers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span>) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown <span class="hlt">topography</span> to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of <span class="hlt">topography</span> were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking <span class="hlt">topography</span> measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak <span class="hlt">topography</span>-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26004522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26004522"><span>Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Z; D'Alfonso, A J; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We demonstrate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating <span class="hlt">dynamical</span> (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P22B..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P22B..05D"><span>Modeling Floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars, Using CTX Stereo <span class="hlt">Topography</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dundas, C. M.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Denlinger, R. P.; Thomas, O. H.; Galuszka, D.; Hare, T. M.; Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Among the most remarkable landforms on Mars are the outflow channels, which suggest the occurrence of catastrophic water floods in the past. Athabasca Valles has long been thought to be the youngest of these channels [1-2], although it has recently become clear that the young crater age applies to a coating lava flow [3]. Simulations with a 2.5-dimensional flood model have provided insight into the details of flood <span class="hlt">dynamics</span> but have also demonstrated that the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records includes significant artifacts at this latitude at the scales relevant for flood modeling [4]. In order to obtain improved <span class="hlt">topography</span>, we processed stereo images from the Context Camera (CTX) of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) using methods developed for producing topographic models of the Moon with images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, a derivative of the CTX camera. Some work on flood modeling with CTX stereo has been published by [5], but we will present several advances, including corrections to the published CTX optical distortion model and improved methods to combine the stereo and MOLA data. The limitations of current methods are the accuracy of control to MOLA and the level of error introduced when the MRO spacecraft is not in a high-stability mode during stereo imaging, leading to jitter impacting the derived <span class="hlt">topography</span>. Construction of a mosaic of multiple stereo pairs, controlled to MOLA, allows us to consider flow through the cluster of streamlined islands in the upper part of the channel [6], including what is suggested to be the best example of flood-formed subaqueous dunes on Mars [7]. We will present results from running a flood model [4, 8] through the high-resolution (100 m/post) DEM covering the streamlined islands and subaqueous dunes, using results from a lower-resolution model as a guide to the inflow. By considering a range of flow levels below estimated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7431K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7431K"><span><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate angular velocities (based on the Kreem