Science.gov

Sample records for absolute educational inequalities

  1. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  2. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  3. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  4. Racial Inequality in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyna, Barry, Ed.

    Contributors to this book are united in their commitment to combating racial inequality in education and in outlining the extent and manner in which racism and its associated practices have become embedded in the institutional and sociopolitical structures of the United Kingdom. The following chapters are included: (1) "A Conceptual Overview…

  5. Distance, Education and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamnett, Chris; Butler, Tim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role which distance, in a variety of forms, can play in the reproduction, intensification or reduction of educational inequality in different types of school systems in different countries. This is a very broad issue, and in the paper we examine the ways in which distance to school has emerged as an important factor in…

  6. Least absolute value state estimation with equality and inequality constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Abur, A. ); Celik, M.K. )

    1993-05-01

    A least absolute value (LAV) state estimator, which can handle both equality and inequality constraints on measurements, is developed. It is shown that, the use of equality constraints will actually reduce the number of Simplex iterations and thus the overall cpu time. The constraints can be used to enhance the reliability of the state estimator without affecting the computational efficiency of the estimator. The developed estimation program is tested using 14 through 1,000 bus power systems.

  7. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  8. Educational Inequality in English Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Colin

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises some English research findings related to educational inequality, particularly in inner urban schools. It documents how differences related to relative poverty are reflected in patterns of educational attainment as revealed by national tests results. It considers and evaluates how the issue of educational inequality in…

  9. Declaring Bankruptcy on Educational Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Lisa; Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The authors consider Ladson-Billings' (2006) charge to reframe the way the "achievement gap" is viewed, and put forth the metaphor of "bankruptcy" as a way to acknowledge the educational debt and educational inequity and move towards debt forgiveness in public education. Specifically, the bankruptcy metaphor is used to examine…

  10. Racial Inequity in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to the overidentification of minority students in special education. After a "Foreword" (Senator James M. Jeffords) and an introduction, "Racial Inequality in Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen and Gary Orfield), 11 chapters include: (1) "Community and School Predictors…

  11. Educational inequalities in tuberculosis mortality in sixteen European populations

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, J. L.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Bopp, M.; Strand, B. H.; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, O.; Martikainen, P.; Deboosere, P.; Kalediene, R.; Artnik, B.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Richardus, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We aim to describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban, and rural populations in several European countries. Design Data were obtained from the Eurothine project covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardized mortality rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. Results The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100 000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were larger than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern Europe, and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern countries and in Norway, Finland, and Sweden. Mortality inequalities were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve vulnerable groups’ access to treatment and thereby reduce TB mortality. PMID:22008757

  12. Education and Earnings Inequality in Mexico. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachler, Ulrich

    Educational attainment levels increased dramatically for Mexico's labor force in the 1980s and early 1990s. In parallel, the country experienced a pronounced increase in earnings inequality from 1984 to 1994, reflected in a higher dispersion of wages and an absolute decline in the real incomes of less educated, poorer Mexicans. This situation…

  13. Prevalence of educational inequalities in obesity between 1970 and 2003 in France.

    PubMed

    Singh-Manoux, A; Gourmelen, J; Lajnef, M; Sabia, S; Sitta, R; Menvielle, G; Melchior, M; Nabi, H; Lanoe, J-L; Guéguen, A; Lert, F

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines trends in obesity rates and education-related absolute and relative inequalities in obesity over the last 40 years in France. Data are drawn from the French Decennial Health Surveys of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2003. The difference in obesity rates between the least- and most-educated, the Slope Index of Inequality, is used to estimate absolute inequalities in obesity. The ratio of the corresponding rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, reveals the relative inequalities in obesity. Obesity rates were similar in men and women, but educational inequalities were greater in women. Obesity rates were similar over the first three surveys but increased for all in the 2003 survey. This increase was accompanied by increases in absolute inequalities in men (P = 0.04) from a Slope Index of Inequality of 4.80% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.27, 7.32) to 8.64% (95% CI = 5.97, 11.32) and women (P = 0.004) from 8.90% (95% CI = 6.18, 11.63) to 14.57% (95% CI = 11.83, 17.32). Relative inequalities in obesity remained stable over the 40 years. Recent increase in obesity rates in France is accompanied by increases in absolute education-related inequalities, while relative inequalities have remained stable; this suggests that obesity rates have increased at a much faster rate in the low-education groups.

  14. Entrenched Geographical and Socioeconomic Disparities in Child Mortality: Trends in Absolute and Relative Inequalities in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Durham, Jo; Hodge, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. Methods Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. Findings Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. Conclusion Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key supply and demand side

  15. Racial Inequity in Special Education Undefined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…

  16. Colonial Continuities and Educational Inequalities in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Harold F., Jr.

    This paper explores the effect of 350 years of Dutch colonial rule upon Indonesian educational policies and the resulting regional inequalities in education. It was Dutch policy not to educate most of the children from the poorer social classes, but to use education to maintain and strengthen the existing social structure. Education was also used…

  17. Income Inequality and the Education Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…

  18. Regional Educational Inequality and Political Instability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monchar, Philip Harris

    1981-01-01

    From a study of 46 nations over the period 1957 to 1973, it is argued that regional educational inequality indicates the presence of other regional social, political, and economic inequalities, and it is all of these factors together that generate feelings of relative deprivation and the pursuant political instability. (Author/SJL)

  19. American Higher Education and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catharine B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…

  20. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  1. Building the Movement to End Educational Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Teach for America exists to address educational inequity--the stunning reality that the American nation, which aspires so admirably to be a land of equal opportunity, where one is born still largely determines one's educational outcomes. Despite plenty of evidence that children growing up in poverty can do well academically--when given the…

  2. Education and the Inequalities of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscigno, Vincent J.; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald; Crowley, Martha L.

    2006-01-01

    Students living in inner city and rural areas of the United States exhibit lower educational achievement and a higher likelihood of dropping out of high school than do their suburban counterparts. Educational research and policy has tended to neglect these inequalities or, at best, focus on one type but not the other. In this article, we integrate…

  3. Education and Income Inequality among Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaranas, Federico M.

    The reduction of social inequalities through education is widely believed to be possible. In the past decade however, social scientists have increasingly questioned the posited conventional relationship between education and socio-economic equality. Factors other than the number of years and/or the quality of schooling have to be considered in…

  4. Education's Effect on Income Inequality: An Economic Globalisation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…

  5. Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669

  6. Persistent Inequality: Changing Educational Attainment in Thirteen Countries. Social Inequality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavit, Yossi, Ed.; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter, Ed.

    This book encompasses a systematic, comparative study of change in educational stratification in 13 industrialized countries, exploring which societal conditions help reduce existing inequalities in educational opportunity. The contributors show that in most industrialized countries inequalities in educational opportunity among students from…

  7. Education, Inequality, and National Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashline, Nelson F., Ed.; And Others

    This book, based on an invitational conference held in Newport, Rhode Island, in June 1975, includes an edited record of that conference as well as additional papers which were developed by participants as a result of their conference experience. Twelve papers are included: "Public Education as the Great Equalizer", Fred M. Hechinger; "Types of…

  8. Educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Breen, Richard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2012-08-01

    Many writers have expressed a concern that growing educational assortative mating will lead to greater inequality between households in their earnings or income. In this article, we examine the relationship between educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark between 1987 and 2006. Denmark is widely known for its low level of income inequality, but the Danish case provides a good test of the relationship between educational assortative mating and inequality because although income inequality increased over the period we consider, educational homogamy declined. Using register data on the exact incomes of the whole population, we find that change in assortative mating increased income inequality but that these changes were driven by changes in the educational distributions of men and women rather than in the propensity for people to choose a partner with a given level of education.

  9. Education Rights, Education Policies and Inequality in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore education policy changes in South Africa through a rights-based framework. We situate our analysis in the context of deepening poverty and inequality arguing that progress (or the lack thereof) in schools cannot be divorced from poverty and its consequences. We show that education reform in South Africa has been situated…

  10. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  11. Effects of simulated interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequalities in educational achievement.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%.

  12. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  13. Educational Inequalities in Post-Hip Fracture Mortality: A NOREPOS Study.

    PubMed

    Omsland, Tone K; Eisman, John A; Naess, Øyvind; Center, Jacqueline R; Gjesdal, Clara G; Tell, Grethe S; Emaus, Nina; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Holvik, Kristin; Schei, Berit; Forsmo, Siri; Magnus, Jeanette H

    2015-12-01

    Hip fractures are associated with high excess mortality. Education is an important determinant of health, but little is known about educational inequalities in post-hip fracture mortality. Our objective was to investigate educational inequalities in post-hip fracture mortality and to examine whether comorbidity or family composition could explain any association. We conducted a register-based population study of Norwegians aged 50 years and older from 2002 to 2010. We measured total mortality according to educational attainment in 56,269 hip fracture patients (NORHip) and in the general Norwegian population. Both absolute and relative educational inequalities in mortality in people with and without hip fracture were compared. There was an educational gradient in post-hip fracture mortality in both sexes. Compared with those with primary education only, the age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of mortality in hip fracture patients with tertiary education was 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.87) in men and 0.79 (95% CI 0.75-0.84) in women. Additional adjustments for Charlson comorbidity index, marital status, and number of children did not materially change the estimates. Regardless of educational attainment, the 1-year age-adjusted mortality was three- to fivefold higher in hip fracture patients compared with peers in the general population without fracture. The absolute differences in 1-year mortality according to educational attainment were considerably larger in hip fracture patients than in the population without hip fracture. Absolute educational inequalities in mortality were higher after hip fracture compared with the general population without hip fracture and were not mediated by comorbidity or family composition. Investigation of other possible mediating factors might help to identify new targets for interventions, based on lower educational attainment, to reduce post-hip fracture mortality.

  14. Economic Inequality and Higher Education: Access, Persistence, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, Ed.; Rubenstein, Ross, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The vast disparities in college attendance and graduation rates between students from different class backgrounds is a growing social concern. "Economic Inequality and Higher Education" investigates the connection between income inequality and unequal access to higher education, and proposes solutions that the state and federal governments and…

  15. Capital, Inequality and Education in Conflict-Affected Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century" has brought the issue of inequality to the centre of political debate. This article explores contemporary research on the relationship between education and inequality in conflict-affected contexts with a view to seeing how Piketty's work speaks to these issues as a field of research and…

  16. Stratification in Higher Education, Choice and Social Inequalities in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sianou-Kyrgiou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Higher education has expanded to a remarkable extent in many countries in recent decades. Although this has led to high levels of participation, inequalities not only persist but are also strengthened. The persistence of inequalities is partly the result of policies for the widening of participation having been accompanied by institutional…

  17. Expansion, Differentiation, and the Persistence of Social Class Inequalities in British Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boliver, Vikki

    2011-01-01

    Conventional political wisdom has it that educational expansion helps to reduce socioeconomic inequalities of access to education by increasing equality of educational opportunity. The counterarguments of Maximally Maintained Inequality (MMI) and Effectively Maintained Inequality (EMI), in contrast, contend that educational inequalities tend to…

  18. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  19. Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Technology on Social Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Reeves, Todd D.; Stich, Amy

    2016-01-01

    While much has been written in the field of educational technology regarding educational excellence and efficiency, less attention has been paid to issues of equity. Along these lines, the field of educational technology often does not address key equity problems such as academic achievement and attainment gaps, and inequality of educational…

  20. Educational Expansion and Inequality in Taiwan and the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Mateju, Petr; Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of educational inequality by family background and gender in Taiwan and the Czech Republic, which have both experienced substantial educational expansion in the last half-century under different educational systems. We highlight the specific institutional histories of both countries and examine the role…

  1. Educational Inequality in the United States: Methodology and Historical Estimation of Education Gini Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates historical measures of equality in the distribution of education in the United States by age group and sex. Using educational attainment data for the population, the EduGini measure indicates that educational inequality in the U.S. declined significantly between 1950 and 2009. Reductions in educational inequality were more…

  2. Social Inequality and Access to Higher Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinovskiy, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses research on social inequality and access to higher education in Russia. It argues that the myth about equality of life chances, as with certain other myths, was an important part of the Soviet ideology. However, children from privileged groups traditionally received the education and professional training which were most…

  3. Inequalities in Educational Development: Papers Presented at an IIEP Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    Based on the realization that the rapid worldwide growth of educational systems over the last two decades has not produced the expected eradication of social inequality, an international seminar was held for educational policy-makers, planners from developing countries, research workers in the area, and representatives of aid agencies from 33…

  4. Measuring Inequalities in Higher Education: A Politics of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goastellec, Gaele

    2011-01-01

    At a time when rankings and the production of data on higher education systems multiply, this article questions the actors' configuration linked to the transformation of statistical indicators into frames used to read the inequalities of access to higher education. Who says what and with what results? Who is responsible for making social facts…

  5. The Zombie Stalking English Schools: Social Class and Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reclaim social class as a central concern within education, not in the traditional sense as a dimension of educational stratification, but as a powerful and vital aspect of both learner and wider social identities. Drawing on historical and present evidence, a case is made that social inequalities arising from social…

  6. Racial and Regional Inequalities in School Resources Relative to Their Educational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, James M.; Sprehe, J. Timothy

    This paper uses the data from the 1966 Educational Opportunities Survey (EOS) to investigate regional and racial inequalities in education by applying a definition of inequalities that incorporates both school inputs and educational outcomes. Inequalities in school inputs are weighted by their importance for educational outputs, in order to…

  7. Educational Inequalities in Obesity among Mexican Women: Time-Trends from 1988 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Methods Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Results Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend p<0.001). Obesity increased 5.92 fold (95%CI: 4.03, 8.70) among urban women with higher education in the period 1988–2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. Conclusions The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys. PMID:24599098

  8. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort study quantifying age- and gender-specific differences in relative and absolute terms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR) of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.32 – 1.36) in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47) in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden of AMI was low. Absolute

  9. Perspectives on Busing. Inequality in Education, Number Eleven, March 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Center for Law and Education.

    Contents of this issue of "Inequality in Education" include: (1) "Busing is not the issue," Reubin Askew, Governor of Florida; (2) "Pupil transportation: a brief history," Paul V. Smith; (3) "White parents' fears," Patricia Derian, which discusses the desegregation of the schools in Jackson, Mississippi in the late 1960's from the point of view of…

  10. Welfare Regimes and Educational Inequality: A Cross-National Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Tracey; Edgerton, Jason D.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2010-01-01

    Research on welfare state regimes and research on educational policy share a common concern for the reduction of social inequality. On one hand, welfare state research is typically designed within a comparative approach where scholars investigate similarities and differences in social institutions across selected countries. On the other hand, the…

  11. Children's Education and the Intergenerational Transmission of Inequality: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy; Meesook, Oey Astra

    1986-01-01

    Data from the 1970 Brazilian Census are used to explore the effects of parents' investments in their children's education on the pattern of future income distribution and on the intergenerational transmission of inequality, using a simulation model. Appended are 21 references. (Author)

  12. Cross-National Differences in Educational Achievement Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montt, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    School systems are called not only to instruct and socialize students but also to differentiate among them. Although much research has investigated inequalities in educational outcomes associated with students' family background and other ascriptive traits, little research has examined cross-national differences in the total amount of…

  13. Growing Gaps: Educational Inequality around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attewell, Paul, Ed.; Newman, Katherine S., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The last half century has seen a dramatic expansion in access to primary, secondary, and higher education in many nations around the world. Educational expansion is desirable for a country's economy, beneficial for educated individuals themselves, and is also a strategy for greater social harmony. But has greater access to education reduced or…

  14. School Quality, Educational Inequality and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Ramesh; Jani, Rohana bt

    2008-01-01

    Realizing the importance of education in developing a country, many governments had begun to pay more attention in improving the education quality in their country. However whether the desired level of education quality is equally distributed is still debated on. On top of that, current literature on which level of education, either basic or…

  15. Educational inequalities in smoking: the role of initiation versus quitting.

    PubMed

    Maralani, Vida

    2013-05-01

    The existing literature on educational inequalities in adult smoking has focused extensively on differences in current smoking and quitting, rather than on differences in never smoking regularly (initiation) by education in the adult population. Knowing the relative contribution of initiation versus quitting is critical for understanding the mechanisms that produce educational gradients in smoking because initiation and quitting occur at different points in the life course. Using data from 31 waves of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (N = 587,174), the analyses show the relative likelihood of being a never versus former smoker by education, sex, and age from 1966 to 2010 and for birth cohorts from 1920 to 1979. The analyses also describe differences in the cumulative probability of quitting over the life course, and the role of initiation versus quitting in producing educational gaps in smoking. The results show that educational gaps in never smoking explain the bulk of the educational inequality in adult smoking. Differences in former smoking play a small and decreasing role in producing these gaps. This is true across the life course, whether measured at age 25 or age 50, and for both men and women. While the prevalence and age patterns of former smoking by education converge across birth cohorts, differences in never smoking by education increase dramatically. At the population level, educational gaps in adult smoking are produced by the combination of inequalities in initiation and quitting, with differences in initiation playing a larger role in producing the observed gaps. The portion of the gap explained by differences in quitting is itself a function of educational differences in initiation. Thus, educational gradients in adult smoking are tethered to experiences in adolescence. These findings have important implications for both understanding and addressing disparities in this important health behavior.

  16. The Economics of Inequality in Education. Studies in Economic Development and Planning, No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the various economic facets of inequality in education in India. The specific focus is on inter-group inequalities, such as inequality between males and females and between backward and advanced castes. It is hypothesized that returns to education accrue differently to different groups of population and…

  17. Inequality and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In the past thirty years educational attainments in the United States have stagnated, particularly for low-income Americans. As a result, income-related gaps in educational attainments have grown. These gaps are important because education has historically been the key mechanism for intergenerational socio-economic mobility in the U.S. While the…

  18. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-05-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in attained height have been reported in many countries. The aim of this study was to explore the age at which maternal education inequalities in child height emerge among children from a middle-income country. Using data from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study from Brazil we modelled individual height growth trajectories in 2106 boys and 1947 girls from birth to 4 years using a linear spline mixed-effects model. We examined the associations of maternal education with birth length and trajectories of growth in length/height, and explored the effect of adjusting for a number of potential confounder or mediator factors. We showed linear and positive associations of maternal education with birth length and length/height growth rates at 0-3 months and 12-29/32 months with very little association at 3-12 months, particularly in boys. By age 4 years the mean height of boys was 101.06 cm (SE = 0.28) in the lowest and 104.20 cm (SE = 0.15) in the highest education category (mean difference 3.14 cm, SE = 0.32, P < 0.001). Among girls the mean height was 100.02 cm (SE = 0.27) and 103.03 cm (SE = 0.15) in the lowest and highest education categories, respectively (mean difference 3.01 cm, SE = 0.31, P < 0.001). For both boys and girls there was on average a 3-cm difference between the extreme education categories. Adjusting for maternal height reduced the observed birth length differences across maternal education categories, but differences in postnatal growth rates persisted. Our data demonstrate an increase in the absolute and relative inequality in height after birth; inequality increases from approximately 0.2 standard deviations of birth length to approximately 0.7 standard deviations of height at age 4, indicating that height inequality, which was already present at birth, widened through differential growth rates to age 2 years.

  19. Time trends in educational inequalities in cancer mortality in Colombia, 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Arroyave, Ivan; Pardo, Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate trends in premature cancer mortality in Colombia by educational level in three periods: 1998–2002 with low healthcare insurance coverage, 2003–2007 with rapidly increasing coverage and finally 2008–2012 with almost universal coverage (2008–2012). Setting Colombian population-based, national secondary mortality data. Participants We included all (n=188 091) cancer deaths occurring in the age group 20–64 years between 1998 and 2012, excluding only cases with low levels of quality of registration (n=2902, 1.5%). Primary and secondary outcome measures In this descriptive study, we linked mortality data of ages 20–64 years to census data to obtain age-standardised cancer mortality rates by educational level. Using Poisson regression, we modelled premature mortality by educational level estimating rate ratios (RR), relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). Results Relative measures showed increased risks of dying among the lower educated compared to the highest educated; this tendency was stronger in women (RRprimary 1.49; RRsecondary 1.22, both p<0.0001) than in men (RRprimary 1.35; RRsecondary 1.11, both p<0.0001). In absolute terms (SII), cancer caused a difference per 100 000 deaths between the highest and lowest educated of 20.5 in males and 28.5 in females. RII was significantly higher among women and the younger age categories. RII decreased between the first and second periods; afterwards (2008–2012), it increased significantly back to their previous levels. Among women, no significant increases or declines in cancer mortality over time were observed in recent periods in the lowest educated group, whereas strong recent declines were observed in those with secondary education or higher. Conclusions Educational inequalities in cancer mortality in Colombia are increasing in absolute and relative terms, and are concentrated in young age categories. This trend was not curbed by increases in

  20. Financing Education: Overcoming Inefficiency and Inequity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Walter W., Ed.; Geske, Terry G., Ed.

    Fiscal inefficiency in education is addressed in this book and ideas for achieving increased efficiency while more effectively using resources to maintain reasonable equality of opportunity in higher education are examined. Fourteen articles and authors that consider social efficiency, equity, and policy implications are as follows: "Efficiency…

  1. Systemic Inequities in Special Education Financing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlin, Michael; Jalilevand, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Since the implementation of IDEA in 1975, as spending on education has continued to grow, a large portion of that spending has been dedicated to students with special needs. This study uses a panel dataset of local and intermediate school districts to examine the complex special education funding and delivery scheme in the State of Michigan. Using…

  2. Employment status and income as potential mediators of educational inequalities in population mental health

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Popham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We assessed whether educational inequalities in mental health may be mediated by employment status and household income. Poor mental health was assessed using General Health Questionnaire ‘caseness’ in working age adult participants (N = 48 654) of the Health Survey for England (2001–10). Relative indices of inequality by education level were calculated. Substantial inequalities were apparent, with adjustment for employment status and household income markedly reducing their magnitude. Educational inequalities in mental health were attenuated by employment status. Policy responses to economic recession (such as active labour market interventions) might reduce mental health inequalities but longitudinal research is needed to exclude reverse causation. PMID:27593454

  3. [Demographic Dynamics and Educational Inequality in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Giorguli Saucedo, Silvia E; Vargas Valle, Eunice D; Ulloa, Viviana Salinas; Hubert, Celia; Potter, Joseph E

    This paper seeks to explore the link between educational processes and Mexico's demographic dynamic. In the tradition of thought on population and development, it has been hypothesized that the population growth rate, family size and migration influence the accumulation of human capital among the school-age population. This study explores the link between the academic performance of youth between the age of 14 and 23 and the youth dependency ratio, teenage fertility and internal and international migration, using data aggregated at the municipal level for the year 2000. The analysis uses indicators on the educational supply at the municipal level based on the administrative statistics of the Public Education Secretariat (SEP).

  4. Language and Inequality: Global Challenges to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This article is an abbreviated version of the BAICE Presidential Address held at the 11th UKFIET International Conference in Oxford on September 16, 2011. It discusses debates on the use of a foreign and ex-colonial language as a language of instruction (LOI) in African schools and argues that the quality of education cannot be seen as an issue…

  5. Education in Contemporary Japan: Inequality and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okano, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Motonori

    This book offers a balanced introduction to and examination of contemporary Japanese education that considers criticisms of Japanese schooling practices made by the participants themselves. While the post World War 2 system of schooling has provided valuable ingredients for economic success, the book argues that these have been accompanied by…

  6. Educational Inequalities and the Expansion of Postsecondary Education in Brazil, from 1982 to 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collares, Ana Cristina Murta

    2010-01-01

    Brazil has experienced a broad expansion of education in the last few decades, but inequalities in educational access are still high for people of different socioeconomic statuses as well as by gender and race. Using data that covers higher education expansion from 1982 to 2006 in Brazil, this dissertation investigates the consequences of this…

  7. Educational Inequality in Obesity-Related Mortality in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, which raises concerns about the disease burden associated with obesity. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been suggested to be associated with obesity and obesity related diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the time trend in socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality over the last decade in Korean population. We evaluated the influence of education level, as an indicator of SES, on obesity-related mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases. The rate ratio of the mortality of people at the lowest education level as compared with those at the highest education level (relative index of inequality [RII]) was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Between 2001 and 2011, RII (95% confidence interval) for overall obesity-related disease mortality increased from 2.10 (2.02–2.19) to 6.50 (6.19–6.82) in men, and from 1.94 (1.79–2.10) to 3.25 (3.05–3.45) in women, respectively. Cause-specifically, the same trend in RII was found for cardiovascular mortality and mortality from diabetes mellitus, whereas the RII of mortality from obesity-related cancers in men did not show the similar trend. Subgroup analysis stratified by age revealed that the RII of obesity-related mortality was much higher in younger people than in older people. In conclusion, there has been persistent socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality in Korea, which was more evident in younger people than in older people and has been deepened over the last decade especially for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. PMID:28145639

  8. Educational Inequality in Obesity-Related Mortality in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hyun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ko, Hyeonyoung; Song, Yun Mi

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, which raises concerns about the disease burden associated with obesity. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been suggested to be associated with obesity and obesity related diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the time trend in socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality over the last decade in Korean population. We evaluated the influence of education level, as an indicator of SES, on obesity-related mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases. The rate ratio of the mortality of people at the lowest education level as compared with those at the highest education level (relative index of inequality [RII]) was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Between 2001 and 2011, RII (95% confidence interval) for overall obesity-related disease mortality increased from 2.10 (2.02-2.19) to 6.50 (6.19-6.82) in men, and from 1.94 (1.79-2.10) to 3.25 (3.05-3.45) in women, respectively. Cause-specifically, the same trend in RII was found for cardiovascular mortality and mortality from diabetes mellitus, whereas the RII of mortality from obesity-related cancers in men did not show the similar trend. Subgroup analysis stratified by age revealed that the RII of obesity-related mortality was much higher in younger people than in older people. In conclusion, there has been persistent socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality in Korea, which was more evident in younger people than in older people and has been deepened over the last decade especially for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  9. Trends in inequalities in induced abortion according to educational level among urban women.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Gloria; García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2010-05-01

    This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women's socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20-44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-1.47) between 1992-1996 and 2000-2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20-24 and 25-34 and changed little among women aged 35-44. Among women aged 20-24 and 25-34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35-44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60-0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe.

  10. Trends in Inequalities in Induced Abortion According to Educational Level among Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    García-Subirats, Irene; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Díez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe trends in inequalities by women’s socioeconomic position and age in induced abortion in Barcelona (Spain) over 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. Induced abortions occurring in residents in Barcelona aged 20 and 44 years in the study period are included. Variables are age, educational level, and time periods. Induced abortion rates per 1,000 women and absolute differences for educational level, age, and time period are calculated. Poisson regression models are fitted to obtain the relative risk (RR) for trends. Induced abortion rates increased from 10.1 to 14.6 per 1,000 women aged 20–44 (RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41–1.47) between 1992–1996 and 2000–2004. The abortion rate was highest among women aged 20–24 and 25–34 and changed little among women aged 35–44. Among women aged 20–24 and 25–34, those with a primary education or less had higher rates of induced abortion in the second period. Induced abortion rates also grew in those women with secondary education. In the 35–44 age group, the induced abortion rate declined among women with a secondary education (RR = 0.66; 95% CI 0.60–0.73) and slightly among those with a greater level of education. Induced abortion is rising most among women in poor socioeconomic positions. This study reveals deep inequalities in induced abortion in Barcelona, Spain. The trends identified in this study suggest that policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancies are failing in Spain. Our study fills an important gap in literature on recent trends in Southern Europe. PMID:20229107

  11. Bilingual/Bicultural Education. Inequality in Education. Number 19, February 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Center for Law and Education.

    The combined effect of the articles in this issue of "Inequality in Education" is to offer the reader a primer in bilingual/bicultural education. The articles which follow indicate that neither legislation nor court orders, correctly or incorrectly interpreted, can bring about effect change in this field on their own. What the bilingual…

  12. Are Educational Mismatches Responsible for the "Inequality Increasing Effect" of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budria, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks whether educational mismatches can account for the positive association between education and wage inequality found in the data. We use two different data sources, the European Community Household Panel and the Portuguese Labour Force Survey, and consider several types of mismatch, including overqualification, underqualification…

  13. The Household Registration System, Education System, and Inequalities in Education for Migrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jianwen, Wei; Jiawei, Hou

    2010-01-01

    In mainland China, the "hukou" (household registration) system and the education system bound to it are two institutional sources that cause educational inequality for the children of migrant populations. By means of analyses of these institutions, this article posits that although the present "hukou" system has yet to be…

  14. Social Class and Education in Modern Britain: Why Inequalities Persist and How Can We Explain Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Themelis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical continuity and persistence of educational inequalities I postwar Britain. It shows that despite much policy activity, educational inequalities have never really been the real target of policy action. Rather, a more concrete policy target has been the support of the markets, which were expected to act an…

  15. Measurements of Inequalities in Access to Higher Education: Case of the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the systematic investigation of the influence of the quasi-experimental projects on possible changes in inequality in access to higher education in Russia. While intuition points toward a positive effect of introduction of the standardized tests and educational vouchers on the decrease in inequality in access to higher…

  16. The Use of Two-Way Television to Solve Problems of Inequality in Education: A Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Lawrence N.

    1983-01-01

    Advocates the use of teleconferencing as a tool to reducing inequality in educational opportunity. Claims that such technology can decrease racial isolation among Black students and foster contact among Black educators and leaders. (GC)

  17. The effect of poverty, social inequity, and maternal education on infant mortality in Nicaragua, 1988-1993.

    PubMed Central

    Peña, R; Wall, S; Persson, L A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of poverty and social inequity on infant mortality risks in Nicaragua from 1988 to 1993 and the preventive role of maternal education. METHODS: A cohort analysis of infant survival, based on reproductive histories of a representative sample of 10,867 women aged 15 to 49 years in León, Nicaragua, was conducted. A total of 7073 infants were studied; 342 deaths occurred during 6394 infant-years of follow-up. Outcome measures were infant mortality rate (IMR) and relative mortality risks for different groups. RESULTS: IMR was 50 per 1000 live births. Poverty, expressed as unsatisfied basic needs (UBN) of the household, increased the risk of infant death (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 1.92). Social inequity, expressed as the contrast between the household UBN and the predominant UBN of the neighborhood, further increased the risk (adjusted RR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.12, 2.71). A protective effect of the mother's educational level was seen only in poor households. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from absolute level of poverty, social inequity may be an independent risk factor for infant mortality in a low-income country. In poor households, female education may contribute to preventing infant mortality. PMID:10630139

  18. Trends in inequalities in premature cancer mortality by educational level in Colombia, 1998–2007

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Esther; Arroyave, Ivan; Pardo, Constanza; Wiesner, Carolina; Murillo, Raul; Forman, David; Burdorf, Alex; Avendaño, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Background There is paucity of studies on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in developing countries. We examined trends in inequalities in cancer mortality by educational attainment in Colombia during a period of epidemiological transition and a rapid expansion of health insurance coverage. Methods Population mortality data (1998–2007) were linked to census data to obtain age-standardised cancer mortality rates by educational attainment at ages 25–64 years for stomach, cervical, prostate, lung, colorectal, breast and other cancers. We used Poisson regression to model mortality by educational attainment and estimated the contribution of specific cancers to the Slope Index of Inequality in cancer mortality. Results We observed large educational inequalities in cancer mortality, particularly for cancer of the cervix (RR primary versus tertiary groups=5.75, contributing 51% of cancer inequalities), stomach (RR=2.56 for males, contributing 49% of total cancer inequalities, and RR=1.98 for females, contributing 14% to total cancer inequalities), and lung (RR=1.64 for males contributing 17% of total cancer inequalities, and 1.32 for females contributing 5% to total cancer inequalities). Total cancer mortality rates declined faster among those with higher education, with the exception of mortality from cervical cancer, which declined more rapidly in the lower educational groups. Conclusion There are large socioeconomic inequalities in preventable cancer mortality in Colombia, which underscore the need for intensifying prevention efforts. Reducing cervical cancer through reducing HPV infection, early detection and improved access to treatment of preneoplasic lesions. Reinforcing anti-tobacco measures may be particularly important to curb inequalities in cancer mortality. PMID:25492898

  19. Who Decided College Access in Chinese Secondary Education? Rural-Urban Inequality of Basic Education in Contemporary China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the rural-urban inequalities in basic education of contemporary China. The China Education Panel Survey (2013-2014) (CEPS) was utilized to analyze the gaps between rural and urban inequality in junior high schools in terms of three domains, which include the equalities of access, inputs, and outcomes. From the sociocultural…

  20. Educational assortative mating and economic inequality: a comparative analysis of three Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Torche, Florencia

    2010-05-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses' schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality.

  1. Educational Assortative Mating and Economic Inequality: A Comparative Analysis of Three Latin American Countries

    PubMed Central

    TORCHE, FLORENCIA

    2010-01-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses’ schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality. PMID:20608107

  2. Educational Expansion and Educational Inequality on Income Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kang H.

    1996-01-01

    Examines educational variables' effects on income distribution, using cross-sectional data covering 59 countries. Empirical results show that a higher level of educational attainment in the labor force has an equalizing effect on income distribution; the larger the dispersion of educational attainment among the workforce, the greater the income…

  3. Compensatory Policies Attending Equality and Inequality in Mexico Educational Practice among Vulnerable Groups in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, René Pedroza; Monroy, Guadalupe Villalobos; Fabela, Ana María Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of social inequality in accessing higher education among vulnerable groups in Mexico. Estimates were determined from statistical data provided by governmental agencies on the level of poverty among the Mexican population. In Mexico, the conditions of poverty and vulnerability while trying to access…

  4. The Role of Social Capital in the Explanation of Educational Success and Educational Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role that social capital plays in school success and in the explanation of social and ethnic inequalities in the German educational system. Based on Coleman's well-known concept of social capital, different aspects of social capital are distinguished, including social network composition, parent-school interaction and…

  5. Education and Social Change in China: Inequality in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. Education is expected to address these inequalities in a context of rapid social change, including the rise of an urban middle class, changed status of women, resurgence of ethnic identities, growing rural to…

  6. Reflections on Inequities in Computer Education: Do the Rich Get Richer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    1985-01-01

    Discusses worldwide inequities in computer education based on gender, socioeconomic level, country of residence, and specific school policies, and their resultant consequences. Concerns about these inequities are formulated and recommendations for reducing the scale of the problem are made. (Author/MBR)

  7. Segregation and the Underrepresentation of Blacks and Hispanics in Gifted Education: Social Inequality and Deficit Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the underrepresentation of African American and Hispanic students in gifted education, proposing that social inequality, deficit thinking, and microaggressions contribute to the inequitable segregated programs. Underrepresentation trends are presented, along with methods for calculating underrepresentation and inequity.…

  8. Degrees of Inequality: Culture, Class, and Gender in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Ann L.

    2010-01-01

    "Degrees of Inequality" reveals the powerful patterns of social inequality in American higher education by analyzing how the social background of students shapes nearly every facet of the college experience. Even as the most prestigious institutions claim to open their doors to students from diverse backgrounds, class disparities remain.…

  9. Income Inequality, the Median Voter, and the Support for Public Education. NBER Working Paper No. 16097

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean; Evans, William N.

    2010-01-01

    Using a panel of U.S. school districts spanning 1970-2000, we examine the relationship between income inequality and fiscal support for public education. In contrast with recent theoretical and empirical work suggesting a negative relationship between inequality and public spending, we find results consistent with a median voter model, in which…

  10. Effects of the 1994 Tax Reform on Intraprovincial Inequalities in Financing Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tingjin

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the influence of the 1994 tax reform on intraprovincial inequality in financing basic education. The empirical analysis finds that the reform has decreased inequality in general, suggesting that the center may attain its policy goal through centralizing its relative fiscal capability and increasing the intergovernmental…

  11. Ethnicity and Education in China and Vietnam: Discursive Formations of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJaeghere, Joan; Wu, Xinyi; Vu, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to understand how ethnicity is discursively framed in national policies in China and Vietnam and argues that policy discourses affect how the "problem" of ethnicity and educational inequalities is framed and how these inequalities can be addressed. The analysis shows how both Marxist and market-economy governing…

  12. Education's Inequity: Opposition to Black Higher Education in Antebellum Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Hilary J.

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1820s, African Americans' access to primary and religious instruction expanded significantly throughout the urban Northeast, yet barriers to their higher education remained firm. Segregated in public "African" schools, blacks were also barred from most private academies. Collegiate education similarly remained out of reach.…

  13. Beyond the Birds and the Bees: Learning Inequality through Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Catherine; Elliott, Sinikka

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the roles that schools, peers, and parents play in young people's sexuality education. We argue that the sexuality education children receive is far from just the facts; rather, it is an education in the maintenance of inequality. Sexuality education, as it is currently conceived, includes implicit and…

  14. Eliminating Educational Inequality through E-Learning: The Case of Virtual University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Aisha Muhammad; Jabeen, Sadia

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at examining the role of e-learning in combating the issues of inequality in terms of access and quality in the field of higher education in Pakistan. The education system in Pakistan is mainly characterized by educational disparity. The standard of education is directly proportional to the investment students make in the form of…

  15. A Special Application of Absolute Value Techniques in Authentic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value…

  16. Roots of Inequity and Injustice: The Challenges for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    Equity and justice are human constructs; the inventions of human imagination. They exist nowhere in nature, in which inequality--the root cause of inequity and injustice--is essential for survival. Our history as a race traces back some two million years, when survival had to trump justice, the latter being an historically recent conception. Music…

  17. Smoking, educational status and health inequity in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev

    2006-07-01

    Health related behaviours, especially smoking and tobacco use, are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Smoking leads to acute respiratory diseases, tuberculosis and asthma in younger age groups and non communicable diseases such as chronic lung disease, cardiovascular diseases and cancer in middle and older age. We observed an inverse association of educational status with tobacco use (smoking and other forms) in western Indian State of Rajasthan. In successive cross-sectional epidemiological studies- the Jaipur Heart Watch (JHW)- in rural (JHWR; n=3148, men=1982), and urban subjects: JHW-1 (n=2212, men=1415), JHW-2 (n=1124, men=550) and JHW-3 (n=458, men=226), we evaluated various cardiovascular risk factors. The greatest tobacco consumption was observed among the illiterate and low educational status subjects (nil, 1-5, 6-10, >10 yr of formal education) as compared to more literate in men (JHW-R 60, 51, 46 and 36% respectively; JHW-1 44, 52, 30 and 18% JHW-2 54, 43, 29 and 24%; and JHW-3 50, 27, 25 and 25%) as well as women (Mantel Haenzel test, P for trend <0.05). In the illiterate subjects the odds ratios (OR) and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI) for smoking or tobacco use as compared to the highest educational groups in rural (men OR 2.68, CI 2.02, 3.57; women OR 3.13, CI 1.22, 8.08) as well as larger urban studies- JHW-1 (men OR 2.47, CI 1.70, 3.60; women OR 13.78, CI 3.35, 56.75) and JHW-2 (men OR 3.81; CI 1.90, 7.66; women OR 13.73, CI 1.84, 102.45) were significantly greater (P<0.01). Smoking significantly correlated with prevalence of coronary heart disease and hypertension. Other recent Indian studies and national surveys report similar associations. Health ethicists argue that good education and health lead to true development in an underprivileged society. We propose that improving educational status, a major social determinant of health, can lead to appropriate health related behaviours and prevent the epidemics of non

  18. Education Markets, the New Politics of Recognition and the Increasing Fatalism towards Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Sally; Frandji, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the complex ways in which the marketisation of education and the associated publication of performance data have contributed to the emergence of a new politics of recognition which has paradoxically served further to naturalise educational inequalities. Of all the reforms associated with subjecting education to market forces,…

  19. Is Concentrated Advantage the Cause? The Relative Contributions of Neighborhood Advantage and Disadvantage to Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Supported by persistent educational inequality and growth of the field of neighborhood effects research, this meta-analysis investigates the relative association of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational outcomes; the consistency of associations across different educational indicators; and the moderating influence of model…

  20. Education and Inequality in India: A Classroom View. Routledge Contemporary South Asia Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumdar, Manabi; Mooij, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Universalization of primary education has been high on the policy agenda in India. This book looks at the reproduction of social inequalities within the educational system in India, and how this is contested in different ways. It examines whether the concept of "education for all" is just a mechanically conceived policy target to chasing…

  1. Discovering Social Inequality: Dutch Educational Research in the Post-War Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke; Amsing, Hilda T. A.

    2012-01-01

    Between the 1940s and 1960s across Western Europe a spirit of reform along comprehensive lines manifested itself in secondary education, aiming at a reduction of the existing social inequality of educational chances. These reforms are said to be rooted in new policies and in new approaches in educational studies. This article explores the…

  2. Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambla, Xavier

    2006-05-01

    The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a `logic of induction' has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical connection between the logic of induction and the mechanism of emulation, and the territorial aspects of educational inequalities. Emulation plays a main role inasmuch as the logic of induction leads targeted groups to compare their adverse situation with more privileged groups, which actually legitimizes inequalities. A brief statistical summary completes the study, showing that educational inequality has remained unchanged as far as urban-rural ratios (in Brazil and Chile) and regional disparities (in all three countries) are concerned.

  3. Skills, education, and the rise of earnings inequality among the "other 99 percent".

    PubMed

    Autor, David H

    2014-05-23

    The singular focus of public debate on the "top 1 percent" of households overlooks the component of earnings inequality that is arguably most consequential for the "other 99 percent" of citizens: the dramatic growth in the wage premium associated with higher education and cognitive ability. This Review documents the central role of both the supply and demand for skills in shaping inequality, discusses why skill demands have persistently risen in industrialized countries, and considers the economic value of inequality alongside its potential social costs. I conclude by highlighting the constructive role for public policy in fostering skills formation and preserving economic mobility.

  4. Aspirations, Education and Inequality in England: Insights from the Effective Provision of Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward C.; Taggart, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Educational and occupational aspirations have become an important reference point in policy debates about educational inequality. Low aspirations are presented as a major barrier to closing educational attainment gaps and increasing levels of social mobility. Our paper contributes to this on-going debate by presenting data on the educational…

  5. The Postgraduate Premium: Revisiting Trends in Social Mobility and Educational Inequalities in Britain and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Joanne; Machin, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This report revisits the debate about why social mobility levels are relatively low in Great Britain and the United States of America compared to other countries. It focuses on three main areas within this debate: (1) the changing role of educational inequalities; (2) the expectation of ever higher levels of education as revealed in increasing…

  6. Interrogating Institutionalized Establishments: Urban-Rural Inequalities in China's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mei; Yang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    China's urban-rural disparities are a fundamental source of China's overall educational inequalities. This article addresses the issue with data collected through interviews with members at various Chinese higher education institutions. It interrogates China's current policies together with the socio-political institutional arrangements that…

  7. Higher Education as Modulator of Gender Inequalities: Evidence of the Spanish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, José Manuel; Peraita, Carlos; Soler, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Raising educational levels may help to reduce inequalities between men and women in certain social and economic aspects. Using statistics for Spain, we analyse labour market behaviours such as the rates of activity and unemployment by sex according to the educational level. The results reveal that the differences between men and women decrease as…

  8. Regional Inequality of Higher Education in China and the Role of Unequal Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickenbach, Frank; Liu, Wan-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the scale of higher education in China has expanded substantially. Regional development policies have attempted to make use of scale expansion as a tool to reduce inequality of higher education among regions with different development levels by providing poor regions with preferential treatment and support. This paper analyzes…

  9. There's a New -gogy in Town: Say Goodbye to Educational Inequality and Injustice with Senegogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginley, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    For the "Baby Boomer" generation, there exists inequality and injustice in education, both in dollars spent on education/programs and in amount of study devoted to their learning needs. "When the first baby boomers turned 65 in 2011, there were just under 77 million baby boomers in the population" (Colby & Ortman, 2014).…

  10. Multiple Embedded Inequalities and Cultural Diversity in Educational Systems: A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the social construction of cultural diversity in education, with a view to social justice. It examines how educational systems organize ethno-cultural difference and how this process contributes to inequalities. Theoretical resources are drawn from social philosophy as well as from recent developments in social organisation…

  11. "Capital Cities Centrism" as the Cause of Social Inequality in the Russian System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latova, N. V.; Latov, Iu. V.

    2013-01-01

    Social inequality in access to superior quality higher education in Russia is due to the unequal development of the regions of Russia. The country's two biggest cities and the areas adjacent to them account for a quarter of Russia's infrastructure that offers young people an access to a higher education. The regional colleges and universities in…

  12. Standardization of Lower Secondary Civic Education and Inequality of the Civic and Political Engagement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witschge, Jacqueline; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between the standardization of civic education and the inequality of civic engagement is examined. Using data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2009 among early adolescents and Eurydice country-level data, three-level analysis and variance function regression are applied to examine whether…

  13. The Rise and Fall of Worldwide Education Inequality from 1870 to 2010: Measurement and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.

    2013-01-01

    This research documents long-run trends in between-country education inequality and proposes a method for doing so that accounts for the ways in which most education variables differ from continuous variables such as income. Historical, national-level estimates of primary schooling enrollment rates and years of completed primary, secondary, and…

  14. Language Education Policies and Inequality in Africa: Cross-National Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between inequality and education through the lens of colonial language education policies in African primary and secondary school curricula. The languages of former colonizers almost always occupy important places in society, yet they are not widely spoken as first languages, meaning that most people depend…

  15. Inequality and Doctoral Education: Exploring the "Rules" of Doctoral Study through Bourdieu's Notion of Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…

  16. Learning to Plunder: Global Education, Global Inequality and the Global City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannock, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Most research and policy discussions of education in the global city have focused on the ways in which globalization and the emergence of global or globalizing cities can create social, economic and educational inequality locally, within the global city itself. Global cities, however, are, by definition, powerful places, where the core…

  17. Inequalities of Multilingualism: Challenges to Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupas, Ruanni

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses structural and ideological challenges to mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) which has in recent years been gaining ground in many educational contexts around the world. The paper argues, however, that MTB-MLE is set against these challenges - referred to here as inequalities of multilingualism - which prevent…

  18. Explaining Social Class Inequalities in Educational Achievement in the UK: Quantifying the Contribution of Social Class Differences in School "Effectiveness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Graham

    2016-01-01

    There are large social class inequalities in educational achievement in the UK. This paper quantifies the contribution of one mechanism to the production of these inequalities: social class differences in school "effectiveness," where "effectiveness" refers to a school's impact on pupils' educational achievement (relative to…

  19. Educational Inequalities in Health Behaviors at Midlife: Is There a Role for Early-life Cognition?

    PubMed

    Clouston, Sean A P; Richards, Marcus; Cadar, Dorina; Hofer, Scott M

    2015-09-01

    Education is a fundamental cause of social inequalities in health because it influences the distribution of resources, including money, knowledge, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections, that can be used in situ to influence health. Recent studies have highlighted early-life cognition as commonly indicating the propensity for educational attainment and determining health and age of mortality. Health behaviors provide a plausible mechanism linking both education and cognition to later-life health and mortality. We examine the role of education and cognition in predicting smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity at midlife using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 10,317), National Survey of Health and Development (N = 5,362), and National Childhood Development Study (N = 16,782). Adolescent cognition was associated with education but was inconsistently associated with health behaviors. Education, however, was robustly associated with improved health behaviors after adjusting for cognition. Analyses highlight structural inequalities over individual capabilities when studying health behaviors.

  20. Income inequality and educational assortative mating: Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, David

    2015-07-01

    Though extensive research has explored the prevalence of educational assortative mating, what causes its variation across countries and over time is not well understood. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study Database, I investigate the hypothesis that assortative mating by income is influenced by income inequality between educational strata. I find that in countries with greater returns to education, the odds of any sort of union that crosses educational boundaries is substantially reduced. However, I do not find substantial evidence of an effect of changes in returns to education on marital sorting within countries. Educational and labor market parity between males and females appear to be negatively related to marital sorting.

  1. Inclusive Pedagogy: A Transformative Approach to Individual Differences but Can It Help Reduce Educational Inequalities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 SERA Lecture provides an overview of the concept of inclusive pedagogy, a distinctive approach to classroom teaching offering an alternative pedagogical approach that has the potential to reduce educational inequality by enhancing learning opportunities for everyone. Inclusive pedagogy focuses on improving the quality of mainstream…

  2. Inequality of Higher Education in China: An Empirical Test Based on the Perspective of Relative Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to examine what makes Chinese college students dissatisfied with entrance opportunities for higher education. Based on the author's survey data, we test two parameters which could be a potential cause of this dissatisfaction: 1) distributive inequality, which emphasizes the individual's dissatisfaction caused by…

  3. Curriculum Differentiation and Social Inequality in Higher Education Entry in Scotland and Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannelli, Cristina; Smyth, Emer; Klein, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of upper secondary subject choice and attainment in explaining social inequalities in access to higher education (HE) in Scotland and Ireland. These two countries differ in the extent of curriculum differentiation, in the degree of standardisation in school examination and in HE entry criteria. In…

  4. Challenging Gender Inequalities in Education and in Working Life--A Mission Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunila, Kristiina; Ylöstalo, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with challenging the gender inequalities that exist in education and working life. It contemplates the kinds of discursive power relations that have led to gender equality work in Finland. In today's conditions where equality issues are being harnessed more strongly to serve the aims of economic efficiency and productivity, it…

  5. Cultural Capital or Habitus? Bourdieu and beyond in the Explanation of Enduring Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Jason D.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for Bourdieu's social reproduction theory and its contributions to understanding educational inequality has been relatively mixed. Critics discount the usefulness of core concepts such as cultural capital and habitus and most studies invoking these concepts have focused only on one or the other, often conflating the two, to the…

  6. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lynch, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764,…

  7. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  8. Inequalities in Entry to Higher Education: A Comparison over Time between Scotland and England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannelli, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Scottish School Leavers Surveys and the England and Wales Youth Cohort Study to analyse changes over time in gender and social class inequalities in the opportunities of young people to participate in higher education (HE) in Scotland, England and Wales. The results show that in Great Britain, in the period from the…

  9. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  10. Literacy, Education, and Inequality: Assimilation and Resistance Narratives from Families Residing at a Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on data from my qualitative dissertation study of the literacy practices of five families who resided in a homeless shelter to complicate the relationship between literacy, education, and inequality. Homelessness is examined through the lens of sponsorship to understand the differential access the families have to powerful…

  11. Dynamics of Inequalities in Access to Higher Education: Bulgaria in a Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya; Boyadjieva, Pepka

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the dynamics of inequalities in access to higher education (HE) both in a historical and a comparative perspective. It uses Bulgaria as a case study and places it among five other countries such as Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The adopted approach differentiates between equity in HE and inequalities…

  12. Theorizing Racial Inequity in Special Education: Applying Structural Inequity Theory to Disproportionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Artiles, Alfredo J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research examining the disproportionate representation of racial minority students in special education, our understanding of the complexity of disproportionality remains incomplete and much of the previous research was designed without a clear theoretical framework. This exploratory study applied a structural theoretical lens…

  13. Education policies and health inequalities: evidence from changes in the distribution of Body Mass Index in France, 1981-2003.

    PubMed

    Etile, Fabrice

    2014-03-01

    This paper contributes to the debate over the effectiveness of education policies in reducing overall health inequalities as compared to public health actions directed at the less-educated. Recentered Influence Function (RIF) regressions are used to decompose the contribution of education to the changing distribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) in France, between 1981 and 2003, into a composition effect (the shift in population education due to a massive educational expansion), and a structure effect (a changing educational gradient in BMI). Educational expansion has reduced overall BMI inequality by 3.4% for women and 2.3% for men. However, the structure effect on its own has produced a 10.9% increase in overall inequality for women, due to a steeper education gradient starting from the second quartile of the distribution. This structure effect on overall inequality is also large (7.6%) for men, albeit insignificant as it remains concentrated in the last decile. Educational expansion policies can thus reduce overall BMI inequalities; but attention must still be paid to the BMI gradient in education even for policies addressing overall rather than socioeconomic health inequalities.

  14. Knowing How to Feel about the Other? Student Teachers, and the Contingent Role of Embodiments in Educational Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitching, Karl; O'Brien, Stephen; Long, Fiachra; Conway, Paul F.; Murphy, Rosaleen; Hall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores affective dimensions to the positioning of teachers within persistent educational inequalities. Drawing on Sara Ahmed's concept of "affective economies", we argue that inequalities are not maintained through how teachers and student teachers "feel about" "different" students per se. Rather, the…

  15. What Are the Causes of Educational Inequality and of Its Evolution over Time in Europe? Evidence from PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppedisano, Veruska; Turati, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the sources of differences in inequality in educational scores and their evolution over time in four European countries. Using Programme for International Student Assessment data from the 2000 and the 2006 waves, the paper shows that inequality decreased in Germany and Spain (two "decentralised" schooling…

  16. Anatomies of Inequality: Considering the Emotional Cost of Aiming Higher for Marginalised, Mature Mothers Re-Entering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannay, Dawn; Morgan, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    The "Anatomy of Economic Inequality in Wales" (2011) provides quantitative evidence for the pervasive nature of class-based inequalities in education, demonstrating that an individual in social housing is approximately 10 times less likely to be a graduate compared to those in other types of accommodation. This article moves beyond the…

  17. Sociopolitical Change and Inequality of Educational Opportunities: Influences of Family Background and Institutional Factors on the Acquisition of Education (1940-2001)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunling, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the influences of family background and institutional factors on the acquisition of education (1940-2001) and demonstrates that the increase or decrease in the inequality of educational opportunity allocations are closely linked to the government's relevant policies. The rapid growth of the inequality in educational…

  18. Inequality/difference in education: is a real explanation of primary and secondary effects possible?

    PubMed

    Nash, Roy

    2003-12-01

    The persistence of social disparities in educational achievement in contemporary societies is a matter of concern to social theory. Sociology of education has distinguished between the primary and secondary effects of socialization in order to construct explanatory theories of inequality of educational opportunity. Empirical evidence from the recent OECD PISA research is analysed to suggest that causes of the primary effect are the most important. The case is made with close reference to Goldthorpe's attempt to provide a rational action model of social disparities in education. An approach informed by scientific realism is held to offer a more adequate explanation.

  19. Education-related inequity in healthcare with heterogeneous reporting of health

    PubMed Central

    d’Uva, Teresa Bago; Lindeboom, Maarten; O’Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Summary Reliance on self-rated health to proxy medical need can bias estimation of education-related inequity in healthcare utilization. We correct this bias both by instrumenting self-rated health with objective health indicators and by purging self-rated health of reporting heterogeneity that is identified from health vignettes. Using data on elderly Europeans, we find that instrumenting self-rated health shifts the distribution of visits to a doctor in the direction of inequality favouring the better educated. There is a further, and typically larger, shift in the same direction when correction is made for the tendency of the better educated to rate their health more negatively. PMID:21938140

  20. Changing Educational Inequalities in India in the Context of Affirmative Action

    PubMed Central

    DESAI, SONALDE; KULKARNI, VEENA

    2008-01-01

    Indian society suffers from substantial inequalities in education, employment, and income based on caste and ethnicity. Compensatory or positive discrimination policies reserve 15% of the seats in institutions of higher education and state and central government jobs for people of the lowest caste, the Scheduled Caste; 7.5% of the seats are reserved for the Scheduled Tribe. These programs have been strengthened by improved enforcement and increased funding in the 1990s. This positive discrimination has also generated popular backlash and on-the-ground sabotage of the programs. This paper examines the changes in educational attainment between various social groups for a period of nearly 20 years to see whether educational inequalities have declined over time. We use data from a large national sample survey of over 100,000 households for each of the four survey years—1983, 1987–1988, 1993–1994, and 1999–2000—and focus on the educational attainment of children and young adults aged 6–29. Our results show a declining gap between dalits, adivasis, and others in the odds of completing primary school. Such improvement is not seen for Muslims, a minority group that does not benefit from affirmative action. We find little improvement in inequality at the college level. Further, we do not find evidence that upper-income groups, the so-called creamy layer of dalits and adivasis, disproportionately benefit from the affirmative action programs at the expense of their lower-income counterparts. PMID:18613480

  1. Changing educational inequalities in India in the context of affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sonalde; Kulkarni, Veena

    2008-05-01

    Indian society suffers from substantial inequalities in education, employment, and income based on caste and ethnicity. Compensatory or positive discrimination policies reserve 15% of the seats in institutions of higher education and state and central government jobs for people of the lowest caste, the Scheduled Caste; 7.5% of the seats are reserved for the Scheduled Tribe. These programs have been strengthened by improved enforcement and increased funding in the 1990s. This positive discrimination has also generated popular backlash and on-the-ground sabotage of the programs. This paper examines the changes in educational attainment between various social groups for a period of nearly 20 years to see whether educational inequalities have declined over time. We use data from a large national sample survey of over 100,000 households for each of the four survey years--1983, 1987-1988, 1993-1994, and 1999-2000--and focus on the educational attainment of children and young adults aged 6-29. Our results show a declining gap between dalits, adivasis, and others in the odds of completing primary school. Such improvement is not seen for Muslims, a minority group that does not benefit from affirmative action. We find little improvement in inequality at the college level. Further, we do not find evidence that upper-income groups, the so-called creamy layer of dalits and adivasis, disproportionately benefit from the affirmative action programs at the expense of their lower-income counterparts.

  2. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  3. Educational Inequality and Social Justice: Challenges for Career Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The article provides a multiperspective approach to educational careers. It first discusses social justice issues in the distribution of the crucial individual and social good of education. It then summarizes core findings of recent international research on processes and factors generating social disparities in the acquisition of education. Based…

  4. Educational Inequality and the Latino Population of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Batiz, Francisco L.

    2008-01-01

    This research report examines the comparative educational condition of Latinos in the United States. The report discusses the dramatic shortfalls that plague the educational outcomes of Latinos relative to other racial and ethnic groups. The outcomes studied include educational attainment, school and university enrollment, basic cognitive skills,…

  5. Inequality in Education, Number 18, October 1974: Sex Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Center for Law and Education.

    The contents of this volume published by the Center for Law and Education, which was established to protect and advance the legal interests of the poor through research and action on the legal implications of educational policies, include the following articles: "Introduction" and "Sexism in Public Education: Litigation…

  6. Population increase, economic growth, educational inequality, and income distribution: some recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Ram, R

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between population increase, economic growth, education and income inequality was examined in a cross-section study based on data from 26 developing and 2 developed countries. As other studies have noted, high population growth is associated with a less equal income distribution. A 1 percentage point reduction in the rate of population growth tends to raise the income share of the poorest 80% in the less developed world by almost 5 percentage points and is associated with a 1.7 percentage point increase in the income share of the poorest 40%. The relationship between short-run income growth and equality, on the other hand, is strong and positive. Estimates suggest that a 1 percentage point increase in the short-run rate of growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) increases the income share of the bottom 80% by about 2 percentage points and that of the poorest 40% by almost 1 percentage point. Although higher mean schooling appears to be a mild equalizer, educational inequality does not appear to have an adverse effect on income distribution. Overall, these results challenge the widely held belief that there must be a growth-equity trade-off. Moreover, they suggest that the impact of educational inequality on income distribution may be different from that observed in earlier studies, implying a need for caution in using these earlier results as a basis for educational policy development.

  7. Adjusting Inequality: Education and Structural Adjustment Policies in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2005-01-01

    International economic forces increasingly affect policy at multiple levels and in multiple domains. The interplay of three levels--international, national, and local--are underresearched in the social and educational policy fields, which includes educational policy studies. In this article, Frances Vavrus employs ethnography to investigate how…

  8. Educational Quasi-Markets, School Effectiveness and Social Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumay, Xavier; Dupriez, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the figure of the market has clearly made its way into the field of education. For some authors, it represents an alternative to regulation by the public authorities, a different form of co-ordination which is better able to meet the objectives of the education systems. Through a secondary analysis of the PISA 2006…

  9. Racism and Racial Inequality: Implications for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sabrina Hope, Ed.; Castenell, Louis A., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines issues related to the preparation of teachers to effectively educate all children, regardless of differences. After "Introduction" (Sabrina Hope King and Louis A. Castenell, Jr.), the six papers include: (1) "The Criticality of Racism in Education at the Dawn of the New Millennium" (Beverly M.…

  10. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  11. The Price of Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the key problems of educational equality -- equality of opportunities and inequality of performance; individual differences vs. group differences, coping with group inequality -- are made explicit. (Author/KM)

  12. Decomposing Educational Inequalities in Child Mortality: A Temporal Trend Analysis of Access to Water and Sanitation in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bohra, Tasneem; Benmarhnia, Tarik; McKinnon, Britt; Kaufman, Jay S

    2017-01-11

    Previous studies of inequality in health and mortality have largely focused on income-based inequality. Maternal education plays an important role in determining access to water and sanitation, and inequalities in child mortality arising due to differential access, especially in low- and middle-income countries such as Peru. This article aims to explain education-related inequalities in child mortality in Peru using a regression-based decomposition of the concentration index of child mortality. The analysis combines a concentration index created along a cumulative distribution of the Demographic and Health Surveys sample ranked according to maternal education, and decomposition measures the contribution of water and sanitation to educational inequalities in child mortality. We observed a large education-related inequality in child mortality and access to water and sanitation. There is a need for programs and policies in child health to focus on ensuring equity and to consider the educational stratification of the population to target the most disadvantaged segments of the population.

  13. Child Welfare, Education, Inequality, and Social Policy in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusarelli, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    Using international data on child well-being and educational attainment, this article compares child well-being in the United States to member countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multiple measures of child well-being are analyzed, such as material well-being (including poverty, unemployment, and income…

  14. Economic Crisis and Inequality of Educational Opportunity in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torche, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Research in the industrialized world shows that the influence of family background on educational attainment has remained stable or declined over time. In contrast, very little is known about the developing world. Using high-quality data sets and a standard protocol, this article offers a comparative analysis of trends in educational…

  15. Qualitative Inequality: Experiences of Women in Ethiopian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the lived experiences of women in Ethiopian higher education (HE) as a counterpoint to understandings of gender equity informed only by data on admission, progression and completions rates. Drawing on a critical qualitative inquiry approach, we analyse and interpret data drawn from focus group discussions with female students…

  16. Educational Reforms Can Reproduce Societal Inequities: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheurich, James Joseph; Imber, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Reports a case study illustrating how one school district's reform efforts replicate the unequal distribution of knowledge, power, and resources by race and class that occurs in society. Discusses three dominant patterns in education organizational change theory (functionalism, culturalism, and critical theory) and suggests more equitable paths to…

  17. Educational Attainment across the UK Nations: Performance, Inequality and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra; Wyness, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Political devolution occurred in the UK in 1998-99, following many years in which some degree of policy administration had been devolved to the four nations. Since devolution, all four countries of the UK have pursued increasingly divergent education policies. This is true in England in particular, where diversity, choice and…

  18. Financial Inequity in Basic Education in Selected OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Mizunoya, Suguru; You, You; Tsang, Mun

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of financial disparities in primary and secondary education in OECD countries that have a relatively large population and a school finance system with decentralized features. These countries include the United States, Britain, Australia, Spain, Canada, and Japan. There are two major research questions: What are the trends in…

  19. The Economics of Inequality: The Value of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Educational equity is often discussed as a moral issue. Another way to think about equity is as a way to promote productivity and economic efficiency. Traditionally, equity and efficiency are viewed as competing goals. One can be fair in devising a policy, but it often happens that what is fair is not economically efficient. Conversely, what is…

  20. The Economics of Inequality: The Value of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Educational equity is often discussed as a moral issue. Another way to think about equity is as a way to promote productivity and economic efficiency. Traditionally, equity and efficiency are viewed as competing goals. One can be fair in devising a policy, but often what is fair is not economically efficient. Conversely, what is efficient may not…

  1. Inequalities in Lifelong Learning and Adult University Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmas, Aristotelis; Sipitanou, Athina A.

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, the views of the European Union (E.U.) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (O.E.C.D.) are examined in relation to the issue of lifelong learning, as well as the challenges that render the reconstruction of the national educational systems essential. Following, it is pointed out that access to lifelong learning…

  2. Addressing Educational Inequities for Latino Students: The Politics of "Forgetting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Minority access to higher education was dealt a blow in 1995 when the University of California Regents passed a resolution barring consideration of race or ethnicity in admissions. The university responded to the severe decline in minority enrollment by supporting "outreach" programs, such as Puente, but "forgot" its promise of support when state…

  3. Educational inequality by race in Brazil, 1982-2007: structural changes and shifts in racial classification.

    PubMed

    Marteleto, Leticia J

    2012-02-01

    Despite overwhelming improvements in educational levels and opportunity during the past three decades, educational disadvantages associated with race still persist in Brazil. Using the nationally representative Pesquisa Nacional de Amostra por Domicílio (PNAD) data from 1982 and 1987 to 2007, this study investigates educational inequalities between white, pardo (mixed-race), and black Brazilians over the 25-year period. Although the educational advantage of whites persisted during this period, I find that the significance of race as it relates to education changed. By 2007, those identified as blacks and pardos became more similar in their schooling levels, whereas in the past, blacks had greater disadvantages. I test two possible explanations for this shift: structural changes and shifts in racial classification. I find evidence for both. I discuss the findings in light of the recent race-based affirmative action policies being implemented in Brazilian universities.

  4. `Membership Has Its Privileges': Status Incentives and Categorical Inequality in Education

    PubMed Central

    Domina, Thurston; Penner, Andrew M.; Penner, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Prizes – formal systems that publicly allocate rewards for exemplary behavior – play an increasingly important role in a wide array of social settings, including education. In this paper, we evaluate a prize system designed to boost achievement at two high schools by assigning students color-coded ID cards based on a previously low stakes test. Average student achievement on this test increased in the ID card schools beyond what one would expect from contemporaneous changes in neighboring schools. However, regression discontinuity analyses indicate that the program created new inequalities between students who received low-status and high-status ID cards. These findings indicate that status-based incentives create categorical inequalities between prize winners and others even as they reorient behavior toward the goals they reward. PMID:27213170

  5. Measuring the global information society – explaining digital inequality by economic level and education standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünver, H.

    2017-02-01

    A main focus of this research paper is to investigate on the explanation of the ‘digital inequality’ or ‘digital divide’ by economic level and education standard of about 150 countries worldwide. Inequality regarding GDP per capita, literacy and the so-called UN Education Index seem to be important factors affecting ICT usage, in particular Internet penetration, mobile phone usage and also mobile Internet services. Empirical methods and (multivariate) regression analysis with linear and non-linear functions are useful methods to measure some crucial factors of a country or culture towards becoming information and knowledge based society. Overall, the study concludes that the convergence regarding ICT usage proceeds worldwide faster than the convergence in terms of economic wealth and education in general. The results based on a large data analysis show that the digital divide is declining over more than a decade between 2000 and 2013, since more people worldwide use mobile phones and the Internet. But a high digital inequality explained to a significant extent by the functional relation between technology penetration rates, education level and average income still exists. Furthermore it supports the actions of countries at UN/G20/OECD level for providing ICT access to all people for a more balanced world in context of sustainable development by postulating that policymakers need to promote comprehensive education worldwide by means of using ICT.

  6. A Multination Study of Socioeconomic Inequality in Expectations for Progression to Higher Education: The Role of Between-School Tracking and Ability Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Jerrim, John; Schoon, Ingrid; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent inequalities in educational expectations across societies are a growing concern. Recent research has explored the extent to which inequalities in education are due to primary effects (i.e., achievement differentials) versus secondary effects (i.e., choice behaviors net of achievement). We explore educational expectations in order to…

  7. Welfare state retrenchment and increasing mental health inequality by educational credentials in Finland: a multicohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinen, Lauri; Muntaner, Carles; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies have shown an association between educational credentials and mental disorders, but have not offered any explanation for the varying strength of this association in different historical contexts. In this study, we investigate the education-specific trends in hospitalisation due to psychiatric disorders in Finnish working-age men and women between 1976 and 2010, and offer a welfare state explanation for the secular trends found. Setting Population-based setting with a 25% random sample of the population aged 30–65 years in 7 independent consecutive cohorts (1976–1980, 1981–1985, 1986–1990, 1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, 2006–2010). Participants Participants were randomly selected from the Statistics Finland population database (n=2 865 746). These data were linked to diagnosis-specific records on hospitalisations, drawn from the National Hospital Discharge Registry using personal identification numbers. Employment rates by educational credentials were drawn from the Statistics Finland employment database. Primary and secondary outcome measures Hospitalisation and employment. Results We found an increasing trend in psychiatric hospitalisation rates among the population with only an elementary school education, and a decreasing trend in those with higher educational credentials. The employment rate of the population with only an elementary school education decreased more than that of those with higher educational credentials. Conclusions We propose that restricted employment opportunities are the main mechanism behind the increased educational inequality in hospitalisation for psychiatric disorders, while several secondary mechanisms (lack of outpatient healthcare services, welfare cuts, decreased alcohol duty) further accelerated the diverging long-term trends. All of these inequality-increasing mechanisms were activated by welfare state retrenchment, which included the liberalisation of financial markets and

  8. Early Childhood Education and Care in a Context of Social Heterogeneity and Inequality. Empirical Notes on an Interdisciplinary Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoyerer, Gabriel; van Santen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Against a background of increasing inequality and its impact at various levels on childhood and family life, of the growing societal significance and uptake of extra-familial childcare provision, and of social policy goals emphasising participation and education for all, the early childhood education and care (ECEC) sector in Germany is facing new…

  9. The Politics of Languages in Education: Issues of Access, Social Participation and Inequality in the Multilingual Context of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamim, Tayyaba

    2014-01-01

    This paper, based on some findings of a wider three-year study, sets forth the issue of languages used and taught in education as a dimension of inequality and highlights its implications for widening participation and access in the multilingual context of Pakistan. The paper takes secondary education in private and government schools in Pakistan…

  10. Missing XX Chromosomes or Gender In/equity in Design and Technology Education? The Case of British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braundy, Marcia; O'Riley, Pat; Petrina, Stephen; Dalley, Stephen; Paxton, Anabelle

    2000-01-01

    Presents data demonstrating the disproportionately low numbers of female technology teachers, teacher educators, and students in British Columbia. Discusses recruiting inequities, history of gendering in industrial technology classrooms, and resistance to gender-specific interventions. Outlines a technology education curriculum for all students.…

  11. Inequalities in Educational Resources: Their Impact on Minorities and the Poor in Texas and California. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brischetto, Robert; Arciniega, Tomas A.

    This research effort examines inequalities in educational input resources among school systems in Texas and California in light of the Rodriguez and Serrano court cases. Low-income families in both states were found to be in districts of low per-pupil-Expenditures and inferior educational services primarily because they are located in districts…

  12. The Accommodation of Children and Young People in Kyrgyzstan by the System of Education, and the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiuliundieva, N.

    2006-01-01

    Kyrgyzstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union, traditionally occupied a relatively high position in the world from the standpoint of the average level of education of its population. Any gender inequality when it came to obtaining an education was insignificant by international standards. However, the conversion to market relations,…

  13. Inequality and inequity.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François

    2017-02-01

    Kelley and Evans (2017) found that income inequality (measured at the societal level) did not affect individual well-being in advanced societies but increased individual well-being in developing societies. This paper discusses how this empirical patterning of the inequality-well-being relationship may arise from mechanisms related to the relationship of inequality with economic development (at the macro-sociological level) and to the evolution of emotional reactions to inequality (at the individual-psychological level).

  14. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Clemens, Tom; Costa, Giuseppe; Dibben, Chris; Kalediene, Ramune; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Östergren, Olof; Prochorskas, Remigijus; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Looman, Caspar W N; de Gelder, Rianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively). Setting All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Turin), Slovenia, and Lithuania. Results Substantial mortality declines occurred in lower socioeconomic groups in most European countries covered by this study. Relative inequalities in mortality widened almost universally, because percentage declines were usually smaller in lower socioeconomic groups. However, as absolute declines were often smaller in higher socioeconomic groups, absolute inequalities narrowed by up to 35%, particularly among men. Narrowing was partly driven by ischaemic heart disease, smoking related causes, and causes amenable to medical intervention. Progress in reducing absolute inequalities was greatest in Spain (Barcelona), Scotland, England and Wales, and Italy (Turin), and absent in Finland and Norway. More detailed studies preferably using individual level data are necessary to identify the causes of these variations. Conclusions Over the past two decades, trends in inequalities in mortality have been more favourable in most European countries than is commonly assumed. Absolute inequalities have decreased in several countries, probably

  15. Trends in health inequalities by educational level in a Norwegian total population study

    PubMed Central

    Krokstad, S; Kunst, A; Westin, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe levels of inequality and trends in self reported morbidity by educational level in a total Norwegian county population in the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. Design: Two cross sectional health surveys at an interval of 10 years in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT I (1984–86) and HUNT II (1995–97). Setting: Primary health care, total county population study. Participants: Men and women, 25–69 years. Main results: There was a consistent pattern of increasing self reported health problems with decreasing educational level for three health variables: perceived health, any longstanding health problem, and having a chronic condition. A stable or slight decrease in inequalities over time was found. The prevalence odds ratio for perceived health less than good were 2.71 for men (95% confidence intervals (CI): 2.39 to 3.09) and 2.13 for women (95% CI: 1.85 to 2.46) in the first survey, 2.51 for men (95% CI: 2.27 to 2.78) and 2.06 for women (95% CI: 1.88 to 2.26) 10 years later. Conclusions: The magnitude of the socioeconomic gradients in health in this population seemed somewhat lower than in Norway as a whole and close to the average in studies from other European countries. There was a slight trend towards smaller differences despite rapid structural changes in working life, turbulence in economy, and more people experiencing unemployment. PMID:11964436

  16. Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Deboosere, Patrick; Kovács, Katalin; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Leinsalu, Mall; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtaříková, Jitka; de Gelder, Rianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time. Methods and Findings We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3–4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2–118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of

  17. Measuring distributional inequality: relative body mass index distributions by gender, race/ethnicity, and education, United States (1999-2006).

    PubMed

    Houle, Brian C

    2010-01-01

    Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). Data from 1999-2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups) effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  18. Financial Inequality in Higher Education: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Saranna

    2007-01-01

    Financial inequality is growing in U.S. higher education. In this report, the author observes increasing differences between the endowments of rich and poor institutions, between the salaries of college and university presidents and their faculties, between the salaries of athletic coaches and professors, and between well and poorly compensated…

  19. Towards a Theoretical Framework for the Comparative Understanding of Globalisation, Higher Education, the Labour Market and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical examination of three major empirical trends that affect many people: globalisation, increasingly close relations between higher education (HE) and labour markets, and increasing social inequality. Its aim is to identify key theoretical resources and their contribution to the development of a comparative theoretical…

  20. An Investigation into the Relationship between the 1997 Universal Primary Education (UPE) Policy and Regional Poverty and Educational Inequalities in Uganda (1997-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekaju, John

    2012-01-01

    Past research has addressed the disparities in educational achievement for primary year seven school leavers in Uganda but it did not take into account the multidimensional perspectives: those on poverty (as reported by the poor) and on educational inequalities between and within regions, particularly with regard to the impacts of the 1997…

  1. Educational inequalities in premature mortality in Poland, 2002–2011: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pikala, Małgorzata; Burzyn´ska, Monika; Pikala, Robert; Bryła, Marek; Maniecka-Bryła, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to evaluate the differences in premature mortality between educational groups of Polish inhabitants in 2002 and 2011. Methods The analysis included all deaths among inhabitants of Poland, aged 25–64 years, which occurred in 2002 (N=97 004) and 2011 (N=104 598). We calculated age-standardised death rates (SDRs) and summary measures on inequalities. The relative index of inequality (RII) was calculated with Poisson regression. Results The SDR for Poland decreased from 285.7 per 100 000 in 2002 to 246.0 in 2011 among males with higher education and increased from 1141.0 in 2002 to 1183.0 in 2011 among males with lower secondary or less education (the rate ratio increased from 4.0 to 4.8). With regard to females with higher education, the SDR decreased from 127.2 per 100 000 in 2002 to 115.6 in 2011. Among females with lower secondary or less education, the SDR increased from 375.8 per 100 000 in 2002 to 423.1 in 2011 (the rate ratio increased from 3.0 to 3.7). The RII increased from 5.8 to 9.7 in the male group and from 4.4 to 8.3 in the female group. The greatest educational inequalities in 2011 were observed in females who died of cardiovascular diseases (RII=14.9) and lung cancer (RII=6.6) and in males who died of suicides (RII=19.3) and lung cancer (RII=11.9). Conclusions Educational inequalities in premature mortality in Poland are growing. There is a need to implement health education programmes targeted at groups of the most poorly educated Polish inhabitants, especially for diseases resulting from smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:27678532

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality: a population-based comparative study of 12 European countries.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall; Kunst, Anton E; Bopp, Matthias; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Martikainen, Pekka; Lundberg, Olle; Kovács, Katalin; Artnik, Barbara; Kalediene, Ramune; Rychtaříková, Jitka; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2012-11-01

    Recent research has suggested that violent mortality may be socially patterned and a potentially important source of health inequalities within and between countries. Against this background the current study assessed socioeconomic inequalities in homicide mortality across Europe. To do this, longitudinal and cross-sectional data were obtained from mortality registers and population censuses in 12 European countries. Educational level was used to indicate socioeconomic position. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for post, upper and lower secondary or less educational groups. The magnitude of inequalities was assessed using the relative and slope index of inequality. The analysis focused on the 35-64 age group. Educational inequalities in homicide mortality were present in all countries. Absolute inequalities in homicide mortality were larger in the eastern part of Europe and in Finland, consistent with their higher overall homicide rates. They contributed 2.5% at most (in Estonia) to the inequalities in total mortality. Relative inequalities were high in the northern and eastern part of Europe, but were low in Belgium, Switzerland and Slovenia. Patterns were less consistent among women. Socioeconomic inequalities in homicide are thus a universal phenomenon in Europe. Wide-ranging social and inter-sectoral health policies are now needed to address the risk of violent victimization that target both potential offenders and victims.

  3. Freeing up Teachers to Learn: A Case Study of Teacher Autonomy as a Tool for Reducing Educational Inequalities in a Montessori School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Martyn

    2016-01-01

    A major factor influencing the potential for schools to address inequalities is the freedom that teachers have to reflect and to act to address those inequalities. This article describes how an education system that emphasises the informal and qualitative can leave greater room for teachers to develop themselves and to focus on the direct task of…

  4. The Needs of the Highly Able and the Needs of Society: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of Talent Differentiation and Its Significance to Gifted Education and Issues of Societal Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2014-01-01

    Does gifted education affect societal inequality, and does societal inequality suppress and/or distort the development of high ability? Drawing from several academic disciplines and current political discourse, a differentiated use of terms used to describe the highly able is explored in this article. A social evolutionary framework is proposed as…

  5. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories.

    PubMed

    Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose-response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population.

  6. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories

    PubMed Central

    Arcaya, Mariana C.; Arcaya, Alyssa L.; Subramanian, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose–response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26112142

  7. CROSS-NATIONAL SOURCES OF HEALTH INEQUALITY: EDUCATION AND TOBACCO USE IN THE WORLD HEALTH SURVEY*

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Denney, Justin T.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of tobacco use from the West to other parts of the world, especially among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups, raises concerns not only about the indisputable harm to global health but also about worsening health inequality. Arguments relating to economic cost and diffusion posit that rising educational disparities in tobacco use—and associated disparities in health and premature mortality—are associated with higher national income and more advanced stages of cigarette diffusion, particularly among younger persons and males. To test these arguments, we use World Health Survey data for 99,661 men and 123,953 women from 50 low-income to upper-middle-income nations. Multilevel logistic regression models show that increases in national income and cigarette diffusion widen educational disparities in smoking among young persons and men, but have weaker influences among older persons and women. The results suggest that the social and economic patterns of cigarette adoption across low- and middle-income nations foretell continuing, perhaps widening disparities in mortality. PMID:21491184

  8. The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…

  9. Implications of Massive Open Online Courses for Higher Education: Mitigating or Reifying Educational Inequities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literat, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of massive open online courses (MOOCs) has stirred a fervent debate about global access to higher education. While some commentators praise MOOCs for expanding educational opportunities in a more open and accessible fashion, others criticize this trend as a threat to current models of higher education and a low-quality substitute…

  10. An Analysis of Educational Inequality in Taiwan after the Higher Education Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Hung A.; Yang, Chih-Hai

    2009-01-01

    Two major educational expansions in Taiwan have resulted in a remarkable improvement of human capital accumulation for the last three decades, which is consistent with the long-run goal of education in improving individual well-being and international competitiveness. This study focuses on the expansion of higher education starting from the late…

  11. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

  12. How Pronounced Is Income Inequality around the World--and How Can Education Help Reduce It? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    How pronounced is income inequality around the world--and how can education help reduce it? This paper reports the following: (1) Across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, the average income of the richest 10% of the population was about nine times that of the poorest 10% before the onset of the global economic…

  13. Welfare state regime life courses: the development of western European welfare state regimes and age-related patterns of educational inequalities in self-reported health.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Eikemo, Terje A

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data from three waves of the European Social Survey (2002, 2004, 2006) to compare educational inequalities in self-reported health (good vs. bad) and limiting longstanding illness in six age groups based on decade of birth (1930s-1980s) in 17 countries, categorized into four welfare state regimes (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Scandinavian, Southern). The authors hypothesized that health inequalities in these age groups would vary because of their different welfare state experiences-welfare state regime life courses-both temporally, in terms of different phases of welfare state development (inequalities smaller among older people), and spatially, in terms of welfare state regime type (inequalities smaller among older Scandinavians). The findings are that inequalities in health tended to increase, not decrease, with age. Similarly, inequalities in health were not smallest in the Scandinavian regime or among the older Scandinavian cohorts. In keeping with the rest of the literature, the Bismarckian and Southern regimes had smaller educational inequalities in health. Longitudinal analysis that integrates wider public health factors or makes smaller comparisons may be a more productive way of analyzing cross-national variations in health inequalities and their relationship to welfare state life courses.

  14. Widening Income Inequalities: Higher Education's Role in Serving Low Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…

  15. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  16. Occupation and educational inequalities in laryngeal cancer: the use of a job index

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies tried to assess the association between socioeconomic status and laryngeal cancer. Alcohol and tobacco consumption explain already a large part of the social inequalities. Occupational exposures might explain a part of the remaining but the components and pathways of the socioeconomic contribution have yet to be fully disentangled. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of occupation using different occupational indices, differentiating between physical, psycho-social and toxic exposures and trying to summarize the occupational burden into one variable. Methods A population-based case–control study conducted in Germany in 1998–2000 included 208 male cases and 702 controls. Information on occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption and education was collected with face-to-face interviews. A recently developed job-classification index was used to account for the occupational burden. A sub-index focussed on jobs involving potentially carcinogenic agents (CAI) for the upper aero digestive tract. Results When adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption, higher odds ratios (ORs) were found for lower education. This OR decreased after further adjustment using the physical and psycho-social job indices (OR = 3.2, 95%-CI: 1.5-6.8), similar to the OR using the sub-index CAI (OR = 3.0, 95%-CI: 1.4-6.5). Conclusions The use of an easily applicable control variable, simply constructed on standard occupational job classifications, provides the possibility to differentiate between educational and occupational contributions. Such an index might indirectly reflect the effect of carcinogenic agents, which are not collected in many studies. PMID:24246148

  17. Asians in the Ivory Tower: Dilemmas of Racial Inequality in American Higher Education. Multicultural Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Highly respected scholar Robert Teranishi draws on his vast research to present this timely and compelling examination of the experience of Asian Americans in higher education. "Asians in the Ivory Tower" explores why and how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are important to our nation's higher education priorities and places the…

  18. Inequality spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-03-01

    Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.

  19. Diversification of Educational Provision and School-to-Work Transitions in Rural Mali: Analysing a Reconfiguration of Inequalities in Light of Justice Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyer, Frederique

    2011-01-01

    Based on an approach focusing on actors and in particular on educational trajectories, this paper analyses the effects of diversification of educational provision on inequalities in rural Mali. It shows that there are considerable gaps in the skills acquired by students, including within formal education. These gaps are perceived as illegitimate…

  20. Pathways of equality through education: impact of gender (in)equality and maternal education on exclusive breastfeeding among natives and migrants in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanderlinden, Karen; Van de Putte, Bart

    2017-04-01

    Even though breastfeeding is typically considered the preferred feeding method for infants worldwide, in Belgium, breastfeeding rates remain low across native and migrant groups while the underlying determinants are unclear. Furthermore, research examining contextual effects, especially regarding gender (in)equality and ideology, has not been conducted. We hypothesized that greater gender equality scores in the country of origin will result in higher breastfeeding chances. Because gender equality does not operate only at the contextual level but can be mediated through individual level resources, we hypothesized the following for maternal education: higher maternal education will be an important positive predictor for exclusive breastfeeding chances in Belgium, but its effects will differ over subsequent origin countries. Based on IKAROS data (GeÏntegreerd Kind Activiteiten en Regio Ondersteunings Systeem), we perform multilevel analyses on 27 936 newborns. Feeding method is indicated by exclusive breastfeeding 3 months after childbirth. We measure gender (in)equality using Global Gender Gap scores from the mother's origin country. Maternal education is a metric variable based on International Standard Classification of Education indicators. Results show that 3.6% of the variation in breastfeeding can be explained by differences between the migrant mother's country of origin. However, the effect of gender (in)equality appears to be non-significant. After adding maternal education, the effect for origin countries scoring low on gender equality turns significant. Maternal education on its own shows strong positive association with exclusive breastfeeding and, furthermore, has different effects for different origin countries. Possible explanations are discussed in-depth setting direction for further research regarding the different pathways gender (in)equality and maternal education affect breastfeeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mothers' education but not fathers' education, household assets or land ownership is the best predictor of child health inequalities in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wamani, Henry; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Tumwine, James K; Peterson, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Background Health and nutrition inequality is a result of a complex web of factors that include socio-economic inequalities. Various socio-economic indicators exist however some do not accurately predict inequalities in children. Others are not intervention feasible. Objective To examine the association of four socio-economic indicators namely: mothers' education, fathers' education, household asset index, and land ownership with growth stunting, which is used as a proxy for health and nutrition inequalities among infants and young children. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the rural district of Hoima, Uganda. Two-stage cluster sampling design was used to obtain 720 child/mother pairs. Information on indicators of household socio-economic status and child anthropometry was gathered by administering a structured questionnaire to mothers in their home settings. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators with stunting. Results One hundred seventy two (25%) of the studied children were stunted, of which 105 (61%) were boys (p < 0.001). Bivariate analysis indicated a higher prevalence of stunting among children of: non-educated mothers compared to mothers educated above primary school (odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–4.4); non-educated fathers compared to fathers educated above secondary school (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8–3.5); households belonging in the "poorest" quintile for the asset index compared to the "least poor" quintile (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.7); Land ownership exhibited no differentials with stunting. Simultaneously adjusting all socio-economic indicators in conditional regression analysis left mothers' education as the only independent predictor of stunting with children of non-educated mothers significantly more likely to be stunted compared to those of mothers educated above primary school (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.9). More boys than girls were significantly stunted in

  2. Changes and inequalities in early birth registration and childhood care and education in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Kim Bao; Oh, Juhwan; Kien, Vu Duy; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Choi, Sugy; Lee, Chul Ou; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early birth registration, childhood care, and education are essential rights for children and are important for their development and education. This study investigates changes and socioeconomic inequalities in early birth registration and indicators of care and education in children aged under 5 years in Vietnam. Design The analyses reported here used data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) in 2006 and 2011. The sample sizes in 2006 and 2011 were 2,680 and 3,678 for children under 5 years of age. Four indicators of childcare and preschool education were measured: birth registration, possession of books, preschool education attendance, and parental support for early childhood education. The concentration index (CI) was used to measure inequalities in gender, maternal education, geographical area, place of residence, ethnicity, and household wealth. Results There were some improvements in birth registration (86.4% in 2006; 93.8% in 2011), preschool education attendance (57.1% in 2006; 71.9% in 2011), and parental support for early childhood education (68.9 and 76.8%, respectively). However, the possession of books was lower (24.7% in 2006; 19.6% in 2011) and became more unequal over time (i.e. CI=0.370 in 2006; CI=0.443 in 2011 in wealth inequality). Inequalities in the care and education of children were still persistent. The largest inequalities were for household wealth and rural versus urban areas. Conclusion Although there have been some improvements in this area, inequalities still exist. Policy efforts in Vietnam should be directed towards closing the gap between different socioeconomic groups for the care and education of children under 5 years old. PMID:26950564

  3. Determinants of relative and absolute concentration indices: evidence from 26 European countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of publicly-provided health care is generally not only to produce health, but also to decrease variation in health by socio-economic status. The aim of this study is to measure to what extent this goal has been obtained in various European countries and evaluate the determinants of inequalities within countries, as well as cross-country patterns with regard to different cultural, institutional and social settings. Methods The data utilized in this study provides information on 440,000 individuals in 26 European countries and stem from The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) collected in 2007. As measures of income-related inequality in health both the relative concentration indices and the absolute concentration indices are calculated. Further, health inequality in each country is decomposed into individual-level determinants and cross-country comparisons are made to shed light on social and institutional determinants. Results Income-related health inequality favoring the better-off is observed for all the 26 European countries. In terms of within-country determinants inequality is mainly explained by income, age, education, and activity status. However, the degree of inequality and contribution of each determinant to inequality varies considerably between countries. Aggregate bivariate linear regressions show that there is a positive association between health-income inequality in Europe and public expenditure on education. Furthermore, a negative relationship between health-income inequality and income inequality was found when individual employee cash income was used in the health-concentration measurement. Using that same income measure, health-income inequality was found to be higher in the Nordic countries than in other areas, but this result is sensitive to the income measure chosen. Conclusions The findings indicate that institutional determinants partly explain income-related health inequalities across

  4. The Opportunity Gap Achievement and Inequality in Education. Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Carol DeShano, Ed.; Huguley, James Philip, Ed.; Kakli, Zenub, Ed.; Rao, Radhika, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Opportunity Gap" aims to shift attention from the current overwhelming emphasis on schools in discussions of the achievement gap to more fundamental questions about social and educational opportunity. The achievement gap looms large in the current era of high-stakes testing and accountability. Yet questions persist: Has the…

  5. The Kuznets Curve of Education: A Global Perspective on Education Inequalities. CEE DP 116

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Christian; Murtin, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    Education is recognized to be a key factor of economic development, not only giving access to technological progress as emphasized by the Schumpeterian growth theory, but also entailing numerous social externalities such as the demographic transition (Murtin, 2009) or democratization (Murtin and Wacziarg, 2010). If the evolution of world…

  6. Challenging Lesbian and Gay Inequalities in Education. Gender and Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie, Ed.

    Educators in Britain have tended to ignore lesbian and gay issues, creating a gap that this book addresses by discussing the complex debates about sexuality and schooling. Contributors to this collection tell stories of distress and victimization and of achievement and support in the following: (1) "Introduction: Lesbian and Gay Equality in…

  7. Health Education and Activity – Lessening The Inequalities in mental health (HEA – LTI mental health)

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; lindsay, jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group (‘normalisation activity’) in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change

  8. Health Education and Activity - Lessening The Inequalities in mental health (HEA - LTI mental health).

    PubMed

    Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; Lindsay, Jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group ('normalisation activity') in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change physical

  9. Ethnic Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Alesina, Alberto; Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the consequences and origins of between-ethnicity economic inequality across countries. First, combining satellite images of nighttime luminosity with the historical homelands of ethnolinguistic groups we construct measures of ethnic inequality for a large sample of countries. We also compile proxies of overall spatial inequality and regional inequality across administrative units. Second, we uncover a strong negative association between ethnic inequality and contemporary comparative development; the correlation is also present when we condition on regional inequality, which is itself related to under-development. Third, we investigate the roots of ethnic inequality and establish that differences in geographic endowments across ethnic homelands explain a sizable fraction of the observed variation in economic disparities across groups. Fourth, we show that ethnic-specific inequality in geographic endowments is also linked to under-development. PMID:27330223

  10. Putting the world as classroom: an application of the inequalities imagination model in nursing and health education.

    PubMed

    Racine, Louise; Proctor, Peggy; Jewell, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the description of an educational initiative, the Interdisciplinary Population Health Project (IPHP) conducted in the academic year of 2006-2007 with a group of nursing and health care students. Inspired by population health, community development, critical pedagogy, and the inequalities imagination model, students participated in diverse educational activities to become immersed in the everyday life of an underserved urban neighborhood. A sample of convenience composed of 158 students was recruited from 4 health disciplines in a Western Canadian university. Data were collected using a modified version of the Parsell and Bligh's Readiness of Health Care Students for Interprofessional Learning Scale. A one group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the outcomes of the IPHP. Paired t tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to compare the responses of students from different academic programs to determine if there were differences across disciplines. Findings suggest that students' readiness to work in interprofessional teams did not significantly change over the course of their participation in the IPHP. However, the inequalities imagination model may be useful to enhance the quality and the effectiveness of fieldwork learning activities as a means of educating culturally and socially conscious nurses and other health care professionals of the future.

  11. The value of education in special care dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health.

    PubMed

    Faulks, D; Freedman, L; Thompson, S; Sagheri, D; Dougall, A

    2012-11-01

    People with disability are subject to inequality in oral health both in terms of prevalence of disease and unmet healthcare needs. Over 18% of the global population is living with moderate to severe functional problems related to disability, and a large proportion of these persons will require Special Care Dentistry at some point in their lifetime. It is estimated that 90% of people requiring Special Care Dentistry should be able to access treatment in a local, primary care setting. Provision of such primary care is only possible through the education and training of dentists. The literature suggests that it is vital for the dental team to develop the necessary skills and gain experience treating people with special needs in order to ensure access to the provision of oral health care. Education in Special Care Dentistry worldwide might be improved by the development of a recognised academic and clinical discipline and by providing international curricula guidelines based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, WHO). This article aims to discuss the role and value of promoting and harmonising education in Special Care Dentistry as a means of reducing inequalities in oral health.

  12. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence.

  13. Hiding behind High-Stakes Testing: Meritocracy, Objectivity and Inequality in U.S. Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how high-stakes, standardised testing became the policy tool in the U.S. that it is today and discusses its role in advancing an ideology of meritocracy that fundamentally masks structural inequalities related to race and economic class. This paper first traces the early history of high-stakes testing within the U.S. context,…

  14. Restoring Opportunity: The Crisis of Inequality and the Challenge for American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    In this landmark volume, Greg J. Duncan and Richard J. Murnane lay out a meticulously researched case showing how--in a time of spiraling inequality--strategically targeted interventions and supports can help schools significantly improve the life chances of low-income children. The authors offer a brilliant synthesis of recent research on…

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Peres, Marco Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities. METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation) and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling). Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test) and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index), using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8). RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities for

  16. Social inequalities in 'sickness': European welfare states and non-employment among the chronically ill.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked 'sickness'-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more favourable general rates of non-employment. Hence, regarding sickness, welfare resources appear to trump welfare disincentives.

  17. Income inequality in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Ravallion, Martin

    2014-05-23

    Should income inequality be of concern in developing countries? New data reveal less income inequality in the developing world than 30 years ago. However, this is due to falling inequality between countries. Average inequality within developing countries has been slowly rising, though staying fairly flat since 2000. As a rule, higher rates of growth in average incomes have not put upward pressure on inequality within countries. Growth has generally helped reduce the incidence of absolute poverty, but less so in more unequal countries. High inequality also threatens to stall future progress against poverty by attenuating growth prospects. Perceptions of rising absolute gaps in living standards between the rich and the poor in growing economies are also consistent with the evidence.

  18. Geometric-Harmonic convexity and integral inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Ahmet Ocak; Yalçin, Abdüllatif; Polat, Fatma; Kavurmaci-Önalan, Havva

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, some new integral inequalities have been proved for functions whose absolute value of derivatives are GH-convex functions by using integral equalities that have been obtained previously.

  19. Four Decades of Obesity Trends among Non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks in the United States: Analyzing the Influences of Educational Inequalities in Obesity and Population Improvements in Education

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Both obesity (body mass index ≥ 30) and educational attainment have increased dramatically in the United States since the 1970s. This study analyzed the influences of educational inequalities in obesity and population improvements in education on national obesity trends between 1970 and 2010. For non-Hispanic white and black males and females aged 25–74 years, educational differences in the probability of being obese were estimated from the 1971–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and population distributions of age and educational groups, from the 1970 Census and 2010 American Community Survey. In the total population, obesity increased from 15.7% to 38.8%, and there were increases in the greater obese probabilities of non-college graduates relative to four-year college graduates. The increase in obesity would have been lower by 10% (2.2 percentage points) if educational inequalities in obesity had stayed at their 1970 values and lower by one third (7.9 points) if obesity inequalities had been eliminated. Obesity inequalities were larger for females than males and for whites than blacks, and obesity did not differ by education among black males. As a result, the impact of obesity inequalities on the obesity trend was largest among white females (a 47% reduction in the obesity increase if obesity inequalities had been eliminated), and virtually zero among black males. On the other hand, without educational improvements, the obesity increase would have been 9% more in the total population, 23% more among white females and not different in the other three subpopulations. Results indicate that obesity inequalities made sizable contributions to the obesity trends, and the obesity reductions associated with educational improvements were more limited. PMID:27893853

  20. Assortative Mating and the Reversal of Gender Inequality in Education in Europe: An Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Grow, André; Van Bavel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    While men have always received more education than women in the past, this gender imbalance in education has turned around in large parts of the world. In many countries, women now excel men in terms of participation and success in higher education. This implies that, for the first time in history, there are more highly educated women than men reaching the reproductive ages and looking for a partner. We develop an agent-based computational model that explicates the mechanisms that may have linked the reversal of gender inequality in education with observed changes in educational assortative mating. Our model builds on the notion that individuals search for spouses in a marriage market and evaluate potential candidates based on preferences. Based on insights from earlier research, we assume that men and women prefer partners with similar educational attainment and high earnings prospects, that women tend to prefer men who are somewhat older than themselves, and that men prefer women who are in their mid-twenties. We also incorporate the insight that the educational system structures meeting opportunities on the marriage market. We assess the explanatory power of our model with systematic computational experiments, in which we simulate marriage market dynamics in 12 European countries among individuals born between 1921 and 2012. In these experiments, we make use of realistic agent populations in terms of educational attainment and earnings prospects and validate model outcomes with data from the European Social Survey. We demonstrate that the observed changes in educational assortative mating can be explained without any change in male or female preferences. We argue that our model provides a useful computational laboratory to explore and quantify the implications of scenarios for the future. PMID:26039151

  1. Assortative mating and the reversal of gender inequality in education in europe: an agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Grow, André; Van Bavel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    While men have always received more education than women in the past, this gender imbalance in education has turned around in large parts of the world. In many countries, women now excel men in terms of participation and success in higher education. This implies that, for the first time in history, there are more highly educated women than men reaching the reproductive ages and looking for a partner. We develop an agent-based computational model that explicates the mechanisms that may have linked the reversal of gender inequality in education with observed changes in educational assortative mating. Our model builds on the notion that individuals search for spouses in a marriage market and evaluate potential candidates based on preferences. Based on insights from earlier research, we assume that men and women prefer partners with similar educational attainment and high earnings prospects, that women tend to prefer men who are somewhat older than themselves, and that men prefer women who are in their mid-twenties. We also incorporate the insight that the educational system structures meeting opportunities on the marriage market. We assess the explanatory power of our model with systematic computational experiments, in which we simulate marriage market dynamics in 12 European countries among individuals born between 1921 and 2012. In these experiments, we make use of realistic agent populations in terms of educational attainment and earnings prospects and validate model outcomes with data from the European Social Survey. We demonstrate that the observed changes in educational assortative mating can be explained without any change in male or female preferences. We argue that our model provides a useful computational laboratory to explore and quantify the implications of scenarios for the future.

  2. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibokiene, Grazina

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania early childhood education and care embraces children of the age from one to seven and is an integrated part of the education system. According to Lithuanian education classification, it belongs to the zero level of education. Though defined as pre-school education yet this stage is composed of two parts--pre-school education of…

  3. Variations in the relation between education and cause-specific mortality in 19 European populations: a test of the "fundamental causes" theory of social inequalities in health.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Eikemo, Terje A; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulik, Margarete C; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle

    2015-02-01

    Link and Phelan have proposed to explain the persistence of health inequalities from the fact that socioeconomic status is a "fundamental cause" which embodies an array of resources that can be used to avoid disease risks no matter what mechanisms are relevant at any given time. To test this theory we compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality between more and less preventable causes of death in 19 European populations, and assessed whether inequalities in mortality from preventable causes are larger in countries with larger resource inequalities. We collected and harmonized mortality data by educational level on 19 national and regional populations from 16 European countries in the first decade of the 21st century. We calculated age-adjusted Relative Risks of mortality among men and women aged 30-79 for 24 causes of death, which were classified into four groups: amenable to behavior change, amenable to medical intervention, amenable to injury prevention, and non-preventable. Although an overwhelming majority of Relative Risks indicate higher mortality risks among the lower educated, the strength of the education-mortality relation is highly variable between causes of death and populations. Inequalities in mortality are generally larger for causes amenable to behavior change, medical intervention and injury prevention than for non-preventable causes. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is large for causes amenable to behavior change, but absent for causes amenable to injury prevention among women. The contrast between preventable and non-preventable causes is larger in Central & Eastern Europe, where resource inequalities are substantial, than in the Nordic countries and continental Europe, where resource inequalities are relatively small, but they are absent or small in Southern Europe, where resource inequalities are also large. In conclusion, our results provide some further support for the theory of "fundamental causes". However

  4. Seeing the Wood from the Trees: A Critical Policy Analysis of Intersections between Social Class Inequality and Education in Twenty-First Century Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a critical policy analysis of intersections between social class inequality and education policy in Ireland. The focus is upon contemporary policy and legislation such as The Irish Constitution and equality legislation; social inclusion policies such as the DEIS scheme; literacy and numeracy policy documents; as well as current…

  5. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  6. The Effects of Upper-Secondary Education and Training Systems on Skills Inequality. A Quasi-Cohort Analysis Using PISA 2000 and the OECD Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy; Pensiero, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Research tells us much about the effects of primary and lower-secondary schooling on skills inequality, but we know less about the impact of the next stage of education. This article uses a differences-in-differences analysis of data on literacy and numeracy skills in PISA 2000 and SAS 2011/12 to assess the contribution of upper-secondary…

  7. Meritocracy without Rising Inequality? Wage Rate Differences Are Widening by Education and Narrowing by Gender and Race. Economic Restructuring and the Job Market No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert I.

    This brief, part of a series on labor trends and their policy implications, uses data on wage rates and hours worked from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to look at two questions about wage inequality since the mid-1980s. One question is whether wage differentials are becoming more related to education and less to gender and…

  8. Isoperimetric inequality on conformally hyperbolic manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Kesel'man, V M

    2003-04-30

    It is shown that on an arbitrary non-compact Riemannian manifold of conformally hyperbolic type the isoperimetric inequality can be taken by a conformal change of the metric to the same canonical linear form as in the case of the standard hyperbolic Lobachevskii space. Both the absolute isoperimetric inequality and the relative one (for manifolds with boundary) are obtained. This work develops the results and methods of a joint paper with Zorich, in which the absolute isoperimetric inequality was obtained under a certain additional condition; the resulting statements are definitive in a certain sense.

  9. Isoperimetric inequality on conformally hyperbolic manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesel'man, V. M.

    2003-04-01

    It is shown that on an arbitrary non-compact Riemannian manifold of conformally hyperbolic type the isoperimetric inequality can be taken by a conformal change of the metric to the same canonical linear form as in the case of the standard hyperbolic Lobachevskii space. Both the absolute isoperimetric inequality and the relative one (for manifolds with boundary) are obtained.This work develops the results and methods of a joint paper with Zorich, in which the absolute isoperimetric inequality was obtained under a certain additional condition; the resulting statements are definitive in a certain sense.

  10. Neonatal Mortality and Inequalities in Bangladesh: Differential Progress and Sub-national Developments.

    PubMed

    Minnery, Mark; Firth, Sonja; Hodge, Andrew; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-09-01

    A rapid reduction in under-five mortality has put Bangladesh on-track to reach Millennium Development Goal 4. Little research, however, has been conducted into neonatal reductions and sub-national rates in the country, with considerable disparities potentially masked by national reductions. The aim of this paper is to estimate national and sub-national rates of neonatal mortality to compute relative and absolute inequalities between sub-national groups and draw comparisons with rates of under-five mortality. Mortality rates for under-five children and neonates were estimated directly for 1980-1981 to 2010-2011 using data from six waves of the Demographic and Health Survey. Rates were stratified by levels of rural/urban location, household wealth and maternal education. Absolute and relative inequalities within these groups were measured by rate differences and ratios, and where possible, slope and relative indices of inequality. National mortality was shown to have decreased dramatically although at differential rates for under-fives and neonates. Across all equity markers, a general pattern of declining absolute but constant relative inequalities was found. For mortality rates stratified by education and wealth mixed evidence suggests that relative inequalities may have also fallen. Although disparities remain, Bangladesh has achieved a rare combination of substantive reductions in mortality levels without increases in relative inequalities. A coalescence of substantial increases in coverage and equitable distribution of key child and neonatal interventions with widespread health sectoral and policy changes over the last 30 years may in part explain this exceptional pattern.

  11. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  12. The Influence of Education on Violent Conflict and Peace: Inequality, Opportunity and the Management of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Graham K.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which education and educational policy impact upon the likelihood and dynamics of violent conflict. It argues that education is rarely directly implicated in the incidence of violent conflict but identifies three main mechanisms through which education can indirectly accentuate or mitigate the risk of conflict:…

  13. Colonial legacy, women's rights and gender-educational inequality in the Arab World with particular reference to Egypt and Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megahed, Nagwa; Lack, Stephen

    2011-08-01

    One aspect of the call for democracy in the recent Arab region uprisings is the issue of women's rights and gender equality. Three cultural and ideological forces have continued to shape the gender discourse in Arab Muslim-majority societies. They are: "Islamic" teaching and local traditions concerning women's roles in a given society; Western, European colonial perception of women's rights; and finally national gender-related policy reforms. This paper examines the past and present status of women and gender-educational inequality in the Arab world with particular reference to Egypt and Tunisia, prior to and post colonialism. Special attention is given to colonial legacy and its influence on gender and education; to current gender practices in the social sphere with a focus on women's modesty ( hijab); to international policies and national responses with regard to women's rights and finally to female participation in pre-university and higher education. These issues incorporate a discussion of cultural and religious constraints. The paper demonstrates similarities and differences between Egypt's and Tunisia's reform policies towards gender parity. It highlights the confrontation of conservative versus liberal ideologies that occurred in each country with the implementation of its gender-related reform policy.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors—using repeated cross-sectional surveys to assess time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in neighbouring countries

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John; Kabir, Zubair; Kee, Frank; Bennett, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study compares trends in socioeconomic inequalities related to key cardiovascular risk factors in neighbouring countries Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Design Repeated cross-sectional studies. Setting Population based. Participants 3500–4000 in national surveys in NI and 5000–9000 in RoI, aged 20–69 years. Measures Educational attainment was used as a socioeconomic indicator by which the magnitude and direction of trends in inequalities for smoking, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity in NI and RoI were examined between 1997/1998 and 2007/2011. Gender-specific relative and absolute inequalities were calculated using the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) and Slope Index of Inequality (SII) for both countries. Results In both countries, the prevalence of diabetes and obesity increased whereas levels of smoking and physical inactivity decreased over time. In NI relative inequalities increased for obesity (RII 1.1 in males and 2.1 in females in 2010/2011) and smoking (RII 4.5 in males and 4.2 in females in 2010/2011) for both genders and absolute inequalities increased for all risk factors in men and increased for diabetes and obesity in women. In RoI greater inequality was observed in women, particularly for smoking (RII 2.8 in 2007) and obesity (RII 8.2 in 2002) and in men for diabetes (RII 3.2 in 2002). Conclusions Interventions to reduce inequalities in risk factors, particularly smoking, obesity and diabetes are encouraged across both countries. PMID:28373251

  15. Do Caste and Class Define Inequality? Revisiting Education in a Kerala Village

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaria, Suma

    2014-01-01

    Is there a strong correlation between caste and class in access to education, especially higher education? This is the broader question addressed by the study in the context of Kerala, the southernmost state in India, with impressive conventional indicators in education. Micro-level insights based on the study of a village in Kerala show that old…

  16. Educator Evaluation Policy That Incorporates EVAAS Value-Added Measures: Undermined Intentions and Exacerbated Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, policies in forty states and D.C. incorporate student growth measures--estimates of student progress attributed to educators--into educator evaluation. The federal government positions such policies as levers for ensuring that more students are taught by effective teachers and that effective educators are more equitably…

  17. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnsek, Nada; Batistic, Marcela Zorec

    2008-01-01

    Slovenia has a single structure of preschool education system providing comprehensive education and care (educare) for children aged one to six (more precisely, from the end of maternity leave to the child's entering compulsory school). It is offered mostly by public preschool institutions (vrtci). Preschool education is a part of the whole system…

  18. Democratising Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Opportunity Structures and Social Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise; Leach, Fiona; Lugg, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on an ESRC/DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/education/wideningparticipation). There are questions about whether widening participation in higher education is a force for democratisation or differentiation.…

  19. Educational Inequalities and Ukrainian Orphans' Future Pathways: Social Reproduction or Transformation through the Hidden Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korzh, Alla

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative multi-site case study, situated in the context of Ukraine's post-Soviet political economy, examined how orphanage educators' expectations and beliefs about orphans' academic abilities and potential, curriculum, peer relationships, and education policy shaped orphans' post-secondary education decisions and trajectories. Examination…

  20. New Empirical Evidence on the Effect of Educational Tracking on Social Inequalities in Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2015-01-01

    One of the major imperatives behind the comprehensivisation of secondary education was the belief that postponing the age at which students are tracked in different educational routes would mitigate the effect of social background on educational outcomes. Comparative investigations of large-scale international student achievement tests in…

  1. As America Becomes More Diverse: The Impact of State Higher Education Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    At a time when many states are becoming increasingly diverse, the need for more complete and useful measures of educational equality among ethnic and gender groups is critical. This study--funded by the Lumina Foundation for Education--examines disparities in educational attainment among race/ethnic and gender groups in the U.S. and within each…

  2. "Delivering" Education; Maintaining Inequality. The Case of Children with Disabilities in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Nandipati, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Education for children with disabilities in Afghanistan, particularly disabled girls, continues to lag behind despite laudable efforts of the Ministry of Education to promote universal access for all. The opportunity for education constitutes not just a means of achieving learning outcomes but also a space for social interaction, individual…

  3. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  4. Absolute Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartig, George

    1990-12-01

    The absolute sensitivity of the FOS will be determined in SV by observing 2 stars at 3 epochs, first in 3 apertures (1.0", 0.5", and 0.3" circular) and then in 1 aperture (1.0" circular). In cycle 1, one star, BD+28D4211 will be observed in the 1.0" aperture to establish the stability of the sensitivity and flat field characteristics and improve the accuracy obtained in SV. This star will also be observed through the paired apertures since these are not calibrated in SV. The stars will be observed in most detector/grating combinations. The data will be averaged to form the inverse sensitivity functions required by RSDP.

  5. Risks and Consequences of Oversimplifying Educational Inequities: A Response to Morgan et al. (2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiba, Russell J.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Losen, Daniel J.; Harry, Elizabeth G.

    2016-01-01

    In this technical comment, we argue that Morgan et al.'s claim that there is no minority overrepresentation in special education is in error due to (a) sampling considerations, (b) inadequate support from previous and current analyses, and (c) their failure to consider the complexities of special education disproportionality. [For Morgan et al.'s…

  6. Family Sources of Educational Gender Inequality in Rural China: A Critical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannum, Emily; Kong, Peggy; Zhang, Yuping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities…

  7. Gender Inequalities in the Education of the Second Generation in Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Kristen, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on comparative analyses from nine Western countries, we ask whether local-born children from a wide range of immigrant groups show patterns of female advantage in education that are similar to those prevalent in their host Western societies. We consider five outcomes throughout the educational career: test scores or grades at age 15,…

  8. Drivers of Inequalities in Higher Education and the Unexpected Consequences of Equality Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reale, Emanuela; Seeber, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is generally considered as a goal to be achieved in order to bring the Higher Education (HE) system closer to the needs of society. Conversely, some European countries have not favoured diversification processes in HE; instead, they have preferred to pursue a policy aimed at homogeneity across higher education institutions (HEIs),…

  9. Inequality in the Transition from Primary to Secondary School: School Choices and Educational Disparities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietsch, Marcus; Stubbe, Tobias C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the mechanisms of educational pathway decision making at the transition from primary to secondary school in the German education system by analysing data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS). The highly reliable data of the German sample of the 2001 PIRLS make it possible to take into…

  10. Employers, Quality and Standards in Higher Education: Shared Values and Vocabularies or Elitism and Inequalities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise; Aynsley, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project funded by the Higher Education Funding Council for England which investigated employers' needs for information on higher education quality and standards. A key issue was identifying the type of knowledge that employers utilise in graduate recruitment. A finding of the study was that information on quality…

  11. Fields and Institutional Strategy: Bourdieu on the Relationship between Higher Education, Inequality and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Rajani

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes as its focus the concept of 'field', which has received relatively less attention than Bourdieu's other concepts such as 'cultural capital' and 'habitus' in the sociology of education. The development of the concept is outlined to present Bourdieu's understanding of higher education as a field consisting of cognitive and…

  12. New Horizontal Inequalities in German Higher Education? Social Selectivity of Studying Abroad between 1991 and 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netz, Nicolai; Finger, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of theories of cultural reproduction and rational choice, we examine whether access to study-abroad opportunities is socially selective and whether this pattern changed during educational expansion. We test our hypotheses for Germany by combining student survey data and administrative data on higher education entry rates. We find that…

  13. Social Inequalities in Early School Leaving: The Role of Educational Institutions and the Socioeconomic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of early school leavers, those who quit education without at least a high school degree, is a key objective of educational policy throughout Europe. Previous research has shown that in particular youngsters from disadvantaged families face relatively high risks of school dropout. In this paper we use data from the 2009 ad hoc…

  14. When Marketisation and Privatisation Clash with Socialist Ideals: Educational Inequality in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho; Wong, Yu Cheung; Zhang, Xiulan

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, China's education has experienced significant transformations and restructuring on account of privatization and marketization. Unlike the Mao era when the state assumed the major responsibilities in financing and providing education, individuals and families have now to bear increasing financial burdens in paying for…

  15. Expansion of Higher Education and Inequality of Opportunities: A Cross-National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ye; Green, Andy; Pensiero, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    This study extends the comparative model of country groups to analyse the cross-national trends in the higher education expansion and opportunities. We use descriptive data on characteristics and outcomes of higher education systems in different countries groups, including the liberal market countries, the social democratic countries, the…

  16. Measuring Inequality of Opportunity in Education by Combining Information on Coverage and Achievement in PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamboa, Luis Fernando; Waltenberg, Fábio D.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the distance between countries and the goal of equality of opportunity in education has been the focus of recent contributions in the economic literature, which have concentrated either on intergroup gaps in access to a given level of studies or on intergroup gaps in educational achievement. We argue that both aspects are important and…

  17. Hispanicity and Educational Inequality: Risks, Opportunities and the Nation's Future. Tomas Rivera Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This publication reproduces the keynote address delivered by the author at the annual conference of the American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) in March 2009, in San Antonio, Texas. In her essay, the author discusses the significance of the growing Hispanic presence through the lens of education. To frame the challenges--and…

  18. Like the Other Kings Have: A Theory of Sovereignty and the Persistence of Inequality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Guy; Wood, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Public education discourse is dominated by nostalgia for an idea of humanity, which has existed more strongly in high culture discourse than it has in public schools. Political liberal and conservative discourses agree that the process of compulsory public education is an expression of the state as it works to justly distribute "life…

  19. Recovering the Role of Reasoning in Moral Education to Address Inequity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucci, Larry

    2016-01-01

    This article reasserts the centrality of reasoning as the focus for moral education. Attention to moral cognition must be extended to incorporate sociogenetic processes in moral growth. Moral education is not simply growth within the moral domain, but addresses capacities of students to engage in cross-domain coordination. Development beyond…

  20. The Use and Value of Bernstein's Work in Studying (In)Equalities in Undergraduate Social Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Monica; Abbas, Andrea; Ashwin, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates how critical use of Basil Bernstein's theory illuminates the mechanisms by which university knowledge, curriculum and pedagogy both reproduce and interrupt social inequalities. To this end, empirical examples are selected from the findings of the ESRC-funded project "Pedagogic Quality and Inequality in University First…

  1. Reevaluating the Relationship between Education and Child Labour Using the Capabilities Approach: Policy and Implications for Inequality in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluttz, Jenalee

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia has experienced rapid economic growth in the last two decades, improving living standards and diminishing poverty. Unfortunately, it has failed to do so evenly. Growth within the country has widened the gap between rich and poor and exacerbated the rural/urban divide. This inequality is mirrored in the school system. Inequality within the…

  2. The Impact of Comorbid Depression on Educational Inequality in Survival after Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Cohort of 83 062 Patients and a Matched Reference Population

    PubMed Central

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Ibfelt, Else Helene; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Andersen, Per Kragh; Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Mårtensson, Solvej

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with low socioeconomic position have higher rates of mortality after diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but little is known about the mechanisms behind this social inequality. The aim of the present study was to examine whether any educational inequality in survival after ACS was influenced by comorbid conditions including depression. Methods From 2001 to 2009 all first-time ACS patients were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry. This cohort of 83 062 ACS patients and a matched reference population were followed for incident depression and mortality until December 2012 by linkage to person, patients and prescription registries. Educational status was defined at study entry and the impact of potential confounders and mediators (age, gender, cohabitation status, somatic comorbidity and depression) on the relation between education and mortality were identified by drawing a directed acyclic graph and analysed using multiple Cox regression analyses. Findings During follow-up, 29 583(35.6%) of ACS patients and 19 105(22.9%) of the reference population died. Cox regression analyses showed an increased mortality in the lowest educated compared to those with high education in both ACS patients and the reference population. Adjustment for previous and incident depression or other covariables only attenuated the relations slightly. This pattern of associations was seen for mortality after 30 days, 1 year and during total follow-up. Conclusion In this study the relative excess mortality rate in lower educated ACS patients was comparable with the excess risk associated with low education in the background population. This educational inequality in survival remained after adjustment for somatic comorbidity and depression. PMID:26513652

  3. Visualizing inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-07-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.

  4. The Progressivity of Public Education in Greece: Empirical Findings and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsampelas, Christos; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the short-run distributional effects of publicly provided education services in Greece using static incidence analysis. Public education is found to be inequality-reducing but the progressivity of the system withers away as we move up to higher educational levels. We employ a framework of both relative and absolute inequality…

  5. School Inequality and the Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, John D.

    This book begins with an examination of school inequality in the United States. The discussion focuses successively on the issues of: the paradox of unequal schools in a welfare state, the distribution of educational resources in American cities: some new empirical evidence, inequalities in the allocation of educational resources among cities and…

  6. Employment among older workers and inequality of gender and education: evidence from a Taiwanese national survey.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was twofold: to examine the prevalence of employment and under-employment among Taiwanese older workers (aged 50 and above), and to explore personal correlates of their employment status, in particular gender and education. Using a national representative sample, we found that: 1) a rather substantial percentage of people continued to work well into their older years; 2) the underemployment rates were substantial in the older age, and less-educated workers and women were more at risk; and 3) multivariate analysis confirmed that age, gender, personal health, spousal health, and family income were significant predictors of continued employment after age 50. Gender and education were also significantly related to the risk of under-employment. Our results highlight the importance and urgency of more concerted research to inform public labor policies, especially in an aging developing society where older workers are faced with a double challenge of economic and societal restructuring.

  7. Educational trajectories and inequalities of political engagement among adolescents in England.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Bryony; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2016-03-01

    Through analysing longitudinal data this article explores the effect of education trajectories between the ages 14-19 on voting and protesting at age 20 taking into account both type of education (vocational/academic) and level of qualifications (Levels 1-3). We find that these trajectories exert an independent effect on both outcomes. Gaining low level qualifications (up to Level 2) and in particular low level vocational qualifications diminishes the chances of political participation relative to Level 3 and academic qualifications. Whilst a wider range of qualifications are conducive to voting, only Level 3 academic qualifications support protesting relative to other qualifications. Post-14 education thus seems to make protesting more of an elite affair. Considering that the vast majority of students in the vocational and lower-level pathways come from low SES families, the undermining influence of these pathways on political participation will be felt disproportionally among the group of socially disadvantaged students.

  8. The roots of interprovincial inequality in education and health services in China since 1949.

    PubMed

    Lampton, D M

    1979-01-01

    This study of the determinants of variations among the provinces of China in the provision of health and education services hypothesizes the following: interprovincial variations in the provision of educational and health services can be explained largely by economic and ecological factors; and specific levels of education and various types of medical services are responsive in different ways to changes in particular variables. 5 important and variably performing provinces (accounting for about 28% of China's population) were extensively examined: Anhwei; Hunan; Kwangtung: Shansi; and Shantung. The analysis is organized by program, dealing sequentially with factors affecting the availability of primary education, secondary education, hospital beds, and cooperative health programs in the 5 provinces. The hypotheses were suported. Economic variables were the principal determinants of the pattern of interprovincial performance for any given program, but leadership choices relating to program financing, investment strategies, and program priorities markedly affected the way in which the economy interacted with the program. Agricultural growth was a precondition to success in cooperative health care but not particularly helpful in obtaining high levels of primary or middle school enrollments, or hospital facilities. The critical political choices to be made are those concerning investment priorities, funding strategies, and program priorities, and these decisions are invariably made in Peking. The provincial leaders are left with the responsibility for implementing and refining policy. Leaders can never eliminate economic constraints, but their political choices to shape the longterm structure of those constraints and, in the short run, determine how those economic variables will manifest themselves through concrete programs. In addition to knowing that the provision of education and health services in China is shaped by economic variables, policy makers must understand

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Lithuania in the 2000s: findings from the HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Vikhireva, Olga; Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Peasey, Anne; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively large socioeconomic inequalities in health and mortality have been observed in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU). Yet comparative data are sparse and virtually all studies include only education. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality during the 2000s in urban population samples from four CEE/FSU countries, by three different measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) (education, difficulty buying food and household amenities), reflecting different aspects of SEP. Methods Data from the prospective population-based HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe) study were used. The baseline survey (2002–2005) included 16 812 men and 19 180 women aged 45–69 years in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Data were analysed by direct standardisation and Cox regression, quantifying absolute and relative SEP differences. Results Mortality inequalities by the three SEP indicators were observed in all samples. The magnitude of inequalities varied according to gender, country and SEP measure. As expected, given the high mortality rates in Russian men, largest absolute inequalities were found among Russian men (educational slope index of inequality was 19.4 per 1000 person-years). Largest relative inequalities were observed in Czech men and Lithuanian subjects. Disadvantage by all three SEP measures remained strongly associated with increased mortality after adjusting for the other SEP indicators. Conclusions The results emphasise the importance of all SEP measures for understanding mortality inequalities in CEE/FSU. PMID:24227051

  10. The Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Health: Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Seyfettin; Yildirim, Durmus Cagri; Tosuner, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    One of the main variables affecting the level of human capital positively is the improvements in health. The reduction in infant and under-five mortality rates and increase in life expectancy at birth are the basic indicators of improvements in health. One of the major sources of improvements in these variables is education. Theoretical literature…

  11. Educational Aspirations, Child Labour Imperatives and Structural Inequality in the South African Agricultural Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Norman; Bowman, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Despite the widespread condemnation of the practice of child labour, it remains a pervasive phenomenon in developing countries. In such contexts, labour and education often represent competing activities for children. Drawing on a study of child labour located within the critical social science tradition, this article explores insider accounts of…

  12. A Healthy Sorting Machine? Social Inequality in the Transition to Upper Secondary Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Silke L.; Tieben, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The German secondary education system is highly stratified. However, the higher tracks have expanded vastly over the last decades, leading to substantial changes in the distribution of students across the different tracks. Following the German re-unification, the school structure itself has also changed to some degree. Furthermore, several smaller…

  13. Learning in a Burning House: Educational Inequality, Ideology, and (Dis)Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2011-01-01

    The negative consequences of school desegregation on Black communities in the United States are now well documented in education research. "Learning in a Burning House" is the first book to offer a historical look at the desegregation dilemma with clear recommendations for what must be done to ensure Black student success in today's schools. This…

  14. Education's "Perfect Storm?" Racial Resegregation, "High Stakes" Testing, & School Inequities: The Case of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, John Charles

    This paper examines student resegregation by race and socioeconomic class, high stakes accountability measures aimed at affecting educators' decisions on student promotion and graduation, and continuing disparities in school resources and finance, all of which intensified in 2002, particularly in North Carolina and the U.S. south. The paper…

  15. "Membership Has Its Privileges": Status Incentives and Categorical Inequality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Thurston; Penner, Andrew M.; Penner, Emily K.

    2016-01-01

    Prizes--formal systems that publicly allocate rewards for exemplary behavior--play an increasingly important role in a wide array of social settings, including education. In this paper, we evaluate a prize system designed to boost achievement at two high schools by assigning students color-coded ID cards based on a previously low-stakes test.…

  16. Essaying a Pseudo-Panel Approach: Studies on Education, Women, and Income Inequality in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warunsiri, Sasiwimon

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of three studies on Thai labor markets using a pseudo-panel data set: The first chapter estimates the rate of return to education in Thailand, while treating the endogeneity bias common to estimates from data on individuals. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from repeated cross sections of Labor Force Surveys…

  17. What PISA Tells Us about the Quality and Inequality of Japanese Education in Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipprath, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Researchers, policy officials, and the wider public in Japan and abroad often hold different views about the quality of Japanese education. Whereas Western researchers are attracted by the academic performance of Japanese students in international assessment studies, Japanese university professors launched a public debate in 1999 about declining…

  18. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallourd, Pierre, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution from France is based on recently-published documents and in particular on the "Report on the Public Infancy Service for Early Childhood," published in February 2007 by a department of the Prime Minister's Office, the Centre of Strategic Analysis, Social Affairs Section and "Early Childhood Education and Care, a…

  19. Employment among Older Workers and Inequality of Gender and Education: Evidence from a Taiwanese National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was twofold: to examine the prevalence of employment and under-employment among Taiwanese older workers (aged 50 and above), and to explore personal correlates of their employment status, in particular gender and education. Using a national representative sample, we found that: 1) a rather substantial percentage of people…

  20. War and Education in the United States: Racial Ideology and Inequality in Three Historical Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.; Darby, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of war on African-American education. This question is considered in three different periods: the eras of the American Revolution, the Civil War and the Second World War. Large-scale conflict, such as these instances of total war, can afford historical moments when oppressed groups are able take steps to improve…

  1. Inequality in Ethiopian Higher Education: Reframing the Problem as Capability Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje; Gale, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    The revitalization of Ethiopian higher education (HE) has been underway since the early 2000s. As well as the economic optimism evident in the "knowledge-driven poverty reduction" discourse, social equity goals underscore the reform and expansion of the system. Notwithstanding the widening participation and the equity policy provisions…

  2. Dynamics of Inequality: Mother's Education and Infant Mortality in China, 1970-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shige; Burgard, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors analyze the dynamic relationship between Chinese women's education, their utilization of newly available medical pregnancy care, and their infants' mortality risk. China has undergone enormous social, economic, and political changes over recent decades and is a novel context in which to examine the potential influence of…

  3. Social Inequality in Education: A Constraint on an American High-Skills Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Countries everywhere are turning to education in the quest for competitive edge in the global economy. How to attain the high skills needed in new reformed workplaces is a preoccupation that can be observed across developed countries. In this widening discourse of high skills and competitiveness, the U.S. skills production model is being seen as…

  4. Affirmative Action in China and the U.S.: A Dialogue on Inequality and Minority Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Minglang, Ed.; Hill, Ann Maxwell, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume is the first to comprehensively examine Chinese's affirmative action policies in the critical area of minority education, the most important conduit to employment and economic success in the People's Republic of China after the economic reforms begun in the late 1970s. This book contains four parts. Part I, "Debating China's…

  5. Neo-Liberal Policy Agendas and the Problem of Inequality in Higher Education: The Ethiopian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2014-01-01

    Under the influence of the external policy pressure of donors such as the World Bank, higher education in Ethiopia has witnessed a series of institutional and system-wide reforms. This article reviews selected policy documents to show key neo-liberal policy agendas endorsed in the reforms and explicate how they have affected social equity in the…

  6. Translating Human Rights Principles into Classroom Practices: Inequities in Educating about Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to explore how key principles inherent in human rights declarations and conventions are translated into practices associated with human rights education within school contexts. It is argued that this translation from discourse to practice opens up the potential for children and young people to encounter…

  7. Addressing Special Education Inequity through Systemic Change: Contributions of Ecologically Based Organizational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Artiles, Alfredo J.; Hernandez-Saca, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Since the inception of special education, scholars and practitioners have been concerned about the disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds among students identified with disabilities. Professional efforts to address this disproportionality have encompassed a range of targets, but scholars…

  8. Cross-National Educational Inequalities and Opportunities to Learn: Conflicting Views of Instructional Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Educational reformers use international evidence to argue that increasing the number of days in school and the length of the school day will improve academic achievement. However, the international data used to support these claims (1999 Third International Math and Science Survey and 2000 Program for International Student Assessment) show no…

  9. Devising Inequality: A Bernsteinian Analysis of High-Stakes Testing and Social Reproduction in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    High-stakes, standardized testing has become the central tool for educational reform and regulation in many industrialized nations in the world, and it has been implemented with particular intensity in the United States and the United Kingdom. Drawing on research on high-stakes testing and its effect on classroom practice and pedagogic discourse…

  10. Education and the Reproduction of Economic Inequality in the United States: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between family background and both college completion and earnings for a cohort of young adults. The study is based on sample of 8901 respondents from the National Education Longitudinal Study who were first surveyed as eighth graders in 1988 and last surveyed 12 years later and who were working and not…

  11. English Language Development Policy: Foreign Teachers, Hegemony, and Inequality of Education in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wannachotphawate, Wilaiwan

    2015-01-01

    Thailand's Participation as a member of the ASEAN Community forces her government to accelerate improvement of her citizens' competency of the English language. The continuing wave by Thai governments to develop and modernize the quality of education has influenced Thai society. Within Thailand, English proficiency has been reported as being…

  12. Family sources of educational gender inequality in rural china: A critical assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hannum, Emily; Kong, Peggy; Zhang, Yuping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of 9-12-year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected 7 years later. We complement our main analysis with two illustrative case studies of rural families drawn from 11 months of fieldwork conducted in rural Gansu between 2003 and 2005 by the second author. In 2000, most mothers expressed egalitarian views about girls' and boys' rights and abilities, in the abstract. However, the vast majority of mothers still expected to rely on sons for old-age support, and nearly one in five mothers interviewed agreed with the traditional saying, “Sending girls to school is useless since they will get married and leave home.” Compared to boys, girls faced somewhat lower (though still very high) maternal educational expectations and a greater likelihood of being called on for household chores than boys. However, there was little evidence of a gender gap in economic investments in education. Girls rivaled or outperformed boys in academic performance and engagement. Seven years later, boys had attained just about a third of a year more schooling than girls-a quite modest advantage that could not be fully explained by early parental attitudes and investments, or student performance or engagement. Fieldwork confirmed that parents of sons and daughters tended to have high aspirations for their children. Parents sometimes viewed boys as having greater aptitude, but tended to view girls as having

  13. (De)constructing literacy: Education inequalities and the production of space in San Diego, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangeman, Andrew Gerrit

    Since its inception, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and recent additions to the U.S. Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) have elicited a broad swath of responses from the educational community. These responses include critical discussions of how standardized testing requirements proliferate a "teach for the test" mentality that transforms how reading, writing, and mathematics are taught in public schools. This thesis focused specifically on "literacy" in relation to the policies that challenge its status as a subjective form of communication, knowledge sharing, and story-telling. Embedded within the term "literacy" are sets of socially-constructed dualisms such as "good school" vs. "bad school," "literate" vs. "illiterate," and "reader" vs. "test-taker" that are propagated under education reform. Investigating these dualisms involved a mixed methods approach, which included the use of critical theory, geovisualization, and geographic analysis. The resulting data allows for a comprehensive look into the economic, political, social, and cultural forces involved in the production of literate space(s) in San Diego, California.

  14. "Crossing the Sahara without Water": Experiencing Class Inequality through the Back to Education Allowance Welfare to Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article critically appraises the success of the Back To Education Allowance (BTEA) in removing barriers to participation in 3rd level education for welfare recipients in Ireland. The paper is based on empirical data from focus group and in-depth qualitative interviews with 3rd level students on the BTEA. This study argues that it is…

  15. Inequality in Experiences of Physics Education: Secondary School Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of their Physics Education and Intentions to Continue with Physics After the Age of 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the factors that are associated in England with 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics after the age of 16, when it is no longer compulsory. Survey responses were collated from 5,034 year 10 students as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009 from 137 England secondary schools. Our analysis uses individual items from the survey rather than constructs (aggregates of items) to explore what it is about physics teachers, physics lessons and physics itself that is most correlated with intended participation in physics after the age of 16. Our findings indicate that extrinsic material gain motivation in physics was the most important factor associated with intended participation. In addition, an item-level analysis helped to uncover issues around gender inequality in physics educational experiences which were masked by the use of construct-based analyses. Girls' perceptions of their physics teachers were similar to those of boys on many fronts. However, despite the encouragement individual students receive from their teachers being a key factor associated with aspirations to continue with physics, girls were statistically significantly less likely to receive such encouragement. We also found that girls had less positive experiences of their physics lessons and physics education than did boys.

  16. Have health inequalities changed during childhood in the New Labour generation? Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rougeaux, Emeline; Hope, Steven; Law, Catherine; Pearce, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine how population-level socioeconomic health inequalities developed during childhood, for children born at the turn of the 21st century and who grew up with major initiatives to tackle health inequalities (under the New Labour Government). Setting The UK. Participants Singleton children in the Millennium Cohort Study at ages 3 (n=15 381), 5 (n=15 041), 7 (n=13 681) and 11 (n=13 112) years. Primary outcomes Relative (prevalence ratios (PR)) and absolute health inequalities (prevalence differences (PD)) were estimated in longitudinal models by socioeconomic circumstances (SEC; using highest maternal academic attainment, ranging from ‘no academic qualifications’ to ‘degree’ (baseline)). Three health outcomes were examined: overweight (including obesity), limiting long-standing illness (LLSI), and socio-emotional difficulties (SED). Results Relative and absolute inequalities in overweight, across the social gradient, emerged by age 5 and increased with age. By age 11, children with mothers who had no academic qualifications were considerably more likely to be overweight as compared with those with degree-educated mothers (PR=1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8), PD=12.9% (9.1% to 16.8%)). For LLSI, inequalities emerged by age 7 and remained at 11, but only for children whose mothers had no academic qualifications (PR=1.7 (1.3 to 2.3), PD=4.8% (2% to 7.5%)). Inequalities in SED (observed across the social gradient and at all ages) declined between 3 and 11, although remained large at 11 (eg, PR=2.4 (1.9 to 2.9), PD=13.4% (10.2% to 16.7%) comparing children whose mothers had no academic qualifications with those of degree-educated mothers). Conclusions Although health inequalities have been well documented in cross-sectional and trend data in the UK, it is less clear how they develop during childhood. We found that relative and absolute health inequalities persisted, and in some cases widened, for a cohort of children born at the turn of the century

  17. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  18. Harnessing inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-09-01

    Living in the era of "big-data" information, we are ubiquitously inundated by overabundances of sizes-non-negative numerical values representing count, score, length, area, volume, duration, mass, energy, etc. Datasets of sizes display numerous types of statistical variability that are commonly quantified either by the standard deviation, or by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The standard deviation measures the sizes' Euclidean divergence from their mean, the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy measures the sizes' informational divergence from the benchmark of pure determinism, and both these gauges are one-dimensional. In this paper we overview a methodology that harnesses inequality in order to quantify statistical variability. The methodology follows a socioeconomic approach of measuring the sizes' inequality-their divergence from the benchmark of pure egalitarianism-and yields frameworks that gauge statistical variability in a multi-dimensional fashion. The aim of this overview is to serve both researchers and practitioners as a crash-introduction to the "harnessing inequality" methodology, and as a crash-manual to the implementation of this methodology.

  19. Noncontextuality Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekkens, Robert

    2010-03-01

    The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem demonstrates that the predictions of quantum theory are inconsistent with a noncontextual hidden variable model. Significantly, the notion of noncontextuality to which it appeals is only well-defined for models of quantum theory as opposed to models of an arbitrary physical theory and then only for projective measurements and deterministic models thereof. By contrast, the notion of local causality introduced by Bell is not so restricted in its scope. In this talk, I present an operational definition of noncontextuality that recovers the traditional notion as a special case and allows one to define ``noncontextuality inequalities'' for experimental statistics. I will demonstrate that a particular two-party information-processing task, ``parity-oblivious multiplexing,'' is powered by contextuality in the sense that there is an inequality that bounds its performance in noncontextual models, and I will report on an experimental violation of this inequality in good agreement with the quantum predictions. Joint work with Daniel Buzacott, Tony Keehn, Ben Toner and Geoff Pryde.

  20. [Social inequality in home care].

    PubMed

    Möller, A; Osterfeld, A; Büscher, A

    2013-06-01

    Social inequality in Germany is discussed primarily with regard to educational or social welfare issues. There is a political consensus that more action should be taken to ensure equality of chances and fulfillment of basic needs for everyone. In long-term care these considerations have not yet taken place and there are hardly any research studies in this field. However, the startling rise of the need for long-term care will definitely require a discussion of social inequality in various care arrangements. To learn more about social inequality in home care, a qualitative approach was used and 16 home care nurses were interviewed. Our study shows that many care recipients face numerous problems they cannot handle on their own, which may even worsen their situation. In addition, the results reveal that facing social inequalities place a burden on nurses and influence their work performance.

  1. Inequalities, Signum Functions and Wrinkles in Wiggle Graphs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Dean B.; Wood, Dianne

    Presented is a graphical approach to teaching higher degree, rational function, and absolute value inequalities that simplifies the solution of these inequalities and thereby reduces the amount of classroom time that has to be devoted to this topic. Applications are also given for signum functions, maximum-minimum, and points of inflection…

  2. A special application of absolute value techniques in authentic problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-06-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value expressions are involved, the definition that is most helpful is the one involving solving by intervals and evaluating critical points. In point of fact, application of this technique is one reason that the topic of absolute value is important in mathematics in general and in mathematics teaching in particular. We present here an authentic practical problem that is solved using absolute values and the 'intervals' method, after which the solution is generalized with surprising results. This authentic problem also lends itself to investigation using educational technological tools such as GeoGebra dynamic geometry software: mathematics teachers can allow their students to initially cope with the problem by working in an inductive environment in which they conduct virtual experiments until a solid conjecture has been reached, after which they should prove the conjecture deductively, using classic theoretical mathematical tools.

  3. Two Paths to Inequality in Educational Outcomes: Family Background and Educational Selection in the United States and Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisel, Liza

    2011-01-01

    The United States and Norway represent two distinctively different attempts to equalize educational opportunity. Whereas the United States has focused on expansion and the proliferation of lower-tier open-access institutions, Norway has emphasized institutional streamlining and the equalization of living conditions. At the same time, the two…

  4. Addressing Inequalities in Health: New Directions in Midwifery Education and Practice. Researching Professional Education Research Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Angie; Lockey, Rachael; Henwood, Flis; Pankhurst, Francesca; Hall, Valerie; Sommerville, Fiona

    This report addresses key questions concerning the effectiveness of midwifery education in preparing midwives to meet the needs of women from minority or disadvantaged groups in England. Chapter 1 sets out the methodological context within which the work was undertaken and provides an overview of data sources and sample sizes. Chapters 3 and 4…

  5. Educational Expansion and Field of Study: Trends in the Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Inequality in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraaykamp, Gerbert; Tolsma, Jochem; Wolbers, Maarten H. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study to what extent parental field of study affects a person's educational level and field of study. We employ information on 8800 respondents from the Family Survey Dutch Population (1992-2009). Our results first of all show that, over the last five decades, economic fields of study have become more fashionable among men. In…

  6. Mode of birth and social inequalities in health: the effect of maternal education and access to hospital care on cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Anita

    2014-05-01

    Access to health care is an important factor in explaining health inequalities. This study focuses on the issue of access to health care as a driving force behind the social discrepancies in cesarean delivery using data from 707 newborn children in the 2006-2011 birth cohorts of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP). Data on individual birth outcomes are linked to hospital data using extracts of the quality assessment reports of nearly all German hospitals. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used to assess hospital service clusters within a 20-km radius buffer around mother׳s homes. Logistic regression models adjusting for maternal characteristics indicate that the likelihood to deliver by a cesarean section increases for the least educated women when they face constraints with regard to access to hospital care. No differences between the education groups are observed when access to obstetric care is high, thus a high access to hospital care seems to balance out health inequalities that are related to differences in education. The results emphasize the importance of focusing on unequal access to hospital care in explaining differences in birth outcomes.

  7. Do biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediate educational inequalities in stillbirth risk? An analysis of the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Näyhä, Simo; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have explored the association between educational inequalities and stillbirth but most have failed to elaborate how low educational attainment leads to an increased risk of stillbirth. We hypothesised that use of biomass fuels and consumption of unsafe water related to low educational attainment could explain the stillbirth burden in Ghana attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Methods Data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey, a nationally representative population-based survey were analysed for this study. Of the10 370 women aged 15–49 years interviewed via structured questionnaires for the survey, 7183 primiparous and multiparous women qualified for inclusion in the present study. Results In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for age, area of residence, marital status and ethnicity of women, lower maternal primary education was associated with a 62% (OR=1.62; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.52) increased lifetime risk of stillbirth. Biomass fuel use and consumption of unsafe water mediated 18% and 8% of the observed effects, respectively. Jointly these two exposures explained 24% of the observed effects. The generalised additive modelling revealed a very flat inverted spoon-shaped smoothed curve which peaked at low levels of schooling (2–3 years) and confirms the findings from the logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Our results show that biomass fuel use and unsafe water consumption could be important pathways through which low maternal educational attainment leads to stillbirths in Ghana and similar developing countries. Addressing educational inequalities in developing countries is thus essential for ensuring household choices that curtail environmental exposures and help improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:28174221

  8. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  9. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  10. Summarizing health inequalities in a Balanced Scorecard. Methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Raynault, Marie-France

    2006-01-01

    The association between social determinants and health inequalities is well recognized. What are now needed are tools to assist in disseminating such information. This article describes how the Balanced Scorecard may be used for summarizing data on health inequalities. The process begins by selecting appropriate social groups and indicators, and is followed by the measurement of differences across person, place, or time. The next step is to decide whether to focus on absolute versus relative inequality. The last step is to determine the scoring method, including whether to address issues of depth of inequality.

  11. Quantum Griffiths Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-07-01

    We present a general framework of Griffiths inequalities for quantum systems. Our approach is based on operator inequalities associated with self-dual cones and provides a consistent viewpoint of the Griffiths inequality. As examples, we discuss the quantum Ising model, quantum rotor model, Bose-Hubbard model, and Hubbard model. We present a model-independent structure that governs the correlation inequalities.

  12. Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James

    2013-01-01

    The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…

  13. The Association between Educational Level and Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases within the EPICOR Study: New Evidence for an Old Inequality Problem

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Fasanelli, Francesca; Lenzo, Giulia; Galli, Matteo; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Masala, Giovanna; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background A consistent association has been reported between low socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular events (CE), whereas the association between SES and cerebrovascular events (CBVD) is less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SES (measured using education) and CE/CBVD in a cohort study, as well as to investigate lifestyle and clinical risk factors, to help to clarify the mechanisms by which SES influences CE/CBVD. Material and Methods We searched for diagnoses of CE and CBVD in the clinical records of 47,749 members of the EPICOR cohort (average follow-up time: 11 years). SES was determined by the relative index of inequality (RII). Results A total of 1,156 CE and 468 CBVD were found in the clinical records. An increased risk of CE was observed in the crude Cox model for the third tertile of RII compared to the first tertile (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21–1.61). The increased risk persisted after adjustment for lifestyle risk factors (HR = 1.19; 95%CI 1.02–1.38), clinical risk factors (HR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.17–1.56), and after full adjustment (HR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.01–1.37). Structural equation model showed that lifestyle rather than clinical risk factors are involved in the mechanisms by which education influences CE. No significant association was found between education and CBVD. A strong relationship was observed between education and diabetes at baseline. Conclusion The most important burden of inequality in CE incidence in Italy is due to lifestyle risk factors. PMID:27711245

  14. Inequalities in the Education System and the Reproduction of Socioeconomic Disparities in Voting in England, Denmark and Germany: The Influence of Country Context, Tracking and Self-Efficacy on Voting Intentions of Students Age 16-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Bryony; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Han, Christine; Muijs, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article performs exploratory research using a mixed-methods approach (structural equation modelling and a thematic analysis of interview data) to analyse the ways in which socioeconomic disparities in voting patterns are reproduced through inequalities in education in different national contexts, and the role of self-efficacy in this process.…

  15. Education level” responsible for inequities in oral practices among 15–34-year-old individuals in Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Ali; Peeran, Syed Wali; Al Sanabani, Fuad; Almakramani, Bandar; Elham, Elfatih Ibrahim; Naveen Kumar, Puvvadi G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Education plays an important role and is a second major (non-medical dimensional) factor influencing the health status. Individuals demonstrate oral practices that impact the oral health positively or negatively. This study analyzes how self-reported oral practices are influenced by different educational levels among young adults in Jizan. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted in four areas around University of Jizan. The survey subjects, aged between 15 and 34 years, completed the self-administered, structured questionnaire. Inter-group comparison was done using Chi-square test. Level of significance was fixed at P < 0.05. Results: Exactly 1597 subjects completed the survey. Of these, 644 (40.3%) had attained higher education, 884 (55.4%) had lower education, and 69 (4.3%) were illiterate. Statistical comparisons showed significant differences among the three groups with respect to the use of toothbrushes (χ2 = 88.67, P < 0.001), use of interdental cleaning aids (χ2 = 15.04, P < 0.001), siwak use (χ2 = 16.31, P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (χ2 = 14.28, P < 0.001), and khat chewing (χ2 = 38.1, P < 0.001). Siwak use was more among those with low educational level and illiterates. Further, smoking and khat chewing were significantly more prevalent among illiterates. Conclusion: The subjects with low education and the illiterates exercise harmful oral practices. This study indicates that educational level is responsible for inequities in oral practices. PMID:25992337

  16. Local modelling techniques for assessing micro-level impacts of risk factors in complex data: understanding health and socioeconomic inequalities in childhood educational attainments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A; Bodger, Owen G; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, "Micro-impact of Domain" and "Contribution of Domain", to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could

  17. Local Modelling Techniques for Assessing Micro-Level Impacts of Risk Factors in Complex Data: Understanding Health and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Educational Attainments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A.; Bodger, Owen G.; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B.; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, “Micro-impact of Domain” and “Contribution of Domain”, to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational

  18. Absolutely classical spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnet-Waldraff, F.; Giraud, O.; Braun, D.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of "absolutely classical" spin states, in analogy to absolutely separable states of bipartite quantum systems. Absolutely classical states are states that remain classical (i.e., a convex sum of projectors on coherent states of a spin j ) under any unitary transformation applied to them. We investigate the maximal size of the ball of absolutely classical states centered on the maximally mixed state and derive a lower bound for its radius as a function of the total spin quantum number. We also obtain a numerical estimate of this maximal radius and compare it to the case of absolutely separable states.

  19. Women as Leaders in Education: Succeeding Despite Inequity, Discrimination, and Other Challenges. Women and Careers in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This up-to-date, candid examination of women's careers in education and leadership in education describes the pitfalls, triumphs, and future promise of female leaders in education. Despite the gains women have made in higher education over the past few decades, and an increasing number of well-qualified female candidates, they are still…

  20. Ethnic Inequality in Choice-Driven Education Systems: A Longitudinal Study of Performance and Choice in England and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michelle; Jonsson, Jan O.; Rudolphi, Frida

    2012-01-01

    The authors ask whether choice-driven education systems, with comprehensive schools and mass education at the secondary and tertiary level, represented in this article by England and Sweden, provide educational opportunities for ethnic minorities. In studying educational attainment, the authors make a theoretical distinction between mechanisms…

  1. Japanese Solutions to the Equity and Efficiency Dilemma? Secondary Schools, Inequity and the Arrival of "Universal" Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariya, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Any moves towards substantive equality in education must negotiate the contradictions between equality and efficiency. Equality of education comes about through both the widening of opportunity and the maintenance of educational quality, but in the context of limited resources, educational policy rarely serves both ends simultaneously. Regardless…

  2. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  3. Association between unemployment, income, education level, population size and air pollution in Czech cities: evidence for environmental inequality? A pilot national scale analysis.

    PubMed

    Branis, Martin; Linhartova, Martina

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed differentials in exposure to SO(2), PM(10) and NO(2) among Czech urban populations categorized according to education level, unemployment rate, population size and average annual salary. Altogether 39 cities were included in the analysis. The principal component analysis revealed two factors explaining 72.8% of the data variability. The first factor explaining 44.7% of the data variability included SO(2), PM(10), low education level and high unemployment, documenting that inhabitants with unfavorable socioeconomic status mainly reside in smaller cities with higher concentration levels of combustion-related air pollutants. The second factor explaining 28.1% of the data variability included NO(2), high salary, high education level and large population, suggesting that large cities with residents with higher socioeconomic status are exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution. We conclude that, after more than a decade of free-market economy, the Czech Republic, a former Soviet satellite with a centrally planned economy, displays signs of a certain kind of environmental inequality, since environmental hazards are unevenly distributed among the Czech urban populations.

  4. What is the association of smoking and alcohol use with the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark? A nationwide register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Diderichsen, Finn; Grønbæk, Morten; Juel, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of smoking and alcohol use on the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark in the period 1985–2009. Design A nationwide register-based study. Setting Denmark. Participants The whole Danish population aged 30 years or more in the period 1985–2009. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome is mortality rates in relation to educational attainments calculated with and without deaths related to smoking and alcohol use. An absolute measure of inequality in mortality is applied along with a result on the direct contribution from smoking and alcohol use on the absolute difference in mortality rates. The secondary outcome is life expectancy in relation to educational attainments. Results Since 1985, Danish overall mortality rates have decreased. Alongside the improvement in mortality, the absolute difference in the mortality rate (per 100 000 persons) between the lowest and the highest educated quartile grew from 465 to 611 among men and from 250 to 386 among women. Smoking and alcohol use have caused 75% of the increase among men and 97% of the increase among women. Among men the increase was mainly caused by alcohol. In women the increase was mainly caused by smoking. Conclusions The main explanation for the increase in social inequality in mortality since the mid-1980s is smoking and alcohol use. A significant reduction in the social inequality in mortality can only happen if the prevention of smoking and alcohol use are targeted to the lower educated part of the Danish population. PMID:25967987

  5. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

  6. Measuring Cognitive Achievement Gaps and Inequalities: The Case of Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Jose Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a new measure of educational inequalities based on cognitive achievement data, and uses it to examine achievement inequalities in mathematics between groups of students enrolled in basic education in Brazil. The groups of students are defined by their race, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and region of residence. The…

  7. Beyond lognormal inequality: The Lorenz Flow Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-11-01

    Observed from a socioeconomic perspective, the intrinsic inequality of the lognormal law happens to manifest a flow generated by an underlying ordinary differential equation. In this paper we extend this feature of the lognormal law to a general "Lorenz Flow Structure" of Lorenz curves-objects that quantify socioeconomic inequality. The Lorenz Flow Structure establishes a general framework of size distributions that span continuous spectra of socioeconomic states ranging from the pure-communism extreme to the absolute-monarchy extreme. This study introduces and explores the Lorenz Flow Structure, analyzes its statistical properties and its inequality properties, unveils the unique role of the lognormal law within this general structure, and presents various examples of this general structure. Beyond the lognormal law, the examples include the inverse-Pareto and Pareto laws-which often govern the tails of composite size distributions.

  8. Producing Inequality: Ideology and Economy in the National Reports on Education (AESA R. Freeman Butts Lecture-1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1987-01-01

    Offers an analysis of the various national reports on education issued between 1983 and 1986. Argues that as a group, the reports are as much political as they are educational documents. Contends that the recommendations of the reports are built upon a vision of the future economy that is wrong and that the educational solutions offered are…

  9. Vestiges of Desegregation: Superintendent Perspectives on Educational Inequality and (Dis)Integration in the Post-Civil Rights Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the growing counternarrative in education research concerning the negative consequences of school desegregation and its implications for urban education, educational leadership, and policy reform in the post-Civil Rights Era. Guided by qualitative and historical research methods, this article presents the…

  10. Inequality in Pre-School Education and Care in Germany: An Analysis by Social Class and Immigrant Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moll, Frederick; Betz, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, early childhood education and care have gained increasing public attention. This has led to an expansion of education and care programmes. Yet, little is known about how parents use different options of education and care. Take, for example, kin care, paid caregivers and out-of-kindergarten activities. Drawing on social…

  11. Gender Inequalities in Higher Education: Extent, Development and Mechanisms of Gender Differences in Enrolment and Field of Study Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorz, Markus; Schindler, Steffen; Walter, Jessica G.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of educational expansion, gender differences in access to higher education have decreased substantially in many European countries. In Germany women are currently over-represented in upper secondary education and more frequently attain a general qualification for university entrance. Despite those advantages, women still enrol in…

  12. Credential Inflation and Employment in "Universal" Higher Education: Enrolment, Expansion and (In)Equity via Privatisation in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariya, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of a global knowledge-based economy has given rise to drastic changes in both higher education and employment. On one hand, governments in advanced societies have launched policies to expand higher education to compete internationally in educating and attracting highly skilled workers. At the same time, both global economic…

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. Soffer`s inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, G.R.; Jaffe, R.L.; Ji, X.

    1995-11-01

    Various issues surrounding a recently proposed inequality among twist-two quark distributions in the nucleon are discussed. We provide a rigorous derivation of the inequality in QCD, including radiative corrections and scale dependence. We also give a more heuristic, but more physical derivation, from which we show that a similar inequality does not exist among twist-three quark distributions. We demonstrate that the inequality does not constrain the nucleon`s tensor charge. Finally we explore physical mechanisms for saturating the inequality, arguing it is unlikely to occur in nature.

  16. Income inequality and happiness.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Diener, Ed

    2011-09-01

    Using General Social Survey data from 1972 to 2008, we found that Americans were on average happier in the years with less national income inequality than in the years with more national income inequality. We further demonstrated that this inverse relation between income inequality and happiness was explained by perceived fairness and general trust. That is, Americans trusted other people less and perceived other people to be less fair in the years with more national income inequality than in the years with less national income inequality. The negative association between income inequality and happiness held for lower-income respondents, but not for higher-income respondents. Most important, we found that the negative link between income inequality and the happiness of lower-income respondents was explained not by lower household income, but by perceived unfairness and lack of trust.

  17. Social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of economic crisis (1993–2010) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds This study examines social inequalities in life expectancy and mortality during the transition period of the Korean economic crisis (1993–2010) among Korean adults aged 40 and over. Methods Data from the census and the national death file from the Statistics Korea are employed to calculate life expectancy and age-specific-death-rates (ASDR) by age, gender, and educational attainment for five years: 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Absolute and relative differences in life expectancy and Age-Specific Death Rates by educational attainment were utilized as proxy measures of social inequality. Results Clear educational gradient of life expectancy was observed at age 40 by both sexes and across five time periods (1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The gradient became notably worse in females between 1993 and 2010 compared to the trend in males. The educational gradient was also found for ASDR in all five years, but it was more pronounced in working age groups (40s and 50s) than in elderly groups. The relative disadvantage of ASDR among working age Korean adults, both males and females, became substantially worse over time. Conclusions Social inequalities in life expectancy and ASDR of the working age group across socioeconomic status over time were closely related to the widening of the social difference created by the macroeconomic crisis and the expansion of neo-liberalism in Korea. PMID:23171369

  18. Gender Inequalities in the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmann, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Background: In terms of high school graduation, college entry, and persistence to earning a college degree, young women now consistently outperform their male peers. Yet most research on gender inequalities in education continues to focus on aspects of education where women trail men, such as women's underrepresentation at top-tier institutions…

  19. Social Inequalities of Post-Secondary Educational Aspirations: Influence of Social Background, School Composition and Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupriez, Vincent; Monseur, Christian; van Campenhoudt, Maud; Lafontaine, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    The first goal of this article is to assess, for each country belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the influence of pupils' sociocultural background on educational aspirations. The second goal is to explore whether, after controlling for educational achievement, the residual influence of sociocultural…

  20. The Impact of Political Context on the Questions Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the questions education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…

  1. Linguistically Based Inequality, Multilingual Education and a Genre-Based Literacy Development Pedagogy: Insights from the Australian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter R. R.; Mammone, Giuseppe; Caldwell, David

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the issue of pedagogy and bilingual/multilingual education: how best to match teaching-and-learning approaches to the literacy development needs of students in multilingual educational settings. More specifically, it makes the case for what is known as the "Sydney school" genre-based literacy development approach.…

  2. Disregard of Opportunity Gap Inequalities in Policy Debates over Mandatory English Education at Public Elementary Schools in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Ryoji

    2010-01-01

    On January 17, 2008, the Japanese Central Education Council submitted a newly revised set of official curriculum guidelines to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan. These guidelines for elementary schools will become effective in the 2011 academic year and include a controversial new policy: the…

  3. Success Starts at Home: Using the Federal Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing Rule to Tackle Education Inequalities for Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mitria

    2015-01-01

    Far too often, the question of how to improve educational outcomes for minority children living in the United States leads to familiar proposals involving school busing, educational vouchers, or the formation of mixed-community charter schools. The purpose of this report is to note that each of these shares a commonality that should not be…

  4. Continuing Inequity through Neoliberalism: The Conveyance of White Dominance in the Educational Policy Speeches of President Barack Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this critical discourse analysis is to examine how the political speeches and statements of President Barack Obama knowingly or unknowingly continue practices and policies of White privilege within educational policy and practice by constructing education in a neoliberal frame. With presidents having the ability to communicate…

  5. Passing by the girls? Remittance allocation for educational expenditures and social inequality in Nepal's households 2003–2004.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Ann; Korinek, Kim

    2012-01-01

    We examine the utilization of remittances for expenditures associated with development, specifically children's education. We use household-level data from the Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS II, 2003–04) to separate remittance effects from general household income effects to demonstrate the migration–development relationship reflected in child schooling investment. We find that family-household remittances are spent on education of children, but the expenditures are disproportionately for boys' schooling. Only when girls are members of higher-income households do greater schooling expenditures go to them. This gender-discriminating pattern at the household level contrasts with the call for universal and gender-equal education.

  6. The evolution of inequality.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Siobhán M; Smith, Eric A; Shenk, Mary K; Cochrane, Ethan E

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how systems of political and economic inequality evolved from relatively egalitarian origins has long been a focus of anthropological inquiry. Many hypotheses have been suggested to link socio-ecological features with the rise and spread of inequality, and empirical tests of these hypotheses in prehistoric and extant societies are increasing. In this review, we synthesize several streams of theory relevant to understanding the evolutionary origins, spread, and adaptive significance of inequality. We argue that while inequality may be produced by a variety of localized processes, its evolution is fundamentally dependent on the economic defensibility and transmissibility of wealth. Furthermore, these properties of wealth could become persistent drivers of inequality only following a shift to a more stable climate in the Holocene. We conclude by noting several key areas for future empirical research, emphasizing the need for more analyses of contemporary shifts toward institutionalized inequality as well as prehistoric cases.

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancer mortality among men: to what extent do they differ between Western European populations?

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Stirbu, Irina; Borrell, Carme; Bopp, Matthias; Regidor, Enrique; Heine Strand, Bjørn; Deboosere, Patrick; Lundberg, Olle; Leclerc, Annette; Costa, Giuseppe; Chastang, Jean-Francois; Esnaola, Santiago; Martikainen, Pekka; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2007-01-01

    We aim to study socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancers mortality (upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus) and liver) in men and to investigate whether the contribution of these cancers to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality differs within Western Europe. We used longitudinal mortality datasets including causes of death. Data were collected during the 1990s among men aged 30–74 years in 13 European populations (Madrid, the Basque region, Barcelona, Turin, Switzerland (German and Latin part), France, Belgium (Walloon and Flemish part, Brussels), Norway, Sweden, Finland). Socioeconomic status was measured using the educational level declared at the census at the beginning of the follow-up period. We conducted Poisson regression analyses and used both relative (Relative index of inequality (RII)) and absolute (mortality rates difference) measures of inequality. For UADT cancers, the RII’s were above 3.5 in France, Switzerland (both parts) and Turin whereas for liver cancer they were the highest (around 2.5) in Madrid, France and Turin. The contribution of alcohol related cancer to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality was 29–36% in France and the Spanish populations, 17–23% in Switzerland and Turin, and 5–15% in Belgium and the Nordic countries. We did not observe any correlation between mortality rates differences for lung and UADT cancers, confirming that the pattern found for UADT cancers is not only due to smoking. This study suggests that alcohol use substantially influences socioeconomic inequalities in male cancer mortality in France, Spain and Switzerland but not in the Nordic countries and nor in Belgium. PMID:17415714

  8. Inequalities in Science

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244

  9. All inequality is not equal: children correct inequalities using resource value

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Fairness concerns guide children's judgments about how to share resources with others. However, it is unclear from past research if children take extant inequalities or the value of resources involved in an inequality into account when sharing with others; these questions are the focus of the current studies. In all experiments, children saw an inequality between two recipients—one had two more resources than another. What varied between conditions was the value of the resources that the child could subsequently distribute. When the resources were equal in value to those involved in the original inequality, children corrected the previous inequality by giving two resources to the child with fewer resources (Experiment 1). However, as the value of the resources increased relative to those initially shared by the experimenter, children were more likely to distribute the two high value resources equally between the two recipients, presumably to minimize the overall inequality in value (Experiments 1 and 2). We found that children specifically use value, not just size, when trying to equalize outcomes (Experiment 3) and further found that children focus on the relative rather than absolute value of the resources they share—when the experimenter had unequally distributed the same high value resource that the child would later share, children corrected the previous inequality by giving two high value resources to the person who had received fewer high value resources. These results illustrate that children attempt to correct past inequalities and try to maintain equality not just in the count of resources but also by using the value of resources. PMID:23882227

  10. Inequalities in child mortality in ten major African cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The existence of socio-economic inequalities in child mortality is well documented. African cities grow faster than cities in most other regions of the world; and inequalities in African cities are thought to be particularly large. Revealing health-related inequalities is essential in order for governments to be able to act against them. This study aimed to systematically compare inequalities in child mortality across 10 major African cities (Cairo, Lagos, Kinshasa, Luanda, Abidjan, Dar es Salaam, Nairobi, Dakar, Addis Ababa, Accra), and to investigate trends in such inequalities over time. Methods Data from two rounds of demographic and health surveys (DHS) were used for this study (if available): one from around the year 2000 and one from between 2007 and 2011. Child mortality rates within cities were calculated by population wealth quintiles. Inequality in child mortality was assessed by computing two measures of relative inequality (the rate ratio and the concentration index) and two measures of absolute inequality (the difference and the Erreyger’s index). Results Mean child mortality rates ranged from about 39 deaths per 1,000 live births in Cairo (2008) to about 107 deaths per 1,000 live births in Dar es Salaam (2010). Significant inequalities were found in Kinshasa, Luanda, Abidjan, and Addis Ababa in the most recent survey. The difference between the poorest quintile and the richest quintile was as much as 108 deaths per 1,000 live births (95% confidence interval 55 to 166) in Abidjan in 2011–2012. When comparing inequalities across cities or over time, confidence intervals of all measures almost always overlap. Nevertheless, inequalities appear to have increased in Abidjan, while they appear to have decreased in Cairo, Lagos, Dar es Salaam, Nairobi and Dakar. Conclusions Considerable inequalities exist in almost all cities but the level of inequalities and their development over time appear to differ across cities. This implies that

  11. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health in Older Adults in Brazil and England

    PubMed Central

    De Oliveira, Cesar; Macinko, James; Marmot, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in health among older adults in England and Brazil. Methods. We analyzed nationally representative samples of residents aged 50 years and older in 2008 data from the Brazilian National Household Survey (n = 75 527) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 9589). We estimated prevalence ratios for self-rated health, functional limitations, and reported chronic diseases, by education level and household income tertiles. Results. Brazilians reported worse health than did English respondents. Country-specific differences were higher among the poorest, but also affected the wealthiest persons. We observed a strong inverse gradient of similar magnitude across education and household income levels for most health indicators in each country. Prevalence ratios (lowest vs highest education level) of poor self-rated health were 3.24 in Brazil and 3.50 in England; having 2 or more functional limitations, 1.81 in Brazil and 1.96 in England; and having 1 or more diseases, 1.14 in Brazil and 1.36 in England. Conclusions. Socioeconomic inequalities in health affect both populations, despite a less pronounced absolute difference in household income and education in Brazil than in England. PMID:22698020

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Absolute and Relative Position and Late-Life Depression: Evidence from 10 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladin, Keren; Daniels, Norman; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequality has been associated with higher levels of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the role of absolute and relative deprivation in predicting late-life depression on both individual and country levels. Design and Methods: Country- and individual-level inequality indicators were used in multivariate logistic…

  13. Trends in Global Gender Inequality (Forthcoming, Social Forces)

    PubMed Central

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world’s population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494

  14. What fosters concern for inequality among American adolescents?

    PubMed

    Cech, Erin A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cultural beliefs about social and economic inequality is vital to discerning the roadblocks and pathways to addressing that inequality. The foundation of concern for inequality is laid during adolescence, yet scholars understand little about the factors that influence whether and how adolescents come to express such concern. Arguing that structural and cultural contexts are just as consequential as whether adolescents themselves are members of disadvantaged groups, I draw on four theoretical perspectives to identify factors that influence adolescents' concern for addressing inequality: the underdog thesis, intergroup contact theory, the education enlightens thesis, and ideological buttressing. Using representative restricted-use Educational Longitudinal Survey data, I find that 12th-graders' beliefs are indeed influenced by more than their own demography: the diversity of their social milieu, the content of education in and out of the classroom, and ideological buttressing via political region and entertainment all influence whether they express concern for addressing inequality. These findings suggest extensions and amendments to the four theoretical perspectives and underscore the importance of studying structural and cultural factors that shape beliefs about inequality. The results also point to several interventions that may increase students' concern for inequality: involvement in civic-oriented extracurricular activities, more education in academic subjects that consider inequality, nurturing of cross-race friendships, and increased leisure reading.

  15. Rural-Urban Dimensions of Inequality Change. Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwood, Robert; Lipton, Michael

    This study reviews evidence that overall within-country inequality, although showing no trends from 1960-80, increased after 1980-85, focusing on developing and transitional countries. It explores trends in rural-urban, intrarural, and intraurban inequality of income, poverty risk, health, and education, and the offsetting trends in inequality…

  16. Recasting Border Crossing Politics and Pedagogies to Combat Educational Inequity: Experiences, Identities, and Perceptions of Latino/a Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Camille M.; Ek, Lucila D.; Douglas, Ty-Ron M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Educational borderlands are the physical and/or conceptual landscapes where one must negotiate notions of cultural difference as she or he lives and learns--landscapes that envelop an array of pedagogical and cultural spaces, yet are typically guarded by exclusionary tactics. In this article, we examine how US immigrant youth navigate three…

  17. Social Exclusion and Education Inequality: Towards an Integrated Analytical Framework for the Urban-Rural Divide in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to build a capability-based framework, drawing upon the strengths of other approaches, which is applicable to the complexity of the urban-rural divide in education in China. It starts with a brief introduction to the capability approach. This is followed by a discussion of how the rights-based approach and resource-based…

  18. Can We Teach Civic Education and Service-Learning in a World of Privatization, Inequality, and Interdependence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Benjamin R.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is an excerpt from a keynote speech delivered by Benjamin Barber at the 2nd Annual Summer Research Institute on the "Future of Community Engagement in Higher Education." The speech focuses on six conditions that will impact community service-learning and voluntarism efforts in the years ahead: the ideology of neo-liberalism and…

  19. Inequality in Social Capital: Social Capital, Social Risk and Drop-out in the Turkish Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cemalcilar, Zeynep; Göksen, Fatos

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of social capital on the likelihood of dropping out from the compulsory education system (Grades One through Eight) in Turkey. It focuses on the question of whether school-related social capital can provide the means to stay in school in the presence of risk factors such as socioeconomic status, race, or gender…

  20. The Efficiency of K-12 Public Education Production, Gender Inequalities in College Advising, and Labor Market Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Shane Ellis

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation consists of three chapters that focus on the economics of education. In particular I look at public school financing, gender discrimination in advising, and the effectiveness of out-of-school-time programs for disadvantaged schools. The first chapter analyzes the effect of an extremely large funding shock on Wyoming public schools…

  1. Social Class Disparities in Health and Education: Reducing Inequality by Applying a Sociocultural Self Model of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Nicole M.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Fryberg, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on social class disparities in health and education contains 2 underlying, yet often opposed, models of behavior: the individual model and the structural model. These models refer to largely unacknowledged assumptions about the sources of human behavior that are foundational to research and interventions. Our review and theoretical…

  2. Developing 20/20 Vision on the 2020 Degree Attainment Goal: The Threat of Income-Based Inequality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Andrew Howard

    2011-01-01

    Improving college degree attainment is essential as the United States seeks to remain economically competitive in a globalized marketplace. As the economy continues to evolve and become increasingly more complex, it is critical that our education system provides our youth with the skills, ingenuity, and critical thinking abilities that can…

  3. Health Inequality and Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…

  4. Growth and inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-11-01

    How are growth and inequality related? Evidently, this question is of prime importance in the social sciences, as socioeconomic inequality is one of the major forces shaping the course of human history. Moreover, this question is of importance also in the physical sciences, as the notion of socioeconomic inequality can be applied to analyze physical growth. In this paper we consider general growth processes whose dynamics are governed by ordinary differential equations, and present a comprehensive inequality-based socioeconophysical study of their evolutions. From a social-sciences perspective, the results established describe the inequality that will be generated by different types of economic growth. From a physical-sciences perspective, the results established provide a socioeconomic classification of growth processes.

  5. Absolute and relative blindsight.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Tarryn; Azzopardi, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The concept of relative blindsight, referring to a difference in conscious awareness between conditions otherwise matched for performance, was introduced by Lau and Passingham (2006) as a way of identifying the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) in fMRI experiments. By analogy, absolute blindsight refers to a difference between performance and awareness regardless of whether it is possible to match performance across conditions. Here, we address the question of whether relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers can be accounted for by response bias. In our replication of Lau and Passingham's experiment, the relative blindsight effect was abolished when performance was assessed by means of a bias-free 2AFC task or when the criterion for awareness was varied. Furthermore, there was no evidence of either relative or absolute blindsight when both performance and awareness were assessed with bias-free measures derived from confidence ratings using signal detection theory. This suggests that both relative and absolute blindsight in normal observers amount to no more than variations in response bias in the assessment of performance and awareness. Consideration of the properties of psychometric functions reveals a number of ways in which relative and absolute blindsight could arise trivially and elucidates a basis for the distinction between Type 1 and Type 2 blindsight.

  6. Revisiting "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District": A Case of Intra-District Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, Ruben W.

    2010-01-01

    The educational community and the courts continue to struggle with the challenges of intra-district resource inequality revealed by the California Supreme Court landmark case "Rodriguez v. Los Angeles Unified School District" (1992). Intra-district school resource inequality is one of the remaining bastions of major inequalities in the…

  7. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  8. [Social inequality in medical rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Deck, R

    2008-10-01

    The association of social inequality and health is well known and well documented. Numerous studies have shown that a lower socio-economic status is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. This association is caused by various circumstances such as unfavourable work and living conditions, unhealthy life styles and risk factors and, last but not least, the access to medical care depending on socio-economic status. These aspects are correlated in various ways, at any rate they cause a higher prevalence of diseases and lower quality of life in persons with lower socio-economic status. The present article discusses the association between social inequality and medical rehabilitation, a problem which is rarely investigated in present research on social inequality and health. In our study, 911 rehabilitation patients were included. Analyses of socio-economic differences with respect to rehabilitation care address the following questions: are there differences in access to medical rehabilitation, in rehabilitation care, with respect to success of rehabilitation and satisfaction with rehabilitation? To assign patients to a social class - lower, middle and upper class - we constructed an indicator of social status based on education, occupation and income level. Our findings in a sample of rehabilitation patients are in line with the results of existing research on social inequality and health. Patients from the lower social class enter the rehabilitation care system with a poorer health state and leave it with less favourable results than patients with higher social status. However, with regard to the effect of rehabilitation care, middle class patients benefit least. It can be speculated that systematic information of patients about the aims of the rehabilitation programme and specific after care focusing on relevant aspects of daily living may reduce the disadvantages of lower class patients.

  9. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in self assessed health in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to measure socioeconomic inequalities in Self Assessed Health (SAH) and evaluate the determinants of such inequalities in terms of their contributions amongst the Turkish population. Methods We used data from the Turkish part of World Health Survey 2003 with 10,287 respondents over 18 years old. Concentration index (CI) of SAH was calculated as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities in health, and contributions of each determinant to inequality were evaluated using a decomposition method. Results In total 952 participants (9.3%) rated their health status as either bad or very bad. The CI for SAH was −0.15, suggesting that suboptimal SAH was reported more by those categorised as poor. The multiple logistic regression results indicated that having secondary, primary or less than primary school education, not being married and being in the lowest wealth quintile, significantly increased the risk of having poor SAH. The largest contributions to inequality were attributed to education level (70.7%), household economic status (9.7%) and geographical area lived in (8.4%). Conclusion The findings indicate that socioeconomic inequalities measured by SAH are apparent amongst the Turkish population. Education and household wealth were the greatest contributing factors to SAH inequality. These inequalities need to be explicitly addressed and vulnerable subgroups should be targeted to reduce the socioeconomic disparities. PMID:23217368

  10. Health and social cohesion: why care about income inequality?

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, I.; Kennedy, B. P.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the world, wealth and income are becoming more concentrated. Growing evidence suggests that the distribution of income-in addition to the absolute standard of living enjoyed by the poor-is a key determinant of population health. A large gap between rich people and poor people leads to higher mortality through the breakdown of social cohesion. The recent surge in income inequality in many countries has been accompanied by a marked increase in the residential concentration of poverty and affluence. Residential segregation diminishes the opportunities for social cohesion. Income inequality has spillover effects on society at large, including increased rates of crime and violence, impeded productivity and economic growth, and the impaired functioning of representative democracy. The extent of inequality in society is often a consequence of explicit policies and public choice. Reducing income inequality offers the prospect of greater social cohesiveness and better population health. PMID:9112854

  11. On a Family of Achievement and Shortfall Inequality Indices.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Satya R; Chattopadhyay, Nachiketa; D'Ambrosio, Conchita

    2016-12-01

    This paper identifies a family of absolute consistent inequality indices using a weakly decomposable postulate suggested by Ebert. Because one member employs an Atkinson type aggregation we refer to it as the Atkinson index of consistent inequality. A second member of this family parallels the Kolm index of inequality. Two innovative features of these indices are that no specific structure is imposed on the form of the index at the outset and no transformation of any existing index is considered to ensure consistency. Each of them regards an achievement distribution as equally unequal as the corresponding shortfall distribution. We apply these indices to study inequality in grip strength among 50+ year-old Europeans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  13. Constrained Least Absolute Deviation Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhishun; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that least absolute deviation (LAD) criterion or L1-norm used for estimation of parameters is characterized by robustness, i.e., the estimated parameters are totally resistant (insensitive) to large changes in the sampled data. This is an extremely useful feature, especially, when the sampled data are known to be contaminated by occasionally occurring outliers or by spiky noise. In our previous works, we have proposed the least absolute deviation neural network (LADNN) to solve unconstrained LAD problems. The theoretical proofs and numerical simulations have shown that the LADNN is Lyapunov-stable and it can globally converge to the exact solution to a given unconstrained LAD problem. We have also demonstrated its excellent application value in time-delay estimation. More generally, a practical LAD application problem may contain some linear constraints, such as a set of equalities and/or inequalities, which is called constrained LAD problem, whereas the unconstrained LAD can be considered as a special form of the constrained LAD. In this paper, we present a new neural network called constrained least absolute deviation neural network (CLADNN) to solve general constrained LAD problems. Theoretical proofs and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed CLADNN is Lyapunov stable and globally converges to the exact solution to a given constrained LAD problem, independent of initial values. The numerical simulations have also illustrated that the proposed CLADNN can be used to robustly estimate parameters for nonlinear curve fitting, which is extensively used in signal and image processing. PMID:18269958

  14. Contextualizing ethnic educational inequality: the role of stability and quality of neighborhoods and ethnic density in second-generation attainment.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Phalet, Karen; Neels, Karel; Deboosere, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the joint impact of neighborhood structure and ethnic density on the educational attainment of the second generation. Using second-generation samples and a majority reference sample from the Belgian Census, multi-level analysis yields the expected positive effects of neighborhood stability and quality and ethnic density on second-generation school completion. Reflecting the ethnic stratification of the Belgian housing market, majority residential concentration tends to coincide with high neighborhood stability and quality and high completion rates, whereas Moroccan concentrations overlap with low neighborhood quality, and low completion rates. For the Turkish and Italian second generation, neighborhood structure moderates ethnic density effects on school completion, in line with segmented assimilation. Our findings suggest distinct Moroccan, Turkish and Italian incorporation modes which reflect differential access to, and investments in ethnic versus mainstream social networks.

  15. Social class disparities in health and education: reducing inequality by applying a sociocultural self model of behavior.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Markus, Hazel Rose; Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2012-10-01

    The literature on social class disparities in health and education contains 2 underlying, yet often opposed, models of behavior: the individual model and the structural model. These models refer to largely unacknowledged assumptions about the sources of human behavior that are foundational to research and interventions. Our review and theoretical integration proposes that, in contrast to how the 2 models are typically represented, they are not opposed, but instead they are complementary sets of understandings that inform and extend each other. Further, we elaborate the theoretical rationale and predictions for a third model: the sociocultural self model of behavior. This model incorporates and extends key tenets of the individual and structural models. First, the sociocultural self model conceptualizes individual characteristics (e.g., skills) and structural conditions (e.g., access to resources) as interdependent forces that mutually constitute each other and that are best understood together. Second, the sociocultural self model recognizes that both individual characteristics and structural conditions indirectly influence behavior through the selves that emerge in the situation. These selves are malleable psychological states that are a product of the ongoing mutual constitution of individuals and structures and serve to guide people's behavior by systematically shaping how people construe situations. The theoretical foundation of the sociocultural self model lays the groundwork for a more complete understanding of behavior and provides new tools for developing interventions that will reduce social class disparities in health and education. The model predicts that intervention efforts will be more effective at producing sustained behavior change when (a) current selves are congruent, rather than incongruent, with the desired behavior and (b) individual characteristics and structural conditions provide ongoing support for the selves that are necessary to support

  16. Gender Inequality in British and German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind

    2007-01-01

    Gender inequality exists within higher education in the UK and Germany. In the UK only 15.3% of professors in pre-and post-1992 universities were women (2003), whilst in Germany only 8.6% attained the highest grade of professorship (2003). The research uses existing data sets combined with theoretical constructs to investigate the reasons for…

  17. Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…

  18. Race, Inequality of Opportunity, and School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Derrick; Saatcioglu, Argun

    2015-01-01

    Both neoliberals and liberals call for mitigating inequality of educational opportunity stemming from circumstances beyond an individual's control. In this article, we challenge the wisdom of making equality of opportunity hinge on emphasizing the distinction rather than the relationship between choices and circumstances. We utilize an empirical…

  19. Research on Children's Concepts of God and Spirituality and Its Implications on Educational Inequality in Early Childhood Educational Reform in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Grace

    2010-01-01

    In his 2006-2007 policy address, the chief executive of Hong Kong committed HK$2 billion to enhancing holistic early childhood education through the instigation of a school voucher scheme. The new paradigm of a child-centered curriculum is considered necessary to keep pace with international quality educational developments. The paradigm of…

  20. Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zengle; Zhou, Jiazu

    2017-01-01

    The Wulff isoperimetric inequality is a natural extension of the classical isoperimetric inequality (Green and Osher in Asian J. Math. 3:659-676 1999). In this paper, we establish some Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequalities and reverse Bonnesen-style Wulff isoperimetric inequalities. Those inequalities obtained are extensions of known Bonnesen-style inequalities and reverse Bonnesen-style inequalities.

  1. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Noor, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  2. Boole and Bell inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.

    2011-03-28

    We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.

  3. Social inequalities in "sickness": does welfare state regime type make a difference? A multilevel analysis of men and women in 26 European countries.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies by education within different welfare contexts. This research has used either a limited number of countries or quantitative welfare state measures in studies of many countries. In this study, the authors expand on this knowledge by investigating whether a regime approach to the welfare state produces consistent results. They analyze data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC); health was measured by limiting longstanding illness (LLSI). Results show that for both men and women reporting LLSI in combination with low educational level, the probabilities of non-employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude that the Scandinavian welfare regime is more able than other regimes to protect against non-employment in the face of illness, especially for individuals with low educational level.

  4. Women's Work Is Never Done: Resolving Gender Inequalities in Education. Book Review of "Gendered Education: Sociological Reflections on Women, Teaching and Feminism," by Sandra Acker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symbaluk, Diane G.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews a book that examines women's progress in education during the last 30 years. The book emphasizes the continuity of women's inferior status as students and academics despite advances since the second wave of feminism during the 1960s, describes teacher career structures in England and Wales, and examines women's conflicting role…

  5. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  6. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  7. Global oral health inequalities: the view from a research funder.

    PubMed

    Garcia, I; Tabak, L A

    2011-05-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions.

  8. Social inequality in infant mortality: what explains variation across low and middle income countries?

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Growing work demonstrates social gradients in infant mortality within countries. However, few studies have compared the magnitude of these inequalities cross-nationally. Even fewer have assessed the determinants of social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. This study provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of social inequalities in infant mortality in 53 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs). We used the most recent nationally representative household samples (n = 874,207) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) to calculate rates of infant mortality. The relative and absolute concentration indices were used to quantify social inequalities in infant mortality. Additionally, we used meta-regression analyses to examine whether levels of inequality in proximate determinants of infant mortality were associated with social inequalities in infant mortality across countries. Estimates of both the relative and the absolute concentration indices showed a substantial variation in social inequalities in infant mortality among LMICs. Meta-regression analyses showed that, across countries, the relative concentration of teenage pregnancy among poorer households was positively associated with the relative concentration of infant mortality among these groups (beta = 0.333, 95% CI = 0.115 0.551). Our results demonstrate that the concentration of infant deaths among socioeconomically disadvantaged households in the majority of LMICs remains an important health and social policy concern. The findings suggest that policies designed to reduce the concentration of teenage pregnancy among mothers in lower socioeconomic groups may mitigate social inequalities in infant mortality.

  9. Socioeconomic inequality in voting participation and self-rated health.

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, T A; Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that disparities in political participation across socioeconomic status affect health. Specifically, the association of voting inequality at the state level with individual self-rated health was examined. METHODS: A multilevel study of 279,066 respondents to the Current Population Survey (CPS) was conducted. State-level inequality in voting turnout by socioeconomic status (family income and educational attainment) was derived from November CPS data for 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. RESULTS: Individuals living in the states with the highest voting inequality had an odds ratio of fair/poor self-rated health of 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 1.68) compared with individuals living in the states with the lowest voting inequality. This odds ratio decreased to 1.34 (95% CI = 1.14, 1.56) when state income inequality was added and to 1.27 (95% CI = 1.10, 1.45) when state median income was included. The deleterious effect of low individual household income on self-rated health was most pronounced among states with the greatest voting and income inequality. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic inequality in political participation (as measured by voter turnout) is associated with poor self-rated health, independently of both income inequality and state median household income. PMID:11189832

  10. Tooth loss in the United Kingdom--trends in social inequalities: an age-period-and-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed trends in social inequalities in tooth loss in the United Kingdom between 1988 and 2009. Data from 20,126 adults who participated in the latest three national Adult Dental Health Surveys in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were used. Social class was determined using the 6-point Registrar General's Social Class. Three indicators of tooth loss were analysed; the proportion of edentate people among all adults and the number of teeth and the proportion with functional dentition (defined as having 20+ teeth) among dentate adults. Trends were modelled within an age, period and cohort framework using partial least squares regression (PLSR). Confidence intervals for PLSR estimates were obtained using non-parametric bootstrapping. The Slope and Relative Index of Inequality (SII and RII) were used to quantify social inequalities in tooth loss. Between 1988 and 2009, absolute inequalities in total tooth loss narrowed (SII changed from -28.4% to -15.3%) while relative inequalities widened (RII from 6.21 to 20.9) in the whole population. On the other hand, absolute and relative social inequality in tooth loss remained fairly stable over time among dentate adults. There was an absolute difference of 2.5-2.9 in number of teeth and 22-26% in the proportion with functional dentition between the lowest and highest social classes. In relative terms, the highest social class had 10-11% more teeth and 25-28% higher probability of having functional dentition than the lowest social class. The findings show pervasive inequalities in tooth loss by social class among British adults despite marked improvements in tooth retention in recent years and generations. In the whole adult population, absolute inequalities in tooth loss have narrowed while relative inequalities have increased steadily. Among dentate adults, absolute and relative inequalities in number of teeth and proportion of people with functional dentition have remained significant but unchanged over time.

  11. Absolute-structure reports.

    PubMed

    Flack, Howard D

    2013-08-01

    All the 139 noncentrosymmetric crystal structures published in Acta Crystallographica Section C between January 2011 and November 2012 inclusive have been used as the basis of a detailed study of the reporting of absolute structure. These structure determinations cover a wide range of space groups, chemical composition and resonant-scattering contribution. Defining A and D as the average and difference of the intensities of Friedel opposites, their level of fit has been examined using 2AD and selected-D plots. It was found, regardless of the expected resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, that the Friedel-difference intensities are often dominated by random uncertainty and systematic error. An analysis of data collection strategy is provided. It is found that crystal-structure determinations resulting in a Flack parameter close to 0.5 may not necessarily be from crystals twinned by inversion. Friedifstat is shown to be a robust estimator of the resonant-scattering contribution to Friedel opposites, very little affected by the particular space group of a structure nor by the occupation of special positions. There is considerable confusion in the text of papers presenting achiral noncentrosymmetric crystal structures. Recommendations are provided for the optimal way of treating noncentrosymmetric crystal structures for which the experimenter has no interest in determining the absolute structure.

  12. Inequality and inequity in access to health care and treatment for chronic conditions in China: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Elwell-Sutton, Timothy M; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Zhang, Wei Sen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Tai H; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C M

    2013-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a large and rapidly-growing problem in China and other middle-income countries. Clinical treatment of NCDs is long-term and expensive, so it may present particular problems for equality and horizontal equity (equal treatment for equal need) in access to health care, although little is known about this at present in low- and middle-income countries. To address this gap, and inform policy for a substantial proportion of the global population, we examined inequality and inequity in general health care utilization (doctor consultations and hospital admissions) and in treatment of chronic conditions (hypertension, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia), in 30 499 Chinese adults aged ≥50 years from one of China's richest provinces, using the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2003-2008). We used concentration indices to test for inequality and inequity in utilization by household income per head. Inequality was decomposed to show the contributions of income, indicators of 'need for health care' (age, sex, self-rated health, coronary heart disease risk and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and non-need factors (education, occupation, out-of-pocket health care payments and health insurance). We found inequality and inequity in treatment of chronic conditions but not in general health care utilization. Using more objective and specific measures of 'need for health care' increased estimates of inequity for treatment of chronic conditions. Income and non-need factors (especially health insurance, education and occupation) made the largest contributions to inequality. Further work is needed on why access to treatment for chronic conditions in China is restricted for those on low incomes and how these inequities can be mitigated.

  13. Trends in Educational Differentials in Suicide Mortality between 1993 - 2006 in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Weon Young; Khang, Young-Ho; Noh, Manegseok; Ryu, Jae-In; Son, Mia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to examine how inequalities in suicide by education changed during and after macroeconomic restructuring following the economic crisis of 1997 in South Korea. Materials and Methods Using Korea's 1995, 2000, and 2005 census data aggregately linked to mortality data (1993 - 2006), relative and absolute differentials in suicide mortality by education were calculated by gender and age among Korean population aged 35 and over. Results Average annual suicide mortality rates have steadily increased from 1993 - 1997 to 2003 - 2006 in almost all sociodemographic groups stratified by gender, age, and education. Based on the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII), educational differentials in suicide mortality generally increased over time in men and women aged 45 years +. Although RII did not increase with year among men and women aged 35 - 44 years, SII showed a significantly increasing trend in this age group. Conclusion These worsening absolute inequalities in suicide mortality indicate that the governmental suicide prevention policy should be directed toward socially disadvantaged groups of the Korean population. PMID:19718395

  14. Inequality Is the Problem: Prioritizing Research on Reducing Inequality. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamoran, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Inequality in education and other domains of life stands in the way of economic and civic progress in the United States. It forestalls social mobility and economic productivity and impairs social cohesion. As a result, national and international leaders--from big-city mayors to Pope Francis--recognize that, as President Obama (2013) put it,…

  15. Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.

    2005-01-01

    We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame.

  16. One-Dimensional School Rankings: A Non-Neutral Device that Conceals and Naturalises Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neves, Tiago; Pereira, Maria Joao; Nata, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Inequality has long been a central topic in the social sciences. The same holds true with regard to sociological research on education. In this paper we argue that, due to fairly recent developments in the managerialisation and marketisation of the educational field, often associated with the rise of neoliberalism, the topic of inequality gains…

  17. Decomposing Inequalities in Performance Scores: The Role of Student Background, Peer Effects and School Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostafa, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the mechanisms of stratification and inequalities in educational achievements. The main objective is to determine how stratification leads to unequal educational outcomes and how inequalities are channelled through student characteristics, school characteristics and peer effects. This analysis is undertaken in five countries…

  18. Literacy Inequalities in Theory and Practice: The Power to Name and Define

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Brian V.

    2011-01-01

    I analyse what exactly is being addressed when the notion of "literacy inequalities" is cited in the context of international policy with regard to education in general and literacy in particular. Whilst literacy statistics are used as indicators of social inequality and as a basis for policy in improving rights, educational attainment, etc., I…

  19. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  20. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  1. Preference for Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, Philip

    1977-01-01

    People's judgments of fairness are related to varying degrees of uncertainty about their own resulting positions in society. When task assignments were made on the basis of ability, college students were much more willing to endorse inequality when they did not know their positions than when they did. (Author/EVH)

  2. Equality Versus Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that political equality and democracy are attainable only through the distribution of access to political resources and the willingness to use them. Discusses the broad philosophical and sociological components that contribute to a system marked by advantage and inequalities, as well as opportunities for opposition and resistance. (MJP)

  3. Gender Inequality at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  4. How Colleges Perpetuate Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Colleges, once seen as beacons of egalitarian hope, are becoming bastions of wealth and privilege that perpetuate inequality. The chance of a low-income child obtaining a bachelor's degree has not budged in three decades: Just 6 percent of students from the lowest-income families earned a bachelor's degree by age 24 in 1970, and in 2002 still only…

  5. The Future in Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, David; North, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently an article in "Personality and Social Psychology Review" urged social psychologists to reacquire their "sociological imagination" and incorporate broader, structural factors in their work (Oishi, Kesebir, and Snyder 2009). Studies of social inequality in particular seem ripe for this kind of collaboration. Psychological investigations…

  6. Grouping for Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…

  7. Ethnicity, Denomination and Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Andrew M.

    This report relies on a composite sample of 12 National Opinion Research Center surveys (with a total sample of 17,700) to trace out the basic outlines of the achievements of American denominational and ethnic groups. There are three fundamental questions addressed in this analysis: (1) whether there are inequalities of achievement among the…

  8. Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.

    PubMed

    Burns, J K

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health

  9. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  10. Changes in social inequalities in health in the Basque Country

    PubMed Central

    Anitua, C.; Esnaola, S.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the extent of the inequalities in self reported health between socioeconomic groups and its changes over time in the Basque Country (Spain).
DESIGN—Cross sectional data on the association between occupation, education and income and three health indicators was obtained from the Basque Health Surveys of 1986 and 1992. Representative population samples were analysed. In 1986 the number of respondents was 24 657 and in 1992, 13 277.
SETTING—Basque Country, Spain. 
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The effect of socioeconomic position on health and the magnitude of social inequalities in health were quantified using the odds ratios based on logistic regression analysis, and the Relative Index of Inequality.
RESULTS—As was expected, social inequalities in self reported health existed in both surveys, but the social gradient was greater in 1992. Social differences varied according to gender and health indicator. According to education an increase in social inequalities was observed consistently in all the health indicators except long term conditions in women. A consistent increase in inequalities in limiting longstanding illness was also observed according to all socioeconomic indicators.
CONCLUSIONS—These results agree to a large extent with those of previous studies in other countries. In this context the unequal distribution of material circumstances and working conditions between socioeconomic groups seem to play a major part in health inequalities. The worsening of the labour market during this period and the onset of a new economic recession may explain the increase in social inequalities over time.


Keywords: health inequalities; trends; social class; Spain PMID:10818119

  11. Explaining levels of within-group wage inequality in U.S. labor markets.

    PubMed

    McCall, L

    2000-11-01

    Most research on earnings inequality has focused on the growing gap between workers of different races and at different education, age, and income levels, but a large portion of the increasing inequality has actually occurred within these groups. This article focuses on the extent and sources of "within-group" wage inequality in more than 500 labor markets in the United States in 1990. In addition to documenting that within-group wage inequality across regions varies more widely today than over the past several decades, the analysis reveals that two frequently cited explanations of rising wage inequality over time have little impact on within-group wage inequality when measured at the local labor market level: (1) industrial shifts and (2) increased technology and trade. By contrast, flexible and insecure employment conditions (e.g., unemployment, contingent work, and immigration) are associated strongly with high local levels of within-group wage inequality, especially among women.

  12. Social inequality in chronic disease outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Helene

    2014-11-01

    Socioeconomic differences in morbidity and mortality, particularly across educational groups, are widening. Differential exposures to behavioural risk factors have been shown to play an important mediating role on the social inequality in chronic diseases such as heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. However, much less attention has been given to the potential role of interaction, where the same level of exposure to a behavioural risk factor has different effect across socioeconomic groups, creating subgroups that are more vulnerable than others. In this thesis, Paper 1 describes the unique cohort consortium which was established by pooling and harmonising prospective data from existing cohort studies in Denmark. This consortium generated a large study population with long follow-up sufficient to study power demanding questions of mechanisms underlying social inequalities in chronic disease outcomes. In Paper 2 on incidence of coronary heart disease, smoking and body mass index partially mediated the observed educational differences. This result suggested that some of the social inequality in coronary heart disease may be enhanced by differential exposure to behavioural risk factors (i.e. smoking and obesity). In Paper 3 on incidence of stroke, an observed interaction between education and smoking indicated that participants, particularly men, with low level of education may be more vulnerable to the effect of smoking than those with high level of education in terms of ischemic stroke. Finally, Paper 4 revealed that behavioural risk factors, primarily smoking, explained a considerable part of the educational differences in cause-specific mortality. Further, this paper added important knowledge about the considerable part of the mediated effect, which could be due to interaction between education and smoking. In conclusion, the research in this thesis is a practical implementation of contemporary statistical

  13. Lies, Damned Lies, and Health Inequality Measurements: Understanding the Value Judgments.

    PubMed

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Petrie, Dennis

    2015-09-01

    Measuring and monitoring socioeconomic health inequalities are critical for understanding the impact of policy decisions. However, the measurement of health inequality is far from value neutral, and one can easily present the measure that best supports one's chosen conclusion or selectively exclude measures. Improving people's understanding of the often implicit value judgments is therefore important to reduce the risk that researchers mislead or policymakers are misled. While the choice between relative and absolute inequality is already value laden, further complexities arise when, as is often the case, health variables have both a lower and upper bound, and thus can be expressed in terms of either attainments or shortfalls, such as for mortality/survival.We bring together the recent parallel discussions from epidemiology and health economics regarding health inequality measurement and provide a deeper understanding of the different value judgments within absolute and relative measures expressed both in attainments and shortfalls, by graphically illustrating both hypothetical and real examples. We show that relative measures in terms of attainments and shortfalls have distinct value judgments, highlighting that for health variables with two bounds the choice is no longer only between an absolute and a relative measure but between an absolute, an attainment- relative and a shortfall-relative one. We illustrate how these three value judgments can be combined onto a single graph which shows the rankings according to all three measures, and illustrates how the three measures provide ethical benchmarks against which to judge the difference in inequality between populations.

  14. Absolute and relative family affluence and psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; De Clercq, Bart; Schnohr, Christina W; Bird, Phillippa; Pickett, Kate E; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Hofmann, Felix; Currie, Candace

    2013-08-01

    Previous research on the links between income inequality and health and socioeconomic differences in health suggests that relative differences in affluence impact health and well-being more than absolute affluence. This study explored whether self-reported psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents relate more closely to relative affluence (i.e., relative deprivation or rank affluence within regions or schools) than to absolute affluence. Data on family material assets and psychosomatic symptoms were collected from 48,523 adolescents in eight countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Norway, Scotland, Poland, Turkey, and Ukraine) as part of the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Multilevel regression analyses of the data showed that relative deprivation (Yitzhaki Index, calculated in regions and in schools) and rank affluence (in regions) (1) related more closely to symptoms than absolute affluence, and (2) related to symptoms after differences in absolute affluence were held constant. However, differences in family material assets, whether they are measured in absolute or relative terms, account for a significant variation in adolescent psychosomatic symptoms. Conceptual and empirical issues relating to the use of material affluence indices to estimate socioeconomic position are discussed.

  15. Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-03-01

    Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children's health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals' incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality.

  16. Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children’s health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals’ incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality. PMID:26388653

  17. Inequalities at the Starting Gate: Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills Gaps between 2010-2011 Kindergarten Classmates. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Inequalities in education outcomes such as test scores or degree attainment have been at the center of education policy debates for decades. Indeed, the first seminal national report on the state of U.S. education--the 1966 Coleman Report--examined some of these inequalities 50 years ago. Since then, researchers have examined performance gaps by…

  18. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency) by removing the source spectrum (moment-rate spectrum) from

  19. Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Murnane, Richard, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    As the incomes of affluent and poor families have diverged over the past three decades, so too has the educational performance of their children. But how exactly do the forces of rising inequality affect the educational attainment and life chances of low-income children? In "Whither Opportunity?" a distinguished team of economists,…

  20. Multiphase interchange inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesi, V.

    1991-08-01

    Phase interchange inequalities have been studied since the early work of Keller [J. Math. Phys. 5, 548 (1964)]. They constrain the effective conductivity of composite materials which are obtained from each other, for fixed configuration, by interchanging the position of the phases. Optimal results in this direction for the case of a two-phase composite are due to Keller in spatial dimension d=2 and to Avellaneda et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 63, 4989 (1988)] in dimension d=3. In this paper new inequalities in spatial dimension d=2 and d=3, which are valid when an arbitrary number of phases is present, are proven. When specialized to two-phase composites, they agree with those of Keller in d=2 and of Avellaneda et al. in d=3, respectively.

  1. Polynomial Bell Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Rafael

    2016-01-08

    It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.

  2. Polynomial Bell Inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.

  3. Affine Isoperimetry and Information Theoretic Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Songjun

    2012-01-01

    There are essential connections between the isoperimetric theory and information theoretic inequalities. In general, the Brunn-Minkowski inequality and the entropy power inequality, as well as the classical isoperimetric inequality and the classical entropy-moment inequality, turn out to be equivalent in some certain sense, respectively. Based on…

  4. Non-commutative Nash inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Kastoryano, Michael; Temme, Kristan

    2016-01-15

    A set of functional inequalities—called Nash inequalities—are introduced and analyzed in the context of quantum Markov process mixing. The basic theory of Nash inequalities is extended to the setting of non-commutative L{sub p} spaces, where their relationship to Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities is fleshed out. We prove Nash inequalities for a number of unital reversible semigroups.

  5. Poverty and inequity in adolescent health care.

    PubMed

    Girard, Gustavo A

    2009-12-01

    Although poverty is not a new phenomenon, currently it has peculiar characteristics: globalization, inequity, new features in education, exclusion, gender inequalities, marginalization of native peoples and migrations, difficulties found by different sectors to have access to technology, and unemployment. These characteristics are seen not only in countries considered to be developing nations, but affect the whole world. The present international financial crisis, this time originating in industrialized countries, represents an aggravating factor, the consequences of which are still difficult to estimate. It has a particular impact on adolescents and young people in terms of health as a whole, mortality rates, violence, nutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, mental health, and disabilities, all being aggravated by the difficulties of access to ap propriate health services. Social capital is seriously affected, and this entails a strong and deleterious impact not only on present generations but also on future ones. It is a challenge that cannot be ignored.

  6. Unification of multiqubit polygamy inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2012-03-01

    I establish a unified view of polygamy of multiqubit entanglement. I first introduce a two-parameter generalization of the entanglement of assistance, namely, the unified entanglement of assistance for bipartite quantum states, and provide an analytic lower bound in two-qubit systems. I show a broad class of polygamy inequalities of multiqubit entanglement in terms of the unified entanglement of assistance that encapsulates all known multiqubit polygamy inequalities as special cases. I further show that this class of polygamy inequalities can be improved into tighter inequalities for three-qubit systems.

  7. Bell Inequalities and Group Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna

    2017-03-01

    Recently the method based on irreducible representations of finite groups has been proposed as a tool for investigating the more sophisticated versions of Bell inequalities (V. Ugǔr Gűney, M. Hillery, Phys. Rev. A90, 062121 ([2014]) and Phys. Rev. A91, 052110 ([2015])). In the present paper an example based on the symmetry group S 4 is considered. The Bell inequality violation due to the symmetry properties of regular tetrahedron is described. A nonlocal game based on the inequalities derived is described and it is shown that the violation of Bell inequality implies that the quantum strategies outperform their classical counterparts.

  8. A Refined Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a refinement of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. He shows his computations in which refinements of the triangle inequality and its reverse inequality are obtained for nonzero x and y in a normed linear space.

  9. [Inequities in access to information and inequities in health].

    PubMed

    Filho, Alberto Pellegrini

    2002-01-01

    This piece presents evidence that inequities in information are an important determinant of health inequities and that eliminating these inequities in access to information, especially by using new information and communication technologies (ICTs), could represent a significant advance in terms of guaranteeing the right to health for all. The piece reviews the most important international scientific research findings on the determinants of the health of populations, emphasizing the role of socioeconomic inequities and of deteriorating social capital as factors that worsen health conditions. It is noteworthy that Latin America has both socioeconomic inequities and major sectors of the population living in poverty. Among the fundamental strategies for overcoming the inequalities and the poverty are greater participation by the poor in civic life and the strengthening of social capital. The contribution that the new ICTs could make to these strategies is analyzed, and the Virtual Health Library (VHL) is discussed. Coordinated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), the VHL is a contribution by the Pan American Health Organization that takes advantage of the potential of ICTs to democratize information and knowledge and consequently promote equity in health. The "digital gap" is discussed as something that can produce inequity itself and also increase other inequities, including ones in health. Prospects are discussed for overcoming this gap, emphasizing the role that governments and international organizations should play in order to expand access to the global public good that information for social development is.

  10. Racial Inequality in Critical Thinking Skills: The Role of Academic and Diversity Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roksa, Josipa; Trolian, Teniell L.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Kilgo, Cindy A.; Blaich, Charles; Wise, Kathleen S.

    2017-01-01

    While racial inequalities in college entry and completion are well documented, much less is known about racial disparities in the development of general collegiate skills, such as critical thinking. Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, we find substantial inequality in the development of critical thinking skills…

  11. Inequality for All: The Challenge of Unequal Opportunity in American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William; McKnight, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    "Inequality for All" makes an important contribution to current debates about economic inequalities and the growing achievement gap, particularly in mathematics and science education. The authors argue that the greatest source of variation in opportunity to learn is not between local communities, or even schools, but between classrooms.…

  12. On the Penrose Inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Frauendiener, Joerg

    2001-09-03

    The purpose of this Letter is to point out an argument which may ultimately lead to a rigorous proof of the Penrose inequality in the general case. The argument is a variation of Geroch's original proposal for a proof of the positive-energy theorem which was later adapted by Jang and Wald to apply to initial data sets containing apparent horizons. The new input is to dispense with the a priori restriction to an initial data set and to use the four-dimensional structure of spacetime in an essential way.

  13. Rival Visions: J.J. Rousseau and T.H. Huxley on the Nature (or Nurture) of Inequality and What It Means for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie-Knight, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) and Thomas Huxley (1852-1895) had different, but substantial, effects on the history of education. Rousseau's educational theories supplied the intellectual foundation for pedagogical progressivism. Huxley's educational writings helped to enlarge the scope of the British curriculum to include such things as…

  14. Earning a Living Wage: Metro Differences in Opportunity and Inequality for Adult Males with Low Education Levels. Working Papers on Regional Economic Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster-Bey, John; Rubin, Mark; Temkin, Kenneth

    This paper measures the relationship between employment growth and employment opportunities for noncollege-educated males, examining variations across metropolitan areas in the living-wage employment ratio for prime-aged males with at most a high school education (less educated). Living-wage employment is full-time, year-round employment yielding…

  15. On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Partha

    2010-01-01

    By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.

  16. Doing psychology, doing inequality: rethinking the role of psychology in creating and maintaining social inequality.

    PubMed

    Sadi-Nakar, Merav

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between psychological disciplines and inequality has been a subject of great scholarly interest in the last several decades. Most works on the subject analyze macro features of psychological disciplines (mainly their evaluative tools, theoretical assumptions, and disciplinary power) and criticize them as biased against minorities. This paper re-examines the relationship between psychology and inequality from a micro, face-to-face standpoint. Drawing on close observations of 33 placement committees in which professionals from various psychological fields (psychology, social work, school counseling, etc.) discuss children’s eligibility for special education services, it portrays the actual doing of psychology as an inconsistent and malleable endeavor. In contrast to the macro-oriented research on the relationship between psychology and inequality, it shows that in actual face-to-face interactions, professionals use different types of folk concerns that often exchange formal evaluative criteria, theoretical assumptions or professional authority in final placement decisions. By revealing the different folk considerations professionals use to sort and analyze working- versus middle-class parents, this project adds an essential layer to scholarly understanding of the relationship between psychological practice and inequality.

  17. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  18. The Geography of Gender Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356

  19. Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary…

  20. The Geography of Gender Inequality.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe.

  1. Economic Factors of Russian Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…

  2. The politics of corruption, inequality, and the socially excluded.

    PubMed

    Santos Salas, Anna

    2013-07-01

    In this article, the production of knowledge in the context of socially excluded people exposed to inequality, oppression, and exploitation is problematized. The analysis follows Enrique Dussel's philosophical exegesis of the politics of power and corruption and his vision of a critical transformation of the social political order. The argument is also informed by the work of critical educator Paulo Freire, who elucidates the conditions of oppression and marginalization and highlights the importance of conscientization to develop a critical awareness of these conditions. Hannah Arendt's work on the politics of understanding totalitarianism also assists in the elucidation of the machinery that operates behind oppression to sustain power and inequality. The article emphasizes the need to recognize the inequality of conditions that exists between the producer of knowledge and those who live through inequality and oppression in their lived corporality. A critical transformation of the process of production of knowledge is needed to both acknowledge the conditions that sustain this endeavour in the first place and avoid the corruption of knowledge. A work of conscientization is also necessary among knowledge producers to undertake a critical analysis of inequality that exposes the corruption of power. This analysis needs to examine and unmask the hidden mechanisms that perpetuate inequality and oppression and serve only the interests of a few. The abysmal gaps between the wealthy and the poor within and among countries bespeak a degree of human indifference that reflects a most serious and complex phenomenon that perverts something profoundly human in our societies.

  3. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  4. Inequality in Academic Performance and Juvenile Convictions: An Area-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo; Feinstein, Leon; Shingal, Anirudh

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the links between inequality in academic performance and juvenile conviction rates for violent crime, stealing from another person, burglary in a dwelling and racially motivated offences. We use area-based aggregate data to model this relationship. Our results show that, above and beyond impacts of absolute access to…

  5. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  6. Does economic inequality affect child malnutrition? The case of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Larrea, Carlos; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Economic inequality has been hypothesized to be a determinant of population health, independent of poverty and household income. We examined the association between economic inequality and child malnutrition in Ecuador. Economic inequality was measured by the Gini coefficient of household per capita consumption, estimated from the 1990 Census. Childhood stunting, assessed from height-for-age z scores, was obtained from the 1998 Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS). We controlled for a range of individual and household covariates, including per capita food consumption, education, housing, ethnicity, fertility, access to health services, diarrhea morbidity, child care, mother's age and diet composition. Stunting still affects 26% of children under five in Ecuador, with higher prevalence in the rural Highlands and among indigenous peoples. Maternal education, basic housing conditions, access to health services, ethnicity, fertility, maternal age and diet composition were independently associated with stunting. However, after controlling for relevant covariates, economic inequality at the provincial scale had a statistically significant deleterious effect on stunting. At municipal or local levels, inequality was not associated with stunting.

  7. Inequality in Disability in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tareque, Md. Ismail; Begum, Sharifa; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate inequality in disability in Bangladesh. Methods The study used both household level and individual level data from a large nationally representative data set, Bangladesh’s Household Income and Expenditure Survey - 2010. Principal component analysis was used to construct a wealth index based on household assets from household level data. Then, using data from 49,809 individuals aged 5 years and over, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to test the association between wealth level and disability. Findings Women and older people are significantly more likely to report having disabilities than men and younger people. For middle and rich families, respectively, there is a 14 percent lower likelihood of reporting disabilities than for poor families. Changes in the probability of having disabilities are linear with increasing wealth. In addition, the study identifies some significant factors affecting disability, namely, age, sex, education, marital status, and place of residence including divisional differences. Conclusion In Bangladesh, worse health among the poor argues for policies prioritizing this group while at the same time giving special attention to women and the elderly. PMID:25075513

  8. Joint-Working as a Policy for Reducing Inequalities in Access to Information: Developing Culturally Appropriate Sex and Relationships Education for Young Bangladeshis in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Teena; Chapman, Jenifer; Estcourt, Claudia S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Despite government support of culturally appropriate sex and relationships education (SRE), young people's access to information is limited and sexual health needs are not being met, particularly among youth from black and minority ethnic groups. Joint-working between health, education, voluntary sectors and parents has been heralded…

  9. Social Inequality as an Enduring Phenomenon of General and Vocational Education--Characteristics in the Federal Republic of Germany and International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickolaus, Reinhold; Gschwendtner, Tobias; Geibel, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to (1) provide an overview, from a macroanalytical perspective, of the characteristics of unequal educational opportunities within an international perspective, (2) set out problems related to social selectivity, in particular within the vocational educational system in Germany and (3) describe examples of the interaction between…

  10. US Higher Education in a Budgetary Vortex--1992-2007: Tracing the Positioning of Academe in the Context of Growing Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliver, Miguel; Briscoe, Felecia M.

    2011-01-01

    Through comparative statistical data of public investment trends in higher education, the institution of higher education in the US is contemporarily contextualized within the growing milieu of disparity. Specifically, this study focuses on the period from 1992 to 2007 to see if a mitigation of the growing economic disparity projected per the…

  11. Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between income and health is well established: the higher an individual's income, the better his or her health. However, recent research suggests that health may also be affected by the distribution of income within society. We outline the potential mechanisms underlying the so-called relative income hypothesis, which predicts that an individual's health status is better in societies with a more equal distribution of incomes. The effects of income inequality on health may be mediated by underinvestment in social goods, such as public education and health care; disruption of social cohesion and the erosion of social capital; and the harmful psychosocial effects of invidious social comparisons. PMID:10199670

  12. Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…

  13. Global Inequality and Poverty in Perspectives of Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Michael; Eisenreich, Sophie; Lehner, Daniela; Moser, Stefanie; Neidl, Tobias; Ruscher, Valentina; Vogeler, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the educational level, this paper aims to show a practical case of dialogic web-based learning. It has provided a consensus during a web-based negotiation game between four different parties on poverty and inequality. On a multicultural level, this paper seeks to offer diverse cultures of argumentation on global poverty.…

  14. Inequality as an Effect of Rule-Setting Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Kley, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A Dutch study compared two first grade classes with regard to teacher treatment of students and student behavior (dependent variables). One class participated in a national initiative to reduce or eliminate educational inequities. The independent variables included socioeconomic background, sex, scholastic identity attributed by the teacher, and…

  15. Computer as a Medium for Overcoming Misconceptions in Solving Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei; Ehrlich, Amos

    2007-01-01

    Inequalities are considered among the most useful tools of investigation in pure and applied mathematics; yet their didactical aspects have not received much attention in mathematics education research until recently. An important aspect of teaching problem solving at the secondary level deals with the notion of equivalence of algebraic…

  16. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right…

  17. Absolute exponential stability of recurrent neural networks with Lipschitz-continuous activation functions and time delays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinde; Wang, Jun

    2004-04-01

    This paper investigates the absolute exponential stability of a general class of delayed neural networks, which require the activation functions to be partially Lipschitz continuous and monotone nondecreasing only, but not necessarily differentiable or bounded. Three new sufficient conditions are derived to ascertain whether or not the equilibrium points of the delayed neural networks with additively diagonally stable interconnection matrices are absolutely exponentially stable by using delay Halanay-type inequality and Lyapunov function. The stability criteria are also suitable for delayed optimization neural networks and delayed cellular neural networks whose activation functions are often nondifferentiable or unbounded. The results herein answer a question: if a neural network without any delay is absolutely exponentially stable, then under what additional conditions, the neural networks with delay is also absolutely exponentially stable.

  18. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

    2002-12-01

    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  19. Absolute classification with unsupervised clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    An absolute classification algorithm is proposed in which the class definition through training samples or otherwise is required only for a particular class of interest. The absolute classification is considered as a problem of unsupervised clustering when one cluster is known initially. The definitions and statistics of the other classes are automatically developed through the weighted unsupervised clustering procedure, which is developed to keep the cluster corresponding to the class of interest from losing its identity as the class of interest. Once all the classes are developed, a conventional relative classifier such as the maximum-likelihood classifier is used in the classification.

  20. Social determinants of inequalities in child undernutrition in Bangladesh: A decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Huda, Tanvir M; Hayes, Alison; El Arifeen, Shams; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-03-08

    Socioeconomic inequalities in child undernutrition remain one of the main challenges in Bangladesh. The social determinants of health are mostly responsible for such inequalities across different population groups. However, no study has examined the relative contribution of different social determinants to the socioeconomic inequality in child undernutrition in Bangladesh. Our objective is to measure the extent of socioeconomic-related inequalities in childhood stunting and identify the key social determinants that potentially explain these inequalities in Bangladesh. We used data for children younger than 5 years of age for this analysis from 2 rounds of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2004 and 2014. We examined the socioeconomic inequality in stunting using the concentration curve and concentration index. We then decomposed the concentration index into the contributions of individual social determinants. We found significant inequality in stunting prevalence. The negative concentration index of stunting indicated that stunting was more concentrated among the poor than among the well-off. Our results suggest that inequalities in stunting increased between 2004 and 2014. Household economic status, maternal and paternal education, health-seeking behavior of the mothers, sanitation, fertility, and maternal stature were the major contributors to the disparity in stunting prevalence in Bangladesh. Equity is a critical component of sustainable development goals. Health policymakers should work together across sectors and develop strategies for effective intersectoral actions to adequately address the social determinants of equity and reduce inequalities in stunting and other health outcomes.

  1. Sobolev and Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolbeault, Jean; Jankowiak, Gaspard

    2014-09-01

    This paper is devoted to improvements of Sobolev and Onofri inequalities. The additional terms involve the dual counterparts, i.e. Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev type inequalities. The Onofri inequality is achieved as a limit case of Sobolev type inequalities. Then we focus our attention on the constants in our improved Sobolev inequalities, that can be estimated by completion of the square methods. Our estimates rely on nonlinear flows and spectral problems based on a linearization around optimal Aubin-Talenti functions.

  2. Educational Inequalities in the Transition to Adulthood in Belgium: The Impact of Intergenerational Mobility on Young-Adult Mortality in 2001-2009

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the association between parental and personal socioeconomic position (SEP) and health, with mixed results depending on the specific health outcome, research methodology and population under study. In the last decades, a growing interest is given to the influence of intergenerational mobility on several health outcomes at young ages. This study addresses the following research question: Is educational intergenerational mobility associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in young adulthood? To this end, the Belgian 1991 and 2001 censuses are used, providing characteristics of young persons at two time points (T1 = 01/03/91;T2 = 01/10/01) and follow-up information on mortality and emigration between T2 and 31/12/09 (T3). The study population consists of all official inhabitants of Flanders and the Brussels-Capital Region at T2, born between 1972 and 1982 and alive at T2. Parental and personal education are divided into primary (PE), lower secondary (LSE), higher secondary (HSE) and higher education (HE). We analyse mortality between T2 and T3 calculating age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) and using Cox regression (hazard ratios = HR). Personal rather than parental education determines the observed mortality rates, with high all-cause mortality rates among those with PE, irrespective of parental education (e.g., among men ASMRPE-PE = 200.0 [95% CI 158.0–241.9]; ASMRHE-PE = 319.7 [183.2–456.3]) and low all-cause mortality among those in higher education, regardless of parental education (ASMRPE-HE = 41.7 [30.8–52.6]; ASMRHE-HE = 38.0 [33.2–42.8]). There is some variation by gender and according to cause of death. This study shows the strong association between personal education and young-adult mortality. PMID:26657691

  3. Educational Inequalities in the Transition to Adulthood in Belgium: The Impact of Intergenerational Mobility on Young-Adult Mortality in 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    De Grande, Hannelore; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the association between parental and personal socioeconomic position (SEP) and health, with mixed results depending on the specific health outcome, research methodology and population under study. In the last decades, a growing interest is given to the influence of intergenerational mobility on several health outcomes at young ages. This study addresses the following research question: Is educational intergenerational mobility associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in young adulthood? To this end, the Belgian 1991 and 2001 censuses are used, providing characteristics of young persons at two time points (T1 = 01/03/91;T2 = 01/10/01) and follow-up information on mortality and emigration between T2 and 31/12/09 (T3). The study population consists of all official inhabitants of Flanders and the Brussels-Capital Region at T2, born between 1972 and 1982 and alive at T2. Parental and personal education are divided into primary (PE), lower secondary (LSE), higher secondary (HSE) and higher education (HE). We analyse mortality between T2 and T3 calculating age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) and using Cox regression (hazard ratios = HR). Personal rather than parental education determines the observed mortality rates, with high all-cause mortality rates among those with PE, irrespective of parental education (e.g., among men ASMRPE-PE = 200.0 [95% CI 158.0-241.9]; ASMRHE-PE = 319.7 [183.2-456.3]) and low all-cause mortality among those in higher education, regardless of parental education (ASMRPE-HE = 41.7 [30.8-52.6]; ASMRHE-HE = 38.0 [33.2-42.8]). There is some variation by gender and according to cause of death. This study shows the strong association between personal education and young-adult mortality.

  4. Absolute stability for multiple delay general Lur'e control systems with multiple nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong; Wu, Min

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of Lyapunov functional of extended Lur'e form to guarantee absolute stability for multiple delay general Lur'e control systems with multiple nonlinearities, and the existence reduces to a problem of solving a group of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). When the LMIs are feasible, the free parameters in the Lyapunov functional are given by the solution of these LMIs. Otherwise, this class of Lyapunov functional does not exist.

  5. Economic Inequality Predicts Biodiversity Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelson, Gregory M.; Gonzalez, Andrew; Peterson, Garry D.

    2007-01-01

    Human activity is causing high rates of biodiversity loss. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the extent to which socioeconomic factors exacerbate or ameliorate our impacts on biological diversity. One such factor, economic inequality, has been shown to affect public health, and has been linked to environmental problems in general. We tested how strongly economic inequality is related to biodiversity loss in particular. We found that among countries, and among US states, the number of species that are threatened or declining increases substantially with the Gini ratio of income inequality. At both levels of analysis, the connection between income inequality and biodiversity loss persists after controlling for biophysical conditions, human population size, and per capita GDP or income. Future research should explore potential mechanisms behind this equality-biodiversity relationship. Our results suggest that economic reforms would go hand in hand with, if not serving as a prerequisite for, effective conservation. PMID:17505535

  6. Poverty and health sector inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787

  7. Health and social inequities in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dedeoglu, N

    1990-01-01

    Social and economic policies of governments directly influence the health of the people. These policies, in turn, are determined by the national and foreign controllers of power. Economic and social factors in Turkey during the late 1970s led to a new modelling of the economic system, from a Keynesian to a market-oriented and monetarist model. The state mechanism was also altered to form a centralized, authoritarian regime in order to enforce the requirements of the economy. As a result, the middle class diminished in size, inequalities in income distribution increased, unemployment climbed, the purchasing power of wage earners decreased, government spending for education and health was cut and new oppressive laws were enacted. Health services were already urban-biased and hospital-oriented, but new free-market measures were instituted which promoted private health institutions and attempted to transform state-owned and financed hospitals into self-supporting, independent business enterprises. The only school of public health was closed down; preventive medicine expenditures were lowered while hospital rates and drug prices were increased. All these changes affected the health status of the population. Mortality and morbidity inequalities had already existed between the rich and the poor, men and women, urban and rural settlements, educated and illiterate, West and East, always in favour of the former. However, the new policies exacerbated the inequities. Infectious diseases including tuberculosis increased, nutrition worsened, occupational diseases and work accidents rose to be the highest in Europe. The power-holding minority is not interested in the health of populations and is committed to pursue its social and economic policies. Ad hoc research, especially cross-sectional mortality studies repeated at regular intervals can provide data on the most vulnerable groups as no other valid information exists. There is little hope of these data being used for

  8. Penrose inequality and apparent horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dov, Ishai

    2004-12-15

    A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.

  9. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  10. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckey, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  11. Equalizing Educational Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth

    Education directly determines life, liberty, and happiness for that segment of the population which can afford better educational facilities. For economically and socially disadvantaged people, education only perpetuates inequality. Financial inequality results in some school districts spending more money per student than other school districts.…

  12. Between- and Within-Occupation Inequality: The Case of High-Status Professions*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Killewald, Alexandra; Near, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we present analyses of the roles of education and occupation in shaping trends in income inequality among college-educated workers in the U.S., drawing data from two sources: (1) the 1960–2000 U.S. Censuses and (2) the 2006–2008 three-year American Community Survey. We also examine in detail historical trends in between-occupation and within-occupation income inequality for a small set of high-status professionals, with focused attention on the economic wellbeing of scientists. Our research yields four findings. First, education premiums have increased. Second, both between-occupation and within-occupation inequality increased at about the same rates for college graduates, so that the portion of inequality attributable to occupational differences remained constant. Third, scientists have lost ground relative to other similarly educated professionals. Fourth, trends in within-occupation inequality vary by occupation and education, making any sweeping summary on the roles of education and occupation in the overall increase in income inequality difficult. PMID:26977113

  13. Interventions addressing health inequalities in European regions: the AIR project.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Barsanti, Sara; Bourgueil, Yann; Daponte, Antonio; Piznal, Ewelina; Ménival, Solange

    2015-10-26

    Disparities in health between social groups have been documented all over Europe. We summarize the methods and results of the Addressing Inequalities in Regions (AIR) project, which identified illustrative interventions and policies developed in European regions to reduce inequalities at the primary health care level. The first phase was a systematic review of the published literature. The second phase was a survey of European regions, collecting information on policies aiming at reducing health inequalities through primary health care and identifying regional, innovative and evaluated interventions. The third phase assessed interventions through methods defined by a formal consensus, and selected illustrative practices considered good practices for several of nine evaluation criteria. The review included 98 evaluations of interventions and 10 reviews; 80% of interventions were from North-America. Three main pathways to reduce health inequalities were identified: providing health promotion, improving financial access to care and modifying care provision. The first survey identified 90 interventions. Most national strategies included health inequalities issues. Education was the most frequently identified targeted determinant. Most interventions were health promotion general or targeted at specific health determinants, conditions or groups. The second survey assessed 46 interventions. Many involved the population in planning, implementation and evaluation. We also identified the multidisciplinary of interventions, and some who had an impact on empowerment of the targeted population. The AIR project documented that policies and actions can be implemented at the regional level through primary care providers. Policies and interventions are seldom evaluated.

  14. [Inequality, poverty and obesity].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Silva, Aline Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Chrystiellen Ayana Aparecida; Nunes, Nádia Lúcia Almeida; Vigato, Tássia Cassimiro; Magalhães, Rosana

    2010-06-01

    National studies have been demonstrating the positive relationship among inequality, poverty and obesity revealing the singularities and complexity of the nutritional transition in Brazil. In this direction, the women constitute a vulnerable group to the dynamics of the obesity in the poverty context. Such fact imposes the theoretical deepening and the accomplishment of researches that make possible a larger approach with the phenomenon in subject. In this perspective, the study analyzed the daily life of poor and obese women, users of basic units of health of the city of Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State. The results revealed the complex relationship between feminine obesity and poverty. The cultural and material aspects of life, as well as the different feeding and body conceptions that demonstrated to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple faces of the obesity among the investigated group. Facing these results it is appropriate to encourage public policies that promote equity widening the access of those groups to the main resources for the prevention and combat of obesity.

  15. Inequality in paleorecords.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Franco; Qeadan, Fares

    2008-04-01

    Paleorecords provide information on past environmental variability, and help define ecological reference conditions by means of changes in their characteristics (accumulation rate, geochemical composition, density, etc.). A measure of temporal dissimilarity, which has traditionally been used in dendrochronology and is called "mean sensitivity," only focuses on first-order time-series lags. In this paper mean sensitivity was extended to all possible lags to derive a mean sensitivity function (MSF). The MSF is equivalent to a one-dimensional form of the paired relative madogram, a tool used in geostatistics to quantify spatial dependence. We then showed that the sum of madograms for all possible time-series lags is encapsulated by a single parameter, the Gini coefficient. This parameter has long been used by econometricians, social scientists, and ecologists as a synthetic, quantitative measure of inequality and diversity. Considering the connection between the MSF and the madogram, and the convenience of summarizing data heterogeneity with a single number, the Gini coefficient is therefore particularly appropriate for succinctly evaluating the diversity of paleorecords. An example of this application is provided by focusing on public domain dendrochronological data for the western conterminous United States.

  16. The Interplay between socioeconomic inequalities and clinical oral health.

    PubMed

    Steele, J; Shen, J; Tsakos, G; Fuller, E; Morris, S; Watt, R; Guarnizo-Herreño, C; Wildman, J

    2015-01-01

    Oral health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status are widely observed but may depend on the way that both oral health and socioeconomic status are measured. Our aim was to investigate inequalities using diverse indicators of oral health and 4 socioeconomic determinants, in the context of age and cohort. Multiple linear or logistic regressions were estimated for 7 oral health measures representing very different outcomes (2 caries prevalence measures, decayed/missing/filled teeth, 6-mm pockets, number of teeth, anterior spaces, and excellent oral health) against 4 socioeconomic measures (income, education, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and occupational social class) for adults aged ≥21 y in the 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data set. Confounders were adjusted and marginal effects calculated. The results showed highly variable relationships for the different combinations of variables and that age group was critical, with different relationships at different ages. There were significant income inequalities in caries prevalence in the youngest age group, marginal effects of 0.10 to 0.18, representing a 10- to 18-percentage point increase in the probability of caries between the wealthiest and every other quintile, but there was not a clear gradient across the quintiles. With number of teeth as an outcome, there were significant income gradients after adjustment in older groups, up to 4.5 teeth (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.8) between richest and poorest but none for the younger groups. For periodontal disease, income inequalities were mediated by other socioeconomic variables and smoking, while for anterior spaces, the relationships were age dependent and complex. In conclusion, oral health inequalities manifest in different ways in different age groups, representing age and cohort effects. Income sometimes has an independent relationship, but education and area of residence are also contributory. Appropriate choices of measures in relation to age

  17. Population growth, inequality and poverty.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G

    1983-01-01

    In this discussion of population growth, inequality, and poverty, the type of relationships that can be observed in intercountry comparisons are explored, reviewing the findings of several other authors, presenting some new estimates using an International Labor Office data bank, considering some basic conceptual problems, and examining some of the theoretical and empirical issues that call for investigation at the national level. Intercountry comparisons, despite their limitations, appear to be the easiest starting point for empirical analysis. The approach adopted by most researchers has been to select 1 or more population indicators and a measure of national income inequality and to explain intercountry differences in 1 or both of these variables in terms of each other and of other indicators of economic and social development. Underlying this methodology is the assumption that there are aspects of demographic and economic change that are common to all countries included in the study, so that differences between countries give some guide to the likely evolution over time within any 1 country. This can be accepted at best with reservations, but given the scarcity of data on the evolution of inequality over time, a working hypothesis of this type appears unavoidable. But, as many of the factors likely to cause population growth and inequality operate over extended periods of time, a dynamic model is indicated. A simpler model, which pays particular attention to lags and variations over time, may generate new insights. A summary of the results of a new international cross-section analysis set up on these lines is presented. Results suggest that contrary to expectations, reducing population growth does not seem to generate longterm benefits for the poor in this model, though some short term gains are found. Increasing equality does appear to generate some decline in population growth, as well as persistent gains in incomes among the poor, but the reductions in

  18. From "Culturally Deprived" to "At Risk": The Politics of Popular Expression and Educational Inequality in the United States, 1960-1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia L. M.; Rury, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the terms "culturally deprived" and "disadvantaged" in light of their popular use in the sixties and following decades, particularly in the ethnic and mainstream press. These expressions represented an effort to explain differences in educational attainment and academic achievement along lines of social…

  19. The Rising Price of Inequality: How Inadequate Grant Aid Limits College Access and Persistence. Report to Congress and the Secretary of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Congress charged the Advisory Committee in the "Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008" with monitoring and reporting on the condition of college access and persistence for low- and moderate-income students. The law requires provision of analyses and policy recommendations regarding the adequacy of grant aid from all sources--federal, state, and…

  20. Creating (In)Equalities in Access to Higher Education in the Context of Structural Adjustment and Post-Adjustment Policies: The Case of Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the access of different socio-economic groups to post-secondary institutions by quintile, this paper examines the impact produced by higher education financing policies in Chile during the Pinochet (1973-1990), the Aylwin (1990-1994) and the Frei (1994-2000) administrations. To this purpose, CASEN databases and semi-structured…

  1. Evolution of Earnings and Rates of Returns to Education in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    This paper reviews the factors and mechanisms that have been driving inequality in Mexico and finds that educational inequality accounts for by far the largest share of Mexico's variation in earnings inequality. More specifically, it examines the expansion in earnings inequality with emphasis on the role of education, establishes an analytical…

  2. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  3. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  4. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  5. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  6. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    PubMed Central

    Puigpinós, Rosa; Borrell, Carme; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Azlor, Enric; Pasarín, M Isabel; Serral, Gemma; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII). All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003). Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer. PMID:19166582

  7. Determinants of MSK health and disability--social determinants of inequities in MSK health.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Francis; Carruthers, Erin; Li, Linda C

    2014-06-01

    Even in most egalitarian societies, disparities in care exist to the disadvantage of some people with chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders and related disability. These situations translate into inequality in health and health outcomes. The goal of this chapter is to review concepts and determinants associated with health inequity, and the effect of interventions to minimize their impact. Health inequities are avoidable, unnecessary, unfair and unjust. Inequities can occur across the health care continuum, from primary and secondary prevention to diagnosis and treatment. There are many ways to define and identify inequities, according for instance to ethical, philosophical, epidemiological, sociological, economic, or public health points of view. These complementary views can be applied to set a framework of analysis, identify determinants and suggest targets of action against inequity. Most determinants of inequity in MSK disorders are similar to those in the general population and other chronic diseases. People may be exposed to inequity as a result of policies and rules set by the health care system, individuals' demographic characteristics (e.g., education level), or some behavior of health professionals and of patients. Osteoarthritis (OA) represents a typical chronic MSK condition. The PROGRESS-Plus framework is useful for identifying the important role that place of residence, race and ethnicity, occupation, gender, education, socioeconomic status, social capital and networks, age, disability and sexual orientation may have in creating or maintaining inequities in this disease. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a consideration of international data led to the conclusion that not all RA patients who needed biologic therapy had access to it. The disparity in care was due partly to policies of a country and a health care system, or economic conditions. We conclude this chapter by discussing examples of interventions designed for reducing health inequity.

  8. School Sector and Socioeconomic Inequalities in University Entrance in Australia: The Role of the Stratified Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the more persuasive arguments for school sector differences in students' educational performance is the role of the senior school curriculum, which is stratified, socially selective, and has an important bearing on educational outcomes. In addition, the stratified curriculum may also contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in education by…

  9. Socio-economic inequity in HIV testing in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Wook; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a significant contributor to Malawi's burden of disease. Despite a number of studies describing socio-economic differences in HIV prevalence, there is a paucity of evidence on socio-economic inequity in HIV testing in Malawi. Objective To assess horizontal inequity (HI) in HIV testing in Malawi. Design Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs) 2004 and 2010 in Malawi are used for the analysis. The sample size for DHS 2004 was 14,571 (women =11,362 and men=3,209), and for DHS 2010 it was 29,830 (women=22,716 and men=7,114). The concentration index is used to quantify the amount of socio-economic-related inequality in HIV testing. The inequality is a primary method in this study. Corrected need, a further adjustment of the standard decomposition index, was calculated. Standard HI was compared with corrected need-adjusted inequity. Variables used to measure health need include symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Non-need variables include wealth, education, literacy and marital status. Results Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of the population ever tested for HIV increased from 15 to 75% among women and from 16 to 54% among men. The need for HIV testing among men was concentrated among the relatively wealthy in 2004, but the need was more equitably distributed in 2010. Standard HI was 0.152 in 2004 and 0.008 in 2010 among women, and 0.186 in 2004 and 0.04 in 2010 among men. Rural–urban inequity also fell in this period, but HIV testing remained pro-rich among rural men (HI 0.041). The main social contributors to inequity in HIV testing were wealth in 2004 and education in 2010. Conclusions Inequity in HIV testing in Malawi decreased between 2004 and 2010. This may be due to the increased support to HIV testing by global donors over this period. PMID:27790970

  10. Who cares about health inequalities? Cross-country evidence from the World Health Survey.

    PubMed

    King, Nicholas B; Harper, Sam; Young, Meredith E

    2013-08-01

    Reduction of health inequalities within and between countries is a global health priority, but little is known about the determinants of popular support for this goal. We used data from the World Health Survey to assess individual preferences for prioritizing reductions in health and health care inequalities. We used descriptive tables and regression analysis to study the determinants of preferences for reducing health inequalities as the primary health system goal. Determinants included individual socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban residence, education, marital status, household income, self-rated health, health care use, satisfaction with health care system) and country-level characteristics [gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, disability-free life expectancy, equality in child mortality, income inequality, health and public health expenditures]. We used logistic regression to assess the likelihood that individuals ranked minimizing inequalities first, and rank-ordered logistic regression to compare the ranking of other priorities against minimizing health inequalities. Individuals tended to prioritize health system goals related to overall improvement (improving population health and health care responsiveness) over those related to equality and fairness (minimizing inequalities in health and responsiveness, and promoting fairness of financial contribution). Individuals in countries with higher GDP per capita, life expectancy, and equality in child mortality were more likely to prioritize minimizing health inequalities.

  11. Growth and Development among Infants and Preschoolers in Rural India: Economic Inequities and Caregiver Protective/Promotive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maureen M.; Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M.; Tilton, Nicholas; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Harding, Kimberly B.; Reinhart, Greg; Radhakrishna, Kankipati Vijaya; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Economic inequities are common in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and are associated with poor growth and development among young children. The objectives are to examine whether maternal education and home environment quality: 1) protect children by attenuating the association between economic inequities and children's growth and…

  12. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden.

  13. STRUCTURAL RACISM AND HEALTH INEQUITIES

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Ford, Chandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Racial minorities bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. These inequities might be explained by racism, given the fact that racism has restricted the lives of racial minorities and immigrants throughout history. Recent studies have documented that individuals who report experiencing racism have greater rates of illnesses. While this body of research has been invaluable in advancing knowledge on health inequities, it still locates the experiences of racism at the individual level. Yet, the health of social groups is likely most strongly affected by structural, rather than individual, phenomena. The structural forms of racism and their relationship to health inequities remain under-studied. This article reviews several ways of conceptualizing structural racism, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects. Studies of disparities should more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities. PMID:25632292

  14. Bell inequalities with communication assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Katherine; Chitambar, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the possible correlations between two parties using local machines and shared randomness with an additional amount of classical communication. This is a continuation of the work initiated by Bacon and Toner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157904 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.157904] who characterized the correlation polytope for 2×2 measurement settings with binary outcomes plus one bit of communication. Here, we derive a complete set of Bell inequalities for 3×2 measurement settings and a shared bit of communication. When the communication direction is fixed, nine Bell inequalities characterize the correlation polytope, whereas when the communication direction is bidirectional, 143 inequalities describe the correlations. We then prove a tight lower bound on the amount of communication needed to simulate all no-signaling correlations for a given number of measurement settings.

  15. Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Astashkin, S V

    2014-12-31

    We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  16. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States.

  17. QCD inequalities for hadron interactions.

    PubMed

    Detmold, William

    2015-06-05

    We derive generalizations of the Weingarten-Witten QCD mass inequalities for particular multihadron systems. For systems of any number of identical pseudoscalar mesons of maximal isospin, these inequalities prove that near threshold interactions between the constituent mesons must be repulsive and that no bound states can form in these channels. Similar constraints in less symmetric systems are also extracted. These results are compatible with experimental results (where known) and recent lattice QCD calculations, and also lead to a more stringent bound on the nucleon mass than previously derived, m_{N}≥3/2m_{π}.

  18. The Impact of Education and Socioeconomic and Occupational Conditions on Self-Perceived and Mental Health Inequalities Among Immigrants and Native Workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cayuela, Ana; Malmusi, Davide; López-Jacob, María José; Gotsens, Mercè; Ronda, Elena

    2015-12-01

    There is limited evidence on the influence of social determinants on the self-perceived and mental health of immigrants settled at least 8 years in Spain. The aim of this study was to examine differences between workers related to migrant-status, self-perceived and mental health, and to assess their relationship to occupational conditions, educational level and occupational social class, stratified by sex. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2011/12, we computed prevalence, odds ratios and explicative fractions. Mental (OR 2.02; CI 1.39-2.93) and self-perceived health (OR 2.64; CI 1.77-3.93) were poorer for immigrant women compared to natives. Occupational social class variable contributes 25% to self-perceived health OR in immigrant women. Settled immigrant women workers are a vulnerable group in Spain.

  19. Absolute calibration of optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Viana, N.B.; Mazolli, A.; Maia Neto, P.A.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Rocha, M.S.; Mesquita, O.N.

    2006-03-27

    As a step toward absolute calibration of optical tweezers, a first-principles theory of trapping forces with no adjustable parameters, corrected for spherical aberration, is experimentally tested. Employing two very different setups, we find generally very good agreement for the transverse trap stiffness as a function of microsphere radius for a broad range of radii, including the values employed in practice, and at different sample chamber depths. The domain of validity of the WKB ('geometrical optics') approximation to the theory is verified. Theoretical predictions for the trapping threshold, peak position, depth variation, multiple equilibria, and 'jump' effects are also confirmed.

  20. Remainder terms for some quantum entropy inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Carlen, Eric A.; Lieb, Elliott H.

    2014-04-15

    We consider three von Neumann entropy inequalities: subadditivity; Pinsker's inequality for relative entropy; and the monotonicity of relative entropy. For these we state conditions for equality, and we prove some new error bounds away from equality, including an improved version of Pinsker's inequality.