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Sample records for absolute emission cross

  1. Absolute X-ray emission cross section measurements of Fe K transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Natalie; Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Boyce, Kevin R.; Grinberg, Victoria; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Porter, Frederick Scott; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the absolute X-ray emission cross sections of K-shell transitions in highly charged L- and K-shell Fe ions using the LLNL EBIT-I electron beam ion trap and the NASA GSFC EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS). The cross sections are determined by using the ECS to simultaneously record the spectrum of the bound-bound K-shell transitions and the emission from radiative recombination from trapped Fe ions. The measured spectrum is then brought to an absolute scale by normalizing the measured flux in the radiative recombination features to their theoretical cross sections, which are well known. Once the spectrum is brought to an absolute scale, the cross sections of the K-shell transitions are determined. These measurements are made possible by the ECS, which consists of a 32 channel array, with 14 channels optimized for detecting high energy photons (hν > 10 keV) and 18 channels optimized for detecting low energy photons (hν < 10 keV). The ECS has a large collection area, relatively high energy resolution, and a large bandpass; all properties necessary for this measurement technique to be successful. These data will be used to benchmark cross sections in the atomic reference data bases underlying the plasma modeling codes used to analyze astrophysical spectra, especially those measured by the Soft X-ray Spectrometer calorimeter instrument recently launched on the Hitomi X-ray Observatory.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and supported by NASA grants to LLNL and NASA/GSFC and by ESA under contract No. 4000114313/15/NL/CB.

  2. Biexciton cascade emission reveals absolute absorption cross section of single semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, Toshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    The sequential two-photon emission process known as biexciton cascade emission is a characteristic phenomenon that occurs in photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). This process occurs when a biexciton state is created in the NCs; thus, the occurrence of the process is related to the photoabsorption properties of the NCs. This paper presents a simple equation that connects the photoabsorption of single NCs and the biexciton cascade emission. The equation is found to be independent of the quantum yields of photoluminescence (PL). With this equation and using an analysis of second-order photon correlation, the absolute absorption cross section σ of the single NCs can be evaluated, obtaining values on the order of 10-14c m2 . This analysis shows that ionization during PL blinking does not affect the validity of the relation, indicating that the evaluation of σ , based on the equation, is applicable for various NCs with unique structures.

  3. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  4. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  5. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  6. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  7. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Soorkia, Satchin; Selby, Talitha M.

    2012-04-07

    Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

  8. Absolute cross section for recoil detection of deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenbacher, F.; Stensgaard, I.; Vase, P.

    1986-04-01

    The D( 4He, D) 4He cross section used for recoil detection of deuterium (D) has been calibrated on an absolute scale against the cross section of the D( 3He, α)p nuclear reaction which is often used for D profiling. For 4He energies ranging from 0.8 to ~1.8 MeV. the D( 4He, D) 4He cross section varies only slightly with incident energy and recoil angle θ (for 0° ⩽ 8 ⩽ 35°) and has a value of ~ 500 mb/sr which is significantly higher than the ~ 65 mb/sr c.m.s. cross section of the D( 3He, α)p nuclear reaction. For 4He energies ranging from ~ 1.9 to ~ 2.3 MeV, the D( 4He,D) 4He cross section exhibits a fairly narrow resonance peak (fwhm ~ 70 keV), with a maximum value (for θ = 0°) of ~ 8.5 b/sr, corresponding to a 4He energy of ~ 2130 keV. The large values of the cross section in connection with the described energy dependence makes the use of forward-recoil detection of D attractive for many purposes, e.g., D Jepth profiling (with an extreme gain in sensitivity), absolute concentration or coverage measurements, and lattice-location experiments by transmission channeling.

  9. Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

    2008-01-01

    The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

  10. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Bertalot, L.; Ishikawa, M.; Popovichev, S.

    2010-10-15

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10{sup 10} n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10{sup 8} n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  11. Principles and procedures for determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, J. C.; Zetner, P. W.; Shen, G.; Trajmar, S.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures and calibration techniques for measuring the absolute elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) for electron impact on molecular (atomic) species are described and illustrated by examples. The elastic DCS for the molecule under study is first determined by calibration against helium using the relative flow technique. The second step involves the production of energy-loss spectra for the instrument response function, the unfolding of overlapping inelastic structures and the normalization of inelastic intensities to the elastic cross sections. It is concluded that this method of determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections is generally applicable and provides reliable results.

  12. Absolute electron-impact total ionization cross sections of chlorofluoromethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Roberto; Sierra, Borja; Redondo, Carolina; Rayo, María N. Sánchez; Castaño, Fernando

    2004-12-01

    An experimental study is reported on the electron-impact total ionization cross sections (TICSs) of CCl4, CCl3F, CCl2F2, and CClF3 molecules. The kinetic energy of the colliding electrons was in the 10-85 eV range. TICSs were obtained as the sum of the partial ionization cross sections of all fragment ions, measured and identified in a linear double focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The resulting TICS profiles—as a function of the electron-impact energy—have been compared both with those computed by ab initio and (semi)empirical methods and with the available experimental data. The computational methods used include the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) modified to include atoms with principal quantum numbers n⩾3, the Deutsch and Märk (DM) formalism, and the modified additivity rule (MAR). It is concluded that both modified BEB and DM methods fit the experimental TICS for (CF4), CClF3, CCl2F2, CCl3F, and CCl4 to a high accuracy, in contrast with the poor accord of the MAR method. A discussion on the factors influencing the discrepancies of the fittings is presented.

  13. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Wania Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Tavares, Andre C.

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  14. Absolute Absorption Cross Sections from Photon Recoil in a Matter-Wave Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibenberger, Sandra; Cheng, Xiaxi; Cotter, J. P.; Arndt, Markus

    2014-06-01

    We measure the absolute absorption cross section of molecules using a matter-wave interferometer. A nanostructured density distribution is imprinted onto a dilute molecular beam through quantum interference. As the beam crosses the light field of a probe laser some molecules will absorb a single photon. These absorption events impart a momentum recoil which shifts the position of the molecule relative to the unperturbed beam. Averaging over the shifted and unshifted components within the beam leads to a reduction of the fringe visibility, enabling the absolute absorption cross section to be extracted with high accuracy. This technique is independent of the molecular density, it is minimally invasive and successfully eliminates many problems related to photon cycling, state mixing, photobleaching, photoinduced heating, fragmentation, and ionization. It can therefore be extended to a wide variety of neutral molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles.

  15. Absolute differential cross sections for electron capture and loss by kilo-electron-volt hydrogen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. J.; Johnson, L. K.; Gao, R. S.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports measurements of absolute differential cross sections for electron capture and loss for fast hydrogen atoms incident on H2, N2, O2, Ar, and He. Cross sections have been determined in the 2.0- to 5.0-keV energy range over the laboratory angular range 0.02-2 deg, with an angular, resolution of 0.02 deg. The high angular resolution allows observation of the structure at small angles in some of the cross sections. Comparison of the present results with those of other authors generally shows very good agreement.

  16. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  17. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of ozone have been measured in the wavelength range 185-350 nm and in the temperature range 225-298 K. The absolute ozone concentrations were established by measuring the pressure of pure gaseous samples in the 0.08to 300-torr range, and the UV spectra were recorded under conditions where less than 1 percent of the sample decomposed. The temperature dependence is significant for wavelengths longer than about 280 nm. The absorption cross-section values around 210 nm were found to be about 10 percent larger than the previously accepted values.

  18. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Dance Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n ,γ ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n ,f ) resonance at En ,R=7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of the cross section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n ,γ ) cross section at the En ,R=2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4 % of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30 % lower than the evaluated data at En≈1 keV and are approximately 2 σ away from the previous measurement at En≈20 keV.

  19. Absolute Cross sections of Fe XVII x-ray transitions measured with the spare Astro-E microcalorimeter Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; May, M.; Scofield, J.; Kahn, S. M.

    2002-04-01

    We have used the NASA/GSFC engineering model Astro-E microcalorimeter 6x6 array with the LLNL electron beam ion trap uc(ebit-i) to measure absolute excitation cross sections of Fe uc(xvii) L-shell x-ray transitions by normalizing to radiative recombination (RR). In the past, normalizing Fe uc(xvii) L-shell transitions to RR has not been possible because it is approximately 1000 times weaker than direct excitation, its emission often blends with emission from other charge states, and it is separated from direct excitation by greater than 500 eV. However, because of its large effective area, high resolution, large bandwidth, and long-time gain stability, the spare Astro-E microcalorimeter coupled with uc(ebit-i) has made measurement of absolute cross sections of Fe uc(xvii) L-shell transitons possible. We present the measured cross sections of two of the strongest lines observed in a plethora of astrophysical sources, the Fe uc(xvii) resonance and intercombination lines, located at 15.01 Å and 15.26 Årespectively. Our results provide stringent tests for atomic data present in spectral modeling packages and can be used to interpret high-resolution spectra provided by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and, in the near future, Astro-E2. Work by the UC-LLNL was performed under auspices of DOE under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA SARA grants to LLNL, GSFC, and Columbia University.

  20. Absolute absorption cross-section measurements of ozone in the wavelength region 238-335 nm and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Freeman, D. E.; Esmond, J. R.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The absolute absorption cross-section of ozone has been experimentally determined at the temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K at several discrete wavelengths in the 238-335-nm region. The present results for ozone at 295 K are found to be in agreement with those of Hearn (1961). Absolute cross-section measurements of ozone at 195 K have confirmed previous (Freeman et al., 1984) relative cross-section measurements throughout the 240-335-nm region.

  1. On the absolute photoionization cross section and dissociative photoionization of cyclopropenylidene.

    PubMed

    Holzmeier, Fabian; Fischer, Ingo; Kiendl, Benjamin; Krueger, Anke; Bodi, Andras; Hemberger, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    We report the determination of the absolute photoionization cross section of cyclopropenylidene, c-C3H2, and the heat of formation of the C3H radical and ion derived by the dissociative ionization of the carbene. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation as provided by the Swiss Light Source and imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (iPEPICO) were employed. Cyclopropenylidene was generated by pyrolysis of a quadricyclane precursor in a 1 : 1 ratio with benzene, which enabled us to derive the carbene's near threshold absolute photoionization cross section from the photoionization yield of the two pyrolysis products and the known cross section of benzene. The cross section at 9.5 eV, for example, was determined to be 4.5 ± 1.4 Mb. Upon dissociative ionization the carbene decomposes by hydrogen atom loss to the linear isomer of C3H(+). The appearance energy for this process was determined to be AE(0K)(c-C3H2; l-C3H(+)) = 13.67 ± 0.10 eV. The heat of formation of neutral and cationic C3H was derived from this value via a thermochemical cycle as Δ(f)H(0K)(C3H) = 725 ± 25 kJ mol(-1) and Δ(f)H(0K)(C3H(+)) = 1604 ± 19 kJ mol(-1), using a previously reported ionization energy of C3H. PMID:26975696

  2. Absolute single-photoionization cross sections of Se2 +: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaluso, D. A.; Aguilar, A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Red, E. C.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Sterling, N. C.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Absolute single-photoionization cross-section measurements for Se2 + ions were performed at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged-beams photo-ion technique. Measurements were made at a photon energy resolution of 24 ±3 meV in the photon energy range 23.5-42.5 eV, spanning the ground state and low-lying metastable state ionization thresholds. To clearly resolve the resonant structure near the ground-state threshold, high-resolution measurements were made from 30.0 to 31.9 eV at a photon energy resolution of 6.7 ±0.7 meV. Numerous resonance features observed in the experimental spectra are assigned and their energies and quantum defects tabulated. The high-resolution cross-section measurements are compared with large-scale, state-of-the-art theoretical cross-section calculations obtained from the Dirac Coulomb R -matrix method. Suitable agreement is obtained over the entire photon energy range investigated. These results are an experimental determination of the absolute photoionization cross section of doubly ionized selenium and include a detailed analysis of the photoionization resonance spectrum of this ion.

  3. Absolute measurement of the 242Pu neutron-capture cross section

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Here, the absolute neutron-capture cross section of 242Pu was measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. The first direct measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section was made over the incident neutron energy range from thermal to ≈ 6 keV, and the absolute scale of the (n,γ) cross section was set according to the known 239Pu(n,f) resonance at En,R = 7.83 eV. This was accomplished by adding a small quantity of 239Pu to the 242Pu sample. The relative scale of the crossmore » section, with a range of four orders of magnitude, was determined for incident neutron energies from thermal to ≈ 40 keV. Our data, in general, are in agreement with previous measurements and those reported in ENDF/B-VII.1; the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at the En,R = 2.68 eV resonance is within 2.4% of the evaluated value. However, discrepancies exist at higher energies; our data are ≈30% lower than the evaluated data at En ≈ 1 keV and are approximately 2σ away from the previous measurement at En ≈ 20 keV.« less

  4. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  5. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  6. Absolute state-selected total cross sections for the O(+)(4S) + CO2 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesch, G. D.; Ng, C. Y.

    1991-12-01

    Results are presented on measurements of absolute state-selected total cross sections for O2(+), CO2(+), CO(+), and C(+) produced in the reaction between O(+)(4S) and CO2, which were conducted in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ecm) range of 0.2-150 eV. It was found that, with increasing collisional energy, the cross section of O2(+) dropped off rapidly and became essentially zero at Ecm above 3 eV. The dependence of O2(+) cross section on the Ecm is consistent with a collision complex mechanism for the reaction between O(+)(4S) and CO2 yielding CO2(+) + O. The values for O2(+) obtained in this experiment were significantly higher than those reported by Rutherford and Vroom (1976).

  7. Absolute vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption cross section studies of atomic and molecular species: Techniques and observational data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, D. L.; Wu, C. Y. R.

    1990-01-01

    Absorption of a high energy photon (greater than 6 eV) by an isolated molecule results in the formation of highly excited quasi-discrete or continuum states which evolve through a wide range of direct and indirect photochemical processes. These are: photoionization and autoionization, photodissociation and predissociation, and fluorescence. The ultimate goal is to understand the dynamics of the excitation and decay processes and to quantitatively measure the absolute partial cross sections for all processes which occur in photoabsorption. Typical experimental techniques and the status of observational results of particular interest to solar system observations are presented.

  8. Effect of Wall Suction on Cross-Flow Absolute Instability of a Rotating Disk Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Joanna; Corke, Thomas; Matlis, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The effect of uniform suction on the absolute instability of Type I cross-flow modes on a rotating disk is examined. Specifically it investigates if wall suction transforms the absolute instability into a global mode as postulated in the numerical simulations of Davies and Carpenter (2003). The experiment is designed so that a suction parameter of a =W0 /(νω) 1 / 2 = 0 . 2 locates the absolute instability critical Reynolds number, Rca = 650 , on the disk. Uniform wall suction is applied from R = 317 to 696. The design for wall suction follows that of Gregory and Walker (1950), where an array of holes through the disk communicate between the measurement side of the disk and the underside of the disk in an enclosure that is maintained at a slight vacuum. The measurement surface is covered by a 20 micron pore size Polyethylene sheet. Temporal disturbances are introduced using the method of Othman and Corke (2006), and the evolution of the resulting wave packets are documented. The present results indicate a rapid transition to turbulence near Rca.

  9. Absolute effective cross sections of ionization of adenine and guanine molecules by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafranyosh, I. I.; Svida, Yu. Yu.; Sukhoviya, M. I.; Shafranyosh, M. I.; Minaev, B. F.; Baryshnikov, G. V.; Minaeva, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    Effective cross sections of the formation of positive ions of nitrous nucleic acids of adenine and guanine are determined by the crossed electron and molecular beam method in the energy interval from the threshold to 200 eV. It is found that the maximal value of the total cross section of adenine ionization is attained at an energy of 90 eV and is equal to (2.8 ± 0.6) × 10-15 cm2. The maximal value of the total cross section of guanine ionization is equal to (3.2 ± 0.7) × 10-15 cm2 and is observed at an energy of 88 eV. The energy ionization thresholds are determined, which amount to (8.8 ± 0.2) eV for adenine and to (8.3 ± 0.2) eV for guanine. The adenine and guanine mass spectra are measured. The absolute values of partial ionization cross sections of adenine and guanine molecules are determined.

  10. Relative vs. absolute physiological measures as predictors of mountain bike cross-country race performance.

    PubMed

    Gregory, John; Johns, David P; Walls, Justin T

    2007-02-01

    The aims of this study were to document the effect terrain has on the physiological responses and work demands (power output) of riding a typical mountain bike cross-country course under race conditions. We were particularly interested in determining whether physiological measures relative to mass were better predictors of race performance than absolute measures. Eleven A-grade male cross-country mountain bike riders (VO2max 67.1 +/- 3.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed 2 tests: a laboratory-based maximum progressive exercise test, and a 15.5-km (six 2.58-km laps) mountain bike cross-country time trial. There were significant differences among the speed, cadence, and power output measured in each of 8 different terrain types found in the cross-country time trial course. The highest average speed was measured during the 10-15% downhill section (22.7 +/- 2.6 km x h(-1)), whereas the cadence was highest in the posttechnical flat sections (74.3 +/- 5.6 rpm) and lowest on the 15-20% downhill sections (6.4 +/- 12.1 rpm). The highest mean heart rate (HR) was obtained during the steepest (15-20% incline) section of the course (179 +/- 8 b x min(-1)), when the power output was greatest (419.8 +/- 39.7 W). However, HR remained elevated relative to power output in the downhill sections of the course. Physiological measures relative to total rider mass correlated more strongly to average course speed than did absolute measures (peak power relative to mass r = 0.93, p < 0.01, vs. peak power r = 0.64, p < 0.05; relative VO2max r = 0.80, p < 0.05, vs. VO2max r = 0.66, p < 0.05; power at anaerobic threshold relative to mass r = 0.78, p < 0.05, vs. power at anaerobic threshold r = 0.5, p < 0.05). This suggests that mountain bike cross-country training programs should focus upon improving relative physiological values rather than focusing upon maximizing absolute values to improve performance. PMID:17313256

  11. Photodissociation of acetaldehyde and the absolute photoionization cross section of HCO.

    SciTech Connect

    Shubert, V. A.; Pratt, S. T.

    2010-01-01

    Photodissociation of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) at 266 nm produced CH{sub 3} and HCO radicals, and single-photon vacuum ultraviolet ionization was used to record velocity map ion images of both CH{sub 3}{sup +} and HCO{sup +}. Comparison of the translational energy distributions from both species indicates that secondary fragmentation of HCO is negligible for 266 nm photodissociation. Thus, the relative photoion signals for CH{sub 3}{sup +} and HCO{sup +} in the mass spectrometer, combined with the recently measured absolute photoionization cross section of CH{sub 3}, allowed the determination of the absolute photoionization cross section of HCO ({sigma}(HCO) = 4.8 {+-} {sub 1.5}{sup 2.0}, 5.9 {+-} {sub 1.6}{sup 2.2}, and 3.7 {+-} {sub 1.2}{sup 1.6} Mb at 10.257, 10.304, and 10.379 eV, respectively). The observed values are quite small but consistent with the similarly small value at threshold for the isoelectronic species NO. This behavior is discussed in terms of the character of the HOMO in both molecules.

  12. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained. PMID:23282107

  13. Absolute cross sections for binary-encounter electron ejection by 95-MeV/u {sup 36}Ar{sup 18+} penetrating carbon foils

    SciTech Connect

    De Filippo, E.; Lanzano, G.; Aiello, S.; Arena, N.; Geraci, M.; Pagano, A.; Rothard, H.; Volant, C.; Anzalone, A.; Giustolisi, F.

    2003-08-01

    Doubly differential electron velocity spectra induced by 95-MeV/u {sup 36}Ar{sup 18+} from thin carbon foils were measured at GANIL (Caen, France) by means of the ARGOS multidetector and the time-of-flight technique. The spectra allow us to determine absolute singly differential cross sections as a function of the emission angle. Absolute doubly differential cross sections for binary encounter electron ejection from C targets are compared to a transport theory, which is based on the relativistic electron impact approximation for electron production and which accounts for angular deflection, energy loss, and also energy straggling of the transmitted electrons. For the thinnest targets, the measured peak width is in good agreement with experimental data obtained with a different detection technique. The theory underestimates the peak width but provides (within a factor of 2) the correct peak intensity. For the thickest target, even the peak shape is well reproduced by theory.

  14. Measurement of Absolute Excitation Cross Sections in Highly-Charged Ions Using Electron Energy Loss and Merged Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Smith, Steven J.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis during this decade on understanding energy balance and phenomena observed in high electron temperature plasmas. The UV spectral return from FUSE, the X-ray spectral return from the HETG on Chandra and the LETGS 011 XMM-Newton are just beginning. Line emissions are almost entirely from highly-charged ions (HCIs) of C, N, 0, Ne, Mg, S, Si, Ca, and Fe. The Constellation-X mission will provide X-ray spectroscopy up to photon energies of 0.12 nm (10 keV) where primary line emitters will be HCIs. A variety of atomic parameters are required to model the stellar and solar plasma. These include cross sections for excitation, ionization, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, direct and indirect recombination, lifetimes and branching ratios, and dependences on l, m mixing by external E and B fields. In almost all cases the atomic quantities are calculated, and few comparisons to experiment have been carried out. Collision strengths and Einstein A-values are required to convert the observed spectral intensities to electron temperatures and densities in the stellar plasma. The JPL electron energy-loss and merged beam approach has been used to measure absolute collision strengths in a number of ions, with critical comparison made to the best available theories.

  15. Absolute angle-differential vibrational excitation cross sections for electron collisions with diacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.; May, O.; Fedor, J.; Ibanescu, B. C.; Andric, L.

    2011-05-15

    Absolute vibrational excitation cross sections were measured for diacetylene (1,3-butadiyne). The selectivity of vibrational excitation reveals detailed information about the shape resonances. Excitation of the C{identical_to}C stretch and of double quanta of the C-H bend vibrations reveals a {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u} resonance at 1 eV (autodetachment width {approx}30 meV) and a {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} resonance at 6.2 eV (autodetachment width 1-2 eV). There is a strong preference for excitation of even quanta of the bending vibration. Excitation of the C-H stretch vibration reveals {sigma}* resonances at 4.3, 6.8, and 9.8 eV, with autodetachment widths of {approx}2 eV. Detailed information about resonances permits conclusions about the mechanism of the dissociative electron attachment.

  16. Systematic determination of absolute absorption cross-section of individual carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaihui; Hong, Xiaoping; Choi, Sangkook; Jin, Chenhao; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Kim, Jihoon; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong; Louie, Steven G.; Wang, Enge; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Optical absorption is the most fundamental optical property characterizing light–matter interactions in materials and can be most readily compared with theoretical predictions. However, determination of optical absorption cross-section of individual nanostructures is experimentally challenging due to the small extinction signal using conventional transmission measurements. Recently, dramatic increase of optical contrast from individual carbon nanotubes has been successfully achieved with a polarization-based homodyne microscope, where the scattered light wave from the nanostructure interferes with the optimized reference signal (the reflected/transmitted light). Here we demonstrate high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy for individual single-walled carbon nanotubes by combining the polarization-based homodyne technique with broadband supercontinuum excitation in transmission configuration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-throughput and quantitative determination of nanotube absorption cross-section over broad spectral range at the single-tube level was performed for more than 50 individual chirality-defined single-walled nanotubes. Our data reveal chirality-dependent behaviors of exciton resonances in carbon nanotubes, where the exciton oscillator strength exhibits a universal scaling law with the nanotube diameter and the transition order. The exciton linewidth (characterizing the exciton lifetime) varies strongly in different nanotubes, and on average it increases linearly with the transition energy. In addition, we establish an empirical formula by extrapolating our data to predict the absorption cross-section spectrum for any given nanotube. The quantitative information of absorption cross-section in a broad spectral range and all nanotube species not only provides new insight into the unique photophysics in one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, but also enables absolute determination of optical quantum efficiencies in important

  17. Cross section for Ly-alpha emission by electron impact on methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing Lyman-alpha emission cross sections for H2 as secondary standards, absolute values of Lyman-alpha emission cross sections for CH4 have been obtained for electron impact energies varying from threshold to 100 eV. A crossed electron beam-molecular beam geometry was employed and the Lyman-alpha radiation was detected at 90 deg and 45 deg with respect to the incident electron beam by a solar blind photomultiplier in tandem with an oxygen filter. The results are compared with previous measurements. Appreciable differences among the various experimental data are found.

  18. Measured Emission Cross Sections of Fe XVII Xray Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Boyce, Kevin; Chen, Hui; Kahn, Steve; Kelley, Richard; May, Mark; Porter, Frederick S.; Scofield, James; Stahle, Caroline K.

    We have used the LLNL electron beam ion trap EBIT-I together with the NASA/GSFC engineering model Astro-E microcalorimeter detector system and a crystal spectrometer to measure the absolute excitation cross sections of Fe XVII L-shell x-ray transitions by normalizing to radiative recombination. The combination of high spectral resolution quantum efficiency and gain stability of the microcalorimeter have enabled measurements of the weak emission from radiative recombination. Owing to its large bandwidth the microcalorimeter instrument can also simultaneously measure photon emission from direct excitation. Concurrent measurements with a crystal spectrometer are used to resolve blends that may contaminate the Fe XVII line emission. We present cross sections of two of the strongest lines observed in many astrophysical sources the Fe XVII resonance and intercombination lines located at 15.01 and 15.26 angstroms respectively. Our results provide stringent tests for atomic data present in spectral modeling packages and can be used to interpret high-resolution spectra provided by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory XMM-Newton and in the near future Astro-E2. Work by the UC-LLNL was performed under auspices of DOE under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA SARA grants to LLNL GSFC and Columbia University

  19. Measured Emission Cross Sections of fe XVII Xray Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Boyce, Kevin; Chen, Hui; Kahn, Steve; Kelley, Richard; May, Mark; Porter, Frederick S.; Scofield, James; Stahle, Caroline K.

    We have used the LLNL electron beam ion trap EBIT-I together with the NASA/GSFC engineering model Astro-E microcalorimeter detector system and a crystal spectrometer to measure the absolute excitation cross sections of Fe XVII L-shell x-ray transitions by normalizing to radiative recombination. The combination of high spectral resolution quantum efficiency and gain stability of the microcalorimeter have enabled measurements of the weak emission from radiative recombination. Owing to its large bandwidth the microcalorimeter instrument can also simultaneously measure photon emission from direct excitation. Concurrent measurements with a crystal spectrometer are used to resolve blends that may contaminate the Fe XVII line emission. We present cross sections of two of the strongest lines observed in many astrophysical sources the Fe XVII resonance and intercombination lines located at 15.01 and 15.26 angstroms respectively. Our results provide stringent tests for atomic data present in spectral modeling packages and can be used to interpret high-resolution spectra provided by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory XMM-Newton and in the near future Astro-E2. Work by the UC-LLNL was performed under auspices of DOE under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA SARA grants to LLNL GSFC and Columbia University

  20. Absolute triple-differential cross sections for ionization-excitation of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2007-08-15

    Triple-differential cross sections (TDCSs) for electron-impact ionization of He(1s{sup 2}){sup 1}S leading to He{sup +}(1s) are calculated using the highly accurate convergent close-coupling (CCC) method for incident projectile energies of 268.6 and 112.6 eV, with at least one of the outgoing electrons having an energy of 44 eV. These results are used to obtain absolute TDCSs from the recent experimental data [Bellm et al., Phys. Rev. A 75, 042704 (2007)] for TDCS ratios of ionization with no excitation to ionization with excitation resulting in He{sup +}(n=2,3,4). The TDCSs can be used as comparison benchmarks in future studies, and already allow us to test the accuracy of the TDCSs obtained from the hybrid distorted-wave+R-matrix (close-coupling) model, which was fairly successful in predicting the ratios, using CCC for n=1 and experimental results for n=2,3,4.

  1. Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCN and DCN

    SciTech Connect

    May, O.; Kubala, D.; Allan, M.

    2010-07-15

    Absolute partial cross sections for the formation of CN{sup -} in dissociative electron attachment to HCN and DCN have been measured using a time-of-flight ion spectrometer combined with a trochoidal electron monochromator to be 940pm{sup 2} for CN{sup -}/HCN and 340pm{sup 2} for CN{sup -}/DCN at peaks of the bands due to the {sup 2{Pi}}-shape resonance. The dissociative electron attachment bands were then recorded under higher resolution, 60 meV, with a trochoidal monochromator plus quadrupole mass filter combination and found to have a nearly vertical onset at the threshold energy and to peak at 1.85 eV. Broad structure was observed on the bands, assigned to formation of vibrationally excited CN{sup -}, from which the branching ratios could be determined to be 1,0.49, and 0.22 for the formation of CN{sup -} in the v=0,1, and 2 states, respectively. The results are compared to the recent multidimensional ab initio calculations of Chourou and Orel [Phys. Rev. A 80, 032709 (2009)].

  2. Supplementary absolute differential cross sections for the excitation of atomic hydrogen's n=3 and 4 levels by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Christopher J.; Shyn, Tong W.; Grafe, Alan

    2004-05-01

    We have conducted measurements of absolute differential cross sections for the excitation of hydrogen atoms to their n=3(3S+3P+3D) and 4(4S+4P+4D+4F) levels. A modulated, crossed-beam method was employed, and the impact energies were 40 and 60 eV. Comparison of our results with those of others is quite favorable.

  3. Absolute total cross-sections for the scattering of 2-18-eV electrons by cesium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaduszliwer, B.; Chan, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    An atomic-recoil technique in a scattering-out mode is used to measure absolute total cross sections for the scattering of electrons by cesium atoms between 2 and 18 eV. A comparison of the results with those obtained by Visconti, Slevin, and Rubin (1971) indicate that the close-coupling calculations have yielded total cross sections which are consistently high over the covered energy range.

  4. Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of 2-18-eV electrons by cesium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaduszliwer, B.; Chan, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of electrons by cesium atoms between 2 and 18 eV have been measured using the atomic-recoil technique in the scattering-out mode. Our results are somewhat lower than those of Visconti, Slevin, and Rubin [Phys. Rev. A 3, 1310 (1971)] above 2 eV.

  5. Measurements of absolute K-shell ionization cross sections and L-shell x-ray production cross sections of Ge by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Merlet, C.; Llovet, X.; Salvat, F.

    2004-03-01

    Results from measurements of absolute K-shell ionization cross sections and L{alpha} x-ray production cross sections of Ge by impact of electrons with kinetic energies ranging from the ionization threshold up to 40 keV are presented. The cross sections were obtained by measuring K{alpha} and L{alpha} x-ray intensities emitted from ultrathin Ge films deposited onto self-supporting carbon backing films. Recorded x-ray intensities were converted to absolute cross sections by using estimated values of the sample thicknesses, the number of incident electrons, and the detector efficiency. Experimental data are compared with the results of widely used simple analytical formulas, with calculated cross sections obtained from the plane-wave and distorted-wave Born approximations and with experimental data from the literature.

  6. ScaRaB: first results of absolute and cross calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trémas, Thierry L.; Aznay, Ouahid; Chomette, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    ScaRaB (SCAnner for RAdiation Budget) is the name of three radiometers whose two first flight models have been launched in 1994 and 1997. The instruments were mounted on-board Russian satellites, METEOR and RESURS. On October 12th 2011, a last model has been launched from the Indian site of Sriharikota. ScaRaB is a passenger of MEGHA-TROPIQUES, an Indo-French joint Satellite Mission for studying the water cycle and energy exchanges in the tropics. ScaRaB is composed of four parallel and independent channels. Channel-2 and channel-3 are considered as the main ones. Channel-1 is dedicated to measure solar radiance (0.5 to 0.7 μm) while channel-4 (10 to 13 μm) is an infrared window. The absolute calibration of ScaRab is assured by internal calibration sources (black bodies and a lamp for channel-1). However, during the commissioning phase, the lamp used for the absolute calibration of channel-1 revealed to be inaccurate. We propose here an alternative calibration method based on terrestrial targets. Due to the spectral range of channel-1, only calibration over desert sites (temporal monitoring) and clouds (cross band) is suitable. Desert sites have been widely used for sensor calibration since they have a stable spectral response over time. Because of their high reflectances, the atmospheric effect on the upward radiance is relatively minimal. In addition, they are spatially uniform. Their temporal instability without atmospheric correction has been determined to be less than 1-2% over a year. Very-high-altitude (10 km) bright clouds are good validation targets in the visible and near-infrared spectra because of their high spectrally consistent reflectance. If the clouds are very high, there is no need to correct aerosol scattering and water vapor absorption as both aerosol and water vapor are distributed near the surface. Only Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption need to be considered. This method has been found to give a 4% uncertainty. Radiometric cross

  7. Cross-Correlations in Quasar Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey

    The main factors forming the complex evolution of the accretive astrophysical systems are nonlinearity, intermittency, nonstationarity and also collective phenomena. To discover the dynamic processes in these objects and to detain understanding their properties we need to use all the applicable analyzing methods. Here we use the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) as a phenomenological approach to analyzing and parameterizing the auto- and cross-correlations in time series of astrophysical objects dynamics. As an example we consider the quasar flux radio spectral density at frequencies 2.7 GHz and 8.1 GHz. Data have been observed by Dr. N. Tanizuka (Laboratory for Complex Systems Analysis, Osaka Prefecture University) in a period of 1979 to 1988 (3 309 days). According to mental habits quasar is a very energetic and distant active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole by size 10-10,000 times the Schwarzschild radius. The quasar is powered by an accretion disc around the black hole. The accretion disc material layers, moving around the black hole, are under the influence of gravitational and frictional forces. It results in raising the high temperature and arising the resonant and collective phenomena reflected in quasar emission dynamics. Radio emission dynamics of the quasar 0215p015 is characterized by three quasi-periodic processes, which are prevalent in considering dynamics. By contrast the 1641p399's emission dynamics have not any distinguish processes. It means the presence of high intermittency in accretive modes. The second difference moment allows comparing the degree of manifesting of resonant and chaotic components in initial time series of the quasar radio emission. The comparative analysis shows the dominating of chaotic part of 1641p399's dynamics whereas the radio emission of 0215p015 has the predominance of resonant component. Analyzing the collective features of the quasar radio emission intensity demonstrates the significant

  8. Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SHARDANAND; Rao, A. D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The laboratory measurements of absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections as a function wavelength are reported for gas molecules He, Ne, Ar, N2, H2, O2, CO2, CH4 and for vapors of most commonly used freons CCl2F2, CBrF3, CF4, and CHClf2. These cross sections are determined from the measurements of photon scattering at an angle of 54 deg 44 min which yield the absolute values independent of the value of normal depolarization ratios. The present results show that in the spectral range 6943-3638A deg, the values of the Rayleigh scattering cross section can be extrapolated from one wavelength to the other using 1/lambda (4) law without knowing the values of the polarizabilities. However, such an extrapolation can not be done in the region of shorter wavelengths.

  9. Absolute differential and total cross sections for neutral fragments from dissociative collisions of triatomic hydrogen like ions on He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, F. B.; Fuentes, B. E.; Martínez, H.

    2010-12-01

    Neutral fragment products from dissociative collisions of triatomic hydrogen like ions incident on He atoms were studied. Absolute differential and total cross sections are reported here in the energy range of 1.00-5.00 keV and scattering angles between -5.0° and 5.0°. The differential cross sections show decreasing behaviour with a slight structure around 2.0°. The total cross sections for all triatomic molecular ions studied in this work are found to be comparable for the same velocity (E/M). The measured cross sections are between 0.7 × 10-17 cm2 and 0.9 × 10-16 cm2. The present results for the neutral total cross section correlate very well with previously measured total ions cross section for H+3, D+3 and HD+2 on He.

  10. Absolute single and multiple charge exchange cross sections for highly charged C, O, and Ne ions on H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mawhorter, R. J.; Chutjian, A.; Djuric, N.; Hossain, S.; MacAskill, J. A.; Smith, S. J.; Simcic, J.; Cravens, T. E.; Lisse, C. M.; Williams, I. D.

    2007-03-15

    Reported herein are measured absolute single, double, and triple charge exchange (CE) cross sections for the highly charged ions (HCIs) C{sup q+} (q=5,6), O{sup q+} (q=6,7,8), and Ne{sup q+} (q=7,8) colliding with the molecular species H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2}. Present data can be applied to interpreting observations of x-ray emissions from comets as they interact with the solar wind. As such, the ion impact energies of 7.0q keV (1.62-3.06 keV/amu) are representative of the fast solar wind, and data at 1.5q keV for O{sup 6+} (0.56 keV/amu) on CO and CO{sub 2} and 3.5q keV for O{sup 5+} (1.09 keV/amu) on CO provide checks of the energy dependence of the cross sections at intermediate and typical slow solar wind velocities. The HCIs are generated within a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Absolute CE measurements are made using a retarding potential energy analyzer, with measurement of the target gas cell pressure and incident and final ion currents. Trends in the cross sections are discussed in light of the classical overbarrier model (OBM), extended OBM, and with recent results of the classical trajectory Monte Carlo theory.

  11. Tracing multiple scattering patterns in absolute (e,2e) cross sections for H{sub 2} and He over a 4{pi} solid angle

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, X.; Senftleben, A.; Pflueger, T.; Dorn, A.; Ullrich, J.; Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Al-Hagan, O.; Madison, D. H.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D. V.

    2010-09-15

    Absolutely normalized (e,2e) measurements for H{sub 2} and He covering the full solid angle of one ejected electron are presented for 16 eV sum energy of both final state continuum electrons. For both targets rich cross-section structures in addition to the binary and recoil lobes are identified and studied as a function of the fixed electron's emission angle and the energy sharing among both electrons. For H{sub 2} their behavior is consistent with multiple scattering of the projectile as discussed before [Al-Hagan et al., Nature Phys. 5, 59 (2009)]. For He the binary and recoil lobes are significantly larger than for H{sub 2} and partly cover the multiple scattering structures. To highlight these patterns we propose a alternative representation of the triply differential cross section. Nonperturbative calculations are in good agreement with the He results and show discrepancies for H{sub 2} in the recoil peak region. For H{sub 2} a perturbative approach reasonably reproduces the cross-section shape but deviates in absolute magnitude.

  12. Comparison of simulation to absolute X-ray emission of CH plasma created with the Nike laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquet, M.; Weaver, J. L.; Colombant, D. G.; Mostovych, A. N.; Feldman, U.; Klapisch, M.; Seely, J. F.; Holland, G.

    2006-06-01

    The Nike laser group at the Naval Research Laboratory has an ongoing effort to improve and benchmark the radiation hydrodynamic simulations used to develop pellet designs for inertial confinement fusion. A new postprocessor, Virtual Spectro, has been added to the FAST code suite for detailed simulation of non-LTE spectra, including radiation transport effects and Stark line profile. This new combination enhances our ability to predict the absolute emission of soft x-rays. An absolutely calibrated transmission grating spectrometer and a high resolution grazing incidence spectrometer have been used to collect time integrated and time resolved spectra emitted by CH targets irradiated at laser intensities of ˜10 TW/cm^2. Comparison between these observations and simulations using Virtual Spectro demonstrates excellent agreement (within factor of ˜1.5) for the absolute emission.

  13. Characterization of an atmospheric helium plasma jet by relative and absolute optical emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Nikiforov, Anton Yu; González, Manuel Á.; Leys, Christophe; Pei Lu, Xin

    2013-02-01

    The characteristics of plasma temperatures (gas temperature and electron excitation temperature) and electron density in a pulsed-dc excited atmospheric helium plasma jet are studied by relative and absolute optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-resolution OES is performed for the helium and hydrogen lines for the determination of electron density through the Stark broadening mechanism. A superposition fitting method composed of two component profiles corresponding to two different electron densities is developed to fit the investigated lines. Electron densities of the orders of magnitude of 1021 and 1020 m-3 are characterized for the center and edge regions in the jet discharge when the applied voltage is higher than 13.0 kV. The atomic state distribution function (ASDF) of helium demonstrates that the discharge deviates from the Boltzmann-Saha equilibrium state, especially for the helium lower levels, which are significantly overpopulated. Local electron excitation temperatures T13 and Tspec corresponding to the lower and upper parts of the helium ASDF are defined and found to range from 1.2 eV to 1.4 eV and 0.2 eV to 0.3 eV, respectively. A comparative analysis shows that the Saha balance is valid in the discharge for helium atoms at high excited states.

  14. Absolute cross sections for projectile electron loss accompanied by target multiple ionization in collisions of He+ with noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Sigaud, G. M.; Melo, W. S.; Sant'Anna, M. M.; Montenegro, E. C.

    2011-02-01

    Absolute cross sections for projectile electron loss accompanied by target multiple ionization in collisions between He+ ions and noble gases have been measured for energies between 1.0 and 3.5 MeV. The data have been compared with other absolute cross sections that exist in the literature for the same projectile, and with calculations for the screening mode (nucleus-electron interaction) using both perturbative (plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA)) and non-perturbative (extended classical-impulse free-collision model, sudden approximation and coupled-channel method) approaches, and for the antiscreening mode (electron-electron interaction) within the PWBA. The energy dependence of the average number of active electrons for the antiscreening has been described by means of a simple function, which is 'universal' for noble gases but projectile dependent. A previously developed method has been employed to obtain the number of active electrons for each target subshell in the high-velocity regime.

  15. Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities of (223)Ra and decay progeny in equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Regan, P H; Keightley, J D

    2015-08-01

    Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities have been made of radiochemically pure solutions of (223)Ra in equilibrium with its decay progeny, which had been previously standardised by 4π(liquid scintillation)-γ digital coincidence counting techniques. Two high-purity germanium γ-ray spectrometers were used which had been accurately calibrated using a suite of primary and secondary radioactive standards. Comparison of the activity concentration determined by the primary technique against γ-ray spectrometry measurements using the nuclear data evaluations of the Decay Data Evaluation Project exhibited a range of ~18% in the most intense γ-ray emissions (>1% probability) of the (223)Ra decay series. Absolute γ-ray emission probabilities and standard uncertainties have been determined for the decay of (223)Ra, (219)Rn, (215)Po, (211)Pb, (211)Bi and (207)Tl in equilibrium. The standard uncertainties of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities quoted in this work show a significant improvement over previously reported γ-ray emission probabilities. Correlation coefficients for pairs of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities from the decays of the radionuclides (223)Ra, (219)Rn and (211)Pb have been determined and are presented. The α-transition probabilities of the (223)Ra have been deduced from P(γ+ce) balance using the γ-ray emission probabilities determined in this work with some agreement observed with the published experimental values of the α-emission probabilities. PMID:25933406

  16. Fast-electron ejection from C, Ni, Ag and Au foils by 36 Ar 18 + (95 MeV/u): Measurements of absolute cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Filippo, E.; Lanzanó, G.; Rothard, H.; Volant, C.; Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Arena, N.; Geraci, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Pagano, A.

    2004-07-01

    Doubly differential electron velocity spectra induced by 36Ar18 + (95 MeV/ u) from thin target foils (C, Ni, Ag, Au) were measured at GANIL (Caen, France) by means of the ARGOS multidetector and the time-of-flight technique. The main features observed in the forward spectra are convoy electrons, binary-encounter electrons, and (for the Au target only) a high-velocity tail which we attribute to a “Fermi shuttle” acceleration mechanism. Backward spectra do not show distinct structures. The spectra allow us to determine absolute singly differential cross-sections as a function of the target material and the emission angle. The convoy electron yield increases with the target atomic number, but for C their yield is so small that our experiment is not able to detect them. Absolute doubly differential cross-sections for binary-encounter electron ejection from C targets are well described by a transport theory which is based on the relativistic electron impact approximation (EIA) for electron production and which accounts for angular deflection, energy loss and energy straggling of the transmitted electrons.

  17. Absolute cross sections for electronic excitations of cytosine by low energy electron impact

    PubMed Central

    Bazin, M.; Michaud, M.; Sanche, L.

    2013-01-01

    The absolute cross sections (CS) for electronic excitations of cytosine by electron impact between 5 and 18 eV were measured by electron-energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy of the molecule deposited at low coverage on an inert Ar substrate. The lowest EEL features found at 3.55 and 4.02 eV are ascribed to transitions from the ground state to the two lowest triplet 1 3A′(π→π*) and 2 3A′(π→π*) valence states of the molecule. Their energy dependent CS exhibit essentially a common maximum at about 6 eV with a value of 1.84 × 10−17 cm2 for the former and 4.94 × 10−17 cm2 for the latter. In contrast, the CS for the next EEL feature at 4.65 eV, which is ascribed to the optically allowed transition to the 2 1A′(π→π*) valence state, shows only a steep rise to about 1.04 × 10−16 cm2 followed by a monotonous decrease with the incident electron energy. The higher EEL features at 5.39, 6.18, 6.83, and 7.55 eV are assigned to the excitations of the 3 3, 1A′(π→π*), 4 1A′(π→π*), 5 1A′(π→π*), and 6 1A′(π→π*) valence states, respectively. The CS for the 3 3, 1A′ and 4 1A′ states exhibit a common enhancement at about 10 eV superimposed on a more or less a steep rise, reaching respectively a maximum of 1.27 and 1.79 × 10−16 cm2, followed by a monotonous decrease. This latter enhancement and the maximum seen at about 6 eV in the lowest triplet states correspond to the core-excited electron resonances that have been found by dissociative electron attachment experiments with cytosine in the gas phase. The weak EEL feature found at 5.01 eV with a maximum CS of 3.8 × 10−18 cm2 near its excitation threshold is attributed to transitions from the ground state to the 1 3, 1A″(n→π*) states. The monotonous rise of the EEL signal above 8 eV is attributed to the ionization of the molecule. It is partitioned into four excitation energy regions at about 8.55, 9.21, 9.83, and 11.53 eV, which correspond closely to the ionization energies of

  18. Absolute cross sections for vibrational excitations of cytosine by low energy electron impact

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, M.; Bazin, M.; Sanche, L.

    2013-01-01

    The absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitations of cytosine by electron impact between 0.5 and 18 eV were measured by electron-energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy of the molecule deposited at monolayer coverage on an inert Ar substrate. The vibrational energies compare to those that have been reported from IR spectroscopy of cytosine isolated in Ar matrix, IR and Raman spectra of poly-crystalline cytosine, and ab initio calculation. The CSs for the various H bending modes at 142 and 160 meV are both rising from their energy threshold up to 1.7 and 2.1 × 10−17 cm2 at about 4 eV, respectively, and then decrease moderately while maintaining some intensity at 18 eV. The latter trend is displayed as well for the CS assigned to the NH2 scissor along with bending of all H at 179 meV. This overall behavior in electron-molecule collision is attributed to direct processes such as the dipole, quadrupole, and polarization contributions, etc. of the interaction of the incident electron with a molecule. The CSs for the ring deformation at 61 meV, the ring deformation with N-H symmetric wag at 77 meV, and the ring deformations with symmetric bending of all H at 119 meV exhibit common enhancement maxima at 1.5, 3.5, and 5.5 eV followed by a broad hump at about 12 eV, which are superimposed on the contribution due to the direct processes. At 3.5 eV, the CS values for the 61-, 77-, and 119-meV modes reach 4.0, 3.0, and 4.5 × 10−17 cm2, respectively. The CS for the C-C and C-O stretches at 202 meV, which dominates in the intermediate EEL region, rises sharply until 1.5 eV, reaches its maximum of 5.7 × 10−17 cm2 at 3.5 eV and then decreases toward 18 eV. The present vibrational enhancements, correspond to the features found around 1.5 and 4.5 eV in electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS) and those lying within 1.5–2.1 eV, 5.2–6.8 eV, and 9.5–10.9 eV range in dissociative electron attachment (DEA) experiments with cytosine in gas phase. While the ETS features

  19. Absolute cross sections for the dissociation of hydrogen cluster ions in high-energy collisions with helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, S.; Tabet, J.; Samraoui, K.; Louc, S.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Ouaskit, S.; Maerk, T. D.

    2006-02-15

    Absolute dissociation cross sections are reported for H{sub n}{sup +} clusters of varied mass (n=3,5,...,35) following collisions with He atoms at 60 keV/amu. Initial results have been published previously for a smaller range of cluster sizes [Ouaskit et al., Phys. Rev. A 49, 1484 (1994)]. The present extended study includes further experimental results, reducing the statistical errors associated with the absolute cross sections. The previously suggested quasilinear dependence of the H{sub n}{sup +} dissociation cross sections upon n is developed with reference to expected series of geometrical shells of H{sub 2} molecules surrounding a H{sub 3}{sup +} core. Recent calculations identify n=9 as corresponding to the first closed H{sub 2} shell [e.g., Stich et al., J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9482 (1997)]. Recurrence of the distinct characteristics observed in the dissociation-cross-section dependence upon cluster size around n=9 provides the basis for the presently proposed subsequent closed shells at n=15, 21, 27, and 33, in agreement with the calculations of Nagashima et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4294 (1992)].

  20. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted. PMID:27245647

  1. Absolute elastic differential electron scattering cross sections in the intermediate energy region. III - SF6 and UF6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. K.; Trajmar, S.; Chutjian, A.; Williams, W.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed technique has been used to measure the ratios of elastic differential electron scattering cross sections (DCS) for SF6 and UF6 to those of He at electron impact energies of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 75 eV and at scattering angles of 20 to 135 deg. In order to obtain the absolute values of DCS from these ratios, He DCS of McConkey and Preston have been employed in the 20 to 90 deg range. At angles in the 90 to 135 deg range the recently determined cross sections of Srivastava and Trajmar have been utilized. From these DCS, elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections have been obtained.

  2. Absolute angle-differential elastic cross sections for electron collisions with diacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2011-06-15

    We report measured and calculated differential elastic cross sections for collisions of low-energy electrons with diacetylene (1,3-butadiyne). A generally satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment has been found. The calculated cross sections provide interesting insight into the underlying resonant structure.

  3. Absolute cross sections for electronic excitation of pyrimidine by electron impact.

    PubMed

    Regeta, Khrystyna; Allan, Michael; Mašín, Zdeněk; Gorfinkiel, Jimena D

    2016-01-14

    We measured differential cross sections for electron-impact electronic excitation of pyrimidine, both as a function of electron energy up to 18 eV, and of scattering angle up to 180°. The emphasis of the present work is on recording detailed excitation functions revealing resonances in the excitation process. The differential cross sections were summed to obtain integral cross sections. These are compared to results of R-matrix calculations, which successfully reproduce both the magnitude of the cross section and the major resonant features. Comparison of the experiment to the calculated contributions of different symmetries to the integral cross section permitted assignment of several features to specific core-excited resonances. Comparison of the resonant structure of pyrimidine with that of benzene revealed pronounced similarities and thus a dominant role of π-π(∗) excited states and resonances. Electron energy loss spectra were measured as a preparation for the cross section measurements and vibrational structure was observed for some of the triplet states. A detailed analysis of the electronic excited states of pyrimidine is also presented. PMID:26772566

  4. Absolute Charge Transfer and Fragmentation Cross Sections in He{sup 2+}-C{sub 60} Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rentenier, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Ruiz, L. F.; Diaz-Tendero, S.; Alcami, M.; Martin, F.; Zarour, B.; Hanssen, J.; Hervieux, P.-A.; Politis, M. F.

    2008-05-09

    We have determined absolute charge transfer and fragmentation cross sections in He{sup 2+}+C{sub 60} collisions in the impact-energy range 0.1-250 keV by using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. We have found that the cross sections for the formation of He{sup +} and He{sup 0} are comparable in magnitude, which cannot be explained by the sole contribution of pure single and double electron capture but also by contribution of transfer-ionization processes that are important even at low impact energies. The results show that multifragmentation is important only at impact energies larger than 40 keV; at lower energies, sequential C{sub 2} evaporation is the dominant process.

  5. Absolute cross sections for electron loss, electron capture, and multiple ionization in collisions of Li2+ with argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losqui, A. L. C.; Zappa, F.; Sigaud, G. M.; Wolff, W.; Sant'Anna, M. M.; Santos, A. C. F.; Luna, H.; Melo, W. S.

    2014-02-01

    Exclusive absolute cross sections for the electron loss and capture processes, accompanied by target multiple ionization and pure target multiple ionization, as well as total electron loss and capture cross sections, in collisions of Li2+ with Ar have been measured in the 0.5-3.5 MeV energy range. The experimental data of the total electron loss cross section are compared with theoretical results based on the plane-wave Born approximation and the free-collision model, and with the available experimental data. Some discrepancies are observed when comparing the experimental data with the theoretical models, which can be attributed to the competitive mechanisms that lead to electron loss. The dependences of the single-capture and transfer-ionization processes on the projectile charge state are similar to those observed for collisions between other low-charged light ions and noble-gas targets. The same behaviour is observed when one compares the present data for the single- and double-ionization cross sections with those for He2+ projectiles on Ar. These facts indicate that the dynamics of the collision does not seem to depend on the projectile species, so that few-electron projectiles may act as structureless point charges in the intermediate- to high-velocity regime.

  6. Measurement of the absolute vμ-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 1020 protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 1020 POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  7. Measurement of the absolute differential cross section of proton-proton elastic scattering at small angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mchedlishvili, D.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Gebel, R.; Gou, B.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; Khoukaz, A.; Kulessa, P.; Kulikov, A.; Lehrach, A.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Macharashvili, G.; Merzliakov, S.; Mikirtychyants, S.; Nioradze, M.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Serdyuk, V.; Schroer, D.; Shmakova, V.; Stassen, R.; Stein, H. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Täschner, A.; Trusov, S.; Tsirkov, D.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Wilkin, C.; Workman, R. L.; Wüstner, P.

    2016-04-01

    The differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at a beam kinetic energy of 1.0 GeV and in 200 MeV steps from 1.6 to 2.8 GeV for centre-of-mass angles in the range from 12°-16° to 25°-30°, depending on the energy. A precision in the overall normalisation of typically 3% was achieved by studying the energy losses of the circulating beam of the COSY storage ring as it passed repeatedly through the windowless hydrogen target of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer. It is shown that the data have a significant impact upon the results of a partial wave analysis. After extrapolating the differential cross sections to the forward direction, the results are broadly compatible with the predictions of forward dispersion relations.

  8. Measurement of the absolute differential cross section of proton–proton elastic scattering at small angles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mchedlishvili, D.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Barsov, S.; Gebel, R.; Gou, B.; Hartmann, M.; Kacharava, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; et al

    2016-02-03

    The differential cross section for proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at a beam kinetic energy of 1.0 GeV and in 200 MeV steps from 1.6 to 2.8 GeV for centre-of-mass angles in the range from 12°-16° to 25°-30°, depending on the energy. A precision in the overall normalisation of typically 3% was achieved by studying the energy losses of the circulating beam of the COSY storage ring as it passed repeatedly through the windowless hydrogen target of the ANKE magnetic spectrometer. It is shown that the data have a significant impact upon the results of a partial wave analysis.more » Furthermore, after extrapolating the differential cross sections to the forward direction, the results are broadly compatible with the predictions of forward dispersion relations.« less

  9. Improved statistical determination of absolute neutrino masses via radiative emission of neutrino pairs from atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The atomic transition from an excited state |e ⟩ to the ground state |g ⟩ by emitting a neutrino pair and a photon, i.e., |e ⟩→|g ⟩+|γ ⟩+|νi⟩+|ν¯j⟩ with i , j =1 , 2, 3, has been proposed by Yoshimura and his collaborators as an alternative way to determine the absolute scale m0 of neutrino masses. More recently, a statistical analysis of the fine structure of the photon spectrum from this atomic process has been performed [N. Song et al. Phys. Rev. D 93, 013020 (2016)] to quantitatively examine the experimental requirements for a realistic determination of absolute neutrino masses. In this paper, we show how to improve the statistical analysis and demonstrate that the previously required detection time can be reduced by one order of magnitude for the case of a 3 σ determination of m0˜0.01 eV with an accuracy better than 10%. Such an improvement is very encouraging for further investigations on measuring absolute neutrino masses through atomic processes.

  10. CROSS-SPECIES DOSE EXTRAPOLATION FOR DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Models for cross-species (rat to human) dose extrapolation of diesel emission were evaluated for purposes of establishing guidelines for human exposure to diesel emissions (DE) based on DE toxicological data obtained in rats. Ideally, a model for this extrapolation would provide...

  11. A new method for measuring absolute total electron-impact cross sections with forward scattering corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.; Liescheski, P.B.; Bonham, R.A. )

    1989-12-01

    In this article we describe an experimental technique to measure the total electron-impact cross section by measurement of the attenuation of an electron beam passing through a gas at constant pressure with the unwanted forward scattering contribution removed. The technique is based on the different spatial propagation properties of scattered and unscattered electrons. The correction is accomplished by measuring the electron beam attenuation dependence on both the target gas pressure (number density) and transmission length. Two extended forms of the Beer--Lambert law which approximately include the contributions for forward scattering and for forward scattering plus multiple scattering from the gas outside the electron beam were developed. It is argued that the dependence of the forward scattering on the path length through the gas is approximately independent of the model used to describe it. The proposed methods were used to determine the total cross section and forward scattering contribution from argon (Ar) with 300-eV electrons. Our results are compared with those in the literature and the predictions of theory and experiment for the forward scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed as a further test of the method.

  12. Absolute vibrational cross sections for 1-19 eV electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-02-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1-19 eV electrons impacting on condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer. Experiments were performed under ultra-high vacuum (3 × 10-11 Torr) at a temperature of about 20 K. The magnitudes of the vibrational CSs lie within the 10-17 cm2 range. Features observed near 4.5, 9.5, and 12.5 eV in the incident energy dependence of the CSs were compared to the results of theoretical calculations and other experiments on gas and solid-phase THF. These three resonances are attributed to the formation of shape or core-excited shape resonances. Another maximum observed around 2.5 eV is not found in the calculations but has been observed in gas-phase studies; it is attributed to the formation of a shape resonance.

  13. Measurement of the Absolute Elastic and Inelastic Differential Neutron Cross Sections for 23Na Between 2 and 4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Yates, S. W.; Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Luke, C. J.; McDonough, P. J.; Sigillito, A. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2013-03-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering angular distributions have been measured from 23Na for incident neutron energies between 2 and 4 MeV at the University of Kentucky using neutron time-of-flight techniques. The cross sections obtained are important for applications in nuclear reactor development and other areas, and they are an energy region in which existing data are very sparse. Absolute cross sections were obtained by normalizing Na angular distributions to the well-known np cross sections.

  14. Absolute total electron scattering cross sections for N/sub 2/ between 0. 5 and 50 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Kennerly, R.E.

    1980-06-01

    Absolute total electron scattering cross sections for N/sub 2/ from 0.5 to 50 eV have been measured with an estimated uncertainty of +- 3% using a transmission time-of-flight method previously described. The results are compared to previous experimental results and to recent calculations. The positions of the /sup 2/Pi/sub g/ resonance peaks were determined with much greater accuracy ( +- 15 meV) than in previous transmission measurements. The structure reported by Golden (1966) below the /sup 2/Pi/sub g/ resonance was clearly not present, indicating that, if real, these features are not a property of the N/sub 2/ ground vibronic state. The shape resonance predicted at 11 eV by Dill and Dehmer (1977) was not seen, perhaps because it was too weakly manifested in the total cross section. A weak broad band centered at 25 eV may be interpreted as being due to a sigma/sub u/ shape resonance as predicted by Dehmer, Siegel, Welch, and Dill.

  15. Absolute Total Cross Section Measurements for Electron Scattering on GeH4 and SiH4 Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zejko, Pawel. Mo.; Kasperski, Grzegorz; Szmytkowski, Czeslaw

    1996-10-01

    We have measured absolute grand total electron--scattering cross section for GeH4 and SiH4 molecules in the energy range of 0.75--250 eV and 0.6--250 eV, respectively, using the linear transmission experimental setup(A.M. Krzysztofowicz and Cz. Szmytkowski 1995 J. Phys. B 28) 1593. The general character of both obtained total cross section (TCS) functions is similar. For germane TCS dramatically increases from 12× 10-20 m^2 at 0.8 eV up to nearly 59× 10-20 m^2 at the 3.8 eV maximum. For silane the maximum (57× 10-20 m^2) is localized near 2.9 eV. These structures are partly attributable to the existence of short-lived negative-ion resonant states. From 10 eV to the highest applied energy TCS' decrease monotonically with increasing impact energy E, and above 50 eV the total cross sections change like E-0.5. None low-energy e^--GeH4 experiment is available for comparison. Above 75 eV our results are in good agreement with the recent intermediate-energy TCS measurements of Karwasz(G.P. Karwasz 1995 J. Phys. B 28) 1301 and with calculations of Baluja et al(K.L. Baluja et al) 1992 Europhys. Lett. 17 139. There is also reasonably agreement of present e^--SiH4 data with available experimental results.

  16. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  17. An absolutely calibrated survey of polarized emission from the northern sky at 1.4 GHz. Observations and data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolleben, M.; Landecker, T. L.; Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    2006-03-01

    A new polarization survey of the northern sky at 1.41 GHz is presented. The observations were carried out using the 25.6 m telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory in Canada, with an angular resolution of 36 arcmin. The data are corrected for ground radiation to obtain Stokes U and Q maps on a well-established intensity scale tied to absolute determinations of zero levels, containing emission structures of large angular extent, with an rms noise of 12 mK. Survey observations were carried out by drift scanning the sky between -29° and +90° declination. The fully sampled drift scans, observed in steps of 0.25° to ˜ 2.5° in declination, result in a northern sky coverage of 41.7% of full Nyquist sampling. The survey surpasses by a factor of 200 the coverage, and by a factor of 5 the sensitivity, of the Leiden/Dwingeloo polarization survey that was until now the most complete large-scale survey. The temperature scale is tied to the Effelsberg scale. Absolute zero-temperature levels are taken from the Leiden/Dwingeloo survey after rescaling those data by the factor of 0.94. The paper describes the observations, data processing, and calibration steps. The data are publicly available at http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/div/konti/26msurvey or http://www.drao.nrc.ca/26msurvey.

  18. The Ground-based H-, K-, and L-band Absolute Emission Spectra of HD 209458b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Deroo, Pieter; Swain, Mark R.; Waldmann, Ingo P.

    2014-11-01

    Here we explore the capabilities of NASA's 3.0 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and SpeX spectrometer and the 5.08 m Hale telescope with the TripleSpec spectrometer with near-infrared H-, K-, and L-band measurements of HD 209458b's secondary eclipse. Our IRTF/SpeX data are the first absolute L-band spectroscopic emission measurements of any exoplanet other than the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. Previous measurements of HD 189733b's L band indicate bright emission hypothesized to result from non-LTE CH4 ν3 fluorescence. We do not detect a similar bright 3.3 μm feature to ~3σ, suggesting that fluorescence does not need to be invoked to explain HD 209458b's L-band measurements. The validity of our observation and reduction techniques, which decrease the flux variance by up to 2.8 orders of magnitude, is reinforced by 1σ agreement with existent Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRAC1 observations that overlap the H, K, and L bands, suggesting that both IRTF/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec can measure an exoplanet's emission with high precision.

  19. The ground-based H-, K-, and L-band absolute emission spectra of HD 209458b

    SciTech Connect

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Deroo, Pieter; Swain, Mark R.; Waldmann, Ingo P.

    2014-11-20

    Here we explore the capabilities of NASA's 3.0 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and SpeX spectrometer and the 5.08 m Hale telescope with the TripleSpec spectrometer with near-infrared H-, K-, and L-band measurements of HD 209458b's secondary eclipse. Our IRTF/SpeX data are the first absolute L-band spectroscopic emission measurements of any exoplanet other than the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. Previous measurements of HD 189733b's L band indicate bright emission hypothesized to result from non-LTE CH{sub 4} ν{sub 3} fluorescence. We do not detect a similar bright 3.3 μm feature to ∼3σ, suggesting that fluorescence does not need to be invoked to explain HD 209458b's L-band measurements. The validity of our observation and reduction techniques, which decrease the flux variance by up to 2.8 orders of magnitude, is reinforced by 1σ agreement with existent Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRAC1 observations that overlap the H, K, and L bands, suggesting that both IRTF/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec can measure an exoplanet's emission with high precision.

  20. Absolute and relative emission spectroscopy study of 3 cm wide planar radio frequency atmospheric pressure bio-plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Nikiforov, Anton Yu; Ionita, Eusebiu-Rosini; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Leys, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of low power atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge generated in Ar gas in long gap of 3 cm is investigated. This plasma source is characterized and analyzed for possible large scale biomedical applications where low gas temperature and potential-less effluent are required. The discharge forms a homogenous glow-like afterglow in ambient air at input power of 30 W with low gas temperature of 330 K, which is desirable in biomedical applications. With absolute calibrated spectroscopy of the discharge, electron density of 0.4 × 1018 m-3 and electron temperature of 1.5 eV are obtained from continuum Bremsstrahlung radiation of the source. Time and spatial resolved emission spectroscopy is used to analyze discharge generation mechanism and active species formation. It is found that discharge dynamics strongly correlates with the discharge current waveform. Strong Ar(2p) excited states emission is observed nearby the electrodes surface on a distance up to 200 μm in the plasma sheath region at 10 ns after the current peak, whereas OH(A) emission is uniform along of the interelectrode gap.

  1. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.; Freeman, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of progress of work on absorption cross section measurements of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm. In this wavelength region, the penetration of solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere is controlled by O2 and O3. The transmitted radiation is available to dissociate trace species such as halocarbons and nitrous oxide. We have recently measured absolute absorption cross sections of O3 in the wavelength region 240-350 nm (Freeman et al., 1985; Yoshino et al., 1988). We apply these proven techniques to the determination of the absorption cross section of O3 at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K throughout the wavelength region 185-240 nm. A paper titled 'Absolute Absorption Cross Section Measurements of Ozone in the Wavelength Region 185-254 nm and the Temperature Dependence' has been submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  2. Determination of relative and absolute photoionization cross-sections in multiply-charged Ba^n+ Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizau, J.-M.; Cubaynes, D.; Esteva, J. M.; Wuilleumier, F. J.; Marmoret, R.; Petrault, L.; Remond, C.; Couillaud, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Blancard, C.; Hitz, D.; Ludwig, P.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Zhou, H.-L.; Manson, S. T.

    2001-05-01

    Following our first photoionization measurements for the multiply-charged Xe^n+ [1] and Ba^2+ [2] ions, we introduced several modifications in the experimental set-up to allow us to measure absolute cross sections for multiply-charged ions. Photoionization studies of barium ions up to Ba^6+ were performed using synchrotron radiation emitted by an undulator of the Super ACO storage ring in Orsay and an ECR ion source. Collapse of the 4f (ɛ f) orbitals has been observed to occur faster than for Xe^n+: the relative intensity of transitions to continuum states is negligible already for Ba^3+ ions, discrete transitions to 4d^95s^25p^mnf states then dominating the measured spectra. The experimental results are in good agreement with the results of MCDF calculations for the discrete transitions and, in Ba^2+, with RRPA calculations for transitions to continuum states. 1. J.-M. Bizau et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 435 (2000). 2. J.-M. Bizau et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, 61 (2000).

  3. Absolute photofission cross sections for /sup 235,238/U in the energy range 11. 5--30 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, H.; Mank, G.; Drexler, J.; Heil, R.; Huber, K.; Kneissl, U.; Ratzek, R.; Stroeher, H.; Weber, T.; Wilke, W.

    1984-06-01

    Absolute photofission cross sections of /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U have been measured with quasimonoenergetic photons from e/sup +/ annihilation and direct fragment detection between 11.5 and 30 MeV. The results obtained in the energy range of the giant dipole resonance (up to 18 MeV) are compared with those from previous experiments.

  4. Constraining the Absolute Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D Dynamical Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.

  5. Assessment of experimental d-PIGE γ-ray production cross sections for 12C, 14N and 16O and comparison with absolute thick target yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csedreki, L.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Measured differential cross sections for deuteron induced γ-ray emission from the reactions 12C(d,pγ)13C, (Eγ = 3089 keV), 14N(d,pγ)15N (Eγ = 8310 keV) and 16O(d,pγ)17O (Eγ = 871 keV) available in the literature were assessed. In order to cross check the assessed γ-ray production cross section data, thick target γ-yields calculated from the differential cross sections were compared with available measured thick target yields. Recommended differential cross section data for each reaction were deduced for particle induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) applications.

  6. Absolute measurement of the photoionization cross section of atomic hydrogen with a shock tube for the extreme ultraviolet. [for astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palenius, H. P.; Kohl, J. L.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports an experiment which is part of a program to measure the absolute values of the atomic photoionization cross sections of astrophysically abundant elements, particularly in stars and planetary atmospheres. An aerodynamic pressure-driven shock tube constructed from stainless steel with a quadratic cross section was used to measure the photoionization cross section of H I at 19 wavelength points from 910 to 609 A with experimental uncertainties between 7 and 20%. The shock tube was used to produce fully dissociated hydrogen and neon mixtures for the photoabsorption measurements.

  7. Constraining the absolute orientation of η Carinae's binary orbit: a 3D dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in η Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). This model is based on full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectroimages of [Fe III] emission-line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA θ that the orbital plane projection of the line of sight makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blueshifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA =+38° and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i≈ 130° to 145°, θ≈-15° to +30° and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a PA ≈ 302° to 327° east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3D. The companion star, ηB, thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modelling to determine the stellar masses. Footnotes<label>1</label>Low- and high-ionization refer here to atomic species with ionizations potentials (IPs) below and above the IP of hydrogen, 13.6 eV.<label>2</label>Measured in degrees from north to east.<label>3</label>θ is the same as the angle φ defined in fig. 3 of O08.<label>4</label>The outer edge looks circular only because this marks the edge of the spherical computational domain of the SPH simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JQSRT..99...21B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JQSRT..99...21B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>, time-resolved <span class="hlt">emission</span> of non-LTE L-shell spectra from Ti-doped aerogels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Back, C. A.; Feldman, U.; Weaver, J. L.; Seely, J. F.; Constantin, C.; Holland, G.; Lee, R. W.; Chung, H.-K.; Scott, H. A.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2 mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47 3 keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, λ/δλ of 3 20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972835"><span id="translatedtitle">Cometary X-Rays: Line <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections for Multiply Charged Solar Wind Ion Charge Exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Otranto, S; Olson, R E; Beiersdorfer, P</p> <p>2006-12-22</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> line <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are presented for 1 keV/amu charge exchange collisions of multiply charged solar wind ions with H{sub 2}O, H, O, CO{sub 2}, and CO cometary targets. The present calculations are contrasted with available laboratory data. A parameter-free model is used to successfully predict the recently observed x-ray spectra of comet C/LINEAR 1999 S4. We show that the resulting spectrum is extremely sensitive to the time variations of the solar wind composition. Our results suggest that orbiting x-ray satellites may be a viable way to predict the solar wind intensities and composition on the Earth many hours before the ions reach the earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036027&hterms=Neon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNeon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036027&hterms=Neon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNeon"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron-Impact-Induced <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections of Neon in the Extreme Ultraviolet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kanik, I.; Ajello, J. M.; James, G. K.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We have measured the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum of neon produced by electron excitation. The measurements were obtained under optically thin conditions, and at a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM). The most prominent features of the EUV spectrum between 45-80 nm are the resonance lines of Ne I at 73.6 and 74.4 nm and a multiplet of Ne II at 46.14 nm (the average value for the line center of the two closely spaced ion lines at 46.07 and 46.22 nm). <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of these lines at 300 eV were measured and compared to other previous measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990069570&hterms=nl&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnl','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990069570&hterms=nl&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnl"><span id="translatedtitle">Far-Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections of Ne 2 and Ne 3 Excited by Electron Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>James, Geoffrey K.; Kanik, Isik; Ajello, Joseph M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We have measured the electron-impact-induced fluorescence spectrum of neon in the wavelength range 120-270 nm at a spectral resolution of 0.43 nm (FWHM). The strongest lines observed in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum of neon are assigned to terms of the doublet system of Ne 2 (2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 4)nl and the triplet system of Ne 3 (2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3)3l). Our FUV spectral data, obtained at 300 eV electron-impact energy, provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of these Ne 2 and Ne 3 lines, and are compared to previous measurements where available. In addition, the excitation function of the strongest Ne II line observed at 191.6 nm was measured from threshold to 1000 eV electron-impact energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..APR.D1014S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..APR.D1014S"><span id="translatedtitle">Measured <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Section of Charge Transfer in H + H2+ at Low Energy: Signature of vi = 2 and Trajectory Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strom, R. A.; Bacani, K. G.; Chi, R. M.; Heczko, S. L.; Singh, B. N.; Tobar, J. A.; Vassantachart, A. K.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.; Seely, D. G.; Havener, C. C.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Measurements of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of charge transfer (CT) in H + H2+--> H+ + H2 were conducted at the merged-beam apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which can reliably create and access collision energies as low as 0.1 eV/u. The measured <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section shows evidence of trajectory effects at low energy. Also, the comparison to state-to-state calculations (PRA 67 022708 (2003) suggests a strong contribution from vi = 2 of the H2+that are produced by the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The data analysis will be presented here. Research supported by the NASA Solar & Heliospheric Physics Program NNH07ZDA001N, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation through Grant No. PHY-1068877.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/983559','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/983559"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement and Calculation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Single- and Multiple-Charge-Exchange <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections for Fe<sup>q+</sup> Ions Impacting CO and CO<sub>2</sub></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simcic, J.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Cadez, I.; Greenwood, J. B.; Chutjian, A.; Smith, S. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are reported for single, double, and triple charge exchange of Feq+ (q=5- 13) ions with CO and CO2. The highly-charged Fe ions are generated in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> data are derived from knowledge of the target gas pressure, target path length, and incident and charge-exchanged ion currents. Experimental results are compared with new calculations of these <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections in the n-electron classical trajectory Monte-Carlo approximation, in which the ensuing radiative and non-radiative cascades are approximated with scaled hydrogenic transition probabilities and scaled Auger rates. The present data are needed in astrophysical applications of solar- and stellar-wind charge-exchange with comets, planetary atmospheres, and circumstellar clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20787511','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20787511"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> K-shell ionization <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections and L{alpha} and L{beta}{sub 1} x-ray production <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of Ga and As by 1.5-39-keV electrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Merlet, C.; Llovet, X.; Fernandez-Varea, J. M.</p> <p>2006-06-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> K-shell ionization and L{alpha} and L{beta}{sub 1} x-ray production <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for Ga and As have been measured for incident electrons in the energy range from 1.5 to 39 keV. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections were deduced from K{alpha}, L{alpha}, and L{beta}{sub 1} x-ray intensities emitted from ultrathin GaAs samples deposited onto self-supporting carbon films. The x-ray intensities were measured on an electron microprobe equipped with several wavelength-dispersive spectrometers and were converted into <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections by using estimated values of the target thickness, spectrometer efficiency, and number of incident electrons. Experimental results are compared with <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections calculated from the plane-wave and distorted-wave Born approximations, the relativistic binary-encounter-Bethe model, the results of two widely used simple analytical formulas, and, whenever possible, experimental data from the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910058672&hterms=energy+free&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfree','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910058672&hterms=energy+free&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Denergy%2Bfree"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cascade-free <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections for the 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged-beams methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Steven J.; Man, K.-F.; Chutjian, A.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Williams, I. D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cascade-free excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections in an ion have been measured for the resonance 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged electron-ion beams methods. Measurements were carried out at electron energies of below threshold to 6 times threshold. Comparisons are made with 2-, 5-, and 15-state close-coupling and distorted-wave theories. There is good agreement between experiment and the 15-state close-coupling <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections over the energy range of the calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DNP.NA009K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DNP.NA009K"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Elastic and Inelastic Differential Neutron <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections for 23Na between 2 and 4 MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Ajay; McEllistrem, M. T.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estevez, F. M.; Chakraborty, A.; Yates, S. W.; Sigillito, A.; McDonough, P. J.; Kersting, L. J.; Luke, C. J.; Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering angular distributions for 23Na sample were measured at the University of Kentucky using the time-of-flight (ToF) technique, between 2 and 4 MeV incident neutron energies.Normalization of yields into scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections was accomplished by comparison of Na yields to the yields obtained from hydrogen in polyethylene samples via the well-known n-p scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections.The 3H(p,n) differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are used to determine the energy-dependent efficiency of the main detector. Because the efficiency of this detector appears as a ratio in the comparison of scattered yields from different samples, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of the 3H(p,n) <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are not critical, but their energy dependence is. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE contract no. DE-AC07-051D14517.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhRvC..29.2047K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhRvC..29.2047K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> (γ,p0) and (γ,p1) <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections and angular distributions for the light, deformed nucleus 19F</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kerkhove, E.; Ferdinande, H.; van de Vyver, R.; Berkvens, P.; van Otten, P.; van Camp, E.; Ryckbosch, D.</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> (γ,p0) and (γ,p1) differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for 19F have been measured at seven angles in the energy interval between 13.4 and 25.8 MeV. A sum of Legendre polynomials was fitted to the angular distributions to deduce the angular distribution coefficients. The (γ,p0) and (γ,p1) <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections have a similar magnitude and represent a minor fraction of the total photoproton channel. The global difference between the two <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections is attributed to configurational splitting effects. From the (γ,p0) angular distribution coefficients, an E2 <span class="hlt">cross</span> section was estimated, contributing about 37% to the total E2 energy-weighted sum rule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10638410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10638410"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Almeida, P; Ribeiro, M J; Bottlaender, M; Loc'h, C; Langer, O; Strul, D; Hugonnard, P; Grangeat, P; Mazière, B; Bendriem, B</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using 123I-epidepride. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 degrees), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of 123I-epidepride, and 12 <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to 123I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a 123I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC + AT) and (SC + CBC + AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of 11C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (% ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC + CBC + AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and 11C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of 123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21560330','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21560330"><span id="translatedtitle">HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-IMPACT <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> SPECTRA AND VIBRATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">CROSS</span> SECTIONS FROM 330-1100 nm FOR N{sub 2}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mangina, Rao S.; Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Dziczek, Dariusz</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Electron-impact <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for N{sub 2} were measured in the wavelength range of 330-1100 nm at 25 eV and 100 eV impact energies. <span class="hlt">Cross</span> sections of several molecular <span class="hlt">emission</span> bands of the first positive band system B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}') {yields} A {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') and the second positive band system C {sup 3}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu}') {yields} B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} ({nu}'') of N{sub 2}, the first negative band (1NB) system B {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u} {sup +}({nu}') {yields} X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') and Meinel band system A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu}') {yields} X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') of N{sub 2} {sup +} ions as well as line <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of N (N I) and N{sup +} (N II) in the visible-optical-near-IR wavelength range reported in this work were measured for the first time in a single experimental setup at high spectral resolving power ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 10000) under single-collision-scattering geometry and optically thin conditions. Rotational <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2} {sup +} were observed for strong <span class="hlt">emission</span> bands at a gas temperature of about 300 K. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of the strongest (0,0) vibrational band at 391.43 nm of 1NB was determined using the standard H{sub {alpha}} <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of H{sub 2} by electron impact at both 25 eV and 100 eV electron-impact energies, and the <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for the remainder of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were determined using (0,0) 1NB value. A comparison of the present <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections with the earlier published data from both electron energy loss and electron-impact-induced fluorescence <span class="hlt">emission</span> is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A31H..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A31H..03M"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of anthropogenic trace gases around the US based on paired atmospheric observations of fossil fuel CO2 from 14C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S.; Montzka, S. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, B. R.; Wolak, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Southon, J. R.; Turnbull, J. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Fischer, M. L.; Tans, P. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The small radiocarbon fraction of atmospheric CO2 (~1:10^12 14C:C) has proven to be an ideal tracer for the fossil fuel derived component of observed CO2 (Cff) over large industrialized land areas. A growing number of 14CO2 measurements are now being made in air sampled from a network of tall towers and airborne profiling sites around the US alongside measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, and a large suite of halo- and hydro-carbons. Cff paired with boundary-layer enhancements of more than 20 other anthropogenic gases measured in the same samples allow us to determine apparent <span class="hlt">emissions</span> ratios for each gas with respect to Cff (where apparent ratios refer to those at the time of observation rather than at the time of <span class="hlt">emission</span>). Here we compare seasonal and spatial variability of apparent <span class="hlt">emissions</span> ratios for regions of significant urban and industrial <span class="hlt">emissions</span> around the US, including sites in California, Texas, the mid-west, south-east and north-east . Statistically significant and coherent spatial and seasonal patterns in apparent <span class="hlt">emissions</span> ratios are determined for many gases over multiple years. These can in turn be combined with appropriate spatial footprints over which the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of fossil fuel derived CO2 has been independently determined based on inventories and process models in order to estimate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the correlate gases in different regions, following simple scaling methods we have outlined previously [Miller et al. 2012, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JD017048]. This approach provides some of the first reliable "top down", observationally-based <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates for these gases, many of which influence climate, air quality and stratospheric ozone. Unlike most "bottom up" inventories, our estimates of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> trace gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are accompanied by quantifiable estimates of uncertainty.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420115"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> fragmentation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections in atom-molecule collisions: Scaling laws for non-statistical fragmentation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, T.; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Alexander, J. D.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.; Zhang, Y.; Rousseau, P.; Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Adoui, L.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.</p> <p>2014-06-14</p> <p>We present scaling laws for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for non-statistical fragmentation in collisions between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH/PAH{sup +}) and hydrogen or helium atoms with kinetic energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 keV. Further, we calculate the total fragmentation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections (including statistical fragmentation) for 110 eV PAH/PAH{sup +} + He collisions, and show that they compare well with experimental results. We demonstrate that non-statistical fragmentation becomes dominant for large PAHs and that it yields highly reactive fragments forming strong covalent bonds with atoms (H and N) and molecules (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}). Thus nonstatistical fragmentation may be an effective initial step in the formation of, e.g., Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs). This relates to recent discussions on the evolution of PAHNs in space and the reactivities of defect graphene structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27587105','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27587105"><span id="translatedtitle">A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> recoil ion <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed. PMID:27587105</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DMP..HP09N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DMP..HP09N"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron-Impact-Induced <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections of Atomic Oxygen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.; Khakoo, M. A.</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>One cannot overstate the importance of ultraviolet (UV) lines of neutral atomic oxygen. For example, the atomic oxygen resonance transition at 130.4 nm is a prominent <span class="hlt">emission</span> feature in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrum of the Earth's aurora and dayglow as well as the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. In this poster, we present our measurements of the electron-impact <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of the 130.4 nm atomic oxygen feature from threshold to 100 eV impact energy. A high-density atomic oxygen beam, created by a microwave discharge source, was intersected at a right angle by a magnetically focused electron beam. A 0.2m UV spectrometer system was used in the present measurements. It consists of an electron-impact collision chamber in tandem with an UV spectrometer equipped with a CsI coated channel electron multiplier detector. Emitted photons corresponding to radiative decay of collisionally excited state of the 130.4 nm atomic oxygen feature were detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhDT.......172K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhDT.......172K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Doubly Differential <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections for Ejection of Electrons in - and Five-Body Collisions of 20 TO 114-KEV Protons on Atomic and Molecular Hydrogen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kerby, George W., III</p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-beam experiment was performed to detect ejected electrons from ground-state atomic and molecular hydrogen after collisions with 20- to 114-keV protons. Because a pure atomic hydrogen target is not readily attainable, a method has been devised which yields atomic to molecular hydrogen doubly differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> section (DDCS) ratios. Since the molecular hydrogen DDCS's were independently measured, the atomic <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections could be directly calculated. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections differential in electron energy and angle were measured for electron energies ranging from 1.5 to 400 eV and scattering angles from 15^circ to 165^circ with respect to the fast beam. Electrons and ions were energy analyzed by an electrostatic hemispherical analyzer, which has an energy resolution of 5% and is rotatable in the scattering plane about the collision center. Atomic hydrogen is produced by a radio-frequency discharge of the type devised by J. Slevin. Hydrogen gas effuses from a 1 mm diameter nozzle in a nearly cos theta distribution. The projectile beam intersects the thermal gas targets 4 mm below the tip of the nozzle. Dissociation fractions of 74% and atomic hydrogen densities of 7 times 10 ^{11} cm^ {-3} were typical. The fraction of dissociated hydrogen was measured by detecting the reduced 9-eV ion signal from the molecular target when the RF is on. This characteristic ion signal originates from the coulomb breakup of the molecule and dissociative channels of excited H _sp{2}{+}. An auxiliary experiment was performed to determine the target densities with the aid of a low-resolution magnetic mass spectrometer after the slow recoil ions were extracted from the collision volume by a weak electric field. Comparisons of the atomic <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are made with theories such as the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method, the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) and the continuum-distorted-wave eikonal-initial-state (CDW-EIS) approximation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvL..94d5002W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvL..94d5002W"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Benchmark for an Improved Simulation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Soft-X-Ray <span class="hlt">Emission</span> from Polystyrene Targets Irradiated with the Nike Laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weaver, J. L.; Busquet, M.; Colombant, D. G.; Mostovych, A. N.; Feldman, U.; Klapisch, M.; Seely, J. F.; Brown, C.; Holland, G.</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> calibrated, time-resolved spectral intensity measurements of soft-x-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> (hν˜0.1 1.0 keV) from laser-irradiated polystyrene targets are compared to radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include our new postprocessor, Virtual Spectro. This new capability allows a unified, detailed treatment of atomic physics and radiative transfer in nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions for simple spectra from low-Z materials as well as complex spectra from high-Z materials. The excellent agreement (within a factor of ˜1.5) demonstrates the powerful predictive capability of the codes for the complex conditions in the ablating plasma. A comparison to data with high spectral resolution (E/δE˜1000) emphasizes the importance of including radiation coupling in the quantitative simulation of <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740011330','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740011330"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory determination of the luminous efficiency of meteor constituents. [<span class="hlt">emission</span> and ionization <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of sodium, calcium, magnesium, and iron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Savage, H. F.; Boitnott, C. A.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">crossed</span> beam apparatus has been used to measure the <span class="hlt">emission</span> and ionization <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for the prominent spectral features of Na, Ca, Mg, and Fe in collisions with N2 and O2 over the velocity range of 30 to 120 km/s. From the <span class="hlt">emission</span> and ionization <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> luminous efficiencies in air were determined over the range of meteor velocities. The maximum luminous efficiencies for the brightest features were: greater than 1 percent for the Na D-lines, 0.2 percent for the Ca I(2) singlet, 0.06 percent for the Mg I(2) and Mg I(3) triplets, and 0.4 percent for Fe over the visible spectral range. These luminous efficiencies are valid for free molecular flow conditions for velocities above about 30 km/s and are directly applicable to spectroscopic observations of faint meteors. In contrast to previous work, the luminous efficiency found for stone in the present investigation decreased with velocity above about 50 km/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...20912001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...20912001D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “<span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20795825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20795825"><span id="translatedtitle">Passive optical diagnostic of Xe-propelled Hall thrusters. I. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chiu Yuhui; Austin, Brad L.; Williams, Skip; Dressler, Rainer A.; Karabadzhak, George F.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents a set of xenon apparent <span class="hlt">emission</span> excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines that have diagnostic value in the analysis of Xe-propelled Hall thruster plasmas. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are presented for three excitation processes involving ground-state xenon atoms: e{sup -}+Xe, Xe{sup +}+Xe, and Xe{sup 2+}+Xe. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are derived from luminescence spectra produced at single-collision conditions. Apparent <span class="hlt">emission</span> excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are tabulated for 12 visible and 8 near-infrared lines for electron energies ranging from 10 to 70 eV. In case of the near-infrared lines, radiation trapping effects are accounted for by measuring the detailed pressure dependence of the apparent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections and extrapolating to zero pressure. A semiempirical expression for the pressure dependence is derived that allows zero-pressure extrapolation from threshold to 70 eV. Ion-induced <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are reported for the same <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines at an energy per unit charge E/q of 300 eV, chosen for typical Hall thruster operating voltages. Radiation trapping effects are negligible for the ion <span class="hlt">emission</span> excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections between 0.1 and 2.0 mTorr in the present luminescence experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910037119&hterms=resonance+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dresonance%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910037119&hterms=resonance+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dresonance%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of electron impact excitation of argon in the extreme ultraviolet - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of resonance lines of Ar I, Ar II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ajello, Joseph M.; James, Geoffrey K.; Franklin, Brian; Howell, Simon</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>In a <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-beam experiment under optically thin conditions the EUV spectrum of argon produced by electron impact excitation is studied. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of the resonance lines of Ar I and II are measured. The resonance lines of Ar I at 104.8 nm and 106.7 nm, and of Ar II at 91.96 nm and 93.21 nm are the most prominent features of the EUV spectrum between 40 and 110 nm. The relative-flow technique is used to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of these lines at 200 eV. The measurements are compared with previous estimates. The measured <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section values at 200 eV for the Ar I lines at 104.8 nm and 106.7 nm, when compared to the electron energy loss estimates of the direct excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections, establish that cascading is larger for the Ar I resonance lines than previous <span class="hlt">emission</span> experiments have indicated. In addition, all the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for the Ar I and II Rydberg series in the EUV are measured at 0.5 nm resolution. The FUV spectrum is also surveyed and found to consist of Ar II multiplets from simultaneous ionization-excitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308838','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308838"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement procedure for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> broadband infrared up-conversion photoluminescent quantum yields: Correcting for absorption/re-<span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MacDougall, Sean K. W.; Ivaturi, Aruna; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Richards, Bryce S.</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>The internal photoluminescent quantum yield (iPLQY) – defined as the ratio of emitted photons to those absorbed – is an important parameter in the evaluation and application of luminescent materials. The iPLQY is rarely reported due to the complexities in the calibration of such a measurement. Herein, an experimental method is proposed to correct for re-<span class="hlt">emission</span>, which leads to an underestimation of the absorption under broadband excitation. Although traditionally the iPLQY is measured using monochromatic sources for linear materials, this advancement is necessary for nonlinear materials with wavelength dependent iPLQY, such as the application of up-conversion to solar energy harvesting. The method requires an additional measurement of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> line shape that overlaps with the excitation and absorption spectra. Through scaling of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum, at the long wavelength edge where an overlap of excitation does not occur, it is possible to better estimate the value of iPLQY. The method has been evaluated for a range of nonlinear material concentrations and under various irradiances to analyze the necessity and boundary conditions that favor the proposed method. Use of this refined method is important for a reliable measurement of iPLQY under a broad illumination source such as the Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315668','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315668"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Quantitation of Myocardial Blood Flow in Human Subjects with or without Myocardial Ischemia using Dynamic Flurpiridaz F 18 Positron <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Packard, René R. S.; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Dahlbom, Magnus; Czernin, Johannes; Maddahi, Jamshid</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of myocardial blood flow (MBF) by positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (PET) is an established method of analyzing coronary artery disease (CAD) but subject to the various shortcomings of available radiotracers. Flurpiridaz F 18 is a novel PET radiotracer which exhibits properties of an ideal tracer. Methods A new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> perfusion quantitation method with Flurpiridaz was developed, taking advantage of the early kinetics and high first-pass extraction by the myocardium of this radiotracer, and the first in human measurements of MBF performed in 7 normal subjects and 8 patients with documented CAD. PET images with time-activity curves were acquired at rest and during adenosine stress. Results In normal subjects, regional MBF between coronary artery territories did not differ significantly, leading to a mean global MBF of 0.73 mL/min/g at rest and 2.53 mL/min/g during stress, with a mean global myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of 3.70. CAD vascular territories with <50% stenosis demonstrated a mean MBF of 0.73 at rest and 2.02 during stress, leading to a mean MFR of 2.97. CAD vascular territories with ≥50% stenosis exhibited a mean MBF of 0.86 at rest and 1.43 during stress, leading to a mean MFR of 1.86. Differences in stress MBF and MFR between normal and CAD territories, as well as between <50% and ≥50% stenosis vascular territories, were significant (P<0.01). Conclusion <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of MBF in humans with the novel PET radiotracer Flurpiridaz is feasible over a wide range of cardiac flow in the presence or absence of stress-inducible myocardial ischemia. The significant decrease in stress MBF and ensuing MFR in CAD territories allows a clear distinction between vascular territories exhibiting stress-inducible myocardial ischemia and those with normal perfusion. PMID:25071096</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489071"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopy study of 3 cm wide planar radio frequency atmospheric pressure bio-plasma source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deng, Xiaolong; Nikiforov, Anton Yu Leys, Christophe; Ionita, Eusebiu-Rosini; Dinescu, Gheorghe</p> <p>2015-08-03</p> <p>The dynamics of low power atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge generated in Ar gas in long gap of 3 cm is investigated. This plasma source is characterized and analyzed for possible large scale biomedical applications where low gas temperature and potential-less effluent are required. The discharge forms a homogenous glow-like afterglow in ambient air at input power of 30 W with low gas temperature of 330 K, which is desirable in biomedical applications. With <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibrated spectroscopy of the discharge, electron density of 0.4 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and electron temperature of 1.5 eV are obtained from continuum Bremsstrahlung radiation of the source. Time and spatial resolved <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopy is used to analyze discharge generation mechanism and active species formation. It is found that discharge dynamics strongly correlates with the discharge current waveform. Strong Ar(2p) excited states <span class="hlt">emission</span> is observed nearby the electrodes surface on a distance up to 200 μm in the plasma sheath region at 10 ns after the current peak, whereas OH(A) <span class="hlt">emission</span> is uniform along of the interelectrode gap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MAR.G1327P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MAR.G1327P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, Alfred, Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384056"><span id="translatedtitle">The determination of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity of 234mPa's 1001 keV gamma <span class="hlt">emission</span> using Monte Carlo simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Begy, Robert-Csaba; Cosma, Constantin; Timar, Alida; Fulea, Dan</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The 1001 keV gamma line of (234m)Pa became important in gamma spectrometric measurements of samples with (238)U content with the advent of development of HpGe detectors of great dimension and high efficiency. In this study the <span class="hlt">emission</span> probability of the 1001 keV (Y(gamma)) peak of (234m)Pa, was determined by gamma-ray spectrometric measurements performed on glass with Uranium content using Monte Carlo simulation code for efficiency calibration. This method of calculation was not applied for the values quoted in literature so far, at least to our knowledge. The measurements gave an average of 0.836 +/- 0.022%, a value that is in very good agreement to some of the recent results previously presented. PMID:19384056</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26595457"><span id="translatedtitle">High resolution <span class="hlt">absolute</span> absorption <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' transition of the CH2OO biradical.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foreman, Elizabeth S; Kapnas, Kara M; Jou, YiTien; Kalinowski, Jarosław; Feng, David; Gerber, R Benny; Murray, Craig</p> <p>2015-12-28</p> <p>Carbonyl oxides, or Criegee intermediates, are formed from the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes and play a pivotal role in night-time and urban area atmospheric chemistry. Significant discrepancies exist among measurements of the strong B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic transition of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO in the visible/near-UV. We report room temperature spectra of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic absorption band of CH2OO acquired at higher resolution using both single-pass broadband absorption and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The new absorption spectra confirm the vibrational structure on the red edge of the band that is absent from ionization depletion measurements. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> absorption <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections over the 362-470 nm range are in good agreement with those reported by Ting et al. Broadband absorption spectra recorded over the temperature range of 276-357 K were identical within their mutual uncertainties, confirming that the vibrational structure is not due to hot bands. PMID:26595457</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1856420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1856420"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial perfusion at rest and during exercise with positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography after human cardiac transplantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krivokapich, J; Stevenson, L W; Kobashigawa, J; Huang, S C; Schelbert, H R</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The maximal exercise capacity of cardiac transplant recipients is reduced compared with that of normal subjects. To determine if this reduced exercise capacity is related to inadequate myocardial perfusion during exercise, myocardial perfusion was measured noninvasively with use of positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography and nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia. Twelve transplant recipients with no angiographic evidence of accelerated coronary atherosclerosis were studied. Serial N-13 ammonia imaging was performed at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. The results were compared with those from 10 normal volunteers with a low probability of having cardiac disease. A two-compartment kinetic model for estimating myocardial perfusion was applied to the data. Transplant recipients achieved a significant lower exercise work load than did the volunteers (42 +/- 16 vs. 128 +/- 22 W), but a higher venous lactate concentration (31.3 +/- 14.9 vs. 13.7 +/- 4.1 mg/100 ml). Despite the difference in exercise work load, there was no significant difference in the cardiac work achieved by transplant recipients and normal subjects as evidenced by similar rate-pressure products of 24,000 +/- 3,400 versus 21,300 +/- 2,800 betas/min per mm Hg, respectively. In addition, myocardial blood flow during exercise was not significantly different between the two groups (1.70 +/- 0.60 vs. 1.56 +/- 0.71 ml/min per g, respectively). This study demonstrates that the myocardial flow response to the physiologic stress of exercise is appropriate in transplant recipients and does not appear to explain the decreased exercise capacity in these patients. PMID:1856420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392517"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial perfusion at rest and during exercise with positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography after human cardiac transplantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krivokapich, J.; Stevenson, L.W.; Kobashigawa, J.; Huang, S.C.; Schelbert, H.R. )</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The maximal exercise capacity of cardiac transplant recipients is reduced compared with that of normal subjects. To determine if this reduced exercise capacity is related to inadequate myocardial perfusion during exercise, myocardial perfusion was measured noninvasively with use of positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography and nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia. Twelve transplant recipients with no angiographic evidence of accelerated coronary atherosclerosis were studied. Serial N-13 ammonia imaging was performed at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. The results were compared with those from 10 normal volunteers with a low probability of having cardiac disease. A two-compartment kinetic model for estimating myocardial perfusion was applied to the data. Transplant recipients achieved a significant lower exercise work load than did the volunteers (42 {plus minus} 16 vs. 128 {plus minus} 22 W), but a higher venous lactate concentration (31.3 {plus minus} 14.9 vs. 13.7 {plus minus} 4.1 mg/100 ml). Despite the difference in exercise work load, there was no significant difference in the cardiac work achieved by transplant recipients and normal subjects as evidenced by similar rate-pressure products of 24,000 {plus minus} 3,400 versus 21,300 {plus minus} 2,800 betas/min per mm Hg, respectively. In addition, myocardial blood flow during exercise was not significantly different between the two groups (1.70 {plus minus} 0.60 vs. 1.56 {plus minus} 0.71 ml/min per g, respectively). This study demonstrates that the myocardial flow response to the physiologic stress of exercise is appropriate in transplant recipients and does not appear to explain the decreased exercise capacity in these patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JPhB...34.2667N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JPhB...34.2667N"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron-impact studies of atomic oxygen: II. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section measurements of the O I 3So→ 3P transition (130.4 nm)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; Johnson, P. V.; McCartney, P.; James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>The optical excitation function of the O I 3So→ 3P transition (130.4 nm), produced by electron-impact excitation of atomic oxygen, has been measured over an extended energy range from threshold to 1.0 keV. Measurements were obtained in a <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-beam experiment using both magnetically confined and electrostatically focused electrons in collision with atomic oxygen produced by a microwave discharge source. A 0.2 m vacuum ultraviolet monochromator system was used to measure the emitted O I radiation at 130.4 nm. The relative O I (130.4 nm) <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity corresponding to the 3So→ 3P transition was then put on the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale by normalization to the O I (130.4 nm) <span class="hlt">cross</span> section produced by dissociative excitation of O2 at 30 eV (Kanik et al 2000).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740019228','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740019228"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cross</span> section calculations of astrophysical interest. [for theories of absorption and <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gerjuoy, E.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Cross</span> sections are discussed for rotational excitation associated with theories of absorption and <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines from molecules in space with emphasis on H2CO, CO, and OH by collisions with neutral particles such H, H2, and He. The sensitivity of the Thaddeus equation for the H2CO calculation is examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApCM...20..489A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApCM...20..489A"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic <span class="hlt">Emission</span> as a Tool for Damage Identification and Characterization in Glass Reinforced <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Ply Laminates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aggelis, D. G.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.; Paipetis, A. S.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Loading of <span class="hlt">cross</span>-ply laminates leads to the activation of distinct damage mechanisms, such as matrix cracking, delaminations between successive plies and fibre rupture at the final stage of loading. This study deals with the investigation of the failure of <span class="hlt">cross</span> ply composites by acoustic <span class="hlt">emission</span> (AE). Broadband AE sensors monitor the elastic waves originating from different sources of failure in coupons of this material during a tensile loading-unloading test. The cumulative number of AE activity, and other qualitative indices based on the waveforms shape, were well correlated to the sustained load and mechanical degradation as expressed by the gradual decrease of elastic modulus. AE parameters indicate the succession of failure mechanisms within the composite as the load increases. The proposed methodology based on Acoustic <span class="hlt">Emission</span> for the identification of the damage stage of glass reinforced <span class="hlt">cross</span> ply laminates is an initial step which may provide insight for the study of more complex laminations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LaPhL..12j5001K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LaPhL..12j5001K"><span id="translatedtitle">Stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section at various temperatures based on laser performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krishnan, G.; Bidin, N.; Ahmad, M. F. S.; Abdullah, M.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The determination of stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections at various temperatures is reported. Neodymium doped yttrium orthovanadate crystal (Nd:YVO4) was employed as a gain medium. The temperature of the crystal holder varied between 20 and 60 °C. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> section was determined based on laser performance. The slope efficiency of the diode end-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser system decreased from 40.2% to 31.7%, while the threshold power increased from 0.744 to 1.028 W. The far-field beam diameter increased linearly with the absorbed pump power at a constant temperature. There was no correlation between the rate of change of the beam diameter with temperature due to mechanical stress fluctuation. The stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section was found to decrease at a rate of  -0.45% °C-1, which concurs with previous works. The stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of various solid-state gain mediums can be determined through this method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ1000865','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ1000865"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Meaningfully</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wade, Angela</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>What is the meaning of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations? <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.137x1101X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JChPh.137x1101X"><span id="translatedtitle">Communication: Rovibrationally selected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> total <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for the reaction H2O+(X2B1; v1+v2+v3+ = 000; N+Ka+Kc+) + D2: Observation of the rotational enhancement effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chang, Yih Chung; Ng, C. Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>By employing the newly established vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) double quadrupole-double octopole ion guide apparatus, we have measured the rovibrationally selected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> total <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of the ion-molecule reaction H2O+(X2B1; v1+v2+v3+ = 000; N+Ka+Kc+) + D2 → H2DO+ + D in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ecm) range of 0.05-10.00 eV. The pulsing scheme used for the generation of PFI-PIs has made possible the preparation of reactant H2O+(X2B1; v1+v2+v3+ = 000) ions in single N+Ka+Kc+ rotational levels with high kinetic energy resolutions. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> total <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections observed in different N+Ka+Kc+ levels with rotational energies in the range of 0-200 cm-1 were found to exhibit a significant rotational enhancement on the reactivity for the titled reaction. In contrast, the measured <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections reveal a decreasing trend with increasing Ecm, indicating that the rotational enhancement observed is not a total energy effect, but a dynamical effect. Furthermore, the rotational enhancement is found to be more pronounced as Ecm is decreased. This experiment provided evidence that the coupling of the core rotational angular momentum with the orbital angular momentum could play a role in chemical reactivity, particularly at low Ecm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19941212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19941212"><span id="translatedtitle">The efficacy of safety barriers for children: <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficacy, time to <span class="hlt">cross</span> and action modes in children between 19 and 75 months.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cordovil, R; Barreiros, J; Vieira, F; Neto, C</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>We examined the efficacy of safety barriers by testing their capabilities to prevent or delay <span class="hlt">crossing</span>. Children between 19 and 75 months tried to climb different barriers selected for their age group, which represented the most common types of panel and horizontal bars barriers available on the market. Success or failure in <span class="hlt">crossing</span>, time to <span class="hlt">cross</span> and <span class="hlt">crossing</span> techniques were analysed. Barrier characteristics' influenced its restraining efficacy. Children's success rate varied between 10% and 95.3%. None of the barriers assured a considerable protective delay. Three major action modes were identified: head over waist (HOW), head and waist (HAW) and head under waist (HUW). Generally, children adopted the safer action mode, HOW, to <span class="hlt">cross</span> most barriers. Younger children often adopted unstable action mode in barriers with crossable gaps. Although some standards might need to be re-evaluated, there are no childproof barriers. Barriers are time-delaying devices that cannot substitute supervision and education. PMID:19941212</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.372..109S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.372..109S"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of proton induced γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections on Mg from 1.0 to 3.0 MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharifzadeh, N.; Kakuee, O.; Mohammadi, S.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Differential <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section of proton induced γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the reactions 24Mg(p,p‧γ)24Mg (Eγ = 1369 keV), 25Mg(p,p‧γ)25Mg (Eγ = 390, 585, 975 keV) and 26Mg(p,γ)27Al (Eγ = 1014 keV) were measured for proton energies from 1 to 3 MeV using a 60 μg/cm2 Mg target evaporated on a 40 μg/cm2 Ag thin film. The γ-rays were collected by a 50% relative efficiency HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction, while the backscattered protons were collected by an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165°. Simultaneous collection of γ-ray and RBS spectra is a great advantage of this approach which makes differential <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section measurements independent on the collected beam charge. Measured <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section values were compared with the previously reported data in the literature. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> γ-ray differential <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections were obtained with an overall systematic uncertainty of about ±6% and statistical uncertainty of less than ±5% for proton energies higher than 2.24 MeV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1996APS..DPP..6R08G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1996APS..DPP..6R08G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the effects of anode secondary electron <span class="hlt">emission</span> on transmitted current in <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-field diodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gopinath, Venkatesh; Vanderberg, Bo</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Recent experimental measurements of transmitted current in a <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-field switch by Vanderberg and Eninger ( B. H. Vanderberg and J. E. Eninger, ``Space-charge limited current cut-off in <span class="hlt">crossed</span> fields,'' presented at IEEE ICOPS'95, Madison, Wi. ) have shown that the measured values of transmitted current are significantly smaller than the theoretically predicted limit. The experiments also showed larger decrease in transmitted current for higher magnetic fields, implying an effect due to the higher angle of incidence of incident electrons (i.e., at values of B closer to B_H). Studies by Verboncoeur and Birdsall ( J. P. Verboncoeur and C. K. Birdsall. ``Rapid current transition in a <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-field diode,'' Phys. Plasmas 3) 3, March 1996. have shown that even small amount ( < 1%) of over injection in a <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-field diode near cut-off led to substantial decrease in transmitted current. In our current work, we show that the same effect can be triggered by the presence of secondary electron <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the anode. This study models the dependence of <span class="hlt">emission</span> upon incident electron angle and energy. Since the yield of secondary electrons increases with incident angle, this model follows the experimental results as B approaches B_Hull accurately. This work was supported in part by ONR under grant FD-N00014-90-J-1198</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/565843','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/565843"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for near-threshold electron-impact excitation of the 2s{sup 2}S{r_arrow}2p{sup 2}P transition in C{sup 3+}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bannister, M.E.; Chung, Y.; Djuric, N.; Wallbank, B.; Woitke, O.; Zhou, S.; Dunn, G.H.; Smith, A.C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> total <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for electron-impact excitation of the 2s{sup 2}S{r_arrow}2p{sup 2}P transition in C{sup 3+} were measured from 7.35 eV to 8.45 eV using the merged electron-ion-beams energy-loss technique. The results settle the discrepancy between two previous experiments using the <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-beams fluorescence method, being in very good agreement with the older results [P. O. Taylor, D. Gregory, G. H. Dunn, R. A. Phaneuf, and D. H. Crandall, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 39}, 1256 (1977)] but less so with the more recent ones [D. W. Savin, L. D. Gardner, D. B. Reisenfeld, A. R. Young, and J. L. Kohl, Phys. Rev. A {bold 51}, 2162 (1995)]. The present measurements are also in good agreement with unitarized Coulomb-Born and close-coupling calculations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003649.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003649.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Eosinophil count - <span class="hlt">absolute</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eosinophils; <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApOpt..41.7052R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ApOpt..41.7052R"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature dependence of the 1.06-mum stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of neodymium in YAG and in GSGG</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rapaport, Alexandra; Zhao, Shengzhi; Xiao, Guohua; Howard, Andrew; Bass, Michael</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>A linear temperature dependence between -70 degC and +70 degC is reported for the peak stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of Nd3+ ions in both yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (GSGG).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12463252','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12463252"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature dependence of the 1.06-microm stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of neodymium in YAG and in GSGG.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rapaport, Alexandra; Zhao, Shengzhi; Xiao, Guohua; Howard, Andrew; Bass, Michael</p> <p>2002-11-20</p> <p>A linear temperature dependence between -70 degrees C and +70 degrees C is reported for the peak stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of Nd3+ ions in both yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (GSGG). PMID:12463252</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910050420&hterms=photon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphoton','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910050420&hterms=photon&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphoton"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic two-photon scattering and two-photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> - <span class="hlt">Cross</span> sections and redistribution functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alexander, S. G.; Meszaros, P.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The magnetic two-photon scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span> section is discussed within the framework of QED, and the corresponding scattering redistribution function for this process and its inverse, as well as the scattering source function are calculated explicitly. In a similar way, the magnetic two-photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> process which follows the radiative excitation of Landau levels above ground is calculated. The two-photon scattering and two-photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> are of the same order as the single-photon magnetic scattering. All three of these processes, and in optically thick cases also their inverses, are included in radiative transport calculations modeling accreting pulsars and gamma-ray bursters. These processes play a prominent role in determining the relative strength of the first two cyclotron harmonics, and their effects extend also to the higher harmonics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26291472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26291472"><span id="translatedtitle">Stereoselective and Regiodivergent Allylic Suzuki-Miyaura <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-Coupling of 2-Ethoxydihydropyranyl Boronates: Synthesis and Confirmation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Stereochemistry of Diospongin B.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rybak, Taras; Hall, Dennis G</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Oxygen-containing heterocycles such as pyrans are a common substructure present in a variety of natural products and pharmaceutical drugs. Highly functionalized 4- and 6-aryl/heteroaryl dihydropyran derivatives are assembled by a highly stereoselective, ligand-controlled regiodivergent sp(3)-sp(2) Suzuki-Miyaura <span class="hlt">cross</span>-coupling of a 2-ethoxy dihydropyranyl boronate derived from a catalytic enantioselective inverse-electron-demand oxa[4 + 2] cycloaddition. The scope and selectivity of this method were assessed along with an application to a concise total synthesis of the diarylheptanoid natural product diospongin B. PMID:26291472</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139e5104B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139e5104B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for loss of supercoiled topology induced by 10 eV electrons in highly uniform /DNA/1,3-diaminopropane films deposited on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boulanouar, Omar; Fromm, Michel; Bass, Andrew D.; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>It was recently shown that the affinity of doubly charged, 1-3 diaminopropane (Dap2+) for DNA permits the growth on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) substrates, of plasmid DNA films, of known uniform thickness [O. Boulanouar, A. Khatyr, G. Herlem, F. Palmino, L. Sanche, and M. Fromm, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21291-21298 (2011)]. Post-irradiation analysis by electrophoresis of such targets confirms that electron impact at 10 eV produces a maximum in the yield of single strand breaks that can be associated with the formation of a DNA- transient anion. Using a well-adapted deterministic survival model for the variation of electron damage with fluence and film thickness, we have determined an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for strand-break damage by 10 eV electrons and inelastic scattering attenuation length in DNA-Dap complex films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812120','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3812120"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for loss of supercoiled topology induced by 10 eV electrons in highly uniform /DNA/1,3-diaminopropane films deposited on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boulanouar, Omar; Fromm, Michel; Bass, Andrew D.; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>It was recently shown that the affinity of doubly charged, 1–3 diaminopropane (Dap2+) for DNA permits the growth on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) substrates, of plasmid DNA films, of known uniform thickness [O. Boulanouar, A. Khatyr, G. Herlem, F. Palmino, L. Sanche, and M. Fromm, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21291–21298 (2011)]. Post-irradiation analysis by electrophoresis of such targets confirms that electron impact at 10 eV produces a maximum in the yield of single strand breaks that can be associated with the formation of a DNA− transient anion. Using a well-adapted deterministic survival model for the variation of electron damage with fluence and film thickness, we have determined an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for strand-break damage by 10 eV electrons and inelastic scattering attenuation length in DNA-Dap complex films. PMID:23927289</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220489','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220489"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for loss of supercoiled topology induced by 10 eV electrons in highly uniform /DNA/1,3-diaminopropane films deposited on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boulanouar, Omar; Fromm, Michel; Bass, Andrew D.; Cloutier, Pierre; Sanche, Léon</p> <p>2013-08-07</p> <p>It was recently shown that the affinity of doubly charged, 1-3 diaminopropane (Dap{sup 2+}) for DNA permits the growth on highly ordered pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) substrates, of plasmid DNA films, of known uniform thickness [O. Boulanouar, A. Khatyr, G. Herlem, F. Palmino, L. Sanche, and M. Fromm, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 21291–21298 (2011)]. Post-irradiation analysis by electrophoresis of such targets confirms that electron impact at 10 eV produces a maximum in the yield of single strand breaks that can be associated with the formation of a DNA{sup −} transient anion. Using a well-adapted deterministic survival model for the variation of electron damage with fluence and film thickness, we have determined an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for strand-break damage by 10 eV electrons and inelastic scattering attenuation length in DNA-Dap complex films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpA.137..259W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AcSpA.137..259W"><span id="translatedtitle">Dual <span class="hlt">emission</span> behavior of phenyleneethynylene gold(I) complexes dictated by intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span>: A theoretical perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Li; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanxin; He, Hongqing; Zhang, Jinglai</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In commonly studied gold(I) complexes with oligo (o-, p-, or m-phenyleneethynylene) (PE) ligands, an intriguing photophysical behavior is dual <span class="hlt">emission</span> composed of fluorescence from S1 and phosphorescence from T1 which is dictated by effective intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span> (ISC) process. In order to explore the salient photodynamics of such oligo-PE gold(I) complexes effectively, we have deliberately chosen three model complexes, namely, Phsbnd Ctbnd Csbnd Au(PMe3) (1a‧) and Phsbnd Ctbnd Csbnd (1,m)C6H4sbnd Ctbnd Csbnd Au(PMe3) (m = 4, 2a‧; m = 3, 3a‧) in place of the real system. Firstly, electronic structure methods based on DFT and TD-DFT are utilized to perform optimization calculations for the ground- and lowest-lying excited states, respectively. Next, basic photophysical properties including absorption and <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra are investigated by TD-DFT under the optimized geometries. Besides, on the basis of the electronic spectra herein, we succeed in searching for surface intersections as the minima on the seam of singlet-triplet surface <span class="hlt">crossings</span> (SCs) at the CASSCF level of theory. By integration of the results available, the process of delayed fluorescence of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) and phosphorescence was displayed in detail with SCs playing the lead in monitoring the ISC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044026&hterms=ion+cross+section&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dion%2Bcross%2Bsection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044026&hterms=ion+cross+section&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dion%2Bcross%2Bsection"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for excitation of the 2s(2) S-1 -> 2s2p P-1 degrees transition in O+4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, S. J.; Djuric, N.; Lozano, J. A.; Berrington, K. A.; Chutjian, A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Experimental <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are reported for the 1s(2)2s(2) S-1 -> 1s(2)2s2p P-1(o) transition in O+4 located at 19.689 eV. Use is made of the electron energy-loss method, using a merged electron-ion beam geometry. The center-of-mass interaction energies for the measurements in the S-1 -> P-1(o) transition are in the range 18 eV ( below the threshold) to 30 eV. Data are compared with other previous electron energy-loss measurements and with results of a 26 term R-matrix calculation that includes fine structure explicitly via the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Clear resonance enhancement is observed in all experimental and theoretical results near the threshold for this S-1 -> P-1(o) transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..GECOWP702N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..GECOWP702N"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomic Oxygen <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections resulting from Electron Impact in the FUV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; James, G. K.; Khakoo, M. A.</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>The atomic oxygen <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from astronomical sources provide valuable (perhaps unique) information on densities, gas dynamics, etc. of the atmospheres of the planets and their satellites. For example, the atomic oxygen resonance transition at 130.4 nm is a prominent <span class="hlt">emission</span> feature in the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum of the Earth's aurora and day glow as well as the atmospheres of Europa, Ganymede, Mars and Venus. In this poster we present our measurements of the electron impact <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of the 130.4 nm atomic oxygen feature from threshold to 1000 eV impact energy. A high density atomic oxygen beam, created by a microwave discharge source, was intersected at right angles by a magnetically focused electron beam. The experimental apparatus consists of an electron impact collision chamber in tandem with a 0.2m UV spectrometer equipped with a CsI coated channel electron multiplier detector. Emitted photons corresponding to radiative decay of collisionally excited state of the 130.4 nm atomic oxygen feature were detected.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23017863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23017863"><span id="translatedtitle">Women's status and carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>: A quantitative <span class="hlt">cross</span>-national analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ergas, Christina; York, Richard</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women's traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women's status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of <span class="hlt">cross</span>-national data, focusing on the connection between women's political status and CO(2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per capita. We find that CO(2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally. PMID:23017863</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033734&hterms=molecules+atoms&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmolecules%2Batoms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033734&hterms=molecules+atoms&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmolecules%2Batoms"><span id="translatedtitle">X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from charge exchange of highly-charged ions in atoms and molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Greenwood, J. B.; Williams, I. D.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Charge exchange followed by radiative stabilization are the main processes responsible for the recent observations of X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from comets in their approach to the Sun. A new apparatus was constructed to measure, in collisions of HCIs with atoms and molecules, (a) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for single and multiple charge exchange, and (b) normalized X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhRvA..59.2773L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhRvA..59.2773L"><span id="translatedtitle">Differential electron-Cu5+ elastic scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections extracted from electron <span class="hlt">emission</span> in ion-atom collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liao, C.; Hagmann, S.; Bhalla, C. P.; Grabbe, S. R.; Cocke, C. L.; Richard, P.</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>We present a method of deriving energy and angle-dependent electron-ion elastic scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections from doubly differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for electron <span class="hlt">emission</span> in ion-atom collisions. By analyzing the laboratory frame binary encounter electron production <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections in energetic ion-atom collisions, we derive projectile frame differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for electrons elastically scattered from highly charged projectile ions in the range between 60° and 180°. The elastic scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are observed to deviate strongly from the Rutherford <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for electron scattering from bare nuclei. They exhibit strong Ramsauer-Townsend electron diffraction in the angular distribution of elastically scattered electrons, providing evidence for the strong role of screening played in the collision. Experimental data are compared with partial-wave calculations using the Hartree-Fock model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20808453','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20808453"><span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting the {sup 238}U Thermal Capture <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Section and Gamma-Ray <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Probabilities from {sup 239}Np Decay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trkov, A.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Firestone, R.B.; Pronyaev, V.G.; Nichols, A.L.; Moxon, M.C</p> <p>2005-07-15</p> <p>The precise value of the thermal capture <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of {sup 238}U is uncertain, and evaluated <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections from various sources differ by more than their assigned uncertainties. A number of the original publications have been reviewed to assess the discrepant data, corrections were made for more recent standard <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections and other constants, and one new measurement was analyzed. Because of the strong correlations in activation measurements, the gamma-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> probabilities from the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 239}Np were also analyzed. As a result of the analysis, a value of 2.683 {+-} 0.012 b was derived for the thermal capture <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of {sup 238}U. A new evaluation of the gamma-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> probabilities from {sup 239}Np decay was also undertaken.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007199"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Secondary Electron <span class="hlt">Emission</span> on Electron <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-Field Current in E×B Discharges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yevgeny Raitses, Igor D. Kaganovich, Alexander Khrabrov, Dmytro Sydorenko, Nathaniel J. Fisch and Andrei Smolyakov</p> <p>2011-02-10</p> <p>This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A lowpressure ExB plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and electron-induced secondary electron <span class="hlt">emission</span> (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted, anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron <span class="hlt">cross</span>-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron crossfield transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasineutral plasma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> biological needs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLeod, Stephen</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended <span class="hlt">absolute</span> needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are <span class="hlt">absolute</span> biological needs. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21028244','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21028244"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron-impact excitation of argon: Optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections in the range of 300-2500 nm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boffard, John B. Chiaro, B.; Weber, Tobin; Lin, Chun C.</p> <p>2007-11-15</p> <p>We present measurements of optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for excitation from the ground state of the Ar atom into over 185 excited atomic and ionic levels. Measurements were made at electron energies of 25, 50, and 100 eV, at a gas pressure of 5 mTorr. Due to radiation trapping of resonance levels, many of the <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections depend on the target pressure. Detailed pressure dependence for over 50 levels is also provided. The energy dependence of the excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for over 175 levels in the energy range of 0-250 eV are provided as fitted parameters for a standard analytical function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930050441&hterms=Franck+James&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Franck%2BJames%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930050441&hterms=Franck+James&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Franck%2BJames%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron impact <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections needed in modeling UV observations of the upper atmospheres of the planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ajello, J. M.; Kanik, I.; James, G. K.; Shemansky, D. E.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In recognition of the need for accurate collision <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections suitable for modeling spectroscopic observations of the planetary systems and calibrate flight instruments, NASA-JPL has determined the laboratory <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections of H, H2, N2, SO2, etc. Resonance excitation, predissociation, and non-Franck-Condon band intensity systems are determined by configuration interaction and must be taken into account in analyses of spacecraft observations. Attention is given to the application of the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectional data obtained to both electron energy loss codes and models of Voyager, IUE, Galileo, and HST observations of the solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/899103','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/899103"><span id="translatedtitle">Excitation <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line <span class="hlt">Emission</span> in Fe17+ to Fe23+</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, H; Gu, M F; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Scofield, J H</p> <p>2006-02-08</p> <p>The authors report the measurement of electron impact excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for the strong iron L-shell 3 {yields} 2 lines of Fe XVIII through Fe XXIV at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and a 6 x 6 pixel array microcalorimeter. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of radiative electron capture through a sophisticated model analysis which results in the excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for 48 lines at multiple electron energies. They also studied the electron density dependent nature of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines, which is demonstrated by the effective excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of the 3d {yields} 2p transition in Fe XXI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5462995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5462995"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photofission <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of sup 197 Au, @Pb, sup 209 Bi, sup 232 Th, sup 238 U, and sup 235 U nuclei by 69-MeV monochromatic and polarized photons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martins, J.B.; Moreira, E.L.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Vieira, J.L. Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas-CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290 Rio de Janeiro-RJ, ); Casano, L.; D'Angelo, A.; Schaerf, C. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, Roma, ); Terranova, M.L. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, Roma, Italy); Babusci, D. ); Girolami, B. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nuclea</p> <p>1991-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section measurements for the photofission reactions of {sup 197}Au, {sup nat}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and {sup 235}U nuclei have been performed at an incident photon energy of 69 MeV using monochromatic and polarized photon beams and dielectric fission-track detectors. Nuclear fissility values have been obtained and results are in agreement with those from other laboratories, although in some cases discrepancies are observed between one other. For nuclei in the region of the actinides the fissility result is {approx gt}0.4, while for Au, Pb, and Bi nuclei it only is {similar to}10{sup {minus}3}--10{sup {minus}2}. Results have been interpreted in terms of the primary Levinger's quasideuteron nuclear photoabsorption followed by a mechanism of evaporation-fission competition for the excited nuclei. Shell effects have been taken into account, and they are clearly manifested when fissility is evaluated. The influence of photon polarization on photofission of {sup 238}U also has been investigated, and results have shown isotropy in the fragment azimuthal distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16350371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16350371"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for visibility and radiative transfer applications: military vehicles traveling on unpaved roads.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moosmüller, Hans; Varma, Ravi; Arnott, W Patrick; Kuhns, Hampden D; Etyemezian, Vicken; Gillies, John A</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Emission</span> factors for particulate matter (PM) are generally reported as mass <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors (PM mass emitted per time or activity) as appropriate for air quality standards based on mass concentration. However, for visibility and radiative transfer applications, scattering, absorption, and extinction coefficients are the parameters of interest, with visibility standards based on extinction coefficients. These coefficients (dimension of inverse distance) equal <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section concentrations, and, therefore, <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors are appropriate. Scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors were determined for dust entrainment by nine vehicles, ranging from light passenger vehicles to heavy military vehicles, traveling on an unpaved road. Each vehicle made multiple passes at multiple speeds while scattering and absorption coefficients, wind velocity and dust plume profiles, and additional parameters were measured downwind of the road. Light absorption of the entrained PM was negligible, and the light extinction was primarily caused by scattering. The resulting scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors per vehicle kilometer traveled (vkt) range from 12.5 m2/vkt for a slow (16 km/ hr), light (1176 kg) vehicle to 3724 m2/vkt for a fast (64 km/hr), heavy (17,727 kg) vehicle and generally increase with vehicle speed and mass. The increase is approximately linear with speed, yielding <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors per vkt and speed ranging from 4.2 m2/(vkt km/hr) to 53 m2/(vkt km/hr). These <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors depend approximately linearly on vehicle mass within the groups of light (vehicle mass < or =3100 kg) and heavy (vehicle mass >8000 kg) vehicles yielding <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors per vkt, speed, and mass of 0.0056 m2/(vkt km/hr kg) and 0.0024 m2/(vkt km/hr kg), respectively. Comparison of the scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section and PM mass <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors yields average mass scattering efficiencies of 1.5 m2/g for the light vehicles and of 0.8 m2/g for the heavy vehicles indicating that the heavy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/972837"><span id="translatedtitle">Cometary X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span>: theoretical <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections following charge exchange by multiply charged ions of astrophysical interest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Otranto, S; Olson, R E; Beiersdorfer, P</p> <p>2007-02-13</p> <p>The CTMC method is used to calculate <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections following charge exchange collisions involving highly charged ions of astrophysical interest and typical cometary targets. Comparison is made to experimental data obtained on the EBIT machine at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for O{sup 8+} projectiles impinging on different targets at a collision energy of 10 eV/amu. The theoretical <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are used together with ion abundances measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer as well as those obtained by a fitting procedure using laboratory <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections in order to reproduce the x-ray spectrum of comet C/LINEAR S4 measured on July 14th 2001.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhDT.......110M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhDT.......110M"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the Electron Impact Photoemission <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections of the 92.0 NM and 93.2 NM <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Lines of Argon II for the VUV Radiometric Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McPherson, Leroy Armon, Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>Measurements of the electron impact photoemission <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for 92.0 nm and 93.2 nm radiation from Ar II have been made. The unpolarized radiation is produced by transitions from the 3s3p('6) ('2)S(,1/2) state to the 3s('2)3p('5) ('2)P(,1/2'3/2) states. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections were determined at an incident electron energy of 100 eV and found to be (5.81 (+OR-) 0.48) x 10('-18) cm('2) for the 92.0 nm line (S(,1/2)(--->)P(,3/2)) and (3.00 (+OR -) 0.25) x 10('-18) cm('2) for the 93.2 nm line (S(,1/2)( --->)P(,1/2)). The Ar II photoemission <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections will be part of an atlas of electron impact photoemission <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines throughout the vuv wavelength region. This atlas will form the basis of a new portable primary vuv radiometric standard. The new intensity standard consists of an electron beam used to excite gas atoms which subsequently emit characteristic line radiation. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> photon flux emitted in an <span class="hlt">emission</span> line can be determined if the electron impact photoemission <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for the <span class="hlt">emission</span> line is known, along with the target gas density and the electron beam current. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric standard can be used to determine the detection efficiency of any uncalibrated spectrometer-detector system. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> section measurements were made using a spectrometer with an optical system similar to the Seya -Namioka design. A type IV holographic grating with an aluminum surface overcoated with MgF(,2) was used. The detector was a venetian blind photomultiplier with a BeCu cathode. The detection efficiency was determined by using well parameterized synchrotron radiation from SURF-II at the National Bureau of Standards in Gaithersburg, Maryland. A large multiadjustable manipulator positioned the spectrometer to view a beam of synchrotron radiation as if it originated from points along the electron beam. The spectrometer -detector system response was determined separately for incident synchrotron radiation polarized both parallel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moody, A.</p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080014315&hterms=ion+cross+section&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dion%2Bcross%2Bsection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080014315&hterms=ion+cross+section&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dion%2Bcross%2Bsection"><span id="translatedtitle">Excitation and Charge Exchange Phenomena in Astronomical Objects: Measurement of <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections and Lifetimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chutjian, Ara; Smith, S.; Lozano, J.; Cadez, I.; Greewnood, J.; Mawhovter, R.; Williams, I.; Niimura, M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This document addresses extreme ultraviolet radiation and X-ray <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from comets, planets and heliospheric gases focusing on the measurement of charge-exchange <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections and radiative lifetimes. Highly-charged heavy ions present in the solar wind, and their abundance relative to the total oxygen-ion abundance are detailed. The plan for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory high-charge ion facility is outlined detailing its ability to measure <span class="hlt">absolute</span> collisional excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> charge-exchange <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections, lifetimes of metastable ion levels, and X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra following charge changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.488j2031A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.488j2031A"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly charged ion impact on uracil: <span class="hlt">Cross</span> sections measurements and scaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> total ionization <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections (TCS) of uracil in collisions with highly charge C, O and F ions are measured. The scaling properties of <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are obtained as a function of projectile charge state and energy. The measurements are compared with the CDW-EIS, CB1 and CTMC calculations. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> double differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections (DDCS) of secondary electron <span class="hlt">emission</span> from uracil in collisions with bare MeV energy C and O ions are also measured. Large enhancement in forward <span class="hlt">emission</span> is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPB.332..103M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPB.332..103M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cross</span> section for induced L X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> by protons of energy <400 keV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohan, Harsh; Jain, Arvind Kumar; Kaur, Mandeep; Singh, Parjit S.; Sharma, Sunita</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In performing ion beam analysis, <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for induced L X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> plays a crucial role. There are different approaches by which these can be found experimentally or can be calculated theoretically based on various models. L X-ray production <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for Bi with protons in the energy range 260-400 keV at the interval of 20 keV are measured. These are compared with calculations obtained on the basis of current prevailing theories ECPSSR and ECPSSR-UA. Their importance in understanding this phenomenon and existing arguments in this regard will be highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1367...29A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1367...29A"><span id="translatedtitle">Precise Measurement of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluorescence Yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>We present preliminary results of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> yield of fluorescence <span class="hlt">emission</span> in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060038778&hterms=slevin&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dslevin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060038778&hterms=slevin&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dslevin"><span id="translatedtitle">(abstract)Electron Impact <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections for Modeling UV Auroral and Dayglow Observations of the Upper Atmospheres of Planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ajello, J. M.; Shemansky, D. E.; James, G.; Kanik, I.; Slevin, J. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In the upper atmospheres of the Jovian and Terrestrial planets a dominant mechanism for energy transfer occurs through electron collisional processes with neutral species leading to UV radiation. In response to the need for accurate collision <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections to model spectroscopic observations of planetary systems, JPL has measured in the laboratory <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections and medium resolution spectra of H, H(sub 2), N(sub 2), SO(sub 2), and other important planetary gases.Voyager and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft have established that band systems of H(sub 2) and N(sub 2) are the dominant UV molecular <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the solar system produced by electron impact. Applications of our data to models of Voyager, IUE, Galileo, and Hubble Space Telescope observations of the planets will be described.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4929454','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4929454"><span id="translatedtitle">Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>: A <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-National Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are associated with increased national carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity. PMID:27363677</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0080S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0080S"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and <span class="hlt">cross</span>-comparison of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> calculations from specific wildland fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strand, T.; Drury, S.; Larkin, N. K.; Raffuse, S. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Results from the Smoke and <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Model Intercomparison Project (SEMIP) are shown detailing wildland fire <span class="hlt">emissions</span> calculations for fires of various types. These test cases range from specific wildfires (e.g. the Tripod Fire of 2006, eastern Washington) to regional fires (e.g. the 2008 California fires and the 2011 Southwest United States fires). Plots showing how fuel loading maps intercompare and how their different descriptions and treatments of the various fuel strata can influence the resulting <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are detailed. Similarly, the intricacies of different consumption modeling assumptions and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> factor assumptions are analyzed and presented. Finally, the importance of how the various pieces of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> calculation stream interact to create uncertainty in the final <span class="hlt">emissions</span> results are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...628661J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...628661J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>: A <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-National Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are associated with increased national carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27363677','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27363677"><span id="translatedtitle">Disproportionality in Power Plants' Carbon <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>: A <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-National Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector's facilities often produces the lion's share of toxic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Here we extend this idea to the world's electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are associated with increased national carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations' greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity. PMID:27363677</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6063303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6063303"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration in vivo measurement systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhB..21i4214S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhB..21i4214S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of temperature and input energy on a quasi-three-level <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of Nd3+:YAG pumped by a flashlamp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seyed Ebrahim, Pourmand; Noriah, Bidin; Hazri, Bakhtiar</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The influence of temperature and input energy on the fluorescence <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of Nd3+:YAG crystal is studied. The stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of quasi-three-level systems are determined in a temperature range from -30 to 60°C and an input energy range from 18 to 75 J. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> section is found to be decreased when the temperature and the input energy are increased. This is attributed to the thermal broadening mechanism of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> line. This study is relevant for the development of laser design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.6363Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.6363Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> contributions to Mexico City's <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory using on-road and <span class="hlt">cross</span>-road <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements and ambient data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Knighton, W. B.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> represent a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> burden in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and, therefore, it is crucial to use top-down techniques informed by on-road exhaust measurements to evaluate and improve traditional bottom-up official <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory (EI) for the city. We present the measurements of on-road fleet-average <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory in the MCMA in March 2006 as part of the MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 field campaign. A comparison of our on-road <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements with those obtained in 2003 using essentially the same measurement techniques and analysis methods indicates that, in the three year span, NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors remain within the measured variability ranges whereas <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of aldehydes and aromatics species were reduced for all sampled driving conditions. We use a top-down fuel-based approach to evaluate the mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the gasoline fleet estimated in the bottom-up official 2006 MCMA mobile sources. Within the range of measurement uncertainties, we found probable slight overpredictions of mean EI estimates on the order of 20-28% for CO and 14-20% for NO. However, we identify a probable EI underprediction of VOC mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> between 1.4 and 1.9; although estimated benzene and toluene mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the inventory seem to be well within the uncertainties of the corresponding <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates. Aldehydes mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the inventory, however, seem to be under predicted by factors of 3 for HCHO and 2 for CH3CHO. Our on-road measurement based estimate of annual <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of organic mass from PM1 particles suggests a severe underprediction (larger than a factor of 4) of PM2.5 mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the inventory. Analyses of ambient CO, NOx and CO/NOx concentration trends in the MCMA indicate that the early morning ambient CO/NOx ratio has decreased at a rate of about 1.9 ppm/ppm/year over the last two decades and that the decrease</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.6305Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.6305Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> contributions to Mexico City's <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory using on-road and <span class="hlt">cross</span>-road <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements and ambient data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Knighton, W. B.; Marr, L. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> represent a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> burden in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and, therefore, it is crucial to use top-down techniques informed by on-road exhaust measurements to evaluate and improve traditional bottom-up official <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory (EI) for the city. We present the measurements of on-road fleet-average <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory in the MCMA in March 2006 as part of the MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 field campaign. A comparison of our on-road <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements with those obtained in 2003 using essentially the same measurement techniques and analysis methods indicates that, in the three year span, NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors remain within the measured variability ranges whereas <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of aldehydes and aromatics species were reduced for all sampled driving conditions. We use a top-down fuel-based approach to evaluate the mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the gasoline fleet estimated in the bottom-up official 2006 MCMA mobile sources. Within the range of measurement uncertainties, we found probable slight overpredictions of mean EI estimates on the order of 20-28% for CO and 14-20% for NO. However, we identify a probable EI discrepancy of VOC mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> between 1.4 and 1.9; although estimated benzene and toluene mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the inventory seem to be well within the uncertainties of the corresponding <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates. Aldehydes mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the inventory, however, seem to be underpredicted by factors of 3 for HCHO and 2 for CH3CHO. Our on-road measurement-based estimate of annual <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of organic mass from PM1 particles suggests a severe underprediction (larger than a factor of 4) of PM2.5 mobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the inventory. Analyses of ambient CO, NOx and CO/NOx concentration trends in the MCMA indicate that the early morning ambient CO/NOx ratio has decreased at a rate of about 1.9 ppm/ppm/year over the last two decades due to reductions in CO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S42C..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.S42C..05M"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined Use of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Event Location</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Arrival time measurements based on waveform <span class="hlt">cross</span> correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time data. Current methods for measuring <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform <span class="hlt">cross</span> correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time data are used to 0.28 km when <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting <span class="hlt">absolute</span> location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and differential time measurement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013051','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013051"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Cartesian Autocollimator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leviton, Douglas B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>An electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term <span class="hlt">absolute</span> in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...592A..23B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...592A..23B"><span id="translatedtitle">The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein <span class="hlt">cross</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Braibant, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Sluse, D.; Anguita, T.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad <span class="hlt">emission</span> line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein <span class="hlt">cross</span>) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization Hα line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV <span class="hlt">emission</span> line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad <span class="hlt">emission</span> line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of Hα favors a flattened, virialized, low-ionization region whereas the symmetric microlensing effect measured in CIV can be reproduced by an <span class="hlt">emission</span> line formed in a polar wind, without the need of fine-tuned caustic configurations. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT, Paranal, Chile; Proposals 076.B-0197 and 076.B-0607 (PI: Courbin).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921934"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.</p> <p>2007-09-10</p> <p>Precise and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013MNRAS.432.2615W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013MNRAS.432.2615W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">LOFAR insights into the epoch of reionization from the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-power spectrum of 21 cm <span class="hlt">emission</span> and galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiersma, R. P. C.; Ciardi, B.; Thomas, R. M.; Harker, G. J. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Daiboo, S.; Jelic, V.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Labropoulos, P.; Martinez, O.; Mellema, G.; Offringa, A.; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, J.; Veligatla, V.; Vedantham, H.; Yatawatta, S.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Using a combination of N-body simulations, semi-analytic models and radiative transfer calculations, we have estimated the theoretical <span class="hlt">cross</span>-power spectrum between galaxies and the 21 cm <span class="hlt">emission</span> from neutral hydrogen during the epoch of reionization. In accordance with previous studies, we find that the 21 cm <span class="hlt">emission</span> is initially correlated with haloes on large scales (≳30 Mpc), anticorrelated on intermediate (˜5 Mpc) and uncorrelated on small (≲3 Mpc) scales. This picture quickly changes as reionization proceeds and the two fields become anticorrelated on large scales. The normalization of the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-power spectrum can be used to set constraints on the average neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium and its shape can be a powerful tool to study the topology of reionization. When we apply a drop-out technique to select galaxies and add to the 21 cm signal the noise expected from the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) telescope, we find that while the normalization of the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-power spectrum remains a useful tool for probing reionization, its shape becomes too noisy to be informative. On the other hand, for an Lyα Emitter (LAE) survey both the normalization and the shape of the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-power spectrum are suitable probes of reionization. A closer look at a specific planned LAE observing program using Subaru Hyper-Suprime Cam reveals concerns about the strength of the 21 cm signal at the planned redshifts. If the ionized fraction at z ˜ 7 is lower than the one estimated here, then using the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-power spectrum may be a useful exercise given that at higher redshifts and neutral fractions it is able to distinguish between two toy models with different topologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22116986','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22116986"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing the quasi-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> method in photon activation analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Starovoitova, V.; Segebade, C.</p> <p>2013-04-19</p> <p>In photon activation analysis (PAA), relative methods are widely used because of their accuracy and precision. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> methods, which are conducted without any assistance from calibration materials, are seldom applied for the difficulty in obtaining photon flux in measurements. This research is an attempt to perform a new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> approach in PAA - quasi-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> method - by retrieving photon flux in the sample through Monte Carlo simulation. With simulated photon flux and database of experimental <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections, it is possible to calculate the concentration of target elements in the sample directly. The QA/QC procedures to solidify the research are discussed in detail. Our results show that the accuracy of the method for certain elements is close to a useful level in practice. Furthermore, the future results from the quasi-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> method can also serve as a validation technique for experimental data on <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections. The quasi-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> method looks promising.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16463910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16463910"><span id="translatedtitle">Implants as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> anchorage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "<span class="hlt">absolute</span> anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium Entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shebalin, John V.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The entropy associated with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPCM...22H5503R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPCM...22H5503R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> properties of Tb3 + ions in LYSO: evidence of a <span class="hlt">cross</span> relaxation mechanism explained by a kinetic model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ricci, P. C.; Salis, M.; Corpino, R.; Carbonaro, C. M.; Fortin, E.; Anedda, A.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The optical properties of Tb3 + ions in oxyorthosilicates of lutetium and yttrium (LYSO) are reported. The introduction of a small number of terbium ions (nominal content 10 ppm) generates, in the otherwise transparent absorption spectrum of the matrix, an ultraviolet absorption band peaked at about 240 nm. By exciting within the reported UV band, line shaped <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the 350-600 nm range are detected. These transitions are related to the 5D3 and 5D4 levels of the Tb3 + ions and are characterized by decay times in the millisecond time domain. Analysis of the decay time measurements allows us to individuate a <span class="hlt">cross</span> relaxation mechanism among terbium ions even at the low dopant concentration investigated. We propose a three-level kinetic model which is able to successfully reproduce the experimental data, allowing us to discriminate among the radiative and non-radiative contributions to the observed <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403256"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> properties of Tb3+ ions in LYSO: evidence of a <span class="hlt">cross</span> relaxation mechanism explained by a kinetic model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ricci, P C; Salis, M; Corpino, R; Carbonaro, C M; Fortin, E; Anedda, A</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The optical properties of Tb(3+) ions in oxyorthosilicates of lutetium and yttrium (LYSO) are reported. The introduction of a small number of terbium ions (nominal content 10 ppm) generates, in the otherwise transparent absorption spectrum of the matrix, an ultraviolet absorption band peaked at about 240 nm. By exciting within the reported UV band, line shaped <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the 350-600 nm range are detected. These transitions are related to the (5)D(3) and (5)D(4) levels of the Tb(3+) ions and are characterized by decay times in the millisecond time domain. Analysis of the decay time measurements allows us to individuate a <span class="hlt">cross</span> relaxation mechanism among terbium ions even at the low dopant concentration investigated. We propose a three-level kinetic model which is able to successfully reproduce the experimental data, allowing us to discriminate among the radiative and non-radiative contributions to the observed <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. PMID:21403256</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.JH002U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.JH002U"><span id="translatedtitle">Gamma-Ray <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234 , 236 , 238U Neutron-Capture <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ullmann, J. L.; Krticka, M.; Kawano, T.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Calculations of the neutron-capture <span class="hlt">cross</span> section at low neutron energies (10 eV through 100's of keV) are very sensitive to the nuclear level density and radiative strength function. These quantities are often poorly known, especially for radioactive targets, and actual measurements of the capture <span class="hlt">cross</span> section are usually required. An additional constraint on the calculation of the capture <span class="hlt">cross</span> section is provided by measurements of the cascade gamma spectrum following neutron capture. Recent measurements of 234 , 236 , 238U(n, γ) <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra made using the DANCE 4 π BaF2 array at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will be presented. Calculations of gamma-ray spectra made using the DICEBOX code and of the capture <span class="hlt">cross</span> section made using the CoH3 code will also be presented. These techniques may be also useful for calculations of more unstable nuclides. This work was performed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EPJWC.12201005H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EPJWC.12201005H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Fission <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> in request for nuclear applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hambsch, F.-J.; Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Oberstedt, S.; Göök, A.; Billnert, R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In recent years JRC-IRMM has been investigating fission <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections of 240,242Pu in the fast-neutron energy range relevant for innovative reactor systems and requested in the High Priority Request List (HPRL) of the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). In addition to that, prompt neutron multiplicities are being investigated for the major isotopes 235U, 239Pu in the neutron-resonance region using a newly developed scintillation detector array (SCINTIA) and an innovative modification of the Frisch-grid ionisation chamber for fission-fragment detection. These data are highly relevant for improved neutron data evaluation and requested by the OECD/Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). Thirdly, also prompt fission γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> is investigated using highly efficient lanthanide-halide detectors with superior timing resolution. Again, those data are requested in the HPRL for major actinides to solve open questions on an under-prediction of decay heat in nuclear reactors. The information on prompt fission neutron and γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> is crucial for benchmarking nuclear models to study the de-excitation process of neutron-rich fission fragments. Information on γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> probabilities is also useful in decommissioning exercises on damaged nuclear power plants like Fukushima Daiichi to which JRC-IRMM is contributing. The results on the 240,242Pu fission <span class="hlt">cross</span> section, 235U prompt neutron multiplicity in the resonance region and correlations with fission fragments and prompt γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> for several isotopes will be presented and put into perspective.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1382...49W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1382...49W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, Joachim</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611867','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611867"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wolf, Joachim</p> <p>2011-10-06</p> <p>The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JaJAP..47.7896S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JaJAP..47.7896S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective Fluorescence Lifetime and Stimulated <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-Section of Nd/Cr:YAG Ceramics under CW Lamplight Pumping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saiki, Taku; Motokoshi, Shinji; Imasaki, Kazuo; Fujioka, Kana; Fujita, Hisanori; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Izawa, Yasukazu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Remarkable improvements in the lifetime of the Nd upper level and in the effective stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section of Nd/Cr:YAG ceramics have been theoretically and experimentally studied. Until recently, it had been thought that the long energy transition time from Cr ions to Nd ions of Nd/Cr:YAG adversely affects laser action, degrading optical-optical conversion efficiency under CW and flash lamp pumping. However, current research showed that high-efficiency energy transition has a positive effect on laser action. The effective lifetime is increased from 0.23 to 1.1 ms and the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section is effectively increased to three times for that of the conventional Nd:YAG. A small signal gain is significantly improved, and the saturation power density is reduced to 1/10 that of the Nd:YAG for the same pumping power density. A CW laser light generated in a laser diode (LD)-pumped 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser oscillator was amplified, and the measured output power was saturated. The output laser power calculated using theoretical saturation power density was consistent with the experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhRvA..65e2711D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhRvA..65e2711D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for near-threshold electron-impact excitation of the dipole-allowed transitions 3s2 1S-->3s3p 1P in Cl5+ and 3s 2S-->3p 2P in Cl6+</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Djurić, N.; Bannister, M. E.; Derkatch, A. M.; Griffin, D. C.; Krause, H. F.; Popović, D. B.; Smith, A. C.; Wallbank, B.; Dunn, G. H.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Experimental and theoretical <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for electron-impact excitation of the dipole-allowed transitions 3s2 1S-->3s3p 1P in Cl5+ and 3s 2S-->3p 2P in Cl6+ near the excitation thresholds are reported. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are measured using the merged electron-ion beams energy-loss technique. The intermediate-coupling frame-transformation R-matrix method is used to obtain theoretical <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections. The total <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections, for the transitions studied in both ions, exhibit resonance structures near threshold. There is excellent agreement between theory and experiment with respect to both the shape and the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for the 3s 2S-->3p 2P transition in Cl6+. For Cl5+, structures and trends in both the present R-matrix calculation and the previous calculation of Baluja and Mohan [J. Phys. B 20, 831 (1987)] agree well with the experimental results. However, the magnitudes of the theoretical <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for Cl5+ are significantly smaller than the measured <span class="hlt">cross</span> section, which has been corrected for metastable contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...716110V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Nanos...716110V"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect related <span class="hlt">emission</span> versus intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span>: blue emitting ZnO/graphene oxide quantum dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vempati, Sesha; Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In ref. [Nat. Nanotechnol., 2012, 7, 465-471] interesting optoelectronic properties of ZnO/graphene oxide (GO) composite were presented. Essentially, in the luminescence spectrum indirect optical transitions were identified to be from the epoxy group of GO (GOepoxy) to the valance band (Ev) of ZnO. Viz. 406 nm, L1: (LUMO+2)GOepoxy --> Ev and 436 nm, L2: (LUMO)GOepoxy --> Ev. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> peak at ~550 nm was attributed to zinc interstitials (Znis) or oxygen vacancies (VOs) and shown to span from 350-650 nm (equivalent to a width of ~0.8 eV). In this report we accentuate two vital though largely ignored concerns as itemized in the following. (i) By considering the growth mechanism of ZnO in the composite, there is a certain possibility that these two bands (L1 and L2) may originate from intrinsic defects of ZnO such as Znis and extended Znis (ex-Znis). Or L1 and L2 might be intrinsic to GO. (ii) The 550 nm <span class="hlt">emission</span> involves VOs and consists of two components with a typical width of ~0.3 eV. Here we present the results of a thorough investigation confirming the presence of Znis, ex-Znis and intrinsic <span class="hlt">emission</span> from GO. We also note that during the synthesis the presence of dimethyl formamide significantly affected the <span class="hlt">emission</span> from GO in addition to some chemical modifications. Apart from these, we have discussed other crucial factors which require deeper attention in the context of luminescence from complex systems such as those present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JFuE...32..317Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JFuE...32..317Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculations of Proton <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections in Deuteron Induced Reactions of Some Fusion Structural Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Tanır, G.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The growing demands for energy consumption have led to the increase of the research and development activities on new energy sources. Fusion energy has the highest potential to become a very safe, clean and abundant energy source for the future. To get energy from fusion are needed for development of fusion reactor technology. Particularly, the design and development of international facilities as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility requires for the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section data of deuteron induced reactions. Moreover, the selection of fusion structural materials are an indispensable component for this technology. Therefore, the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section data of deuteron induced reactions on fusion structural materials are of great importance for development of fusion reactor technology. In this study, reaction model calculations of the <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of deuteron induced reactions on structural fusion materials such as 27Al, 59Co, 55Mn, 50Cr, 54Cr, 64Ni, 109Ag, 184W and 186W have been carried out for incident energies up to 50 MeV. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects for ( d, p) stripping reactions have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model and hybrid model. Equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. In the calculations the program code ALICE/ASH was used. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218280','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218280"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative dosimetry for ELIMED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.</p> <p>2013-07-26</p> <p>The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect+AND+assimilation&pg=7&id=EJ735377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect+AND+assimilation&pg=7&id=EJ735377"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification by Relative Judgment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In unidimensional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743"><span id="translatedtitle">Be Resolute about <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kidd, Margaret L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article explores how conceptualization of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030058914','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030058914"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Measurements of Solar-Wind/Comet X-Ray <span class="hlt">Emission</span> and Charge Exchange <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chutjian, A.; Cadez, I.; Greenwood, J. B.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Smith, S. J.; Lozano, J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The detection of X-rays from comets such as Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp, d Arrest, and Linear as they approach the Sun has been unexpected and exciting. This phenomenon, moreover, should be quite general, occurring wherever a fast solar or stellar wind interacts with neutrals in a comet, a planetary atmosphere, or a circumstellar cloud. The process is, O(+8) + H2O --> O(+7*) + H2O(+), where the excited O(+7*) ions are the source of the X-ray <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Detailed modeling has been carried out of X-ray <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in charge-transfer collisions of heavy solar-wind Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) and interstellar/interplanetary neutral clouds. In the interplanetary medium the solar wind ions, including protons, can charge exchange with interstellar H and He. This can give rise to a soft X-ray background that could be correlated with the long-term enhancements seen in the low-energy X-ray spectrum of ROSAT. Approximately 40% of the soft X-ray background detected by Exosat, ROSAT, Chandra, etc. is due to Charge Exchange (CXE): our whole heliosphere is glowing in the soft X-ray due to CXE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..APR.S5004S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..APR.S5004S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Redetermining CEBAF's <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Su, Tong; Jlab Marathon Collaboration</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>With the upgrade of the Jefferson Lab accelerator (CEBAF) from 6 GeV max energy to 12 GeV, all the dipole magnets in the machine were refurbished. Most of them were switched from open c-shaped to closed h-shaped by adding extra iron. With these upgraded magnets, the energy calibration of the accelerator needed to be redetermined. We will show how an extra external dipole, which is run in series with those in the machine, helps us <span class="hlt">cross</span> check the current in the magnets as well as precisely map out the integral field for any machine setting. Using knowledge of the relative performance of the dipoles as well as the bend angle into the Hall, has allowed us to already determine a 4th pass 7 GeV beam to better than 7 MeV. In the future, we will use g-2 spin precession as a second independent energy determination. This work is supported by Kent State University, NSF Grant PHY-1405814, and DOE Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177 (JLab).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.375....8L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.375....8L"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of secondary neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> double-differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for 9Be induced by 21.65 ± 0.07 MeV neutrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lan, Changlin; Ruan, Xichao; Chen, Guochang; Nie, Yangbo; Huang, Hanxiong; Bao, Jie; Zhou, Zuying; Tang, Hongqing; Kong, Xiangzhong; Peng, Meng</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> double-differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections (DDX) of 9Be was measured at an incident neutron energy of 21.65 MeV, using the multi-detector fast neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer on HI-13 Tandem Accelerator at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The data were deduced by comparing the measured TOF spectra with the calculated ones using a realistic Monte-Carlo simulation. The DDX were normalized to n-p scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections which are a neutron scattering standard. The results of the elastic scattering angular distributions (DX) and the secondary neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> DDX at 25 different angles from 15 deg to 145 deg were presented. Meanwhile, a theoretical model based on the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model for light nuclei was used to describe the double-differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of n+9Be, and the theoretical calculation results were compared with the measured <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhRvD..92j3506P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhRvD..92j3506P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cross</span>-correlation cosmography with intensity mapping of the neutral hydrogen 21 cm <span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pourtsidou, A.; Bacon, D.; Crittenden, R.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation of a foreground density field with two different background convergence fields can be used to measure cosmographic distance ratios and constrain dark energy parameters. We investigate the possibility of performing such measurements using a combination of optical galaxy surveys and neutral hydrogen (HI) intensity mapping surveys, with emphasis on the performance of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Using HI intensity mapping to probe the foreground density tracer field and/or the background source fields has the advantage of excellent redshift resolution and a longer lever arm achieved by using the lensing signal from high redshift background sources. Our results show that, for our best SKA-optical configuration of surveys, a constant equation of state for dark energy can be constrained to ≃8 % for a sky coverage fsky=0.5 and assuming a σ (ΩDE)=0.03 prior for the dark energy density parameter. We also show that using the cosmic microwave background as the second source plane is not competitive, even when considering a COrE-like satellite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3998..838B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3998..838B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> dosimetry for extreme-ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berger, Kurt W.; Campiotti, Richard H.</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>The accurate measurement of an exposure dose reaching the wafer on an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic system has been a technical challenge directly applicable to the evaluation of candidate EUV resist materials and calculating lithography system throughputs. We have developed a dose monitoring sensor system that can directly measure EUV intensities at the wafer plane of a prototype EUV lithographic system. This sensor system, located on the wafer stage adjacent to the electrostatic chuck used to grip wafers, operates by translating the sensor into the aerial image, typically illuminating an 'open' (unpatterned) area on the reticle. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> signal strength can be related to energy density at the wafer, and thus used to determine resist sensitivity, and the signal as a function of position can be used to determine illumination uniformity at the wafer plane. Spectral filtering to enhance the detection of 13.4 nm radiation was incorporated into the sensor. Other critical design parameters include the packaging and amplification technologies required to place this device into the space and vacuum constraints of a EUV lithography environment. We describe two approaches used to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of this sensor. The first conventional approach requires separate characterization of each element of the sensor. A second novel approach uses x-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a mildly radioactive iron source to calibrate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> response of the entire sensor system (detector and electronics) in a single measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Environmentalism&pg=5&id=EJ745382','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Environmentalism&pg=5&id=EJ745382"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Warming and the Neglected Greenhouse Gas: A <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-National Study of the Social Causes of Methane <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Intensity, 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jorgenson, Andrew</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The human dimensions of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and global warming attract considerable attention in macrosociology. However, <span class="hlt">cross</span>-national analyses generally neglect greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide. The current study addresses this paucity through the testing of theoretically derived models for the social structural causes of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27587121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27587121"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated sniffer probes. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration coefficients agree with the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured. PMID:27587121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016RScI...87h3505M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016RScI...87h3505M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated sniffer probes. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration coefficients agree with the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005A%26A...436..967W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005A%26A...436..967W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> spectrophotometry of northern compact planetary nebulae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wright, S. A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Perinotto, M.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total <span class="hlt">absolute</span> fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines. High signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">emission</span> line fluxes of Hα, Hβ, [Oiii], [Nii], and HeI may serve as <span class="hlt">emission</span> line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available <span class="hlt">emission</span> line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an Hβ flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3× 10-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptMa..34.1549W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptMa..34.1549W"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopic properties of new Yb3+-doped TeO2-ZnO-Nb2O5 based tellurite glasses with high <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Cuicui; Wang, Pengfei; Zheng, Ruilin; Xu, Shennuo; Wei, Wei; Peng, Bo</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Novel Yb3+-doped TeO2-ZnO-Nb2O5 based tellurite glasses with high stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section were prepared by melt-quenching method, and their spectroscopic and gain properties were investigated by means of absorption spectrum, fluorescence decay curve and fluorescence <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum. The results show that the stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section of the Pb2+-doped glass increases with the increase of PbF2 concentration. Toward the samples with co-existence of Pb2+ and Zr4+ ions, the stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections achieve 1.42 pm2 and 1.48 pm2 when PbF2 concentrations are 2 mol% and 6 mol%, respectively. All these indicate that the Yb3+-doped TeO2-ZnO-Nb2O5-PbF2-ZrF4 glasses are a good candidate working as an active laser media for solid lasers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072031"><span id="translatedtitle">An investigation on the determinants of carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for OECD countries: empirical evidence from panel models robust to heterogeneity and <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectional dependence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dogan, Eyup; Seker, Fahri</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This empirical study analyzes the impacts of real income, energy consumption, financial development and trade openness on CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for the OECD countries in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) model by using panel econometric approaches that consider issues of heterogeneity and <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectional dependence. Results from the Pesaran CD test, the Pesaran-Yamagata's homogeneity test, the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, the DSUR estimator, and the Emirmahmutoglu-Kose Granger causality test indicate that (i) the panel time-series data are heterogeneous and <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectionally dependent; (ii) CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, real income, the quadratic income, energy consumption, financial development and openness are integrated of order one; (iii) the analyzed data are cointegrated; (iv) the EKC hypothesis is validated for the OECD countries; (v) increases in openness and financial development mitigate the level of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> whereas energy consumption contributes to carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>; (vi) a variety of Granger causal relationship is detected among the analyzed variables; and (vii) empirical results and policy recommendations are accurate and efficient since panel econometric models used in this study account for heterogeneity and <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectional dependence in their estimation procedures. PMID:27072031</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=isolated+neutral&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Disolated%2Bneutral','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=isolated+neutral&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Disolated%2Bneutral"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> transition probabilities of phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24846293"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cross</span>-relaxation induced tunable <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the Tm(3+)/Er(3+)/Eu(3+) ions activated BaGd2O4 nanoneedles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seeta Rama Raju, G; Pavitra, E; Yu, Jae Su</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Tm(3+), Er(3+), Tm(3+)/Er(3+), Tm(3+)/Er(3+)/Eu(3+) single, double and triple activator ion/ions doped nanocrystalline BaGd2O4 (BG) phosphors were prepared by a Pechini type sol-gel process. After annealing at 1300 °C, X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed their orthorhombic structure. Field-<span class="hlt">emission</span> transmission electron microscope images of the BG sample indicated a nanoneedle-type morphology. Photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements were utilized to establish the <span class="hlt">emission</span> properties of rare-earth ions doped nanocrystalline BG host lattice. Under near-ultraviolet (NUV) excitations, BG:Tm(3+) and BG:Er(3+) exhibited their characteristic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the blue and green regions, respectively, while BG:Tm(3+)/Er(3+) and BG:Tm(3+)/Er(3+)/Eu(3+) showed cyan and white light <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, respectively, when doped with appropriate amounts of activator ions. In the PL, the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-relaxation process is dominant rather than the energy transfer process. Due to the different mechanism from PL, the CL spectra showed different <span class="hlt">emission</span> features of BG:Tm(3+)/Er(3+)/Eu(3+) phosphor. The CL spectra of BG:Tm(3+) and BG:Er(3+) established the high purity blue and green <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, respectively. From the PL and CL investigations, the white-light <span class="hlt">emission</span> was realized from the single-phase BG:Tm(3+)/Er(3+)/Eu(3+) phosphor under NUV and low voltage electron beam excitations. PMID:24846293</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JMoSt1120..125M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JMoSt1120..125M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">cross</span>-linking yield of PVK on the vibrational and <span class="hlt">emissive</span> properties of new copolymer based on vinylcarbazole and phenylene-vinylene units</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mbarek, M.; Abbassi, F.; Alimi, K.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The Phenylene-Vinylene (PV) unit's was successfully incorporated in the Vinylarbazole (VC) skeleton using the oxidative way via an anhydrous FeCl3. Dramatic changes in the vibrational and <span class="hlt">emissive</span> properties are founded by varying the FeCl3 amount in the synthesis way due to the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-linking of PVK units. SEM analysis showing a modified morphology structures of three compounds. However the percentage of the oxidant account induces the modulation of copolymer properties particularly theirs <span class="hlt">emissive</span> proprieties. A red shifting of the maximum of photoluminescence, a quenching of luminescence and a fast decay time was observed with increasing of the oxidation yields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015482','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015482"><span id="translatedtitle">ARCADE 2 Observations of Galactic Radio <span class="hlt">Emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Levin, S. M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Mirel, P.; Seiffert, M.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wollack, E.; Wuensche, C. A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We use <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated data from the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse <span class="hlt">Emission</span> (ARCADE 2) flight in July 2006 to model Galactic <span class="hlt">emission</span> at frequencies 3, 8, and 10 GHz. The spatial structure in the data is consistent with a superposition of free-free and synchrotron <span class="hlt">emission</span>. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> with spatial morphology traced by the Haslam 408 MHz survey has spectral index beta_synch = -2.5 +/- 0.1, with free-free <span class="hlt">emission</span> contributing 0.10 +/- 0.01 of the total Galactic plane <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the lowest ARCADE 2 band at 3.15 GHz. We estimate the total Galactic <span class="hlt">emission</span> toward the polar caps using either a simple plane-parallel model with csc|b| dependence or a model of high-latitude radio <span class="hlt">emission</span> traced by the COBE/FIRAS map of CII <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Both methods are consistent with a single power-law over the frequency range 22 MHz to 10 GHz, with total Galactic <span class="hlt">emission</span> towards the north polar cap T_Gal = 0.498 +/- 0.028 K and spectral index beta = -2.55 +/- 0.03 at reference frequency 0.31 GHz. The well calibrated ARCADE 2 maps provide a new test for spinning dust <span class="hlt">emission</span>, based on the integrated intensity of <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the Galactic plane instead of <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlations with the thermal dust spatial morphology. The Galactic plane intensity measured by ARCADE 2 is fainter than predicted by models without spinning dust, and is consistent with spinning dust contributing 0.4 +/- 0.1 of the Galactic plane <span class="hlt">emission</span> at 23 GHz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JInst..10P1001C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JInst..10P1001C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> determination of the neutron source yield using melamine as a neutron detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ciechanowski, M.; Bolewski, A., Jr.; Kreft, A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new approach to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> determination of the neutron source yield is presented. It bases on the application of melamine (C3H6N6) to neutron detection combined with Monte Carlo simulations of neutron transport. Melamine has the ability to detect neutrons via 14N(n, p)14C reaction and subsequent determination of 14C content. A <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for this reaction is relatively high for thermal neutrons (1.827 b) and much lower for fast neutrons. A concentration of 14C nuclei created in the irradiated sample of melamine can be reliably measured with the aid of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The mass of melamine sufficient for this analysis is only 10 mg. Neutron detection is supported by Monte Carlo simulations of neutron transport carried out with the use of MCNP-4C code. These simulations are aimed at computing the probability of 14C creation in the melamine sample per the source neutron. The result of AMS measurements together with results of MCNP calculations enable us to determine the number of neutrons emitted from the source during the irradiation of melamine. The proposed method was applied for determining the neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a commercial 252Cf neutron source which was independently calibrated. The measured neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> agreed with the certified one within uncertainty limits. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron source yield determination was estimated at 2.6%. Apart from calibration of radionuclide neutron sources the proposed procedure could facilitate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> yield measurements for more complex sources. Potential applications of this methodology as it is further developed include diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion and plasma-focus experiments, calibration of neutron measurement systems at tokamaks and accelerator-based neutron sources as well as characterization of neutron fields generated in large particle detectors during collisions of hadron beams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3425893','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3425893"><span id="translatedtitle">A randomised <span class="hlt">cross</span>-over cohort study of exposure to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a road tunnel ventilation stack</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cowie, Christine T; Ezz, Wafaa; Xuan, Wei; Lilley, William; Rose, Nectarios; Rae, Michael; Marks, Guy B</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background and objective Road tunnels are increasingly important components of urban infrastructure. However, knowledge of their health impact on surrounding communities is limited. Our objective was to estimate the short-term respiratory health effects of exposure to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a road tunnel ventilation stack. Methods We conducted a randomised <span class="hlt">cross</span>-over cohort study in 36 volunteers who underwent three exposure scenarios in 2006 before the road tunnel opened, and in 2007 (n=27) and 2008 (n=20) after the tunnel opened. Exposure downwind of the stack was compared to upwind of the stack and to a distant heavily trafficked location adjacent to a main road. Spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and symptom scores were measured repeatedly during each 2 h exposure session. Results Downwind locations were associated with increased reports of ‘dry nose’ (score difference 0.36; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.63) compared with the control location (2006 vs 2007/2008), but not with impaired lung function, increased airway inflammation or other symptoms. The heavily trafficked location was associated with significantly increased eNO (ratio=1.09; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.14), eye (score difference 0.05; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.10) and chest (score difference 0.21; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.33) symptoms compared to the stack locations. Conclusions There was no consistent evidence of adverse respiratory effects from short-term exposures downwind of the tunnel ventilation stack, except for dry nose symptoms. However, the findings of increased airway inflammation and symptoms in subjects after only 2 h exposure at the heavily trafficked location, are suggestive of detrimental effects of short-term exposures to traffic-related air pollution. PMID:22904331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29c4206S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhL..29c4206S"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature and Input Energy Dependence of the 946-nm Stimulated <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Section of Nd3+:YAG Pumped by a Flashlamp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seyed Ebrahim, Pourmand; Noriah, Bidin; Hazri, Bakhtiar</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The thermal effect on the laser transition at 946 nm is investigated. The temperature of the cooling system is verified in the range 2-60°C. A Nd:YAG laser crystal is utilized as a gain medium and is pumped by a newly developed flashlamp. The variable pumping energy is accomplished within the 5-40 J range. The stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of the 946-nm line is estimated based on the fluorescence spectrum of the Nd:YAG laser. The stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of the 946-nm line is found to be inversely proportional to the temperature and to the input energy due to the increase of the thermal population at the ground level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..94a3808D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..94a3808D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Optomechanics for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davuluri, Sankar</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kogut, A. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical flats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sommargren, Gary E.</p> <p>2005-04-05</p> <p>The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase error of the optical flat is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1627..273S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1627..273S"><span id="translatedtitle">Pumping efficiency and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section measurements of flashlamp-pumped chromium- and neodymium-doped scandium garnets using threshold lasing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sumida, David S.; Rockwell, David A.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>Analytical closed-form expressions for the pumping efficiency, passive loss, and the effective <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section are derived for threshold lasing in homogeneously broadened four-level laser media. These expressions are discussed with respect to existing discrepancies in the literature. The analytical results are applied to threshold-lasing measurements in flashlamp-pumped Cr:Nd:GSAG and Cr:Nd:YSGG as compared to Cr:Nd:GSGG.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21913504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21913504"><span id="translatedtitle">Air toxics exposure from vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at a U.S. border <span class="hlt">crossing</span>: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spengler, John; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steve; Chillrud, Steve; Baker, Joel; Minegishi, Taeko</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border <span class="hlt">crossings</span>. The Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side is a complex of roads, customs inspection areas, passport control areas, and duty-free shops. On average 5000 heavy-duty diesel trucks and 20,000 passenger cars traverse the border daily, making the plaza area a potential "hot spot" for <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from mobile sources. In a series of winter and summer field campaigns, we measured air pollutants, including many compounds considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) as mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), at three fixed sampling sites: on the shore of Lake Erie, approximately 500 m upwind (under predominant wind conditions) of the Peace Bridge plaza; immediately downwind of (adjacent to) the plaza; and 500 m farther downwind, into the community of west Buffalo. Pollutants sampled were particulate matter (PM) < or = 10 microm (PM10) and < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter, elemental carbon (EC), 28 elements, 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including 3 carbonyls, 52 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 29 nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). Spatial patterns of counts of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particles < 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and of particle-bound PAH (pPAH) concentrations were assessed by mobile monitoring in the neighborhood adjacent to the Peace Bridge plaza using portable instruments and Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking. The study was designed to assess differences in upwind and downwind concentrations of MSATs, in areas near the Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side of the border. The Buffalo Peace Bridge Study featured good access to monitoring locations proximate to the plaza and in the community, which are downwind with the dominant winds from the direction of Lake Erie and southern Ontario. Samples from the lakeside Great Lakes Center (GLC), which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27409967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27409967"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a tunable diode laser absorption sensor for online monitoring of industrial gas total <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on optical scintillation <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation technique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhirong; Pang, Tao; Yang, Yang; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Sun, Pengshuai; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong</p> <p>2016-05-16</p> <p>We report the first application of gas total <span class="hlt">emission</span> using a DFB diode laser for gas concentration measurements combined with two LEDs for gas velocity measurements. In situ gas total <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and particle density measurements in an industrial pipeline using simultaneous tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and optical scintillation <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation technique (OSCC) are presented. Velocity mean values obtained are 7.59 m/s (OSCC, standard deviation is 1.37 m/s) and 8.20 m/s (Pitot tube, standard deviation is 1.47 m/s) in a steel plant pipeline for comparison. Our experiments demonstrate that the combined system of TDLAS and OSCC provides a new versatile tool for accurate measurements of total gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. PMID:27409967</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1000104','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1000104"><span id="translatedtitle">Macro-System Model: A Federated Object Model for <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-Cutting Analysis of Hydrogen Production, Delivery, Consumption and Associated <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>; Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Goldsby, M. E.; Sa, T. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>It is commonly accepted that the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier for light-duty vehicles involves concomitant technological development of infrastructure elements, such as production, delivery, and consumption, all associated with certain <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels. To analyze these at a system level, the suite of corresponding models developed by the United States Department of Energy and involving several national laboratories is combined in one macro-system model (MSM). The macro-system model is being developed as a <span class="hlt">cross</span>-cutting analysis tool that combines a set of hydrogen technology analysis models. Within the MSM, a federated simulation framework is used for consistent data transfer between the component models. The framework is built to suit <span class="hlt">cross</span>-model as well as <span class="hlt">cross</span>-platform data exchange and involves features of 'over-the-net' computation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001056','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001056"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regional Temperature Potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shindell, D. T.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on the forcing in those bands caused by the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApJ...827...17X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ApJ...827...17X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Integral <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections for the State-selected Ion–Molecule Reaction N2+(X2Σg+ v+ = 0–2) + C2H2 in the Collision Energy Range of 0.03–10.00 eV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chung Chang, Yih; Ng, C. Y.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion source, together with the double-quadrupole–double-octopole mass spectrometer developed in our laboratory, we have investigated the state-selected ion–molecule reaction {{{{N}}}2}+({X}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+; v + = 0–2, N+ = 0–9) + C2H2, achieving high internal-state selectivity and high kinetic energy resolution for reactant {{{{N}}}2}+ ions. The charge transfer (CT) and hydrogen-atom transfer (HT) channels, which lead to the respective formation of product {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+ and N2H+ ions, are observed. The vibrationally selected <span class="hlt">absolute</span> integral <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for the CT [σ CT(v +)] and HT [[σ HT(v +)] channels obtained in the center-of-mass collision energy (E cm) range of 0.03–10.00 eV reveal opposite E cm dependences. The σ CT(v +) is found to increase as E cm is decreased, and is consistent with the long-range exothermic CT mechanism, whereas the E cm enhancement observed for the σ HT(v +) suggests effective coupling of kinetic energy to internal energy, enhancing the formation of N2H+. The σ HT(v +) curve exhibits a step at E cm = 0.70–1.00 eV, suggesting the involvement of the excited {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+({A}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+) state in the HT reaction. Contrary to the strong E cm dependences for σ CT(v +) and σ HT(v +), the effect of vibrational excitation of {{{{N}}}2}+ on both the CT and HT channels is marginal. The branching ratios and <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for the CT and HT channels determined in the present study are useful for modeling the atmospheric compositions of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. These <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections and branching ratios are also valuable for benchmarking theoretical calculations on chemical dynamics of the titled reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013324','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013324"><span id="translatedtitle">The AFGL <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183397','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183397"><span id="translatedtitle">Gamma-Ray <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of <sup>234,236,238</sup>U Neutron-Capture <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ullmann, John Leonard; Kawano, Toshihiko; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Haight, Robert Cameron; Jandel, Marian; Mosby, Shea Morgan; O'Donnell, John M.; Rundberg, Robert S.; Vieira, David J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B.; Becker, John A.; Wu, Ching-Yen; Krticka, Milan</p> <p>2015-05-28</p> <p>Neutron capture <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections in the “continuum” region (>≈1 keV) and gamma-<span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra are of importance to basic science and many applied fields. Careful measurements have been made on most common stable nuclides, but physicists must rely on calculations (or “surrogate” reactions) for rare or unstable nuclides. Calculations must be benchmarked against measurements (<span class="hlt">cross</span> sections, gamma-ray spectra, and <Γ<sub>γ</sub>>). Gamma-ray spectrum measurements from resolved resonances were made with 1 - 2 mg/cm<sup>2</sup> thick targets; <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections at >1 keV were measured using thicker targets. The results show that the shape of capture <span class="hlt">cross</span> section vs neutron energy is not sensitive to the form of the strength function (although the magnitude is); the generalized Lorentzian E1 strength function is not sufficient to describe the shape of observed gamma-ray spectra; MGLO + “Oslo M1” parameters produces quantitative agreement with the measured <sup>238</sup>U(n,γ) <span class="hlt">cross</span> section; additional strength at low energies (~ 3 MeV) -- likely M1-- is required; and careful study of complementary results on low-lying giant resonance strength is needed to consistently describe observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JInst...7.1010L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JInst...7.1010L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>LHCb Collaboration</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. Using data taken in 2010, LHCb has applied two methods to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overal precision of 3.5% in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> luminosity determination is reached. The techniques used to transport the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> luminosity calibration to the full 2010 data-taking period are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033489&hterms=OI&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DOI','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060033489&hterms=OI&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DOI"><span id="translatedtitle">Emmision <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of OI (135.6nm) at 100 eV resulting from electron-inpact dissociative excitation of O-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; Ajello, J.; McCartney, P.; Makarov, O.; McClintock, W.; Drake, V.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In this Letter, we report for the first time, the ratio of the O I (135.6 nm)/O I (130.4 nm) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections from electron-impact dissociative excitation of O-2 at 100 eV using facilities located at the University of Colorado, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22121035','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22121035"><span id="translatedtitle">Transconvolution and the virtual positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomograph-A new method for <span class="hlt">cross</span> calibration in quantitative PET/CT imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Prenosil, George A.; Weitzel, Thilo; Hentschel, Michael; Klaeser, Bernd; Krause, Thomas</p> <p>2013-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: Positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) measurements on small lesions are impaired by the partial volume effect, which is intrinsically tied to the point spread function of the actual imaging system, including the reconstruction algorithms. The variability resulting from different point spread functions hinders the assessment of quantitative measurements in clinical routine and especially degrades comparability within multicenter trials. To improve quantitative comparability there is a need for methods to match different PET/CT systems through elimination of this systemic variability. Consequently, a new method was developed and tested that transforms the image of an object as produced by one tomograph to another image of the same object as it would have been seen by a different tomograph. The proposed new method, termed Transconvolution, compensates for differing imaging properties of different tomographs and particularly aims at quantitative comparability of PET/CT in the context of multicenter trials. Methods: To solve the problem of image normalization, the theory of Transconvolution was mathematically established together with new methods to handle point spread functions of different PET/CT systems. Knowing the point spread functions of two different imaging systems allows determining a Transconvolution function to convert one image into the other. This function is calculated by convolving one point spread function with the inverse of the other point spread function which, when adhering to certain boundary conditions such as the use of linear acquisition and image reconstruction methods, is a numerically accessible operation. For reliable measurement of such point spread functions characterizing different PET/CT systems, a dedicated solid-state phantom incorporating {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga filled spheres was developed. To iteratively determine and represent such point spread functions, exponential density functions in combination</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20687724','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20687724"><span id="translatedtitle">A new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extreme ultraviolet image system designed for studying the radiated power of the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak discharges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, J; Zhuang, G; Wang, Z J; Ding, Y H; Zhang, X Q; Tang, Y J</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>A bolometer imaging system mounted on different toroidal and poloidal locations used for radiation observation has been developed in the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT tokamak). Three miniature pinhole AXUV16ELG (16 elements <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extreme ultraviolet silicon photodiodes) array cameras, which are settled down in the same toroidal position but in three different poloidal places, can provide a broad viewing angle that covers the whole plasma <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section, and hence can measure the total radiated power and provide the radiated <span class="hlt">emissive</span> profile, while nine AXUV10EL (10 elements <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extreme ultraviolet silicon photodiodes) array cameras are divided into three groups and will be mounted on different toroidal locations to observe the toroidal radiated power distribution. Among these detectors, one element of the AXUV16ELG array is <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated by the synchrotron radiation source to verify the system reliability. Although there are some discrepancies between the typical responsivity given by IRD Co. and the calibrated results, it is confirmed that the discrepancies have no major effect on the final result after the simulation. The details of the system as well as observations are presented in the paper. PMID:20687724</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060052422','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060052422"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron Impact Excitation <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line <span class="hlt">Emission</span> in Fe(17+) to Fe(23+)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chen, H.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Scofield, J. H.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S. M.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We have measured the electron impact excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for the strong iron L-shell 3 --> 2 lines of Fe XVIII to Fe XXIV at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Centers 6 x 6 pixel array microcalorimeter. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of radiative electron capture through a sophisticated model analysis which results in the excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for the strong Fe L-shell lines at multiple electron energies. This measurement is part of a laboratory X-ray astrophysics program utilizing the Livermore electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JCAP...08..060V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JCAP...08..060V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmology with negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC.10001002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC.10001002K"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutron activation analysis of certified samples by the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kadem, F.; Belouadah, N.; Idiri, Z.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The nuclear reactions analysis technique is mainly based on the relative method or the use of activation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections. In order to validate nuclear data for the calculated <span class="hlt">cross</span> section evaluated from systematic studies, we used the neutron activation analysis technique (NAA) to determine the various constituent concentrations of certified samples for animal blood, milk and hay. In this analysis, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method is used. The neutron activation technique involves irradiating the sample and subsequently performing a measurement of the activity of the sample. The fundamental equation of the activation connects several physical parameters including the <span class="hlt">cross</span> section that is essential for the quantitative determination of the different elements composing the sample without resorting to the use of standard sample. Called the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method, it allows a measurement as accurate as the relative method. The results obtained by the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method showed that the values are as precise as the relative method requiring the use of standard sample for each element to be quantified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23368454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23368454"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for electromagnetic dissociation with neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s(NN)] = 2.76 TeV.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bose, S; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Boyer, B; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Bugaiev, K; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caballero Orduna, D; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chawla, I; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Erasmo, G D; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, K; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; de Rooij, R; Del Castillo Sanchez, E; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Djuvsland, O; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra Gutierrez, C; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, O; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harmanova, Z; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, G M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jancurová, L; Jang, H J; Jangal, S; Janik, M A; Janik, R; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jirden, L; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kakoyan, V; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kanaki, K; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, S H; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Koch, K; Köhler, M K; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Korneev, A; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Lea, R; Lechman, M; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lemmon, R C; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Leoncino, M; Lévai, P; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, R; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Mal'kevich, D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Marin Tobon, C A; Markert, C; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Naumov, N P; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perez Lezama, E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puchagin, S; Puddu, G; Pujol Teixido, J; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, B; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, J; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strabykin, K; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sultanov, R; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szostak, A; Tagridis, C; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Tosello, F; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vande Vyvre, P; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Ovrebekk, G; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yaldo, C G; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, F; Zhou, Y; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M</p> <p>2012-12-21</p> <p>The first measurement of neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> in electromagnetic dissociation of ^{208}Pb nuclei at the LHC is presented. The measurement is performed using the neutron zero degree calorimeters of the ALICE experiment, which detect neutral particles close to beam rapidity. The measured <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of single and mutual electromagnetic dissociation of Pb nuclei at sqrt[s(NN)]=2.76 TeV with neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> are σ(singleEMD)=187.4 ± 0.2(stat)(-11.2)(+13.2) (syst) b and σ(mutualEMD) = 5.7 ± 0.1(stat) ± 0.4(syst) b, respectively. The experimental results are compared to the predictions from a relativistic electromagnetic dissociation model. PMID:23368454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740053731&hterms=Violets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DViolets','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740053731&hterms=Violets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DViolets"><span id="translatedtitle">VUV dissociative excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of H2O, NH3, and CH4 by electron impact. [Vacuum Ultra-Violet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, H. D.; Mentall, J. E.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> excitation functions for excited fragments resulting from electron bombardment of H2O, NH3, and CH4 by low-energy electrons (0 to 300 eV) have been measured in the vacuum ultraviolet (1100 to 1950 A). The predominant <span class="hlt">emission</span> for each molecule was the H Lyman-alpha line, while the O I, N I, C I, and C II <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were at least an order of magnitude weaker. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections at 100 eV are given along with the appearance potential of the various processes and the possible dissociative-excitation channels through which such processes proceed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006426','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006426"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leckey, John P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody <span class="hlt">emissivity</span>, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018289','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900018289"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> wind measurements in the lower thermosphere of Venus using infrared heterodyne spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, Jeffrey J.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The first <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wind velocities above the Venusian cloud-tops were obtained using NASA/Goddard infrared heterodyne spectrometers at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and the McMath Solar Telescope. Beam-integrated Doppler displacements in the non-thermal <span class="hlt">emission</span> core of (12)C(16)O2 10.33 micron R(8) sampled the line of sight projection of the lower thermospheric wind field (100 to 120 km). A field-usable Lamb-dip laser stabilization system, developed for spectrometer <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency calibration to less than + or - 0.1 MHz, allowed S/N-limited line of sight velocity resolution at the 1 m/s level. The spectrometer's diffraction-limited beam (1.7 arc-second HPBW at McMath, 0.9 arc-second HPBW at IRTF), and 1 to 2 arc-second seeing, provided the spatial resolution necessary for circulation model discrimination. Qualitative analysis of beam-integrated winds provided definitive evidence of a dominant subsolar-antisolar circulation in the lower thermosphere. Beam-integrated winds were modelled with a 100x100 grid over the beam, incorporating beam spatial rolloff and across-the-beam gradients in non-thermal <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity, line of sight projection geometry, and horizontal wind velocity. Horizontal wind velocity was derived from a 2-parameter model wind field comprised of subsolar-antisolar and zonal components. Best-fit models indicated a dominant subsolar-antisolar flow with 120 m/s <span class="hlt">cross</span>-terminator winds and a retrograde zonal component with a 25 m/s equatorial velocity. A review of all dynamical indicators above the cloud-tops allowed development of an integrated and self-consistent picture of circulation in the 70 to 200 km range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...210.8602L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...210.8602L"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving HST Pointing & <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Astrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lallo, Matthew; Nelan, E.; Kimmer, E.; Cox, C.; Casertano, S.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> astrometry is becoming increasingly important in an era of multi-mission archives and virtual observatories. Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Guidestar Catalog II (GSC2) has reduced coordinate error to around 0.25 arcsecond, a factor 2 or more compared with GSC1. With this reduced catalog error, special attention must be given to calibrate and maintain the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) and Science Instruments (SIs) alignments in HST to a level well below this in order to ensure that the accuracy of science product's astrometry keywords and target positioning are limited only by the catalog errors. After HST Servicing Mission 4, such calibrations' improvement in "blind" pointing accuracy will allow for more efficient COS acquisitions. Multiple SIs and FGSs each have their own footprints in the spatially shared HST focal plane. It is the small changes over time in primarily the whole-body positions & orientations of these instruments & guiders relative to one another that is addressed by this work. We describe the HST Cycle 15 program CAL/OTA 11021 which, along with future variants of it, determines and maintains positions and orientations of the SIs and FGSs to better than 50 milli- arcseconds and 0.04 to 0.004 degrees of roll, putting errors associated with the alignment sufficiently below GSC2 errors. We present recent alignment results and assess their errors, illustrate trends, and describe where and how the observer sees benefit from these calibrations when using HST.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3777908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3777908"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>We evaluated the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPJO6008H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPJO6008H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Instability in Coupled-Cavity TWTs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hung, D. M. H.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Chernin, D.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This paper will present results of our analysis of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability in a coupled-cavity traveling wave tube (TWT). The structure mode at the lower and upper band edges are respectively approximated by a hyperbola in the (omega, k) plane. When the Briggs-Bers criterion is applied, a threshold current for onset of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability is observed at the upper band edge, but not the lower band edge. The nonexistence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability at the lower band edge is mathematically similar to the nonexistence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability that we recently demonstrated for a dielectric TWT. The existence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability at the upper band edge is mathematically similar to the existence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability in a gyroton traveling wave amplifier. These interesting observations will be discussed, and the practical implications will be explored. This work was supported by AFOSR, ONR, and L-3 Communications Electron Devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...588A.107B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...588A.107B"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gain photometric calibration between Planck/HFI and Herschel/SPIRE at 545 and 857 GHz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertincourt, B.; Lagache, G.; Martin, P. G.; Schulz, B.; Conversi, L.; Dassas, K.; Maurin, L.; Abergel, A.; Beelen, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Crill, B. P.; Dole, H.; Eales, S.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Perdereau, O.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We compare the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gain photometric calibration of the Planck/HFI and Herschel/SPIRE instruments on diffuse <span class="hlt">emission</span>. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of HFI and SPIRE each relies on planet flux measurements and comparison with theoretical far-infrared <span class="hlt">emission</span> models of planetary atmospheres. We measure the photometric <span class="hlt">cross</span> calibration between the instruments at two overlapping bands, 545 GHz/500 μm and 857 GHz/350 μm. The SPIRE maps used have been processed in the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (Version 12) and the HFI data are from the 2015 Public Data Release 2. For our study we used 15 large fields observed with SPIRE, which cover a total of about 120 deg2. We have selected these fields carefully to provide high signal-to-noise ratio, avoid residual systematics in the SPIRE maps, and span a wide range of surface brightness. The HFI maps are bandpass-corrected to match the <span class="hlt">emission</span> observed by the SPIRE bandpasses. The SPIRE maps are convolved to match the HFI beam and put on a common pixel grid. We measure the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration relative gain between the instruments using two methods in each field, pixel-to-pixel correlation and angular power spectrum measurements. The SPIRE/HFI relative gains are 1.047 (±0.0069) and 1.003 (±0.0080) at 545 and 857 GHz, respectively, indicating very good agreement between the instruments. These relative gains deviate from unity by much less than the uncertainty of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extended <span class="hlt">emission</span> calibration, which is about 6.4% and 9.5% for HFI and SPIRE, respectively, but the deviations are comparable to the values 1.4% and 5.5% for HFI and SPIRE if the uncertainty from models of the common calibrator can be discounted. Of the 5.5% uncertainty for SPIRE, 4% arises from the uncertainty of the effective beam solid angle, which impacts the adopted SPIRE point source to extended source unit conversion factor, highlighting that as a focus for refinement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..439....1O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..439....1O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/569659','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/569659"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability from linear conversion of counter-propagating positive and negative energy waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaufman, A.N.; Brizard, A.J.; Morehead, J.J.; Tracy, E.R.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The resonant interaction of a negative-energy wave with a positive-energy wave gives rise to a linear instability. Whereas a single <span class="hlt">crossing</span> of rays in a nonuniform medium leads to a convectively saturated instability, we show that a double <span class="hlt">crossing</span> can yield an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.377...37J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.377...37J"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of deuteron induced gamma-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections on natCl from 1.0 to 2.0 MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this research work, measured differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for gamma-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the nuclear reactions 35Cl(d,pγ1-0)36Cl (Eγ = 788 keV), 35Cl(d,pγ2-0)36Cl (Eγ = 1165 keV), 37Cl(d,pγ1-0)38Cl (Eγ = 671 keV) and 37Cl(d,pγ2-0)38Cl (Eγ = 755 keV) are presented. For these measurements a thin natural BaCl2 target evaporated onto a 50 μm-thick Mo foil was used. The gamma-rays and backscattered deuterons were detected simultaneously. An HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction was employed to collect gamma-rays while an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165° was used to detect backscattered deuterons. The validity of the obtained differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections was verified through a thick target benchmarking experiment. The overall systematic uncertainty of <span class="hlt">cross</span> section values was estimated to be ±10%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282715','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282715"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictions for BAO distance estimates from the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation of the Lyman-α forest and redshifted 21-cm <span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sarkar, Tapomoy Guha; Bharadwaj, Somnath E-mail: somnath@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We investigate the possibility of using the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation of the Lyman-α forest and redshifted 21-cm <span class="hlt">emission</span> to detect the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). The standard Fisher matrix formalism is used to determine the accuracy with which it will be possible to measure cosmological distances using this signal. Earlier predictions [1] indicate that it will be possible to measure the dilation factor D{sub V} with 1.9% accuracy at z = 2.5 from the BOSS Lyman-α forest auto-correlation. In this paper we investigate if it is possible to improve the accuracy using the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation. We use a simple parametrization of the Lyman-α forest survey which very loosely matches some properties of the BOSS. For the redshifted 21-cm observations we consider a hypothetical radio interferometric array layout. It is assumed that the observations span z = 2 to 3 and covers the 10,000 deg{sup 2} sky coverage of BOSS. We find that it is possible to significantly increase the accuracy of the distance estimates by considering the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation signal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21576706','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21576706"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERPRETATION OF THE ARCADE 2 <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> SKY BRIGHTNESS MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seiffert, M.; Levin, S. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.</p> <p>2011-06-10</p> <p>We use <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated data between 3 and 90 GHz from the 2006 balloon flight of the ARCADE 2 instrument, along with previous measurements at other frequencies, to constrain models of extragalactic <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Such <span class="hlt">emission</span> is a combination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) monopole, Galactic foreground <span class="hlt">emission</span>, the integrated contribution of radio <span class="hlt">emission</span> from external galaxies, any spectral distortions present in the CMB, and any other extragalactic source. After removal of estimates of foreground <span class="hlt">emission</span> from our own Galaxy, and an estimated contribution of external galaxies, we present fits to a combination of the flat-spectrum CMB and potential spectral distortions in the CMB. We find 2{sigma} upper limits to CMB spectral distortions of {mu} < 6 x 10{sup -4} and |Y{sub ff}| < 1 x 10{sup -4}. We also find a significant detection of a residual signal beyond that, which can be explained by the CMB plus the integrated radio <span class="hlt">emission</span> from galaxies estimated from existing surveys. This residual signal may be due to an underestimated galactic foreground contribution, an unaccounted for contribution of a background of radio sources, or some combination of both. The residual signal is consistent with <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the form of a power law with amplitude 18.4 {+-} 2.1 K at 0.31 GHz and a spectral index of -2.57 {+-} 0.05.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3373279','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3373279"><span id="translatedtitle">Active and uncontrolled asthma among children exposed to air stack <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of sulphur dioxide from petroleum refineries in Montreal, Quebec: A <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectional study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deger, Leylâ; Plante, Céline; Jacques, Louis; Goudreau, Sophie; Perron, Stéphane; Hicks, John; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children’s respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Most studies on the effects of SO2 have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to stack <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of SO2 from petroleum refineries located in Montreal’s (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby. METHODS: The present <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Ambient SO2 exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO2 exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child’s age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home. RESULTS: The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO2 levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO2. The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO2 [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of SO2 and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries. PMID:22536578</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCAP...06..029C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCAP...06..029C"><span id="translatedtitle">Tomographic-spectral approach for dark matter detection in the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation between cosmic shear and diffuse γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camera, S.; Fornasa, M.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We recently proposed to <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlate the diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background with the gravitational lensing signal of cosmic shear. This represents a novel and promising strategy to search for annihilating or decaying particle dark matter (DM) candidates. In the present work, we demonstrate the potential of a tomographic-spectral approach: measuring the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation in separate bins of redshift and energy significantly improves the sensitivity to a DM signal. Indeed, the technique proposed here takes advantage of the different scaling of the astrophysical and DM components with redshift and, simultaneously of their different energy spectra and different angular extensions. The sensitivity to a particle DM signal is extremely promising even when the DM-induced <span class="hlt">emission</span> is quite faint. We first quantify the prospects of detecting DM by <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlating the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) diffuse γ-ray background with the cosmic shear expected from the Dark Energy Survey. Under the hypothesis of a significant subhalo boost, such a measurement can deliver a 5σ detection of DM, if the DM particle is lighter than 300 GeV and has a thermal annihilation rate. We then forecast the capability of the European Space Agency Euclid satellite (whose launch is planned for 2020), in combination with an hypothetical future γ-ray detector with slightly improved specifications compared to current telescopes. We predict that the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation of their data will allow a measurement of the DM mass with an uncertainty of a factor of 1.5-2, even for moderate subhalo boosts, for DM masses up to few hundreds of GeV and thermal annihilation rates.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797797"><span id="translatedtitle">Acquisition time optimization of positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography studies by use of a regression function derived from torso <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections and noise-equivalent counts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kangai, Yoshiharu; Onishi, Hideo</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this study, we aimed to optimize the positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (PET) acquisition time for individual patients by employing a regression function derived from torso <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections by using computed tomography (CT) attenuation corrections and the noise-equivalent counts (NECs). We initially determined the standard image quality or the standard NEC at our institution by visually assessing the images acquired from 61 patients. We measured the NECs of the livers and the torso <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections of 165 patients who were evaluated with PET/CT with (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose on the basis of our standard protocol of 120 s/bed position. The optimal acquisition time (OPT) was calculated as the product of the ratio of the standard NEC to the estimated NEC multiplied by 120 s. The estimated NEC was derived from the oval <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section of each patient by use of the regression function. We evaluated the validity of the OPT equation in 59 additional patients. We determined 5.83 Mcounts as the standard NEC at our institution. The mean OPTs in a group of 59 patients of whom 20, 19, and 20 were underweight, normal-weight, and overweight, respectively, were 106.3 ± 18.0, 137.1 ± 4.6, and 172.1 ± 24.3 s, respectively. After optimization, the NECs for normal-weight and overweight patients increased by 14 and 43 %, respectively, compared with the NECs attained with use of the conventional acquisition time (120 s). Using the regression function based on the torso <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections and the NECs enabled optimizations of the PET acquisition times for individual patients. PMID:26797797</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900024996&hterms=Franck+James&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Franck%2BJames%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900024996&hterms=Franck+James&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Franck%2BJames%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Medium-resolution studies of extreme ultraviolet <span class="hlt">emission</span> from N2 by electron impact - Vibrational perturbations and <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ajello, Joseph M.; James, Geoffrey K.; Franklin, Brian O.; Shemansky, Donald E.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>In a <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-beam experiment the electron-impact-induced fluorescence spectrum of N2 in the extreme ultraviolet is studied at a spectral resolution of up to 0.03 nm. The optically thin experiment obtained the highest-resolution electron-impact <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum of the Rydberg and valence states of N2. The spectral measurements provide the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of each of the vibrational transitions of the Carroll-Yoshino and the Birge-Hopfield-II band systems. Laboratory vibrational-excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections arising from the mutual perturbation of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states by homogeneous configuration interactions are measured from 10 to 400 eV, and a modified Born approximation analytic model is given for them. The analysis leads to accurate band-system oscillator strengths. The relative <span class="hlt">emission</span> and excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections each of the vibrational levels are compared. In addition, low-resolution measurements of the <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of the atomic dissociation fragments (NI, NII, NIII) from 40 to 102 nm are made, and medium-resolution measurements are made of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of the c4 1Pi(u), c5-prime 1Sigma(+)u, c5 1Pi(u), and c6-prime 1Sigma(+)u to X 1Sigma(+)g (0,0) transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=origin+AND+algebra&pg=3&id=EJ458199','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=origin+AND+algebra&pg=3&id=EJ458199"><span id="translatedtitle">Inequalities, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value, and Logical Connectives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parish, Charles R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents an approach to the concept of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=metrology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmetrology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=metrology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmetrology"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1261596','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1261596"><span id="translatedtitle">Monolithically integrated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency comb laser system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Wanke, Michael C.</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&pg=2&id=EJ1050985','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&pg=2&id=EJ1050985"><span id="translatedtitle">Introducing the Mean <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Deviation "Effect" Size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gorard, Stephen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853800.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853800.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value: A Real World Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value simply…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=happiness&pg=7&id=EJ804151','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=happiness&pg=7&id=EJ804151"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Income, Relative Income, and Happiness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative income are positively and significantly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033615&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033615&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability of the Gaussian wake profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NIMPB.383...65P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NIMPB.383...65P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of computational models and <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections used by MCNP6 for simulation of characteristic X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from thick targets bombarded by kiloelectronvolt electrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poškus, A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper evaluates the accuracy of the single-event (SE) and condensed-history (CH) models of electron transport in MCNP6.1 when simulating characteristic Kα, total K (=Kα + Kβ) and Lα X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from thick targets bombarded by electrons with energies from 5 keV to 30 keV. It is shown that the MCNP6.1 implementation of the CH model for the K-shell impact ionization leads to underestimation of the K yield by 40% or more for the elements with atomic numbers Z < 15 and overestimation of the Kα yield by more than 40% for the elements with Z > 25. The Lα yields are underestimated by more than an order of magnitude in CH mode, because MCNP6.1 neglects X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> caused by electron-impact ionization of L, M and higher shells in CH mode (the Lα yields calculated in CH mode reflect only X-ray fluorescence, which is mainly caused by photoelectric absorption of bremsstrahlung photons). The X-ray yields calculated by MCNP6.1 in SE mode (using ENDF/B-VII.1 library data) are more accurate: the differences of the calculated and experimental K yields are within the experimental uncertainties for the elements C, Al and Si, and the calculated Kα yields are typically underestimated by (20-30)% for the elements with Z > 25, whereas the Lα yields are underestimated by (60-70)% for the elements with Z > 49. It is also shown that agreement of the experimental X-ray yields with those calculated in SE mode is additionally improved by replacing the ENDF/B inner-shell electron-impact ionization <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections with the set of <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), which are also used in the PENELOPE code system. The latter replacement causes a decrease of the average relative difference of the experimental X-ray yields and the simulation results obtained in SE mode to approximately 10%, which is similar to accuracy achieved with PENELOPE. This confirms that the DWBA inner-shell impact ionization <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are significantly more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4560723','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4560723"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods to calibrate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rich, Kyle T.; Mast, T. Douglas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pressure measurements of acoustic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26428812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26428812"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods to calibrate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> receive sensitivity of single-element, focused transducers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rich, Kyle T; Mast, T Douglas</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pressure measurements of acoustic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by single-element, focused passive cavitation detectors would be facilitated by improved wideband receive calibration techniques. Here, calibration methods were developed to characterize the <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, frequency-dependent receive sensitivity of a spherically focused, single-element transducer using pulse-echo and pitch-catch techniques. Validation of these calibration methods on a focused receiver were made by generating a pulse from a small diameter source at the focus of the transducer and comparing the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure measured by a calibrated hydrophone to that of the focused transducer using the receive sensitivities determined here. PMID:26428812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8527E..0NB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8527E..0NB"><span id="translatedtitle">On-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance standard for the next generation of IR remote sensing instruments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, Fred A.; Adler, Douglas P.; Pettersen, Claire; Revercomb, Henry E.; Gero, P. Jonathan; Taylor, Joseph K.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Perepezko, John H.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The next generation of infrared remote sensing satellite instrumentation, including climate benchmark missions will require better <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> (<0.999) calibration blackbodies with <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> uncertainty of better than 0.06%, and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin (UW) and refined under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). This work recently culminated with an integrated subsystem that was used in the laboratory to demonstrate end-to-end radiometric accuracy verification for the UW <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance Interferometer. Along with an overview of the design, we present details of a key underlying technology of the OARS that provides on-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity. In addition we present performance data from the laboratory testing of the OARS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26129697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26129697"><span id="translatedtitle">Absorption Spectroscopy, <span class="hlt">Emissive</span> Properties, and Ultrafast Intersystem <span class="hlt">Crossing</span> Processes in Transition Metal Complexes: TD-DFT and Spin-Orbit Coupling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Daniel, Chantal</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Absorption spectroscopy, <span class="hlt">emissive</span> properties, and ultrafast intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span> processes in transition metal complexes are discussed in the light of recent developments in time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects, and non-adiabatic excited states dynamics. Methodological highlights focus on spin-orbit and vibronic couplings and on the recent strategies available for simulating ultra-fast intersystem <span class="hlt">crossings</span> (ISC).The role of SOC in the absorption spectroscopy of third-row transition metal complexes is illustrated by two cases studies, namely Ir(III) phenyl pyridine and Re(I) carbonyl bipyridine complexes.The problem of luminescence decay in third-row transition metal complexes handled by TD-DFT linear and quadratic response theories including SOC is exemplified by three studies: (1) the phosphorescence of Ir(III) complexes from the lowest triplet state; (2) the <span class="hlt">emissive</span> properties of square planar Pt(II) complexes with bidentate and terdentate ligands characterized by low-lying metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) and metal-centered (MC) states; and (3) the ultra-fast luminescence decay of Re(I) carbonyl bipyridine halides via low-lying singlet and triplet charge transfer states delocalized over the bipyridine and the halide ligands.Ultrafast ISC occurring in spin crossover [Fe (bpy)3]2+, in [Ru (bpy)3]2+, and [Re (Br)(CO)3(bpy] complexes are deciphered thanks to recent developments based on various approaches, namely non-radiative rate theory within the Condon approximation, non-adiabatic surface hopping molecular dynamics, and quantum wave packet dynamics propagation. PMID:26129697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823209','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/823209"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of THz <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch <span class="hlt">crossing</span> a plasma-vacuum boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leemans, W.P.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Faure, J.; Toth, Cs.; van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Fubiani, G.; Auerbach, D.; Marcelis, B.; Carnahan, M.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Byrd, J.; Martin, M.C.</p> <p>2003-04-15</p> <p>Coherent radiation in the 0.3 - 3 THz range has been generated from femto second electron bunches at a plasma-vacuum boundary via transition radiation. The bunches produced by a laser-plasma accelerator contained 1.5 nC of charge. The THz energy per pulse within a limited 30 mrad collection angle was 3.5 nJ and scaled quadratically with bunch charge, consistent with coherent <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Modeling indicates that this broadband source produces about 0.3 muJ per pulse within a 100 mrad angle, and that increasing the transverse plasma size and electron beam energy could provide more than 100 muj/pulse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060052421','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060052421"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Measurements of the X-ray Line <span class="hlt">Emission</span> from Neon-like Fe XVII</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Scofield, J. H.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S. M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We have conducted a systematic study of the dominant x-ray line <span class="hlt">emission</span> from Fe XVII. These studies include relative line intensities in the optically thin limit, intensities in the presence of radiation from satellite lines from lower charge states of iron, and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of some of the strongest lines. These measurements were conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap facility using crystal spectrometers and a NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center microcalorimeter array.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92e3827T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92e3827T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> optical instruments without spherical symmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tyc, Tomáš; Dao, H. L.; Danner, Aaron J.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Until now, the known set of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments has been limited to those containing high levels of symmetry. Here, we demonstrate a method of mathematically constructing refractive index profiles that result in asymmetric <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments. The method is based on the analogy between geometrical optics and classical mechanics and employs Lagrangians that separate in Cartesian coordinates. In addition, our method can be used to construct the index profiles of most previously known <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical instruments, as well as infinitely many different ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900056395&hterms=Media+effects&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMedia%2Beffects','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900056395&hterms=Media+effects&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMedia%2Beffects"><span id="translatedtitle">Medium resolution studies of extreme ultraviolet <span class="hlt">emission</span> from N2 by electron impact - The effect of predissociation on the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of the b 1Pi(u) state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>James, Geoffrey K.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Franklin, Brian; Shemansky, Donald E.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The electron impact induced fluorescence spectrum of N2 is measured in the 102-134 nm range at a 0.05 nm spectral resolution. The spectral measurements provide the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of the transitions of the b 1Pi(u)-X 1Sigma(+)g Birge-Hopfield I-band system. The structure and vibrational population distribution of this system are strongly affected by a configuration interaction of the valence b 1Pi(u) and Rydberg c 1Pi(u) and o 1Pi(u) states. The excitation function (0-400 eV) for the b-X (1,2) transition is measured and a modified Born approximation analytic model is applied to calculate the oscillator strength for the b 1Pi(u)-X band system. With the exception of the v-prime = 1 level, vibrational levels of the b 1Pi(u) state predissociate with a branching ratio of between 0.95 and 1.00. Predissociation of the b 1Pi(u) state contributes approximately six percent of the total dissociation <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of N2 by electron impact at 100 eV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChPhC..38d4001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChPhC..38d4001H"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the 1077 keV γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> probability from 68Ga decay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Li-Yang; Chen, Xiong-Jun; Chen, Guo-Chang</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>68Ga decays to the excited states of 68Zn through the electron capture decay mode. New recommended values for the <span class="hlt">emission</span> probability of 1077 keV γ-ray given by the ENSDF and DDEP databases all use data from <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements. In 2011, JIANG Li-Yang deduced a new value for 1077 keV γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> probability by measuring the 69Ga(n,2n) 68Ga reaction <span class="hlt">cross</span> section. The new value is about 20% lower than values obtained from previous <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements and evaluations. In this paper, the discrepancies among the measurements and evaluations are analyzed carefully and the new values are re-recommended. Our recommended value for the <span class="hlt">emission</span> probability of 1077 keV γ-ray is (2.72±0.16)%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003HEAD....7.2213R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003HEAD....7.2213R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Timing Calibration of the USA Experiment Using Pulsar Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Lovellette, M. N.; Sheikh, S.; Moon, D.-S.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Roberts, M.; Lyne, A.; Jordon, C.; Bloom, E. D.; Tournear, D.; Saz Parkinson, P.; Reilly, K.</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>We update the status of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time calibration of the USA Experiment as determined by observations of X-ray emitting rotation-powered pulsars. The brightest such source is the Crab Pulsar and we have obtained observations of the Crab at radio, IR, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. We directly compare arrival time determinations for 2--10 keV X-ray observations made contemporaneously with the PCA on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and the USA Experiment on ARGOS. These two X-ray measurements employ very different means of measuring time and satellite position and thus have different systematic error budgets. The comparison with other wavelengths requires additional steps such as dispersion measure corrections and a precise definition of the ``peak'' of the light curve since the light curve shape varies with observing wavelength. We will describe each of these effects and quantify the magnitude of the systematic error that each may contribute. We will also include time comparison results for other pulsars, such as PSR B1509-58 and PSR B1821-24. Once the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> time calibrations are well understood, comparing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> arrival times at multiple energies can provide clues to the magnetospheric structure and <span class="hlt">emission</span> region geometry. Basic research on X-ray Astronomy at NRL is funded by NRL/ONR.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9218E..0YC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9218E..0YC"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration of Terra imaging sensors: MODIS, MISR, and ASTER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Thome, Kurtis; Anderson, Nikolaus; Biggar, Stuart</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The Terra spacecraft contains five Earth-observation instruments, three of which are multispectral imaging sensors that complement each other in spectral and spatial coverage. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 channels ranging from 0.4-14.4 μm, with spatial resolutions of 250, 500, and 1000 m. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) uses individual imaging sensors to view the earth at nine discreet angles. Each radiometer has four channels in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and the nadir-viewing camera has a spatial resolution of 275 m. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal <span class="hlt">Emission</span> and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was designed with fourteen bands ranging from 0.5-11.6 μm. It is the high-resolution sensor on Terra, with a spatial resolution of 15 m in the VNIR, and 30 m in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). This work describes the vicarious techniques used to perform the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER in the solar-reflective region (0.4-2.5 μm). It includes the reflectance-based approach, which uses ground-based personnel to make in situ measurements during the time of overpass. It also includes more recent results that were obtained using the University of Arizona's automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada. In addition to the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration of Terra sensors, RadCaTS is used to perform the <span class="hlt">cross</span> comparison of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER with Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21302027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21302027"><span id="translatedtitle">Son preference in Indian families: <span class="hlt">absolute</span> versus relative wealth effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gaudin, Sylvestre</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (<span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables. PMID:21302027</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..717D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..717D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+carbon&pg=5&id=EJ288694','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+carbon&pg=5&id=EJ288694"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Gimmick for Assigning <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Configuration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ayorinde, F. O.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20698583','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20698583"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurements of total peroxy nitrate mixing ratios by thermal dissociation blue diode laser cavity ring-down spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paul, Dipayan; Osthoff, Hans D</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) have long been recognized as important trace gas constituents of the troposphere. Here, we describe a blue diode laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer for rapid and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of total peroxyacyl nitrate (SigmaPAN) abundances at ambient concentration levels. The PANs are thermally dissociated and detected as NO2, whose mixing ratios are quantified by optical absorption at 405 nm relative to a reference channel kept at ambient temperature. The effective NO2 absorption <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section at the diode laser <span class="hlt">emission</span> wavelength was measured to be 6.1 x 10(-19) cm2 molecule(-1), in excellent agreement with a prediction based on a projection of a high-resolution literature absorption spectrum onto the laser line width. The performance, i.e., accuracy and precision of measurement and matrix effects, of the new 405 nm thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer was evaluated and compared to that of a 532 nm thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectrometer using laboratory-generated air samples. The new 405 nm spectrometer was considerably more sensitive and compact than the previously constructed version. The key advantage of laser thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy is that the measurement can be considered <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and does not need to rely on external calibration. PMID:20698583</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A43B0203B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A43B0203B"><span id="translatedtitle">On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance Standard for Future IR Remote Sensing Instruments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Gero, P. J.; Taylor, J. K.; Knuteson, R. O.; Perepezko, J. H.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Future NASA infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark CLARREO mission will require better <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> (>0.999) calibration blackbodies with <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> uncertainty of better than 0.06%, and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). Key elements of an On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) advancement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). We present the new technologies that underlie the OARS and the results of laboratory testing that demonstrate the required accuracy is being met. The underlying technologies include on-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity; and on-orbit cavity spectral <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> measurement using a heated halo. For these <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> measurements, a carefully baffled heated cylinder is placed in front of a blackbody in the infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> to be calculated. This work will culminate with an integrated subsystem that can provide on-orbit end-to-end radiometric accuracy validation for infrared remote sensing instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC23E..03B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC23E..03B"><span id="translatedtitle">On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance Standard for the Next Generation of IR Remote Sensing Instruments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Gero, P.; Taylor, J. K.; Knuteson, R. O.; Perepezko, J. H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The next generation of infrared remote sensing satellite instrumentation, including climate benchmark missions will require better <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> (>0.999) calibration blackbodies with <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> uncertainty of better than 0.06%, and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). This work will culminate with an integrated subsystem that can provide on-orbit end-to-end radiometric accuracy validation for infrared remote sensing instruments. We present the new technologies that underlie the OARS and updated results of laboratory testing that demonstrate the required accuracy. The underlying technologies include on-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity; and on-orbit cavity spectral <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> measurement using a heated halo. For these <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> measurements, a carefully baffled heated cylinder is placed in front of a blackbody in the infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> to be calculated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21E0119B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A21E0119B"><span id="translatedtitle">On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance Standard for the Next Generation of IR Remote Sensing Instruments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Gero, P. J.; Taylor, J. K.; Knuteson, R. O.; Perepezko, J. H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The next generation of infrared remote sensing satellite instrumentation, including climate benchmark missions will require better <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> (>0.999) calibration blackbodies with <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> uncertainty of better than 0.06%, and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and are undergoing further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). This work will culminate with an integrated subsystem that can provide on-orbit end-to-end radiometric accuracy validation for infrared remote sensing instruments. We present the new technologies that underlie the OARS and updated results of laboratory testing that demonstrate the required accuracy. The underlying technologies include on-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity; and on-orbit cavity spectral <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> measurement using a heated halo. For these <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> measurements, a carefully baffled heated cylinder is placed in front of a blackbody in the infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> to be calculated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H42C..04Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H42C..04Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Karst Water System Investigated by <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gravimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quinif, Y.; Meus, P.; van Camp, M.; Kaufmann, O.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Vandiepenbeeck, M.; Camelbeeck, T.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The highly anisotropic and heterogeneous hydrogeological characteristics of karst aquifers are difficult to characterize and present challenges for modeling of storage capacities. Little is known about the surface and groundwater interconnection, about the connection between the porous formations and the draining cave and conduits, and about the variability of groundwater volume within the system. Usually, an aquifer is considered as a black box, where water fluxes are monitored as input and output. However, water inflow and outflow are highly variable and cannot be measured directly. A recent project, begun in 2006 sought to constrain the water budget in a Belgian karst aquifer and to assess the porosity and water dynamics, combining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity (AG) measurements and piezometric levels around the Rochefort cave. The advantage of gravity measurements is that they integrate all the subsystems in the karst system. This is not the case with traditional geophysical tools like boring or monitoring wells, which are soundings affected by their near environment and its heterogeneity. The investigated cave results from the meander cutoff system of the Lomme River. The main inputs are swallow holes of the river <span class="hlt">crossing</span> the limestone massif. The river is canalized and the karst system is partly disconnected from the hydraulic system. In February and March 2006, when the river spilled over its dyke and sank into the most important swallow hole, this resulted in dramatic and nearly instantaneous increases in the piezometric levels in the cave, reaching up to 13 meters. Meanwhile, gravity increased by 50 and 90 nms-2 in February and March, respectively. A first conclusion is that during these sudden floods, the pores and fine fissures were poorly connected with the enlarged fractures, cave, and conduits. With a rise of 13 meters in the water level and a 5% porosity, a gravity change of 250 nms-2 should have been expected. This moderate gravity variation suggests either a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19831037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19831037"><span id="translatedtitle">Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span> from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed. PMID:19831037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20982123','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20982123"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement and calculation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for excitation of the 3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}P{sub 1} at {sub {approx}}{sub sol{approx}} at {sub 2}{sup o}-3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}P{sub 3} at {sub {approx}} {sub sol{approx}} at {sub 2}{sup o} fine-structure transition in Fe{sup 13+}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hossain, S.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.; Tayal, S. S.; Raymond, J. C.</p> <p>2007-02-15</p> <p>Experimental <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are reported for the Fe{sup 13+} coronal green line transition 3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}P{sub 1} at {sub {approx}}{sub sol{approx}} at {sub 2}{sup o}-3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}P{sub 3} at {sub {approx}}{sub sol{approx}} at {sub 2}{sup o} at {lambda}5303 A ring (2.338 eV). The center-of-mass interaction energies are in the range 1.7 eV (below threshold) through threshold, to 6.6 eV (2.9xthreshold). Data are compared with results of a 135-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix theory. Present experiment detects a strong maximum in the excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of magnitude 15x10{sup -16} cm{sup 2} at 2.6 eV. Smaller structures are observed between 3 eV and 6.6 eV, with a maximum <span class="hlt">cross</span> section never exceeding about 1.2x10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}. All features are due to enhancement of the direct excitation via a multitude of narrow, closely-spaced resonances calculated by the theory, the effects of which are convoluted by the 125 meV energy resolution of the present experiment. Iron is present in practically every astrophysical object, as well as being an impurity in fusion plasmas. Present results are the highest charge state in any ion for which an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> section has been measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ufm..conf..509K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ufm..conf..509K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Modern Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostro, Ludwik</p> <p></p> <p>The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/34234','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/34234"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of TFTR neutron detectors for D-T plasma operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jassby, D.L.; Johnson, L.C.; Roquemore, A.L.; Strachan, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.; Medley, S.S.; Young, K.M.; Barnes, C.W.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>The two most sensitive TFTR fission-chamber detectors were <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated in situ by a D-T neutron generator ({approximately}5 {times} 10{sup 7} n/s) rotated once around the torus in each direction, with data taken at about 45 positions. The combined uncertainty for determining fusion neutron rates, including the uncertainty in the total neutron generator output ({plus_minus}9%), counting statistics, the effect of coil coolant, detector stability, <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration to the current mode or log Campbell mode and to other fission chambers, and plasma position variation, is about {plus_minus}13%. The NE-451 (ZnS) scintillators and {sup 4}He proportional counters that view the plasma in up to 10 collimated sightlines were calibrated by scanning. the neutron generator radially and toroidally in the horizontal midplane across the flight tubes of 7 cm diameter. Spatial integration of the detector responses using the calibrated signal per unit chord-integrated neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> gives the global neutron source strength with an overall uncertainty of {plus_minus}14% for the scintillators and {plus_minus}15% for the {sup 4}He counters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1271199-pre-equilibrium-statistical-nuclear-model-code-system-calculation-cross-sections-emission-spectra-version-gn9cp8','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1271199-pre-equilibrium-statistical-nuclear-model-code-system-calculation-cross-sections-emission-spectra-version-gn9cp8"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-equilibrium, Statistical Nuclear-Model Code System for Calculation <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections and <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Spectra, Version gn9cp8.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-02-02</p> <p>Version 00 GNASH provides a flexible method by which reaction and level <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections, isomer ratios, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra (neutron, gamma-ray, and charged-particle) resulting from particle- and photon-induced reactions can be calculated. The September 1991 release of GNASH incorporated an additional option for calculating gamma-ray strength functions and transmission coefficients by including the Kopecky-Uhl model. In addition, improvements were made to the output routines, particularly regarding gamma-ray strength function information. Major improvements in the 1995more » FKK-GNASH release include added capabilities: to read in externally calculated preequilibrium spectrum from, e.g., Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theory, to do multiple preequilibrium calculations, to calculate appropriate spin distributions for nuclear states formed in preequilibrium reactions, and to do incident-photon calculations. In the 1998 release improvements were made in the accuracy of the exciton model and other calculations, and provision was made for including energy-dependent renormalization of the reaction <span class="hlt">cross</span> section and energy-dependent exciton model parameterization (for data evaluation purposes). The sample problems provided here are the same as those that were given in the 1998 release; however, the calculations were run using the current version of GNASH (gn9cp8). The major differences between this version and the previous one released in 1998 are as follows: 1. A serious buffering error that affected stored state populations resulting when multiple reactions lead to the same compound nucleus is corrected. This error only affects cases with INPOPT=-1, normally used for high-energy calculations. It is the reason that the present outputs for the p + Zr90 test case (described below) are significantly different from the 1998 results for the same p + Zr90 test case. 2. Minor errors were corrected in estimating preequilibrium contributions to discrete states; interpolating the spin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985GeCoA..49..835N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985GeCoA..49..835N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> isotopic abundances of TI in meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niederer, F. R.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1985-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> isotope abundance of Ti has been determined in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites and in samples of whole meteorites. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Ti isotope abundances differ by a significant mass dependent isotope fractionation transformation from the previously reported abundances, which were normalized for fractionation using 46Ti/48Ti. Therefore, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> compositions define distinct nucleosynthetic components from those previously identified or reflect the existence of significant mass dependent isotope fractionation in nature. The authors provide a general formalism for determining the possible isotope compositions of the exotic Ti from the measured composition, for different values of isotope fractionation in nature and for different mixing ratios of the exotic and normal components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/371207','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/371207"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular iodine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequencies. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sansonetti, C.J.</p> <p>1990-06-25</p> <p>Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478959"><span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus probability effects in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification. Implications for other theories of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26478959</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26022836"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> relative or relatively <span class="hlt">absolute</span>: violations of value invariance in human decision making.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Making decisions based on relative rather than <span class="hlt">absolute</span> information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed. PMID:26022836</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DPPJP2035B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015APS..DPPJP2035B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">First <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> Calibrated Localized Measurements of Ion Velocity in the MST in Locked and Rotating Plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Munaretto, S.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used on MST for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion <span class="hlt">emission</span>. <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometer records data within 0.3 nm of the C+5 line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . A novel optical system was designed to <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrate the IDS. The device uses an UV LED to produce a broad <span class="hlt">emission</span> curve in the desired region. A Fabry-Perot etalon filters this light, cutting transmittance peaks into the pattern of the LED <span class="hlt">emission</span>. An optical train of fused silica lenses focuses the light into the IDS with f/4. A holographic diffuser blurs the light cone to increase homogeneity. Using this light source, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Doppler shift of ion <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can be measured in MST plasmas. In combination with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, localized ion velocities can now be measured. Previously, a time-averaged measurement along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was used to calibrate the IDS; the quality of these central chord calibrations can be characterized with our <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration. Calibration errors may also be quantified and minimized by optimizing the curve-fitting process. Preliminary measurements of toroidal velocity in locked and rotating plasmas will be shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982PhDT........26P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982PhDT........26P"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical and Radio Properties of QSOS as a Function of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Luminosity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pica, Andrew Joseph</p> <p>1982-03-01</p> <p>Photometric data for nearly 250 quasars, BL Lacertids, and active galaxies have been obtained at the Rosemary Hill Observatory during a continuous 13-year monitoring program. Long-term optical records for 130 of these sources are employed in an effort to assess the physical and cosmological properties of quasi-stellar objects. Photographic P and B magnitudes were obtained with the 76- and 46-cm telescopes at Rosemary Hill. Corrections for galactic absorption, <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines, and the K-term are applied to the raw data yielding monochromatic flux densities at a standard emitted wavelength of 2500 (ANGSTROM). Long -term light curves are compiled for all objects and 3 levels of activity are determined for each individual source. The MEAN, BASE, and MAX brightness levels are then used to study QSOs in their average, quiescent, and active phases, respectively. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> intrinsic luminosities of all sources in the sample are computed from the monochromatic flux densities based on relativistic cosmological models. Radio -emitting quasars, radio-quiet QSOs, and active galaxies fall into 3 distinct groups and are examined separately. The cosmological properties of QSOs are studied by plotting apparent magnitude vs. redshift, the so-called Hubble diagram. Scatter in the diagram due to variability is substantially reduced by plotting log z vs. the MEAN, BASE, and MAX flux densities. The brightest QSOs at each redshift are then chosen as "standard candles" in an effort to determine if quasars obey Hubble's law for expanding universe. It is found that they fit the Hubble relation quite well if certain selection effects are accounted for. Other evidence for the cosmological origin of QSOs is briefly discussed. Variability provides a test as to whether individual quasars are essentially multiple in nature (the "Christmas Tree" model), or are single coherent sources (such as a massive black hole). The amplitude of variability vs. <span class="hlt">absolute</span> luminosity relation is used to discriminate</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720014026','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720014026"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissociative excitation of vacuum ultraviolet <span class="hlt">emission</span> features by electron impact on molecular gases. 3: CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mumma, M. J.; Borst, W. L.; Zipf, E. C.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Vacuum ultraviolet multiplets of C I, C II, and O I were produced by electron impact on CO2. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for these multiplets were measured from threshold to 350 eV. The electrostatically focused electron gun used is described in detail. The atomic multiplets which were produced by dissociative excitation of CO2 and the <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections at 100 eV are presented. The dependence of the excitation functions on electron energy shows that these multiplets are produced by electric-dipole-allowed transitions in CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&pg=2&id=EJ726176','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&pg=2&id=EJ726176"><span id="translatedtitle">Solving <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shiyuan, Wei</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ945042','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ945042"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Inequalities to Mature Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=loudness&pg=4&id=EJ933808','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=loudness&pg=4&id=EJ933808"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In most of the long history of the study of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematics+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1070973','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematics+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1070973"><span id="translatedtitle">On Relative and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Conviction in Mathematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between <span class="hlt">absolute</span> conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kowalski&pg=7&id=EJ753903','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kowalski&pg=7&id=EJ753903"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Points for Multiple Assignment Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group <span class="hlt">absolute</span> points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARF45011M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARF45011M"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonequilibrium equalities in <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> irreversible processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murashita, Yuto; Funo, Ken; Ueda, Masahito</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Nonequilibrium equalities have attracted considerable attention in the context of statistical mechanics and information thermodynamics. Integral nonequilibrium equalities reveal an ensemble property of the entropy production σ as <e-σ > = 1 . Although nonequilibrium equalities apply to rather general nonequilibrium situations, they break down in <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> irreversible processes, where the forward-path probability vanishes and the entropy production diverges. We identify the mathematical origins of this inapplicability as the singularity of probability measure. As a result, we generalize conventional integral nonequilibrium equalities to <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> irreversible processes as <e-σ > = 1 -λS , where λS is the probability of the singular part defined based on Lebesgue's decomposition theorem. The acquired equality contains two physical quantities related to irreversibility: σ characterizing ordinary irreversibility and λS describing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> irreversibility. An inequality derived from the obtained equality demonstrates the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> irreversibility leads to the fundamental lower bound on the entropy production. We demonstrate the validity of the obtained equality for a simple model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect&pg=3&id=EJ1099263','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect&pg=3&id=EJ1099263"><span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus Probability Effects in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669658"><span id="translatedtitle">Precision <span class="hlt">absolute</span> positional measurement of laser beams.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzsimons, Ewan D; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Hough, James; Killow, Christian J; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Robertson, David I; Ward, Henry</p> <p>2013-04-20</p> <p>We describe an instrument which, coupled with a suitable coordinate measuring machine, facilitates the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement within the machine frame of the propagation direction of a millimeter-scale laser beam to an accuracy of around ±4 μm in position and ±20 μrad in angle. PMID:23669658</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007986','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1007986"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the 238U neutron-capture <span class="hlt">cross</span> section and gamma-<span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra from 10 eV to 100 keV using the DANCE detector at LANSCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ullmann, John L; Couture, A J; Keksis, A L; Vieira, D J; O' Donnell, J M; Jandel, M; Haight, R C; Rundberg, R S; Kawano, T; Chyzh, A; Baramsai, B; Wu, C Y; Mitchell, G E; Becker, J A; Krticka, M</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A careful new measurement of the {sup 238}U(n,{gamma}) <span class="hlt">cross</span> section from 10 eV to 100 keV has been made using the DANCE detector at LANSCE. DANCE is a 4{pi} calorimetric scintillator array consisting of 160 BaF{sub 2} crystals. Measurements were made on a 48 mg/cm{sup 2} depleted uranium target. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are in general good agreement with previous measurements. The gamma-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra, as a function of gamma multiplicity, were also measured and compared to model calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5628855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5628855"><span id="translatedtitle">SPRED spectrograph upgrade: high resolution grating and improved <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stratton, B.C.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Ramsey, A.T.</p> <p>1986-05-01</p> <p>Two improvements to the SPRED multichannel VUV spectrographs used on the TFTR and PBX tokamaks have been made: (1) A new 2100-g/mm grating covering the 100 to 320 A region with 0.4 A resolution (FWHM) has been added to the existing 450 g/mm grating (100 to 1100 A with 2 A resolution), and (2) the TFTR SPRED has been <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated using synchrotron radiation from the NBS SURF II facility, while the PBX system has been calibrated using conventional branching ratios along with line ratios from charge-exchange-recombination-excited lines. The availability of high resolution spectra in the 100 to 320 A range provides improved measurements of metallic ion <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and, when the instrument views across a neutral beam as in PBX, allows carbon and oxygen densities to be measured via charge exchange recombination spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86j5002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015RScI...86j5002S"><span id="translatedtitle">A three-axis SQUID-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vector magnetometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schönau, T.; Zakosarenko, V.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, H.-G.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We report on the development of a three-axis <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized <span class="hlt">cross</span>-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz1/2. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026377','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026377"><span id="translatedtitle">Landsat-5 TM reflective-band <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the <span class="hlt">cross</span> calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430327"><span id="translatedtitle">Upgrade of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, X L; Cheng, Z F; Hou, S Y; Zhuang, G; Luo, J</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained. PMID:25430327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308951','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308951"><span id="translatedtitle">Upgrade of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482572"><span id="translatedtitle">A three-axis SQUID-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vector magnetometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We report on the development of a three-axis <span class="hlt">absolute</span> vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized <span class="hlt">cross</span>-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25423049"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spin polarization at the nanoscale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus</p> <p>2014-12-10</p> <p>Probing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22340250','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22340250"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>-magnitude distributions of supernovae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063653&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063653&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> radiometry and the solar constant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willson, R. C.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small <span class="hlt">absolute</span> uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003670','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003670"><span id="translatedtitle">Asteroid <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and slope parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tedesco, Edward F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A new listing of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/73021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/73021"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Barnes, C.W. |; Loughlin, M. |</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16342798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16342798"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> enantioselective separation: optical activity ex machina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bielski, Roman; Tencer, Michal</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The paper describes methodology of using three independent macroscopic factors affecting molecular orientation to accomplish separation of a racemic mixture without the presence of any other chiral compounds, i. e., <span class="hlt">absolute</span> enantioselective separation (AES) which is an extension of a concept of applying these factors to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> asymmetric synthesis. The three factors may be applied simultaneously or, if their effects can be retained, consecutively. The resulting three mutually orthogonal or near orthogonal directors constitute a true chiral influence and their scalar triple product is the measure of the chirality of the system. AES can be executed in a chromatography-like microfluidic process in the presence of an electric field. It may be carried out on a chemically modified flat surface, a monolithic polymer column made of a mesoporous material, each having imparted directional properties. Separation parameters were estimated for these media and possible implications for the natural homochirality are discussed. PMID:16342798</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito</p> <p></p> <p>It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no <span class="hlt">absolute</span> general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011123','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011123"><span id="translatedtitle">From Hubble's NGSL to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JLTP..151.1055L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JLTP..151.1055L"><span id="translatedtitle">Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Activity Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410350','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410350"><span id="translatedtitle">Silicon <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> X-Ray Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seely, John F.; Korde, Raj; Sprunck, Jacob; Medjoubi, Kadda; Hustache, Stephanie</p> <p>2010-06-23</p> <p>The responsivity of silicon photodiodes having no loss in the entrance window, measured using synchrotron radiation in the 1.75 to 60 keV range, was compared to the responsivity calculated using the silicon thickness measured using near-infrared light. The measured and calculated responsivities agree with an average difference of 1.3%. This enables their use as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> x-ray detectors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26056340','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26056340"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood pressure targets and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cardiovascular risk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (≥60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ≥60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ≥20% predicted <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ≥20% <span class="hlt">absolute</span> risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ≥20% <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280315"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative errors can cue <span class="hlt">absolute</span> visuomotor mappings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several <span class="hlt">absolute</span> visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mapping. PMID:26280315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981ApOpt..20..400B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981ApOpt..20..400B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> distance measurements by variable wavelength interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bien, F.; Camac, M.; Caulfield, H. J.; Ezekiel, S.</p> <p>1981-02-01</p> <p>This paper describes a laser interferometer which provides <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurements using tunable lasers. An active feedback loop system, in which the laser frequency is locked to the optical path length difference of the interferometer, is used to tune the laser wavelengths. If the two wavelengths are very close, electronic frequency counters can be used to measure the beat frequency between the two laser frequencies and thus to determine the optical path difference between the two legs of the interferometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937635','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937635"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> bioavailability and regional absorption of ticagrelor in healthy volunteers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Teng, Renli; Maya, Juan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Ticagrelor is a direct-acting, reversibly-binding, oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist. It demonstrates predictable, linear pharmacokinetics. Two studies were undertaken to further elucidate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of ticagrelor and its regional absorption in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Design and methods In two open-label, randomized, <span class="hlt">cross</span>-over studies, 12 volunteers received a single dose of ticagrelor: oral 90 mg and 15 mg IV (Study 1); or 100 mg oral suspension vs 100 mg immediate release (IR) tablet (Study 2). After the initial <span class="hlt">cross</span>-over period in Study 2, patients received 100 mg suspension delivered to specific sites in the GI tract using an Enterion capsule. In both studies, plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were measured following administration of each formulation. Results The mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% (95% confidence interval = 30–42%). Metabolite:parent ratios were higher after oral administration, compared with IV administration (maximum plasma concentration [Cmax] = 0.356 and 0.037; area under the plasma concentration-time curves [AUC] = 0.530 and 0.173, respectively). Following oral administration of the 100 mg IR tablet, the AUC and Cmax of ticagrelor were 78% and 58%, respectively, of those following oral administration of the 100 mg suspension. Exposure to ticagrelor decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: mean Cmax for ticagrelor was 91%, 68%, and 13% that for the oral suspension when released in the proximal small bowel, distal small bowel and ascending colon, respectively; mean AUCs were 89%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Conclusion The mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of ticagrelor was 36% and the proportion of ticagrelor absorbed decreased the further down the GI tract it was released: the mean AUC for ticagrelor was 89% (proximal small bowel), 73% (distal small bowel), and 32% (ascending colon) that of the mean AUC for the orally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.V13H..01G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.V13H..01G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking and understanding volcanic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> through <span class="hlt">cross</span>-disciplinary integration of field, textural, geochemical and geophysical data: A textural working group. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>gurioli, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Relating magma ascent to eruption style using information preserved in pyroclastic deposits is a major challenge in modern volcanology. Because magma ascent and fragmentation are inaccessible to direct observation, one way to obtain quantitative information for conduit dynamics is through textural quantification of the sampled products (i.e., full definition of the rock vesicle and crystal properties). Many workers have shown that quantification of vesicle and crystal size distributions yields valuable insights into the processes that created the pyroclasts. However, the physical characteristics of individual pyroclasts must not be considered in isolation from information regarding: (i) the deposits from which they are taken; (ii) their chemistry; (iii) geophysical signatures of the related explosive events; and (iv) results from petrological and/or analogue experiments. As a result, attempts to understand eruption dynamics have increasingly involved the coupling of traditional field and sample-return analyses with geophysical measurements made synchronous with sample collection. In spite of this progress, we remain far from developing a definitive methods that allows us to sample, correlate and/or compare the multitude of parameters that can be measured at an actively building field deposits. As a result, no study has yet been able to correlate all derivable textural parameters with the full range of available multidisciplinary data. To discuss these issues, a working group met during 6-7 November 2012 at the Maison International of the Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The workshop was supported by the European Science Foundation and was held under the title: 'Tracking and understanding volcanic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> through <span class="hlt">cross</span>-disciplinary integration: A textural working group'. Our main objective was to gather an advisory group to define measurements, methods, formats and standards to be applied to integration of geophysical and physical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A42B..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A42B..05C"><span id="translatedtitle">Ammonia Measurements by the NASA Tropospheric <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Spectrometer (TES) and the NPP Suomi <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Shephard, M. W.; Henze, D. K.; Zhu, J.; Pinder, R. W.; Bash, J. O.; Walker, J. T.; Luo, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Ammonia is highly reactive, with concurrent high spatial and temporal variability; it can play a key role in determining air quality through its part in the formation of PM2.5 particles. Deposition of NH3 also impacts water quality. With increased fertilizer use and rising temperatures ammonia concentrations are expected to increase significantly over India and China. Nevertheless in situ measurements are sparse, especially in areas beyond North America and Europe. The air quality community has a pressing need for global information on the diurnal and seasonal cycles as well as the distribution and strength of the ammonia sources. Measurements from satellites can provide this information. An advanced optimal estimation algorithm has been developed to retrieve NH3 from the TES instrument flying on the AURA satellite and ammonia is currently a standard TES operational product, available at http://avdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/index.php?site=635564035&id=10&go=list&path=/NH3. A similar retrieval is at the prototyping stage for the CrIS instrument. We will first provide a short summary of the characteristics of TES retrieved ammonia, discuss the distinct characteristics of point and satellite measurements and illustrate how information from the latter is related to the former. We will then present results from comparisons with in situ measurements. Specifically, we will compare TES NH3 with surface measurements in North Carolina and China, and examine the trend in NH3 over China; we will also compare TES NH3 with surface and aircraft measurements in the San Joaquin Valley in California, during both the CalNex and DISCOVER-AQ campaigns. We will present results from the application of inverse methods using TES ammonia to constrain model <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, an area of research that has showcased the value provided by satellite data. Finally, we will demonstrate the potential of a sensor with TES characteristics on a geostationary platform to provide data with quality sufficient to evaluate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..1DS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9570E..1DS"><span id="translatedtitle">Clock time is <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Xinhang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005478&hterms=climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140005478&hterms=climate+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bchange"><span id="translatedtitle">Achieving Climate Change <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Accuracy in Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Climate <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ngs..rept.....P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ngs..rept.....P"><span id="translatedtitle">The National Geodetic Survey <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peter, George; Moose, Robert E.; Wessells, Claude W.</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>The National Geodetic Survey <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity program will utilize the high precision afforded by the JILAG-4 instrument to support geodetic and geophysical research, which involves studies of vertical motions, identification and modeling of other temporal variations, and establishment of reference values. The scientific rationale of these objectives is given, the procedures used to collect gravity and environmental data in the field are defined, and the steps necessary to correct and remove unwanted environmental effects are stated. In addition, site selection criteria, methods of concomitant environmental data collection and relative gravity observations, and schedule and logistics are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900066048&hterms=saturn+rings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsaturn%2Brings','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900066048&hterms=saturn+rings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dsaturn%2Brings"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radius scale for Saturn's rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Pelton, Emily</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Radio and stellar occultation observations of Saturn's rings made by the Voyager spacecraft are discussed. The data reveal systematic discrepancies of almost 10 km in some parts of the rings, limiting some of the investigations. A revised solution for Saturn's rotation pole has been proposed which removes the discrepancies between the stellar and radio occultation profiles. Corrections to previously published radii vary from -2 to -10 km for the radio occultation, and +5 to -6 km for the stellar occultation. An examination of spiral density waves in the outer A Ring supports that the revised <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radii are in error by no more than 2 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC21C..07F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC21C..07F"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the DARA solar <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Davos <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020268','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020268"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/284112','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/284112"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> angular positioning in ultrahigh vacuum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schief, H.; Marsico, V.; Kern, K.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>Commercially available angular resolvers, which are routinely used in machine tools and robotics, are modified and adapted to be used under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. They provide straightforward and reliable measurements of angular positions for any kind of UHV sample manipulators. The corresponding <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reproducibility is on the order of 0.005{degree}, whereas the relative resolution is better than 0.001{degree}, as demonstrated by high-resolution helium-reflectivity measurements. The mechanical setup and possible applications are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010730','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010730"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> method of measuring magnetic susceptibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.</p> <p>1959-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009acse.book..955S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009acse.book..955S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Priority for a Vehicle in VANET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad</p> <p></p> <p>In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690000209','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690000209"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> contours of optical flats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Primak, W.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>Emersons procedure is used to determine true <span class="hlt">absolute</span> contours of optical flats. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> contours of standard flats are determined and a comparison is then made between standard and unknown flats. Contour differences are determined by deviation of Fizeau fringe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JInst..10P1005N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JInst..10P1005N"><span id="translatedtitle">Calibrating the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> amplitude scale for air showers measured at LOFAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nelles, A.; Hörandel, J. R.; Karskens, T.; Krause, M.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Erdmann, M.; Falcke, H.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Krause, R.; Link, K.; Norden, M. J.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Anderson, J.; Bähren, L.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Carbone, D.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kohler, J.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Tasse, C.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Air showers induced by cosmic rays create nanosecond pulses detectable at radio frequencies. These pulses have been measured successfully in the past few years at the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and are used to study the properties of cosmic rays. For a complete understanding of this phenomenon and the underlying physical processes, an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of the detecting antenna system is needed. We present three approaches that were used to check and improve the antenna model of LOFAR and to provide an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of the whole system for air shower measurements. Two methods are based on calibrated reference sources and one on a calibration approach using the diffuse radio <span class="hlt">emission</span> of the Galaxy, optimized for short data-sets. An accuracy of 19% in amplitude is reached. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration is also compared to predictions from air shower simulations. These results are used to set an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> energy scale for air shower measurements and can be used as a basis for an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale for the measurement of astronomical transients with LOFAR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6086416','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6086416"><span id="translatedtitle">Standardization of the cumulative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> velocity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. )</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16231945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16231945"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> rates of hole transfer in DNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Senthilkumar, Kittusamy; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Lewis, Frederick D; Berlin, Yuri A; Ratner, Mark A; Siebbeles, Laurens D A</p> <p>2005-10-26</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> rates of hole transfer between guanine nucleobases separated by one or two A:T base pairs in stilbenedicarboxamide-linked DNA hairpins were obtained by improved kinetic analysis of experimental data. The charge-transfer rates in four different DNA sequences were calculated using a density-functional-based tight-binding model and a semiclassical superexchange model. Site energies and charge-transfer integrals were calculated directly as the diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, respectively, for all possible combinations of nucleobases. Taking into account the Coulomb interaction between the negative charge on the stilbenedicarboxamide linker and the hole on the DNA strand as well as effects of base pair twisting, the relative order of the experimental rates for hole transfer in different hairpins could be reproduced by tight-binding calculations. To reproduce quantitatively the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of the measured rate constants, the effect of the reorganization energy was taken into account within the semiclassical superexchange model for charge transfer. The experimental rates could be reproduced with reorganization energies near 1 eV. The quantum chemical data obtained were used to discuss charge carrier mobility and hole-transport equilibria in DNA. PMID:16231945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27581485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27581485"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient <span class="hlt">absolute</span> robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enciso, German A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..APRB16007K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..APRB16007K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..06L"><span id="translatedtitle">Sentinel-2/MSI <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration: first results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AAS...18510401C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994AAS...18510401C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrophotometry of 237 Open Cluster Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clampitt, L.; Burstein, D.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectrophotometry of 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters: Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, and M 39. The observations were taken using the Wampler single-channel scanner (Wampler 1966) on the Crossley 0.9m telescope at Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. 21 bandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstroms were observed for each star, with bandwiths ranging from 32Angstroms to 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes--Latham (1975) system. Our measurements are compared to filter colors on the Johnson BV, Stromgren ubvy, and Geneva U V B_1 B_2 V_1 G systems, as well as to spectrophotometry of a few stars published by Gunn, Stryker & Tinsley and in the Spectrophotometric Standards Catalog (Adelman; as distributed by the NSSDC). Both internal and external comparisons to the filter systems indicate a formal statistical accuracy per bandpass of 0.01 to 0.02 mag, with apparent larger ( ~ 0.03 mag) differences in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration between this data set and existing spectrophotometry. These data will comprise part of the spectrophotometry that will be used to calibrate the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut Color Survey of the Sky (see separate paper by Burstein et al. at this meeting).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740038656&hterms=calculation+differential&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcalculation%2Bdifferential','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740038656&hterms=calculation+differential&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dcalculation%2Bdifferential"><span id="translatedtitle">Coincidence measurement of the fully differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for atomic-field bremsstrahlung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Faulk, J. D.; Quarles, C. A.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A coincidence measurement was made of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for electron-atomic-field bremsstrahlung, differential in photon energy, photon-<span class="hlt">emission</span> angle, and electron scattering angle. The incident electron energy was 140 keV and the scattering materials were thin films of aluminum and gold. The data are compared to the theoretical calculations of Elwert and Haug and of Bethe and Heitler. Both theories give generally satisfactory agreement for aluminum. The Elwert-Haug theory is somewhat more accurate for gold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPNP8062E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPNP8062E"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the Relative Two-photon Absorption <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-section Between Xenon and Hydrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elliott, Drew; Scime, Earl; McCarren, Dustin; Vandervort, Robert; Soderholm, Mark</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Two-photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) is a non-perturbative method for measuring the density and temperature of neutral hydrogen in a fusion plasma. Calibration of a TALIF system, for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> density measurements, requires a measurement of a known density of particles under controlled conditions. Since hydrogen is diatomic, hydrogen TALIF system calibration requires measurements of target cold monatomic gas with a two-photon transition from the ground state and fluorescence decay at accessible energies. Here we present single-sided TALIF (angular momentum change of 2) measurements of a new transition in xenon with absorption and <span class="hlt">emission</span> wavelengths nearly identical to those of the hydrogen TALIF sequence (the n = 3 to n = 2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> in hydrogen is at 656.27 nm whereas it is at 655.99 nm in xenon). The xenon calibration approach provides the first opportunity for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of Doppler-free (angular momentum change of 0) hydrogen TALIF. We first measure the relative TALIF absorption <span class="hlt">cross</span> section between xenon and krypton and then use the known <span class="hlt">cross</span> section ratio between the krypton and hydrogen transitions to calculate the relative xenon-hydrogen <span class="hlt">cross</span> section. Single isotope xenon samples are used to remove the confounding factors of isotopic and hyperfine splitting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ920859','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ920859"><span id="translatedtitle">A Conceptual Approach to <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Equations and Inequalities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations and inequalities. When <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ819063','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ819063"><span id="translatedtitle">Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value for Deeper Understanding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ponce, Gregorio A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value. They should also be able to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec404-1205.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec404-1205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 404.1205 - <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> coverage groups.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> coverage groups. (a) General. An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> coverage group is a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3536622','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3536622"><span id="translatedtitle">Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>: a <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectional, observational study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Methods 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Results CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight). Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, while active travel was associated with lower CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Conclusions Establishing the direction of causality</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023929','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023929"><span id="translatedtitle">Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, Frank Don; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, P.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011559','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011559"><span id="translatedtitle">Excitation <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line <span class="hlt">Emission</span> in Fe{sup 20+} to Fe{sup 23+}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, H; Beiersdorfer, P; Scofield, J; Brown, G; Boyce, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M</p> <p>2004-08-25</p> <p>Electron impact excitation <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections have been measured for iron L-shell 3 {yields} 2 lines of FeXXI to FeXXIV at the EBIT-II electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and a 6 x 6-element array microcalorimeter. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of radiative electron capture and a summary of calculated energy dependent radiative recombination <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for electron capture into the ground state fine structure levels of Fe{sup 16+} to Fe{sup 23+} ions is given. The measurement results for 17 lines and their comparison with model calculations are presented. While agreement of the model calculations with experiment is good for most measured lines, significant discrepancies were found for a few lines, including the strongest line in Fe XXI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1011173','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1011173"><span id="translatedtitle">Precise Measurement of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Luis, P.Facal San; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Horandel, J.R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; /INFN, Aquila /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We have performed a measurement of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A <span class="hlt">cross</span>-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=money+AND+manipulation&id=EJ808734','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=money+AND+manipulation&id=EJ808734"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Comparative Performance Feedback in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Comparative Judgments and Decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Which matters more--beliefs about <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22412301W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22412301W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Abundance Measurements in Solar Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Warren, Harry</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with EVE/SDO and EIS/Hinode. EVE observes both high temperature Fe <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines Fe XV-XXIV and continuum <span class="hlt">emission</span> from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum <span class="hlt">emission</span> it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (F). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential <span class="hlt">emission</span> measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is F=1.17+-0.22. Furthermore, we have compared the EVE measurements with corresponding flare observations of intermediate temperature S, Ar, Ca, and Fe <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines taken with EIS. Our initial calculations also indicate a photospheric composition for these observations. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation in the non-flaring corona occurs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720024184','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720024184"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820002595','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820002595"><span id="translatedtitle">MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensor alignment determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Acuna, M. H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A procedure is described for accurately determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChJOL.tmp...41Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChJOL.tmp...41Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A set of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910204','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910204"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Measurement of Electron Cloud Density</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L</p> <p>2007-06-21</p> <p>Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75b7301G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75b7301G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability of a viscous hollow jet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>An investigation of the spatiotemporal stability of hollow jets in unbounded coflowing liquids, using a general dispersion relation previously derived, shows them to be <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable for all physical values of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The roots of the symmetry breakdown with respect to the liquid jet case, and the validity of asymptotic models are here studied in detail. Asymptotic analyses for low and high Reynolds numbers are provided, showing that old and well-established limiting dispersion relations [J. W. S. Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound (Dover, New York, 1945); S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Dover, New York, 1961)] should be used with caution. In the creeping flow limit, the analysis shows that, if the hollow jet is filled with any finite density and viscosity fluid, a steady jet could be made arbitrarily small (compatible with the continuum hypothesis) if the coflowing liquid moves faster than a critical velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5252..305B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5252..305B"><span id="translatedtitle">Stitching interferometry: recent results and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bray, Michael</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>Stitching Interferometry is a method of analysing large optical components using a standard "small" interferometer. This result is obtained by taking multiple overlapping images of the large component, and numerically "stitching" these sub-apertures together. We have already reported the industrial use our Stitching Interferometry systems (Previous SPIE symposia), but experimental results had been lacking because this technique is still new, and users needed to get accustomed to it before producing reliable measurements. We now have more results. We will report user comments and show new, unpublished results. We will discuss sources of error, and show how some of these can be reduced to arbitrarily small values. These will be discussed in some detail. We conclude with a few graphical examples of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements performed by us.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP51B..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGP51B..07L"><span id="translatedtitle">Swarm's <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92c2122C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92c2122C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nonlocality via distributed computing without communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Czekaj, Ł.; Pawłowski, M.; Vértesi, T.; Grudka, A.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose an alternative perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite no signaling, we obtain that nonlocal quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for a majority of functions, access to general nonsignaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones for a number of large enough outputs. Because there are no constraints on the inputs and no processing of the outputs in the identity games, they detect very strong types of correlations: <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nonlocality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.NJ007Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.NJ007Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Neutron Fluence Measurements at the NIST Center for Neutron Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yue, A.; Dewey, M.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Anderson, E.; Snow, M.; Greene, G.; Laptev, A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Precise, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> fluence measurements of cold and thermal neutron beams are of primary importance to beam-type determinations of the neutron lifetime, measurements of standard neutron <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections, and the development of standards for neutron dosimetry. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a totally absorbing neutron detector based on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> counting of the 10B(n,α1)7Li reaction 478 keV gamma ray has been used to perform fluence measurements with a precision of 0.06%. This detector has been used to improve the neutron fluence determination in the 2000 NIST beam neutron lifetime by a factor of five, significantly reducing the uncertainty in the lifetime result. Ongoing and possible future uses of the Alpha-Gamma device include 1) Calibration of the neutron fluence monitors that will be used in the upcoming NIST beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2; 2) The first direct, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement of the 6Li(n,t)4He neutron <span class="hlt">cross</span> section at sub-thermal neutron energy; 3) Measurements of the 10B(n, γ)11B and 235U(n,f) neutron <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections; 4) A re-calibration of the national neutron standard NBS-1. The apparatus, measurement technique, and applications will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130515','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22130515"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of clinical IMRT treatment planning using the GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative dose calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benhalouche, S.; Le Maitre, A.; Visvikis, D.; Pradier, O.; Boussion, N.</p> <p>2013-02-15</p> <p>Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the use of the Geant4 application for <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (GATE) Monte Carlo simulation platform for clinical intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dosimetry studies. Methods: The first step consisted of modeling a 6 MV photon beam linear accelerator (LINAC), with its corresponding validation carried out using percent depth dose evaluation, transverse profiles, tissue phantom ratio, and output factor on water phantom. The IMRT evaluation was performed by comparing simulation and measurements in terms of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative doses using IMRT dedicated quality assurance phantoms considering seven different patient datasets. Results: Concerning the LINAC simulated model validation tissue phantom ratios at 20 and 10 cm in water TPR{sub 10}{sup 20} obtained from GATE and measurements were 0.672 {+-} 0.063 and 0.675, respectively. In terms of percent depth dose and transverse profiles, error ranges were, respectively: 1.472%{+-} 0.285% and 4.827%{+-} 1.323% for field size of 4 Multiplication-Sign 4, 5 Multiplication-Sign 5, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10, 15 Multiplication-Sign 15, 20 Multiplication-Sign 20, 25 Multiplication-Sign 25, 30 Multiplication-Sign 30, and 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2}. Most errors were observed at the edge of radiation fields because of higher dose gradient in these areas. Output factors showed good agreement between simulation and measurements with a maximum error of 1.22%. Finally, for IMRT simulations considering seven patient datasets, GATE provided good results with a relative error of 0.43%{+-} 0.25% on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose between simulated and measured beams (measurements at the isocenter, volume 0.125 cm{sup 3}). Planar dose comparisons were also performed using gamma-index analysis. For the whole set of beams considered the mean gamma-index value was 0.497 {+-} 0.152 and 90.8%{+-} 3.6% of the evaluated dose points satisfied the 5%/ 4 mm criterion. Conclusions: These</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26382502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26382502"><span id="translatedtitle">Convective-to-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability transition in a viscoelastic capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial elastic tension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohamed, A Said; Herrada, M A; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Montanero, J M</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The convective-to-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability transition in an Oldroyd-B capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial stress is examined theoretically. There is a critical Weber number below which the jet is <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable under axisymmetric perturbations. We analyze the dependence of this critical parameter with respect to the Reynolds and Deborah numbers, as well as the unrelaxed axial stress. For small Deborah numbers, the unrelaxed stress destabilizes the viscoelastic jet, increasing the critical Weber number for which the convective-to-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability transition takes place. If the Deborah number takes higher values, then the transitional Weber number decreases as the unrelaxed stress increases until two solution branches <span class="hlt">cross</span> each other. The dominant branch for large axial stress leads to a threshold of this quantity above which the viscoelastic jet becomes <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable independently of the Weber number. The threshold depends on neither the Reynolds nor the Deborah number for sufficiently large values of these parameters. PMID:26382502</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92b3006M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92b3006M"><span id="translatedtitle">Convective-to-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability transition in a viscoelastic capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial elastic tension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, A. Said; Herrada, M. A.; Gañán-Calvo, A. M.; Montanero, J. M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The convective-to-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability transition in an Oldroyd-B capillary jet subject to unrelaxed axial stress is examined theoretically. There is a critical Weber number below which the jet is <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable under axisymmetric perturbations. We analyze the dependence of this critical parameter with respect to the Reynolds and Deborah numbers, as well as the unrelaxed axial stress. For small Deborah numbers, the unrelaxed stress destabilizes the viscoelastic jet, increasing the critical Weber number for which the convective-to-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability transition takes place. If the Deborah number takes higher values, then the transitional Weber number decreases as the unrelaxed stress increases until two solution branches <span class="hlt">cross</span> each other. The dominant branch for large axial stress leads to a threshold of this quantity above which the viscoelastic jet becomes <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable independently of the Weber number. The threshold depends on neither the Reynolds nor the Deborah number for sufficiently large values of these parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AcSpe..53.1149K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AcSpe..53.1149K"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated detection and interpretation of spectral information using <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation, millilitre volumes, pneumatic nebulization sample introduction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrometry with photodiode array detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karanassios, V.; Drouin, P. J.; Spiers, G. A.</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>A method for automated detection and interpretation of spectral information from ˜230 nm spectral windows, millilitre volume samples for 15 elements is presented. The basic approach involves <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation of a spectral pattern obtained by running laboratory prepared multi-element `unknowns' with a reference spectral pattern obtained by running a single element standard. From the resultant <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlogram, it can be decided whether or not the sought-for reference spectral pattern (and the corresponding element) are present in the unknown. Spectral patterns were acquired using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrometry (ICP-AES) system equipped with a linear, 1024-element, photo-diode array (Leco, Plasmarray). Reference spectral patterns for Al, Au, Be, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pd, Si, Sc, Y, Sr and Zn were converted to noise-free and interference-free binary software masks and, subsequently, to analogue software masks. <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-correlation of the analogue masks with spectral patterns acquired by running multi-element unknowns is discussed, an algorithm that does not rely on fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to calculate <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlations is presented and a context-sensitive, colour-coded and interrogatable periodic table graphical user-interface that presents the likely composition of an unknown on the computer screen is described in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...786L...2W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...786L...2W"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Abundances in Solar Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Warren, Harry P.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum <span class="hlt">emission</span> from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum <span class="hlt">emission</span> it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential <span class="hlt">emission</span> measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22365885','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22365885"><span id="translatedtitle">MEASUREMENTS OF <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Warren, Harry P.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum <span class="hlt">emission</span> from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum <span class="hlt">emission</span> it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential <span class="hlt">emission</span> measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED410280.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED410280.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Method for Selecting between Fisher's Linear Classification Functions and Least <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Deviation in Predictive Discriminant Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meshbane, Alice; Morris, John D.</p> <p></p> <p>A method for comparing the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-validated classification accuracy of Fisher's linear classification functions (FLCFs) and the least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation is presented under varying data conditions for the two-group classification problem. With this method, separate-group as well as total-sample proportions of current classifications can be compared…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21426726','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21426726"><span id="translatedtitle">Time features of delayed neutrons and partial <span class="hlt">emissive</span>-fission <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th nuclei in the energy range 3.2-17.9 MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roshchenko, V. A. Piksaikin, V. M. Korolev, G. G.; Egorov, A. S.</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>The energy dependence of the relative abundances of delayed neutrons and the energy dependence of the half-lives of their precursors in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th nuclei in the energy range 3.2-17.9 MeV were measured for the first time. A systematics of the time features of delayed neutrons is developed. This systematics makes it possible to estimate the half-life of delayed-neutron precursors as a function of the nucleonic composition of fissile nuclei by using a single parameter set for all nuclides. The energy dependence of the partial <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for <span class="hlt">emissive</span> fission in the reaction {sup 232}Th(n, f) was analyzed on the basis of data obtained for the relative abundances of delayed neutrons and the aforementioned half-lives and on the basis of the created systematics of the time features of delayed neutrons. It was shown experimentally for the first time that the decrease in the <span class="hlt">cross</span> section after the reaction threshold in the fission of {sup 232}Th nuclei (it has a pronounced first-chance plateau) is not an exclusion among the already studied uranium, plutonium, and curium isotopes and complies with theoretical predictions obtained for the respective nuclei with allowance for shell, superfluid, and collective effects in the nuclear-level density and with allowance for preequilibrium neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1330367','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1330367"><span id="translatedtitle">Perturbations to the intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span> of proflavin upon binding to DNA and poly d(A-IU) from triplet-delayed <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, W E; Galley, W C</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The steady-state prompt fluorescence, phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence spectra and triplet lifetimes of free proflavin and proflavin bound to native DNA and alternating poly d(A-IU) were obtained as a function of temperature in a buffer-glycerol solvent. The intensity of the proflavin E-type delayed fluorescence (DF) relative to both the phosphorescence (Ph) and the prompt fluorescence (F) was observed to increase with temperature, and plots of both ln (DF/Ph) and ln (DF/(F.tau T] as a function of 1/T were linear over a wide range of temperatures. Although the activation energies for the thermal repopulation of the proflavin excited singlet state from the triplet obtained from the slopes of these plots were essentially unchanged on binding, perturbations to the S1----T1 intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span> rate constants extracted from the intercepts at infinite temperature were observed. The marked enhancement of the intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span> that occurs with binding to the iodinated polynucleotide reflects an external heavy atom perturbation upon the intercalated dye which also induces a shortening in the triplet lifetime. With proflavin bound to DNA an enhancement to the S1----T1 intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span>, though lesser in magnitude than for poly d(A-IU), is observed but with no change to the triplet lifetime. The well-studied fluorescence quenching of DNA-bound proflavin is a result of this increase in the intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span>. It is proposed that these non-heavy atom enhancements in the intersystem <span class="hlt">crossing</span> are due to distortions of the molecular plane of the bound proflavin molecule. In total these analyses provide a complete description of the excited state processes of the proflavin molecule and their variations with temperature. PMID:3224148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001683"><span id="translatedtitle">Gyrokinetic Statistical <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium and Turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett</p> <p>2011-01-10</p> <p>A paradigm based on the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..MARB25007Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..MARB25007Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> surface energy for zincblende semiconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, S. B.; Wei, Su-Huai</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>Recent advance in nanosciences requires the determination of surface (or facet) energy of semiconductors, which is often difficult due to the polar nature of some of the most important surfaces such as the (111)A/(111)B surfaces. Several approaches have been developed in the past [1-3] to deal with the problem but an unambiguous division of the polar surface energies is yet to come [2]. Here we show that an accurate division is indeed possible for the zincblende semiconductors and will present the results for GaAs, ZnSe, and CuInSe2 [4], respectively. A general trend emerges, relating the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> surface energy to the ionicity of the bulk materials. [1] N. Chetty and R. M. Martin, Phys. Rev. B 45, 6074 (1992). [2] N. Moll, et al., Phys. Rev. B 54, 8844 (1996). [3] S. Mankefors, Phys. Rev. B 59, 13151 (1999). [4] S. B. Zhang and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 65, 081402 (2002).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.381a2078W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.381a2078W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> decay width measurements in 16O</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV has been used to populate excited states in 16O. The deuteron ejectiles were measured using the high-resolution Munich Q3D spectrograph. A large-acceptance silicon-strip detector array was used to register the recoil and break-up products. This complete kinematic set-up has enabled <span class="hlt">absolute</span> α-decay widths to be measured with high-resolution in the 13.9 to 15.9 MeV excitation energy regime in 16O; many for the first time. This energy region spans the 14.4 MeV four-α breakup threshold. Monte-Carlo simulations of the detector geometry and break-up processes yield detection efficiencies for the two dominant decay modes of 40% and 37% for the α+12C(g.s.) and a+12C(2+1) break-up channels respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..90a3825D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..90a3825D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of forces in optical tweezers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dutra, R. S.; Viana, N. B.; Maia Neto, P. A.; Nussenzveig, H. M.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration, conducted over the past 15 years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spot, adapting frequently employed video microscopy techniques. Combined with interface spherical aberration, it reveals a previously unknown window of instability for trapping. Comparison with experimental data leads to an overall agreement within error bars, with no fitting, for a broad range of microsphere radii, from the Rayleigh regime to the ray optics one, for different polarizations and trapping heights, including all commonly employed parameter domains. Besides signaling full first-principles theoretical understanding of optical tweezers operation, the results may lead to improved instrument design and control over experiments, as well as to an extended domain of applicability, allowing reliable force measurements, in principle, from femtonewtons to nanonewtons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5505929','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5505929"><span id="translatedtitle">Equilibrium and non-equilibrium <span class="hlt">emission</span> of complex fragments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bowman, D.R.</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p>Complex fragment <span class="hlt">emission</span> (Z{gt}2) has been studied in the reactions of 50, 80, and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C, and 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au. Charge, angle, and energy distributions were measured inclusively and in coincidence with other complex fragments, and were used to extract the source rapidities, velocity distributions, and <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections. The experimental <span class="hlt">emission</span> velocity distributions, charge loss distributions, and <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections have been compared with calculations based on statistical compound nucleus decay. The binary signature of the coincidence events and the sharpness of the velocity distributions illustrate the primarily 2-body nature of the {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reaction mechanism between 50 and 100 MeV/u. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> velocities, angular distributions, and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of fragments of 20{le}Z{le}35 at 50 MeV/u, 19{le}Z{le}28 at 80 MeV/u, and 17{le}Z{le}21 at 100 MeV/u indicate that these fragments arise solely from the binary decay of compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions in which the {sup 139}La projectile picks up about one-half of the {sup 12}C target. In the 80 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au reactions, the disappearance of the binary signature in the total charge and velocity distributions suggests and increase in the complex fragment and light charged particle multiplicity with increasing target mass. As in the 80 and 100 MeV/u {sup 139}La + {sup 12}C reactions, the lighter complex fragments exhibit anisotropic angular distributions and <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections that are too large to be explained exclusively by statistical <span class="hlt">emission</span>. 143 refs., 67 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227359','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227359"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055713','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055713"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27248566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27248566"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (<span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparities, termed the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4898198','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4898198"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (<span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparities, termed the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from <span class="hlt">absolute</span> disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003ICRC....2..911M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003ICRC....2..911M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Calibration of the HiRes Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matthews, J. N.; Thomas, S. B.; HiRes Collaboration</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>The HiRes experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence technique. The experiment uses large mirrors that collect the fluorescence light and fo cus it onto arrays of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs measure the intensity and time of arrival of the collected light. Our primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs uses a high stability (<1%) portable light source. This source is transferred from the lab to the field where it is employed as a standard candle to calibrate the 64 detectors (>16,000 PMTs). To determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> response it is necessary to understand the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> light output of this source. We have measured the source irradiance using a hybrid photo dio de system, two NIST calibrated photo-dio des, and by observing the photo electron statistics of the PMTs. 2. Introduction The goal of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) project is to study cosmic rays at the highest energies. An ultra high energy cosmic ray entering the earth's atmosphere collides with atmospheric nuclei triggering the development of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS). The EAS emits fluorescence light as it develops. HiRes uses the air fluorescence signal to measure properties of the primary cosmic ray particle. The fundamental detector elements in HiRes are photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The light from an EAS is collected by large mirrors and fo cused into cameras each consisting of 256 PMTs [1]. Routine monitoring and calibration of the PMTs and associated electronics are crucial to the proper interpretation of the data. The primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs involves the use of a high stability portable xenon flash lamp. The Roving Xenon Flasher (RXF) offers several advantages. The pulse-to-pulse variation in intensity is very small ˜0.3% and the stability over a night is better than 2%. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum of the RXF is sufficiently broad to allow calibration over a wide range of wavelengths. It is also readily transported</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS33C1482G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS33C1482G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, <span class="hlt">emissive</span> skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026422','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026422"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration, 1: Temperature-dependent <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for charge changing processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Laville, A.; Gallegos, A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The study of charge changing <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of fast ions colliding with matter provides the fundamental basis for the analysis of the charge states produced in such interactions. Given the high degree of complexity of the phenomena, there is no theoretical treatment able to give a comprehensive description. In fact, the involved processes are very dependent on the basic parameters of the projectile, such as velocity charge state, and atomic number, and on the target parameters, the physical state (molecular, atomic or ionized matter) and density. The target velocity, may have also incidence on the process, through the temperature of the traversed medium. In addition, multiple electron transfer in single collisions intrincates more the phenomena. Though, in simplified cases, such as protons moving through atomic hydrogen, considerable agreement has been obtained between theory and experiments However, in general the available theoretical approaches have only limited validity in restricted regions of the basic parameters. Since most measurements of charge changing <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are performed in atomic matter at ambient temperature, models are commonly based on the assumption of targets at rest, however at Astrophysical scales, temperature displays a wide range in atomic and ionized matter. Therefore, due to the lack of experimental data , an attempt is made here to quantify temperature dependent <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections on basis to somewhat arbitrary, but physically reasonable assumptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012063','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012063"><span id="translatedtitle">Orion <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Navigation System Progress and Challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8494E..0GL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8494E..0GL"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> optical surface measurement with deflectometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Wansong; Sandner, Marc; Gesierich, Achim; Burke, Jan</p> <p></p> <p>Deflectometry utilises the deformation and displacement of a sample pattern after reflection from a test surface to infer the surface slopes. Differentiation of the measurement data leads to a curvature map, which is very useful for surface quality checks with sensitivity down to the nanometre range. Integration of the data allows reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> surface shape, but the procedure is very error-prone because systematic errors may add up to large shape deviations. In addition, there are infinitely many combinations for slope and object distance that satisfy a given observation. One solution for this ambiguity is to include information on the object's distance. It must be known very accurately. Two laser pointers can be used for positioning the object, and we also show how a confocal chromatic distance sensor can be used to define a reference point on a smooth surface from which the integration can be started. The used integration algorithm works without symmetry constraints and is therefore suitable for free-form surfaces as well. Unlike null testing, deflectometry also determines radius of curvature (ROC) or focal lengths as a direct result of the 3D surface reconstruction. This is shown by the example of a 200 mm diameter telescope mirror, whose ROC measurements by coordinate measurement machine and deflectometry coincide to within 0.27 mm (or a sag error of 1.3μm). By the example of a diamond-turned off-axis parabolic mirror, we demonstrate that the figure measurement uncertainty comes close to a well-calibrated Fizeau interferometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940024091&hterms=beer+lambert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbeer%2Blambert','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940024091&hterms=beer+lambert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbeer%2Blambert"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B1..271A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ISPAr41B1..271A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6754843','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6754843"><span id="translatedtitle">Absorption by ground-state lead atoms of the 283. 3-nm resonant line from a lead hollow cathode lamp. An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> number density calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simons, J.W. ); Oldenborg, R.C.; Baughcum, S.L. )</p> <p>1989-10-19</p> <p>An accurate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> number density calibration curve for absorption by gaseous lead atoms of the 283.3-nm resonant line from a typical lead hollow cathode lamp is reported. This calibration shows the usual curvature in the Beer-Lambert plot for atomic absorption at moderate to high absorbances that is commonly attributed to self-absorption leading to line reversal in the source and/or preferential absorption at the line center when the absorber temperature is not much greater than the source Doppler temperature. A theoretical calculation utilizing a Doppler-limited Fourier transform spectrum of the 283.3-nm <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the lamp and a tabulated value of the absorption <span class="hlt">cross</span> section and accounting for the isotopic and nuclear hyperfine components in both the <span class="hlt">emission</span> and absorption due to naturally occurring lead quantitatively reproduces the experimental calibration curve without any parameter adjustments. It is found that the curvature in the Beer-Lambert plot has more to do with the fact that the absorbing and emitting atoms are a mixture of isotopes giving several isotopic and nuclear hyperfine transitions at slightly different frequencies than it does with preferential absorption at line centers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7660E..3RB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7660E..3RB"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> temperature measurements using a two-color QWIP focal plane array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bundas, Jason; Dennis, Richard; Patnaude, Kelly; Burrows, Douglas; Faska, Ross; Sundaram, Mani; Reisinger, Axel; Manitakos, Dan</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The infrared photon flux emitted by an object depends not only on its temperature but also on a proportionality factor referred to as its <span class="hlt">emissivity</span>. Since the latter parameter is usually not known quantitatively a priori, any temperature determination based on single-band radiometric measurements suffers from an inherent uncertainty. Recording photon fluxes in two separate spectral bands can in principle circumvent this limitation. The technique amounts to solving a system of two equations in two unknowns, namely, temperature and <span class="hlt">emissivity</span>. The temperature derived in this manner can be considered <span class="hlt">absolute</span> in the sense that it is independent of the <span class="hlt">emissivity</span>, as long as that <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> is the same in both bands. QmagiQ has previously developed a 320x256 midwave/longwave staring focal plane array which has been packaged into a dual-band laboratory camera. The camera in question constitutes a natural tool to generate simultaneous and independent <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> maps and temperature maps of entire two-dimensional scenes, rather than at a single point on an object of interest. We describe a series of measurements we have performed on a variety of targets of different <span class="hlt">emissivities</span> and temperatures. We examine various factors that affect the accuracy of the technique. They include the influence of the ambient radiation reflected off the target, which must be properly accounted for and subtracted from the collected signal in order to lead to the true target temperature. We also quantify the consequences of spectrally varying <span class="hlt">emissivities</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27602720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27602720"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ligand Discrimination by Dimeric Signaling Receptors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fathi, Sepehr; Nayak, Chitra R; Feld, Jordan J; Zilman, Anton G</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Many signaling pathways act through shared components, where different ligand molecules bind the same receptors or activate overlapping sets of response regulators downstream. Nevertheless, different ligands acting through <span class="hlt">cross</span>-wired pathways often lead to different outcomes in terms of the target cell behavior and function. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, it still largely remains unclear how cells can reliably discriminate different molecular ligands under such circumstances. Here we show that signaling via ligand-induced receptor dimerization-a very common motif in cellular signaling-naturally incorporates a mechanism for the discrimination of ligands acting through the same receptor. PMID:27602720</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Metro..53..981Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Metro..53..981Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid-infrared <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral responsivity scale based on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We are reporting on a laser-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720017778','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720017778"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet atomic <span class="hlt">emission</span> detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Braun, W.; Peterson, N. C.; Bass, A. M.; Kurylo, M. J., III (Inventor)</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A device and method are provided for performing qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis through the utilization of a vacuum UV chromatographic detector. The method involves the use of a carrier gas at low pressure. The gas carries a sample to a gas chromatograph column; the column output is directed to a microwave cavity. In this cavity, a low pressure microwave discharge produces fragmentation of the compounds present and generates intense atomic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the vacuum ultraviolet. These <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are isolated by a monochromator and measured by photometer to establish <span class="hlt">absolute</span> concentration for the elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809...75M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809...75M"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar-wind Ion-driven X-Ray <span class="hlt">Emission</span> from Cometary and Planetary Atmospheres: Measurements and Theoretical Predictions of Charge-Exchange <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-sections and <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Spectra for O6+ + H2O, Co, Co2, Ch4, N2, NO, N2O, and Ar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Machacek, J. R.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Schultz, D. R.; Ralchenko, Yu.; Moradmand, A.; El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Chutjian, A.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Relevant to modeling and understanding X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from cometary and planetary atmospheres, total <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sections for 1.17 and 2.33 keV/u O6+ colliding with H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, N2, NO, N2O, and Ar have been measured for the processes of single, double, and triple charge exchanges. Using these measurements as benchmarks, synthetic <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra spanning the X-ray, UV, and visible range have been calculated based on theoretical treatment of the transfer of between one and six electrons from the target neutrals to the projectile ion, followed by radiative and non-radiative decay of the highly excited states produced in these collisions. The results help add to the base of knowledge required to simulate ion-neutral processes in astrophysical environments; refine the present understanding of these fundamental atomic processes; and guide future observations, laboratory measurements, and theoretical predictions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002rxte.prop70044R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002rxte.prop70044R"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Distance to the Burster GS 1826-238</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rothschild, Richard</p> <p></p> <p>We have been awarded Chandra time (70 ks) to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance to the clocked thermonuclear flash generator GS 1826-238 by measuring the burst-induced temporal variability of the x-ray scattering halo. When combined with the bolometric flux measured simultaneously with Chandra and RXTE, this will yield the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bolometric luminosity from this object for both the persistent and burst <span class="hlt">emission</span>. The simultaneous RXTE observations are essential to this task, since they allow for a precise definition of the continuum, extend the energy range of measurements of the persistent flux well above the 10 keV limit of Chandra, and will aid in understanding deadtime issues in the Chandra data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/892912','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/892912"><span id="translatedtitle">A Liquid-Helium-Cooled <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Reference Cold Load forLong-Wavelength Radiometric Calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bensadoun, M.; Witebsky, C.; Smoot, George F.; De Amici,Giovanni; Kogut, A.; Levin, S.</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>We describe a large (78-cm) diameter liquid-helium-cooled black-body <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reference cold load for the calibration of microwave radiometers. The load provides an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration near the liquid helium (LHe) boiling point, accurate to better than 30 mK for wavelengths from 2.5 to 25 cm (12-1.2 GHz). The <span class="hlt">emission</span> (from non-LHe temperature parts of the cold load) and reflection are small and well determined. Total corrections to the LHe boiling point temperature are {le} 50 mK over the operating range. This cold load has been used at several wavelengths at the South Pole and at the White Mountain Research Station. In operation, the average LHe loss rate was {le} 4.4 l/hr. Design considerations, radiometric and thermal performance and operational aspects are discussed. A comparison with other LHe-cooled reference loads including the predecessor of this cold load is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880064320&hterms=1076&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231076','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880064320&hterms=1076&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231076"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars - Intrinsic colors and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Torres-Dodgen, Ana V.; Massey, Philip</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> spectrophotometry of about 10-A resolution in the range 3400-7300 A have been obtained for southern Wolf-Rayet stars, and line-free magnitudes and colors have been constructed. The <span class="hlt">emission</span>-line contamination in the narrow-band ubvr systems of Westerlund (1966) and Smith (1968) is shown to be small for most WN stars, but to be quite significant for WC stars. It is suggested that the more severe differences in intrinsic color from star to star of the same spectral subtype noted at shorter wavelengths are due to differences in atmospheric extent. True continuum <span class="hlt">absolute</span> visual magnitudes and intrinsic colors are obtained for the LMC WR stars. The most visually luminous WN6-WN7 stars are found to be located in the core of the 30 Doradus region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890031959&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890031959&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle">Radial velocity studies and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> parameters of contact binaries. I - AB Andromedae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hrivnak, Bruce J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>New radial velocity curves have been obtained for the contact binary AB And, using the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation technique. A mass ratio of 0.479 is determined, which is revised to 0.491 when the velocities are corrected for proximity effects using a light curve model. These values differ by less than ten percent from the photometric mass ratio. An analysis of the symmetric B and V light curves reported by Rigterink in 1973 using the spectroscopic mass ratio yields a consistent set of light and velocity curve elements. These also produce a reasonably good fit to the infrared J and K light curves reported by Jameson and Akinci in 1979. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> elements are determined, and these indicate that both components have a main-sequence internal structure. These <span class="hlt">absolute</span> parameters, together with the Galactic kinematics, suggest an age for the system similar to or greater than that of the Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043652','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1043652"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C</p> <p>2012-05-03</p> <p>A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> DT neutron yield is obtained without <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...818..120L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...818..120L"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectra, <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Yields, <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Sections, and Kinetic Energy Distributions of Hydrogen Atoms from H2 X 1Eg+-d 3IIu Excitation by Electron Impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xianming; Shemansky, Donald E.; Yoshii, Jean; Johnson, Paul V.; Malone, Charles P.; Ajello, Joseph M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Electron-impact excitation of H2 triplet states plays an important role in the heating of outer planet upper thermospheres. The {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u state is the third ungerade triplet state, and the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ <span class="hlt">emission</span> is the largest cascade channel for the a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ state. Accurate energies of the d{}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-(v, J) levels are calculated from an ab initio potential energy curve. Radiative lifetimes of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u(v, J) levels are obtained by an accurate evaluation of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ transition probabilities. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> yields are determined from experimental lifetimes and calculated radiative lifetimes and are further verified by comparing experimental and synthetic {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ spectra at 20 eV impact energy. Spectral analysis revealed that multipolar components beyond the dipolar term are required to model the {X}1{{{Σ }}}g+-{d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u excitation, and significant cascade excitation occurs at the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u(v = 0,1) levels. Kinetic energy (Ek) distributions of H atoms produced via predissociation of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u state and the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+-b{}3{{{Σ }}}u+ cascade dissociative <span class="hlt">emission</span> are obtained. Predissociation of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u state produces H atoms with an average Ek of 2.3 ± 0.4 eV/atom, while the Ek distribution of the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+-b{}3{{{Σ }}}u+ channel is similar to that of the {X}1{{{Σ }}}g+-a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+-b{}3{{{Σ }}}u+ channel and produces H(1s) atoms with an average Ek of 1.15 ± 0.05 eV/atom. On average, each H2 excited to the {d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u state in an H2-dominated atmosphere deposits 3.3 ± 0.4 eV into the atmosphere, while each H2 directly excited to the a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ state gives 2.2-2.3 eV to the atmosphere. The spectral distribution of the calculated a{}3{{{Σ }}}g+ -b{}3{{{Σ }}}u+ continuum <span class="hlt">emission</span> due to the {X}1{{{Σ }}}g+-{d}3{{{\\Pi }}}u excitation is significantly different from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED175683.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED175683.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Supplementary and Enrichment Series: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value. Teachers' Commentary. SP-25.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This is one in a series of manuals for teachers using SMSG high school supplementary materials. The pamphlet includes commentaries on the sections of the student's booklet, answers to the exercises, and sample test questions. Topics covered include addition and multiplication in terms of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value, graphs of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value in the Cartesian…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED175682.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED175682.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Supplementary and Enrichment Series: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value. SP-24.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bridgess, M. Philbrick, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series is designed to make material for the study of topics of special interest to students readily accessible in classroom quantity. Topics covered include <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value, addition and multiplication in terms of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value, graphs of absolute…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enlightenment&pg=4&id=EJ1096779','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enlightenment&pg=4&id=EJ1096779"><span id="translatedtitle">Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mika, Carl</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "<span class="hlt">absolute</span>." The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.H24F..01S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.H24F..01S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/783599','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/783599"><span id="translatedtitle">Low-cost, robust, filtered spectrometer for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity measurements in the soft x-ray region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lanier, N.E.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Den Hartog, D.J.</p> <p>2000-06-22</p> <p>We have developed a low-cost, robust, multifoil-filtered spectrometer to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of low-z impurity concentrations in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch. The spectrometer utilizes an array of six thin-film coated soft x-ray diodes. Each multilayered coating is specifically tailored to isolate the K-shell <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines of H- and He-like oxygen, carbon and aluminum. With calibrations obtained via a synchrotron source <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of photon flux have been made. We address the technical aspects of this diagnostic and present impurity data from both standard and high-confinement plasma discharges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020273','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020273"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Slater, P. N.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The distinction between the uses of relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration are described, and the categories of relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26752233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26752233"><span id="translatedtitle">Learning in the temporal bisection task: Relative or <span class="hlt">absolute</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Carvalho, Marilia Pinheiro; Machado, Armando; Tonneau, François</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examined whether temporal learning in a bisection task is <span class="hlt">absolute</span> or relational. Eight pigeons learned to choose a red key after a t-seconds sample and a green key after a 3t-seconds sample. To determine whether they had learned a relative mapping (short→Red, long→Green) or an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mapping (t-seconds→Red, 3t-seconds→Green), the pigeons then learned a series of new discriminations in which either the relative or the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mapping was maintained. Results showed that the generalization gradient obtained at the end of a discrimination predicted the pattern of choices made during the first session of a new discrimination. Moreover, most acquisition curves and generalization gradients were consistent with the predictions of the learning-to-time model, a Spencean model that instantiates <span class="hlt">absolute</span> learning with temporal generalization. In the bisection task, the basis of temporal discrimination seems to be <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, not relational. PMID:26752233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJA...51..167K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJA...51..167K"><span id="translatedtitle">From γ <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to (n,xn) <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of interest: The role of GAINS and GRAPhEME in nuclear reaction modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kerveno, M.; Bacquias, A.; Borcea, C.; Dessagne, Ph.; Henning, G.; Mihailescu, L. C.; Negret, A.; Nyman, M.; Olacel, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rouki, C.; Rudolf, G.; Thiry, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>During the last 10 years, in the general context of nuclear energy applications and future reactors development, our collaboration has performed measurements of (n, x nγ <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections to study (n, xn) reactions. Large sets of new and accurate experimental data have been produced on a variety of nuclei from 7Li to 238U. Comparisons with nuclear reaction code calculations have shown that the predictions of these exclusive <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections are a real challenge for the theoretical codes. Indeed many processes are involved as evaporation, fission if fissionable nucleus, direct and pre-equilibrium reactions, etc. All these processes should be simultaneously well described by the models that using nuclear structure description for optical potential, level densities, decay scheme, etc. In this article, we review what we have learned since the last P(ND)2 workshop held in 2005 (A.J.M. Plompen, Proceedings of the Perspectives on Nuclear data for the Next Decade Workshop, Bruyères-le-Châtel, France, 26-28 September 2005, NEA Report N° 6121, p. 151) and highlight how we can further progress in this field in order to provide new, complete, accurate and relevant experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23C0328M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23C0328M"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity Study of <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-Atlantic Dust Transport to Dust <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>, Chemical Aging and Removal Processes and Comparison with Ground and Satellite Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohamed, A.; Metzger, S. M.; Klingmüller, K.; Lelieveld, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Representing trans-Atlantic dust transport is one of the challenges in climate modeling and of key importance, because of its large impact on the Earth's radiation budget. Desert dust, emitted from the Sahara, is regularly transported westwards across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Caribbean. The balance between <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and removal processes, as well as the manifold chemical reactions control the impact of dust on the atmospheric composition and the interaction of dust with climate change. During trans-Atlantic transport, dust undergoes chemical aging, which involves various heterogeneous reactions that strongly depend on the mineral composition of dust (alkalinity), the surface chemistry and the associated aerosol water uptake. In this study, different parameters affecting the long-range dust transport are studied with the atmospheric chemistry-climate model EMAC. We consider chemical speciation of primary sea salt and dust particles and account for major cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2) and anions (Cl-, SO42-, HSO4-), calculated online with meteorology, i.e., feeding back onto precipitation and changing surface wind speed and roughness. We resolve the chemical aging of primary particles through explicit neutralization reactions of the cations and anions with major oxidation products (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, NH3) from natural and anthropogenic air pollution sources, which can condense on the particles surface during long-range transport and undergo gas-liquid-solid aerosol partitioning, depending on the concentration level of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and the transport processes of the primary and secondary aerosols and their precursor gases. Comprehensive analysis of the different parameters affecting the long-range transport, which include the <span class="hlt">emission</span> flux and particle size distributions, aging mechanism, convection scheme, wet and dry scavenging, show a strong dependence of the dust concentration and optical properties over the Caribbean mainly on the chemical aging of dust during</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817015A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817015A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity Study of <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-Atlantic Dust Transport to Dust <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>, Chemical Aging and Removal Processes and Comparison with Ground and Satellite Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdelkader, Mohamed; Metzger, Swen; Klingmüller, Klaus; Steil, Benedikt; Lelieveld, Jos</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Representing transatlantic dust transport is one of the challenges in climate modeling and of key importance, because of its large impact on the Earth's radiation budget. Desert dust, emitted from the Sahara, is regularly transported westwards across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Caribbean. The balance between <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and removal processes, as well as the manifold chemical reactions control the impact of dust on the atmospheric composition and the interaction of dust with climate change. During transatlantic transport, dust undergoes chemical aging, which involves various heterogeneous reactions that strongly depend on the mineral composition of dust (alkalinity), the surface chemistry and the associated aerosol water uptake. In this study, different parameters affecting the long-range dust transport are studied with the atmospheric chemistry-climate model EMAC. We consider chemical speciation of primary sea salt and dust particles and account for major cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2) and anions (Cl-, SO42-, HSO4-), calculated online with meteorology, i.e., feeding back onto precipitation and changing surface wind speed and roughness. We resolve the chemical aging of primary particles through explicit neutralization reactions of the cations and anions with major oxidation products (H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, NH3) from natural and anthropogenic air pollution sources, which can condense on the particles surface during long-range transport and undergo gas-liquid-solid aerosol partitioning, depending on the concentration level of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and the transport processes of the primary and secondary aerosols and their precursor gases. Comprehensive analysis of the different parameters affecting the long-range transport, which include the <span class="hlt">emission</span> flux and particle size distributions, aging mechanism, convection scheme, wet and dry scavenging, show a strong dependence of the dust concentration and optical properties over the Caribbean mainly on the chemical aging of dust during long</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153830','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/153830"><span id="translatedtitle">In-situ experimental investigations of electron space-charge instabilities and noise mechanisms in a reentrant <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-field amplifier via distributed-cathode <span class="hlt">emission</span> and gated-beam injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ye, J.Z.; MacGregor, R.; Chan, C.; Ruden, T.E.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Experimental investigations of the true physical conditions inside the <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-field devices are of fundamental importance for the understanding of the operation of these devices and may lead to eventual improvement of the present tubes. At Northeastern University, tube research has taken up a combined approach of in situ plasma diagnostics and computer simulation using two frequency scaled CFA`s as test vehicles. A collection of temporal and time-averaged diagnostic techniques have been developed through the research. Probe measurements as well as device performance of the linear CFA and the beam-injected, reentrant CFA have been directly compared with computer simulation results from MASK and NEAMP codes. The authors have recently incorporated in their reentrant CFA a secondary <span class="hlt">emission</span> cathode for the purpose of gaining insight on improving the noise performance of both military and commercial devices. It has long been speculated, and appears more so as a result of the improved diagnostic techniques, that the instabilities in the space charge cloud are the major source of noise in <span class="hlt">crossed</span>-field devices. Long electron transit time facilitates large-scale energy exchanges between hub electrons and eliminates the condition for the classical Brillouin flow. Their time-averaged density measurements confirmed that electron cloud extends beyond that predicted by the classical theory; preliminary observations showed organized space charge oscillations for static operating regimes. These oscillations can interact with the applied RF drive signal at different levels resulting in noise on the RF circuit. Other instabilities associated with the cathode secondary <span class="hlt">emission</span> and due to reentrant electrons are, among other factors, evaluated in terms of their contribution to the turbulent behavior via spatial probes that monitor the anode current, back bombardment current and space charge fluctuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034225&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034225&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> oscillator strengths for 108 lines of Si I between 163 and 410 nanometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Peter L.; Griesinger, Harriet E.; Cardon, Bartley L.; Huber, Martin C. E.; Tozzi, G. P.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of neutral silicon oscillator strengths (f-values) obtained by absorption and <span class="hlt">emission</span> techniques have been combined using the numerical procedure of Cardon et al. (1979) to produce 108 f-values for the Si I lines between 163 and 410 nm. Beam-foil-lifetime measurements were employed to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale. The present measurements have uncertainties of about 0.07 dex (+ or - 16 percent) at the 1-sigma level of confidence. Good agreement is obtained between the results and previous data. The data also provide upper limits for the f-values of 22 other lines and information on the lifetimes for 36 levels in Si I.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1012248','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1012248"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> beam flux measurement at NDCX-I using gold-melting calorimetry technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ni, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Lidia, S.M.; Welch, J.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>We report on an alternative way to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> beam flux at the NDCX-I, LBNL linear accelerator. Up to date, the beam flux is determined from the analysis of the beam-induced optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a ceramic scintilator (Al-Si). The new approach is based on calorimetric technique, where energy flux is deduced from the melting dynamics of a gold foil. We estimate an average 260 kW/cm2 beam flux over 5 {micro}s, which is consistent with values provided by the other methods. Described technique can be applied to various ion species and energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013732','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013732"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> hohlraum wall albedo under ignition foot drive conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suter, L J; Wallace, R J; Hammel, B A; Weber, F A; Landen, O L; Campbell, K M; DeWald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Rosen, M D; Jones, O S; Turner, R E; Kauffmann, R L; Hammer, J H</p> <p>2003-11-25</p> <p>We present the first measurements of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> albedos of hohlraums made from gold or from high-Z mixtures. The measurements are performed over the range of radiation temperatures (70-100 eV) expected during the foot of an indirect-drive temporally-shaped ignition laser pulse, where accurate knowledge of the wall albedo (i.e. soft x-ray wall re-<span class="hlt">emission</span>) is most critical for determining capsule radiation symmetry. We find that the gold albedo agrees well with calculations using the super transition array opacity model, potentially providing additional margin for ICF ignition.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4296622','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4296622"><span id="translatedtitle">Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-<span class="hlt">absolute</span> and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> anchorage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Consolaro, Alberto</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> anchorage. PMID:25162561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740047866&hterms=Temperature+wavelength&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTemperature%2Bwavelength','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740047866&hterms=Temperature+wavelength&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTemperature%2Bwavelength"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> brightness temperature measurements at 2.1-mm wavelength</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ulich, B. L.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Sun, new Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and of the flux density of DR21 at 2.1-mm wavelength are reported. Relative measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength are also preented which resolve the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration discrepancy between The University of Texas 16-ft radio telescope and the Aerospace Corporation 15-ft antenna. The use of the bright planets and DR21 as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration sources at millimeter wavelengths is discussed in the light of recent observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.G11B0924M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.G11B0924M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Antenna Calibration at the US National Geodetic Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. Determination of antenna phase center behavior is known as "antenna calibration". Since 1994, NGS has computed relative antenna calibrations for more than 350 antennas. In recent years, the geodetic community has moved to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibrations - the IGS adopted <span class="hlt">absolute</span> antenna phase center calibrations in 2006 for use in their orbit and clock products, and NGS's CORS group began using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> antenna calibration upon the release of the new CORS coordinates in IGS08 epoch 2005.00 and NAD 83(2011,MA11,PA11) epoch 2010.00. Although NGS relative calibrations can be and have been converted to <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, it is considered best practice to independently measure phase center characteristics in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sense. Consequently, NGS has developed and operates an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration system. These <span class="hlt">absolute</span> antenna calibrations accommodate the demand for greater accuracy and for 2-dimensional (elevation and azimuth) parameterization. NGS will continue to provide calibration values via the NGS web site www.ngs.noaa.gov/ANTCAL, and will publish calibrations in the ANTEX format as well as the legacy ANTINFO</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP41B1117M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP41B1117M"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct comparisons between <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative geomagnetic paleointensities: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of a relative paleointensity stack</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mochizuki, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Shibuya, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> geomagnetic paleointensities (APIs) have been estimated from igneous rocks, while relative paleomagnetic intensities (RPIs) have been reported from sediment cores. These two datasets have been treated separately, as correlations between APIs and RPIs are difficult on account of age uncertainties. High-resolution RPI stacks have been constructed from globally distributed sediment cores with high sedimentation rates. Previous studies often assumed that the RPI stacks have a linear relationship with geomagnetic axial dipole moments, and calibrated the RPI values to API values. However, the assumption of a linear relationship between APIs and RPIs has not been evaluated. Also, a quantitative calibration method for the RPI is lacking. We present a procedure for directly comparing API and RPI stacks, thus allowing reliable calibrations of RPIs. Direct comparisons between APIs and RPIs were conducted with virtually no associated age errors using both tephrochronologic correlations and RPI minima. Using the stratigraphic positions of tephra layers in oxygen isotope stratigraphic records, we directly compared the RPIs and APIs reported from welded tuffs contemporaneously extruded with the tephra layers. In addition, RPI minima during geomagnetic reversals and excursions were compared with APIs corresponding to the reversals and excursions. The comparison of APIs and RPIs at these exact points allowed a reliable calibration of the RPI values. We applied this direct comparison procedure to the global RPI stack PISO-1500. For six independent calibration points, virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) from the corresponding APIs and RPIs of the PISO-1500 stack showed a near-linear relationship. On the basis of the linear relationship, RPIs of the stack were successfully calibrated to the VADMs. The direct comparison procedure provides an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration method that will contribute to the recovery of temporal variations and distributions of geomagnetic axial dipole</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4541504','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4541504"><span id="translatedtitle">OCT angiography by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity difference applied to normal and diseased human retinas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruminski, Daniel; Sikorski, Bartosz L.; Bukowska, Danuta; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Krawiec, Krzysztof; Malukiewicz, Grazyna; Bieganowski, Lech; Wojtkowski, Maciej</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We compare four optical coherence tomography techniques for noninvasive visualization of microcapillary network in the human retina and murine cortex. We perform phantom studies to investigate contrast-to-noise ratio for angiographic images obtained with each of the algorithm. We show that the computationally simplest <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity difference angiographic OCT algorithm that bases only on two <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sectional intensity images may be successfully used in clinical study of healthy eyes and eyes with diabetic maculopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion. PMID:26309740</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhB.120..539S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhB.120..539S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> velocity measurement using three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharma, P.; Verma, Y.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, P. K.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>We report the development of a three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography setup that allows single interferometer-based measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flow velocity. The setup makes use of galvo-based phase shifting to remove complex conjugate mirror artifact and a beam displacer in the sample arm to avoid <span class="hlt">cross</span> talk image. The results show that the developed approach allows efficient utilization of the imaging range of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography setup for three-beam-based velocity measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999AnGeo..17...95T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999AnGeo..17...95T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A generation mechanism for chorus <span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trakhtengerts, V. Y.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A chorus generation mechanism is discussed, which is based on interrelation of ELF/VLF noise-like and discrete <span class="hlt">emissions</span> under the cyclotron wave-particle interactions. A natural ELF/VLF noise radiation is excited by the cyclotron instability mechanism in ducts with enhanced cold plasma density or at the plasmapause. This process is accompanied by a step-like deformation of the energetic electron distribution function in the velocity space, which is situated at the boundary between resonant and nonresonant particles. The step leads to the strong phase correlation of interacting particles and waves and to a new backward wave oscillator (BWO) regime of wave generation, when an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cyclotron instability arises at the central <span class="hlt">cross</span> section of the geomagnetic trap, in the form of a succession of discrete signals with growing frequency inside each element. The dynamical spectrum of a separate element is formed similar to triggered ELF/VLF <span class="hlt">emission</span>, when the strong wavelet starts from the equatorial plane. The comparison is given of the model developed using some satellite and ground-based data. In particular, the appearance of separate groups of chorus signals with a duration 2-10 s can be connected with the preliminary stage of the step formation. BWO regime gives a succession period smaller than the bounce period of energetic electrons between the magnetic mirrors and can explain the observed intervals between chorus elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5293805','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5293805"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrasonic and acoustic <span class="hlt">emission</span> results from the Stripa heater experiments. Part I. <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-hole investigation of a rock mass subjected to heating. Part II. Acoustic <span class="hlt">emission</span> monitoring during cool-down of the Stripa heater experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paulsson, B.N.P.; King, M.S.; Rachiele, R.</p> <p>1980-12-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">cross</span>-hole high-frequency acoustic investigation of a granitic rock mass subjected to sustained heating is reported. Compressional and shear-wave velocity measurements along four different paths between four vertical boreholes were made prior to turning on the heater, during 398 days of heating, and after the heater was turned off. These measurements correlated well with the presence of fracture zones, in which the fractures were closed by thermal expansion of the rock upon heating. When the rock mass cooled, the velocity measurements indicated a greater intensity of fracturing than had existed before heating. Laboratory compressional and shear-wave velocity measurements were also made on intact rock specimens obtained from the site and subjected to axial stress. When used to interpret the increases in velocities measured in the field upon heating the rock mass, these measurements implied increases in horizontal normal stresses to between 30 and 40 MPa. Increases in these magnitudes agree with stress measurements made by the other techniques. The ratio of measured compressional to shear-wave velocity appears to provide a sensitive measure of the fraction of crack porosity containing water or gas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7857E..0JB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7857E..0JB"><span id="translatedtitle">On-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature calibration using multiple phase change materials: overview of recent technology advancements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, Fred A.; Adler, Douglas P.; Pettersen, Claire; Revercomb, Henry E.; Perepezko, John H.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> calibration blackbodies that have <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of temperature sensors onorbit, that uses the transient melt signatures from multiple phase change materials, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and is now undergoing technology advancement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). Refinements currently underway focus on ensuring that the melt materials in their sealed confinement housings perform as expected in the thermal and microgravity environment of a multi-year spaceflight mission. Thermal soak and cycling tests are underway to demonstrate that there is no dissolution from the housings into the melt materials that could alter melt temperature, and that there is no liquid metal embrittlement of the housings from the metal melt materials. In addition, NASA funding has been recently secured to conduct a demonstration of this scheme in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MMTA...41.1151Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MMTA...41.1151Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Glassy Carbon as an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle Scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan; Long, Gabrielle G.; Quintana, John P. G.; Allen, Andrew J.; Jemian, Pete R.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span> section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity calibration of SAS data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/975440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/975440"><span id="translatedtitle">Glassy carbon as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity calibration standard for small-angle scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, F.; Ilavsky, J.; Long, G.; Allen, A.; Quintana, J.; Jemian, P.; NIST</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of small-angle scattering (SAS) intensity data (measured in terms of the differential scattering <span class="hlt">cross</span> section per unit sample volume per unit solid angle) is essential for many important aspects of quantitative SAS analysis, such as obtaining the number density, volume fraction, and specific surface area of the scatterers. It also enables scattering data from different instruments (light, X-ray, or neutron scattering) to be combined, and it can even be useful to detect the existence of artifacts in the experimental data. Different primary or secondary calibration methods are available. In the latter case, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity calibration requires a stable artifact with the necessary scattering profile. Glassy carbon has sometimes been selected as this intensity calibration standard. Here we review the spatial homogeneity and temporal stability of one type of commercially available glassy carbon that is being used as an intensity calibration standard at a number of SAS facilities. We demonstrate that glassy carbon is sufficiently homogeneous and stable during routine use to be relied upon as a suitable standard for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity calibration of SAS data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008161','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008161"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1676b0095B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1676b0095B"><span id="translatedtitle">The conditions of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> summability of multiple trigonometric series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bitimkhan, Samat; Akishev, Gabdolla</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In this work necessary and sufficient conditions of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> summability of multiple trigonometric Fourier series of functions from anisotropic spaces of Lebesque are found in terms of its best approximation, the module of smoothness and the mixed smoothness module.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970000403','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970000403"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet in Microgravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Sung P.; Vihinen, I.; Honohan, A.; Hudman, Michael D.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The transition from convective to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability is observed in the 2.2 second drop tower of the NASA Lewis Research Center. In convective instability the disturbance grows spatially as it is convected downstream. In <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability the disturbance propagates both downstream and upstream, and manifests itself as an expanding sphere. The transition Reynolds numbers are determined for two different Weber numbers by use of Glycerin and a Silicone oil. Preliminary comparisons with theory are made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992RaEl...37.1336G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992RaEl...37.1336G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> biphoton meter of the quantum efficiency of photomultipliers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ginzburg, V. M.; Keratishvili, N. G.; Korzhenevich, E. L.; Lunev, G. V.; Sapritskii, V. I.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>An biphoton <span class="hlt">absolute</span> meter of photomultiplier quantum efficiency is presented which is based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Calculation and experiment results were obtained which made it possible to choose the parameters of the setup that guarantee a linear dependence of wavelength on the Z coordinate (along the axicon axis). Results of a series of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of the quantum efficiency of a specific photomultiplier (FEU-136) are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27a4110R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27a4110R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>/convective instability of planar viscoelastic jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Spatiotemporal linear stability analysis is used to investigate the onset of local <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability in planar viscoelastic jets. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the FENE-P constitutive equation which requires the specification of a non-dimensional polymer relaxation time (the Weissenberg number, We), the maximum polymer extensibility, L, and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities, β. A two-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of co- or counter-flow while N-1 sets the thickness of the jet shear layer. We examine how the variation of these fluid and flow parameters affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable. Initially setting the Reynolds number to Re = 500, we find that the first varicose jet-column mode dictates the presence of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability, and increasing the Weissenberg number produces important changes in the nature of the instability. The region of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability shifts towards thin shear layers, and the amount of back-flow needed for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability decreases (i.e., the influence of viscoelasticity is destabilizing). Additionally, when We is sufficiently large and N-1 is sufficiently small, single-stream jets become <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable. Numerical experiments with approximate equations show that both the polymer and solvent contributions to the stress become destabilizing when the scaled shear rate, η = /W e dU¯1/dx 2L ( /d U ¯ 1 d x 2 is the base-state velocity gradient), is sufficiently large. These qualitative trends are largely unchanged when the Reynolds number is reduced; however, the relative importance of the destabilizing stresses increases tangibly. Consequently, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability is substantially enhanced, and single-stream jets become <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> unstable over a sizable portion of the parameter space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/115181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/115181"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat capacity and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> entropy of iron phosphides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dobrokhotova, Z.V.; Zaitsev, A.I.; Litvina, A.D.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>There is little or no data on the thermodynamic properties of iron phosphides despite their importance for several areas of science and technology. The information available is of a qualitative character and is based on assessments of the heat capacity and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> entropy. In the present work, we measured the heat capacity over the temperature range of 113-873 K using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and calculated the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> entropy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AMTD....5.6183L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AMTD....5.6183L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of SO2 cameras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lübcke, P.; Bobrowski, N.; Illing, S.; Kern, C.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Vogel, L.; Zielcke, J.; Delgado Granados, H.; Platt, U.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Sulphur dioxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> flux measurements are an important tool for volcanic monitoring and eruption risk assessment. The SO2 camera technique remotely measures volcanic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by analysing the ultraviolet absorption of SO2 in a narrow spectral window between 305 nm and 320 nm using solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere. The SO2 absorption is selectively detected by mounting band-pass interference filters in front of a two-dimensional, UV-sensitive CCD detector. While this approach is simple and delivers valuable insights into the two-dimensional SO2 distribution, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration has proven to be difficult. An accurate calibration of the SO2 camera (i.e., conversion from optical density to SO2 column density, CD) is crucial to obtain correct SO2 CDs and flux measurements that are comparable to other measurement techniques and can be used for volcanological applications. The most common approach for calibrating SO2 camera measurements is based on inserting quartz cells (cuvettes) containing known amounts of SO2 into the light path. It has been found, however, that reflections from the windows of the calibration cell can considerably affect the signal measured by the camera. Another possibility for calibration relies on performing simultaneous measurements in a small area of the camera's field-of-view (FOV) by a narrow-field-of-view Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (NFOV-DOAS) system. This procedure combines the very good spatial and temporal resolution of the SO2 camera technique with the more accurate column densities obtainable from DOAS measurements. This work investigates the uncertainty of results gained through the two commonly used, but quite different calibration methods (DOAS and calibration cells). Measurements with three different instruments, an SO2 camera, a NFOV-DOAS system and an Imaging DOAS (IDOAS), are presented. We compare the calibration-cell approach with the calibration from the NFOV-DOAS system. The respective</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714045W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714045W"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">absolut</span> gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over time need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23943556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23943556"><span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative judgments in the WITNESS model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fife, Dustin; Perry, Colton; Gronlund, Scott D</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The WITNESS model (Clark in Applied Cognitive Psychology 17:629-654, 2003) provides a theoretical framework with which to investigate the factors that contribute to eyewitness identification decisions. One key factor involves the contributions of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> versus relative judgments. An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> contribution is determined by the degree of match between an individual lineup member and memory for the perpetrator; a relative contribution involves the degree to which the best-matching lineup member is a better match to memory than the remaining lineup members. In WITNESS, the proportional contributions of relative versus <span class="hlt">absolute</span> judgments are governed by the values of the decision weight parameters. We conducted an exploration of the WITNESS model's parameter space to determine the identifiability of these relative/<span class="hlt">absolute</span> decision weight parameters, and compared the results to a restricted version of the model that does not vary the decision weight parameters. This exploration revealed that the decision weights in WITNESS are difficult to identify: Data often can be fit equally well by setting the decision weights to nearly any value and compensating with a criterion adjustment. Clark, Erickson, and Breneman (Law and Human Behavior 35:364-380, 2011) claimed to demonstrate a theoretical basis for the superiority of lineup decisions that are based on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> contributions, but the relationship between the decision weights and the criterion weakens this claim. These findings necessitate reconsidering the role of the relative/<span class="hlt">absolute</span> judgment distinction in eyewitness decision making. PMID:23943556</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJT....35.1310V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJT....35.1310V"><span id="translatedtitle">Handheld Reflective Foil Emissometer with 0.007 <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Accuracy at 0.05</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van der Ham, E. W. M.; Ballico, M. J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The development and performance of a handheld emissometer for the measurement of the <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> of highly reflective metallic foils used for the insulation of domestic and commercial buildings are described. Reflective roofing insulation based on a thin coating of metal on a more robust substrate is very widely used in hotter climates to reduce the radiant heat transfer between the ceiling and roof in commercial and residential buildings. The required normal <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> of these foils is generally below 0.05, so stray reflected ambient infrared radiation (IR) makes traditional reflectance-based measurements of <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> very difficult to achieve with the required accuracy. Many manufacturers apply additional coatings onto the metallic foil to reduce visible glare during installation on a roof, and to provide protection to the thin reflective layer; however, this layer can also substantially increase the IR <span class="hlt">emissivity</span>. The system as developed at the National Measurement Institute, Australia (NMIA) is based on the principle of measurement of the modulation in thermal infrared radiation, as the sample is thermally modulated by hot and cold air streams. A commercial infrared to band radiation thermometer with a highly specialized stray and reflected radiation shroud attachment is used as the detector system, allowing for convenient handheld field measurements. The performance and accuracy of the system have been compared with NMIA's reference emissometer systems for a number of typical material samples, demonstrating its capability to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> thermal <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> of these very highly reflective foils with an uncertainty of better than.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/343636','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/343636"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of double-differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of charged-particle <span class="hlt">emission</span> reactions for several structural elements of fusion power reactors by 14.1-MeV incident neutrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kokooo; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>A two-dimensional energy and time-of-flight charged-particle spectrometer has been developed and used to measure the double-differential <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section (DDX) data of (n,xp) and (n,x{alpha}) reactions for several elements with 14.1-MeV incident neutrons at OKTAVIAN, the Intense 14-MeV Neutron Source Facility of Osaka University. The DDX data of the {sup 51}V(n, xp), {sup 51}V(n, x{alpha}), {sup nat}Fe(n, xp), {sup nat}Fe(n,x{alpha}), {sup 59}Co(n, xp), {sup 59}Co(n, x{alpha}), {sup nat}Ni(n, x{alpha}), {sup nat}Cu(n, x{alpha}), {sup 93}Nb(n, xp), {sup 93}Nb(n, x{alpha}), and {sup nat}Mo(n, xp) reactions are measured. The angle-integrated energy differential <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section (EDX) data were deduced from the measured DDX data and compared with other experimental results [except for the {sup 59}Co(n, xp) reaction] and evaluated nuclear data of JENDL fusion file (JENDL-FF). A comparison was also done with the ENDF/B-VI for the total reaction <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections of all measured reactions except for the {sup nat}Mo(n, xp) reaction and the EDX of the {sup nat}Ni(n, x{alpha}) and {sup nat}Cu(n, x{alpha}) reactions. The theoretical calculations were done by using the SINCROS-II code. The measured data agreed fairly well with other data for almost all the reactions. the JENDL-FF and SINCROS-II data underestimate the measured EDX data for the reactions of {sup 93}Nb(n, x{alpha}) and {sup nat}Mo(n, xp). For the {sup nat}Fe(n, xp), {sup nat}Fe(n, x{alpha}), {sup 59}Co(n, x{alpha}), and {sup nat}Ni(n, x{alpha}) reactions, smaller data are given than other data, i.e., other experimental data, JENDL-FF, and ENDF/B-VI. The SINCROS-II code can reproduce well for both the proton and alpha-particle <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A54D..05B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A54D..05B"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Approach For <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Temperature Calibration: Application to the CLARREO Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Anderson, J. G.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>A novel scheme to provide on-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of blackbody temperature sensors (on-demand) has been demonstrated using a copy of the engineering model version of a space flight hardware blackbody design (GIFTS). The scheme uses the phase change signature of reference materials to assign an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures scale to the blackbody sensors over a large temperature range. Uncertainties of better than 0.020 K have been demonstrated over the temperature range from 234 to 303 K. Thermal modeling has been conducted to optimize the design, and to show that accuracies comparable to those measured in the laboratory should be obtainable in the less-controlled on-orbit temperature environment. The implementation if this scheme is very attractive due to its simplicity and relatively low mass. In addition, all aspects of the electronics (control and temperature readout) needed to support this scheme have been developed and demonstrated in the as-delivered GIFTS Engineering Model blackbody calibration system developed by the University of Wisconsin. NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly <span class="hlt">absolute</span> standards that can provide the basis to meet stringent requirements on measurement accuracy. For example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> calibration blackbodies having <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature uncertainties of better than 0.020 K (3 sigma). The novel blackbody temperature calibration scheme described here is very well suited for the CLARREO mission because if its low mass, high accuracy, and ease of implementation into a demonstrated flight blackbody design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25146689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25146689"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective light absorption and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> electron transport rates in the coral Pocillopora damicornis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szabó, Milán; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Tamburic, Bojan; Larkum, Anthony W D; Schreiber, Ulrich; Suggett, David J; Kühl, Michael; Ralph, Peter J</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry has been widely used to estimate the relative photosynthetic efficiency of corals. However, both the optical properties of intact corals as well as past technical constrains to PAM fluorometers have prevented calculations of the electron turnover rate of PSII. We used a new Multi-colour PAM (MC-PAM) in parallel with light microsensors to determine for the first time the wavelength-specific effective absorption <span class="hlt">cross</span>-section of PSII photochemistry, σII(λ), and thus PAM-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> electron transport rates of the coral photosymbiont Symbiodinium both in culture and in hospite in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. In both cases, σII of Symbiodinium was highest in the blue spectral region and showed a progressive decrease towards red wavelengths. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> values for σII at 440 nm were up to 1.5-times higher in culture than in hospite. Scalar irradiance within the living coral tissue was reduced by 20% in the blue when compared to the incident downwelling irradiance. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> electron transport rates of P. damicornis at 440 nm revealed a maximum PSII turnover rate of ca. 250 electrons PSII(-1) s(-1), consistent with one PSII turnover for every 4 photons absorbed by PSII; this likely reflects the limiting steps in electron transfer between PSII and PSI. Our results show that optical properties of the coral host strongly affect light use efficiency of Symbiodinium. Therefore, relative electron transport rates do not reflect the productivity rates (or indeed how the photosynthesis-light response is parameterised). Here we provide a non-invasive approach to estimate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> electron transport rates in corals. PMID:25146689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044140','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044140"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> radiometric calibration of Landsat using a pseudo invariant calibration site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Helder, D.; Thome, K.J.; Mishra, N.; Chander, G.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Choi, Tae-young</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been used for on-orbit radiometric trending of optical satellite systems for more than 15 years. This approach to vicarious calibration has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and repeatability at the level of 1-3% depending on the site, spectral channel, and imaging geometries. A variety of sensors have used this approach for trending because it is broadly applicable and easy to implement. Models to describe the surface reflectance properties, as well as the intervening atmosphere have also been developed to improve the precision of the method. However, one limiting factor of using PICS is that an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration capability has not yet been fully developed. Because of this, PICS are primarily limited to providing only long term trending information for individual sensors or <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration opportunities between two sensors. This paper builds an argument that PICS can be used more extensively for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration. To illustrate this, a simple empirical model is developed for the well-known Libya 4 PICS based on observations by Terra MODIS and EO-1 Hyperion. The model is validated by comparing model predicted top-of-atmosphere reflectance values to actual measurements made by the Landsat ETM+ sensor reflective bands. Following this, an outline is presented to develop a more comprehensive and accurate PICS <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration model that can be Système international d'unités (SI) traceable. These initial concepts suggest that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration using PICS is possible on a broad scale and can lead to improved on-orbit calibration capabilities for optical satellite sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26192864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26192864"><span id="translatedtitle">Intensity evaluation using a femtosecond pulse laser for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Li, Jianshuang; Cao, Shiying; Meng, Xiangsong; Qu, Xinghua</p> <p>2015-06-10</p> <p>In this paper, we propose a method of intensity evaluation based on different pulse models using a femtosecond pulse laser, which enables long-range <span class="hlt">absolute</span> distance measurement with nanometer precision and large non-ambiguity range. The pulse <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation is analyzed based on different pulse models, including Gaussian, Sech(2), and Lorenz. The DC intensity and the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlation patterns are also demonstrated theoretically. In the experiments, we develop a new combined system and perform the distance measurements on an underground granite rail system. The DC intensity and amplitude of the interference fringes are measured and show a good agreement with the theory, and the distance to be determined can be up to 25 m using intensity evaluation, within 64 nm deviation compared with a He-Ne incremental interferometer, and corresponds to a relative precision of 2.7×10(-9). PMID:26192864</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023338','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023338"><span id="translatedtitle">In-Situ Transfer Standard and Coincident-View Intercomparisons for Sensor <span class="hlt">Cross</span>-Calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thome, Kurt; McCorkel, Joel; Czapla-Myers, Jeff</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>There exist numerous methods for accomplishing on-orbit calibration. Methods include the reflectance-based approach relying on measurements of surface and atmospheric properties at the time of a sensor overpass as well as invariant scene approaches relying on knowledge of the temporal characteristics of the site. The current work examines typical <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration methods and discusses the expected uncertainties of the methods. Data from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal <span class="hlt">Emission</span> and Reflection and Radiometer (ASTER), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Thematic Mapper (TM) are used to demonstrate the limits of relative sensor-to-sensor calibration as applied to current sensors while Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ are used to evaluate the limits of in situ site characterizations for SI-traceable <span class="hlt">cross</span> calibration. The current work examines the difficulties in trending of results from <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration approaches taking into account sampling issues, site-to-site variability, and accuracy of the method. Special attention is given to the differences caused in the <span class="hlt">cross</span>-comparison of sensors in radiance space as opposed to reflectance space. The results show that <span class="hlt">cross</span> calibrations with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> uncertainties lesser than 1.5 percent (1 sigma) are currently achievable even for sensors without coincident views.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101334"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> protein quantities of unlabeled samples by selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ludwig, Christina; Claassen, Manfred; Schmidt, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>For many research questions in modern molecular and systems biology, information about <span class="hlt">absolute</span> protein quantities is imperative. This information includes, for example, kinetic modeling of processes, protein turnover determinations, stoichiometric investigations of protein complexes, or quantitative comparisons of different proteins within one sample or across samples. To date, the vast majority of proteomic studies are limited to providing relative quantitative comparisons of protein levels between limited numbers of samples. Here we describe and demonstrate the utility of a targeting MS technique for the estimation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> protein abundance in unlabeled and nonfractionated cell lysates. The method is based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry and the "best flyer" hypothesis, which assumes that the specific MS signal intensity of the most intense tryptic peptides per protein is approximately constant throughout a whole proteome. SRM-targeted best flyer peptides were selected for each protein from the peptide precursor ion signal intensities from directed MS data. The most intense transitions per peptide were selected from full MS/MS scans of crude synthetic analogs. We used Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">cross</span>-validation to systematically investigate the accuracy of the technique as a function of the number of measured best flyer peptides and the number of SRM transitions per peptide. We found that a linear model based on the two most intense transitions of the three best flying peptides per proteins (TopPep3/TopTra2) generated optimal results with a <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlated mean fold error of 1.8 and a squared Pearson coefficient R(2) of 0.88. Applying the optimized model to lysates of the microbe Leptospira interrogans, we detected significant protein abundance changes of 39 target proteins upon antibiotic treatment, which correlate well with literature values. The described method is generally applicable and exploits the inherent performance advantages of SRM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009019','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009019"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> intensity and polarization of rotational Raman scattering from N2, O2, and CO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Penney, C. M.; St.peters, R. L.; Lapp, M.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>An experimental examination of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity, polarization, and relative line intensities of rotational Raman scattering (RRS) from N2, O2, and CO2 is reported. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scattering intensity for N2 is characterized by its differential <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for backscattering of incident light at 647.1 nm, which is calculated from basic measured values. The ratio of the corresponding <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for O2 to that for N2 is 2.50 plus or minus 5 percent. The intensity recent for N2, O2, and CO2 are shown to compare favorably to values calculated from recent measurements of the depolarization of Rayleigh scattering plus RRS. Measured depolarizations of various RRS lines agree to within a few percent with the theoretical value of 3/4. Detailed error analyses are presented for intensity and depolarization measurements. Finally, extensive RRS spectra at nominal gas temperatures of 23 C, 75 C, and 125 C are presented and shown to compare favorably to theoretical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667587"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-Threshold Photodetachment <span class="hlt">Cross</span> Section of (SF6)(n)(-) Cluster Anions: The Ion Core Structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luzon, Itamar; Nagler, Maoz; Chandrasekaran, Vijayanand; Heber, Oded; Strasser, Daniel</p> <p>2016-01-21</p> <p>Photodetachment <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections as a function of photon energy are measured for cold (SF6)n(-) cluster anions stored in an electrostatic ion beam trap. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photodetachment <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections near the adiabatic limit are reported. The strong dependence of the SF6(-) <span class="hlt">absolute</span> photodetachment <span class="hlt">cross</span> section on the anion equilibrium bond length leads to the conclusion that the excess charge is localized on a SF6(-) ion core that is only subtly perturbed by the neighboring cluster units. PMID:26667587</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/32785','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/32785"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cross</span>-calibration of neutron detectors for deuterium-tritium operation in TFTR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Johnson, L.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Roquemore, A.L.; Strachan, J.D.; Barnes, C.W.; Duong, H.H.; Heidbrink, W.E.; Ruskov, E.; Loughlin, M.J.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>During the initial deuterium-tritium experiments on TFTR, neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> was measured with {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fission chambers, silicon surface barrier diodes, spatially collimated {sup 4}He proportional counters and ZnS scintillators, and a variety of elemental activation foils. The activation foils, {sup 4}He counters and silicon diodes can discriminate between 14 MeV and 2.5 MeV neutrons. The other detectors respond to both DD and DT neutrons but are more sensitive to the latter. The proportional counters, scintillators, and some of the fission chambers were calibrated <span class="hlt">absolutely</span>, using a 14-MeV neutron generator positioned at numerous locations inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. Although the directly calibrated systems were saturated during the highest power deuterium-tritium operation, they allowed <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration of less sensitive fission chambers and silicon diodes. The estimated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of the uncertainty-weighted mean of these <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibrations, combined with an independent calibration derived from activation foil determinations of total neutron yield, is {plus_minus}7%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26235749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26235749"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear depolarization and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensitivity in magic-angle spinning <span class="hlt">cross</span> effect dynamic nuclear polarization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mentink-Vigier, Frédéric; Paul, Subhradip; Lee, Daniel; Feintuch, Akiva; Hediger, Sabine; Vega, Shimon; De Paëpe, Gaël</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p>Over the last two decades solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance has witnessed a breakthrough in increasing the nuclear polarization, and thus experimental sensitivity, with the advent of Magic Angle Spinning Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (MAS-DNP). To enhance the nuclear polarization of protons, exogenous nitroxide biradicals such as TOTAPOL or AMUPOL are routinely used. Their efficiency is usually assessed as the ratio between the NMR signal intensity in the presence and the absence of microwave irradiation εon/off. While TOTAPOL delivers an enhancement εon/off of about 60 on a model sample, the more recent AMUPOL is more efficient: >200 at 100 K. Such a comparison is valid as long as the signal measured in the absence of microwaves is merely the Boltzmann polarization and is not affected by the spinning of the sample. However, recent MAS-DNP studies at 25 K by Thurber and Tycko (2014) have demonstrated that the presence of nitroxide biradicals combined with sample spinning can lead to a depolarized nuclear state, below the Boltzmann polarization. In this work we demonstrate that TOTAPOL and AMUPOL both lead to observable depolarization at ≈110 K, and that the magnitude of this depolarization is radical dependent. Compared to the static sample, TOTAPOL and AMUPOL lead, respectively, to nuclear polarization losses of up to 20% and 60% at a 10 kHz MAS frequency, while Trityl OX63 does not depolarize at all. This experimental work is analyzed using a theoretical model that explains how the depolarization process works under MAS and gives new insights into the DNP mechanism and into the spin parameters, which are relevant for the efficiency of a biradical. In light of these results, the outstanding performance of AMUPOL must be revised and we propose a new method to assess the polarization gain for future radicals. PMID:26235749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025069','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025069"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale for lunar irradiance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013565','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013565"><span id="translatedtitle">System and method for calibrating a rotary <span class="hlt">absolute</span> position sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A system includes a rotary device, a rotary <span class="hlt">absolute</span> position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080005158','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080005158"><span id="translatedtitle">Method and apparatus for two-dimensional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical encoding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This invention presents a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DFD..JF05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DFD..JF05D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Convective Instability in Fluid-Conveying Flexible Pipes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Langre, E.; Ouvrard, A. E.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The effect of internal plug flow on the lateral stability of fluid conveying flexible pipes is investigated by determining the <span class="hlt">absolute</span>/convective nature of the instability from the analytically derived linear dispersion relation. The fluid-structure interaction is modeled following the work of Gregory and Paidoussis (1966). The different domains of stability, convective instability, and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability are explicitly derived in parameter space. The effect of flow velocity, mass ratio between the fluid and the structure, stiffness of the elastic foundation and axial tension is considered. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability prevails over a wide range of parameters. Convective instability only takes place at very high mass ratio, small stiffness and small axial tension. Relation is made with previous work of Brazier-Smith & Scott (1984) and Crighton (1991), considered here as a short wave approximation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922410"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> surface metrology by rotational averaging in oblique incidence interferometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Weihao; He, Yumei; Song, Li; Luo, Hongxin; Wang, Jie</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>A modified method for measuring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> figure of a large optical flat surface in synchrotron radiation by a small aperture interferometer is presented. The method consists of two procedures: the first step is oblique incidence measurement; the second is multiple rotating measurements. This simple method is described in terms of functions that are symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to reflections at the vertical axis. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> deviations of a large flat surface could be obtained when mirror antisymmetric errors are removed by N-position rotational averaging. Formulas are derived for measuring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> surface errors of a rectangle flat, and experiments on high-accuracy rectangle flats are performed to verify the method. Finally, uncertainty analysis is carried out in detail. PMID:24922410</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33D1333C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC33D1333C"><span id="translatedtitle">Field Measurement of Sand Dune Bidirectional Reflectance Characteristics for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometric Calibration of Optical Remote Sensing Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coburn, C. A.; Logie, G.; Beaver, J.; Helder, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The use of Pseudo Invariant Calibration Sites (PICS) for establishing the radiometric trending of optical remote sensing systems has a long history of successful implementation. Past studies have shown that the PICS method is useful for evaluating the trend of sensors over time or <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration of sensors but was not considered until recently for deriving <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration. Current interest in using this approach to establish <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration stems from recent research that indicates that with empirically derived models of the surface properties and careful atmospheric characterisation Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance values can be predicted and used for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sensor radiometric calibration. Critical to the continued development of this approach is the accurate characterization of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of PICS sites. This paper presents the field data collected by a high-performance portable goniometer system in order to develop a BRDF model for the Algodones Dunes in California. These BRDF data are part of a larger study that is seeking to evaluate and quantify all aspects of this dune system (from regional effects to the micro scale optical properties of the sand) in order to provide an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration PICS. This paper presents the results of a dense temporal measurement sequence (several measurements per hour with high angular resolution), to yield detailed information on the nature of the surface reflectance properties. The BRDF data were collected covering typical view geometry of space borne sensors and will be used to close the loop on the calibration to create an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration target for optical satellite <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120976&hterms=skull&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dskull','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120976&hterms=skull&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dskull"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-Invasive Method of Determining <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Intracranial Pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H., Jr. (Inventor); Hargens, Alan E. (Inventor)</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A method is presented for determining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient. Skull expansion is monitored while changes in ICP are induced. The patient's blood pressure is measured when skull expansion is approximately zero. The measured blood pressure is indicative of a reference ICP value. Subsequently, the method causes a known change in ICP and measured the change in skull expansion associated therewith. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ICP is a function of the reference ICP value, the known change in ICP and its associated change in skull expansion; and a measured change in skull expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PAN....78.1223L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PAN....78.1223L"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of the reactor neutron power in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> units</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lebedev, G. V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840005569','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840005569"><span id="translatedtitle">In-flight <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740038103&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740038103&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPA.654..634B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NIMPA.654..634B"><span id="translatedtitle">Notes on Van der Meer scan for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> luminosity measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balagura, Vladislav</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> luminosity can be measured in an accelerator by sweeping beams transversely across each other in the so-called van der Meer scan. We prove that the method can be applied in the general case of arbitrary beam directions and a separation scan plane. A simple method to develop an image of the beam in its transverse plane from spatial distributions of interaction vertexes is also proposed. From the beam images one can determine their overlap and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> luminosity. This provides an alternative way of the luminosity measurement during van der Meer scan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22471961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22471961"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of the reactor neutron power in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> units</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lebedev, G. V.</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009809','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100009809"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Stability Analysis of a Phase Plane Controlled Spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jang, Jiann-Woei; Plummer, Michael; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark; Spanos, Pol</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Many aerospace attitude control systems utilize phase plane control schemes that include nonlinear elements such as dead zone and ideal relay. To evaluate phase plane control robustness, stability margin prediction methods must be developed. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> stability is extended to predict stability margins and to define an abort condition. A constrained optimization approach is also used to design flex filters for roll control. The design goal is to optimize vehicle tracking performance while maintaining adequate stability margins. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> stability is shown to provide satisfactory stability constraints for the optimization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Metro..53..846T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Metro..53..846T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A general relativistic model for free-fall <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Li, Jia; Hu, Zhong-Kun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Although the relativistic manifestations of gravitational fields in gravimetry were first studied 40 years ago, the relativistic effects combined with free-fall <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters have rarely been considered. In light of this, we present a general relativistic model for free-fall <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters in a local-Fermi coordinates system, where we focus on effects related to the measuring devices: relativistic transverse Doppler effects, gravitational redshift effects and Earth’s rotation effects. Based on this model, a general relativistic expression of the measured gravity acceleration is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21388609','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21388609"><span id="translatedtitle">Strong enhancement of dynamical <span class="hlt">emission</span> of heavy fragments in the neutron-rich {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni reaction at 35A MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Russotto, P.; Amorini, F.; Cavallaro, S.; Di Toro, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Cardella, G.; Lanzano, G.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Piasecki, E.; Auditore, L.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.</p> <p>2010-06-15</p> <p>A quantitative comparison is made between the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections associated with statistical and dynamical <span class="hlt">emission</span> of heavy fragments in the {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni and {sup 112}Sn+{sup 58}Ni collisions experimentally investigated at 35A MeV beam energy using the multidetector CHIMERA. The result shows that the dynamical process is about twice as probable in the neutron-rich {sup 124}Sn+{sup 64}Ni system as in the {sup 112}Sn+{sup 58}Ni neutron-poor one. This unexpected and significant difference indicates that the reaction mechanism is strongly dependent on the entrance-channel isospin (N/Z) content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9263E..14B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9263E..14B"><span id="translatedtitle">Results from recent vacuum testing of an on-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance standard (OARS) intended for the next generation of infrared remote sensing instruments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, Fred A.; Adler, Douglas P.; Pettersen, Claire; Revercomb, Henry E.; Gero, P. Jonathan; Taylor, Joseph K.; Knuteson, Robert O.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Future NASA infrared remote sensing missions will require better <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracies than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy. To establish a CLARRREO-type climate benchmark, instrumentation will need to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K, verified onorbit. This will require an independent high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> (<0.999) verification blackbody with an <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> uncertainty of better than 0.06%, an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature uncertainty of better than 0.045K (3 sigma), and the capability of operation over a wide range of (Earth scene) temperatures. Key elements of an On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and have undergone further refinement under funding from NASA's Earth Science and Technology Office, culminating in an end-to-end demonstration under vacuum with a prototype climate benchmark instrument. We present the new technologies that underlie the OARS, and the results of testing that demonstrate the required accuracy is being met in a vacuum environment. The underlying technologies include: on-orbit <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature calibration using the transient melt signatures of small quantities (<1g) of reference materials (gallium, water, and mercury) imbedded in the blackbody cavity; and on-orbit cavity spectral <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> measurement using a carefully baffled heated halo placed in front of the OARS blackbody viewed by the infrared spectrometer system. <span class="hlt">Emissivity</span> is calculated from the radiance measured from the blackbody combined with the knowledge of key temperatures and radiometric view factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE5185.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE5185."><span id="translatedtitle">False <span class="hlt">Cross</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murdin, P.</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>The asterism formed by the four stars δ and κ Velorum, and ɛ and ι Carinae, all of the second magnitude, which make up a <span class="hlt">cross</span> of about 10°×6°. It is so named because it is sometimes mistaken for the Southern <span class="hlt">Cross</span> (Crux) by observers unfamiliar with the southern sky. There is a superficial resemblance, but Crux is more compact (about 7°×5°) and comprises rather brighter stars. The two <span class="hlt">crosses</span> ca...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..91f4614F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..91f4614F"><span id="translatedtitle">α and 2 p 2 n <span class="hlt">emission</span> in fast neutron-induced reactions on 60Ni</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Haight, R. C.; Nelson, R. O.; Kunieda, S.; Kawano, T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Background: The <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for populating the residual nucleus in the reaction ZAX(n,x) Z -2 A -4Y exhibit peaks as a function of incident neutron energy corresponding to the (n ,n'α ) reaction and, at higher energy, to the (n ,2 p 3 n ) reaction. The relative magnitudes of these peaks vary with the Z of the target nucleus. Purpose: Study fast neutron-induced reactions on 60Ni. Locate experimentally the nuclear charge region along the line of stability where the <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for α <span class="hlt">emission</span> and for 2 p 2 n <span class="hlt">emission</span> in fast neutron-induced reactions are comparable as a further test of reaction models. Methods: Data were taken by using the Germanium Array for Neutron-Induced Excitations. The broad-spectrum pulsed neutron beam of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's Weapons Neutron Research facility provided neutrons in the energy range from 1 to 250 MeV. The time-of-flight technique was used to determine the incident-neutron energies. Results: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> partial <span class="hlt">cross</span> sections for production of seven discrete Fe γ rays populated in 60Ni (n ,α /2 p x n γ ) reactions with 2 ≤x ≤5 were measured for neutron energies 1 MeV<En<250 MeV . Hauser-Feshbach plus pre-equilibrium theoretical calculations are compared to the experimental results. Conclusions: There is good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions at lower neutron energies while discrepancies appear at higher neutron energies. The <span class="hlt">cross</span> section for producing an isotope in fast neutron-induced reactions on stable targets via α <span class="hlt">emission</span> at the peak of the (n ,α ) and (n ,n'α ) reactions is comparable to that for 2 p 2 n and 2 p 3 n <span class="hlt">emission</span> at higher incident energies in the nuclear charge region around Fe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApPhL..87v4107N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApPhL..87v4107N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> determination of inelastic mean-free paths and surface excitation parameters by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reflection electron energy loss spectrum analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>An analytical approach was proposed for simultaneously determining an inelastic mean-free path (IMFP) and a surface excitation parameter (SEP) with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> units by the analysis of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> experimental reflection electron energy loss spectrum. The IMFPs and SEPs in Ni were deduced for electrons of 300 to 3000 eV. The obtained IMFPs were in good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M equation. The Chen-type empirical formula was proposed for determining the SEP. The results confirmed the applicability of the present approach for determining the IMFP and SEP for medium-energy electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cantor&id=EJ985836','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cantor&id=EJ985836"><span id="translatedtitle">Series that Converge <span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> but Don't Converge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kantrowitz, Robert; Schramm, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>If a series of real numbers converges <span class="hlt">absolutely</span>, then it converges. The usual proof requires completeness in the form of the Cauchy criterion. Failing completeness, the result is false. We provide examples of rational series that illustrate this point. The Cantor set appears in connection with one of the examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23686614"><span id="translatedtitle">Population-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> risk estimation with survey data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Pfeiffer, Ruth M</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based <span class="hlt">absolute</span> risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific <span class="hlt">absolute</span> risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26835776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26835776"><span id="translatedtitle">Invalid phase values removal method for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Jin; Mo, Rong; Sun, Huibin; Chang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaxia</p> <p>2016-01-10</p> <p>A novel approach is presented for more effectively removing invalid phase values in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase recovery. The approach is based on a detailed study involving the types and cases of invalid phase values. Meanwhile, some commonalities of the existing removal algorithms also are thoroughly analyzed. It is well known that rough <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase and fringe order maps can very easily be obtained by temporal phase unwrapping techniques. After carefully analyzing the components and fringe order distribution of the rough fringe order map, the proposed method chiefly adopts an entirely new strategy to refine a pure fringe order map. The strategy consists of three parts: (1) the square of an image gradient, (2) subregion areas of the binary image, and (3) image decomposition and composition. In combination with the pure fringe order map and a removal criterion, the invalid phase values can be identified and filtered out from the rough <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase map. This new strategy not only gets rid of the limitations of traditional removal methods but also has a two-fold function. The paper also offers different metrics from the experiment to evaluate the quality of the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase. In contrast with other removal methods, experimental results have verified the feasibility, effectiveness, and superiority of the proposed method. PMID:26835776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ981451','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ981451"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value inequalities,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880003064','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880003064"><span id="translatedtitle">Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration and geocoronal correction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27462490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27462490"><span id="translatedtitle">An improved generalized Newton method for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Feng, Jingmei; Liu, Sanyang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we suggest and analyze an improved generalized Newton method for solving the NP-hard <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations [Formula: see text] when the singular values of A exceed 1. We show that the global and local quadratic convergence of the proposed method. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method and the high accuracy of calculation. PMID:27462490</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=s&pg=5&id=EJ980447','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=s&pg=5&id=EJ980447"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative versus <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Stimulus Control in the Temporal Bisection Task</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Carvalho, Marilia Pinhiero; Machado, Armando</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>When subjects learn to associate two sample durations with two comparison keys, do they learn to associate the keys with the short and long samples (relational hypothesis), or with the specific sample durations (<span class="hlt">absolute</span> hypothesis)? We exposed 16 pigeons to an ABA design in which phases A and B corresponded to tasks using samples of 1 s and 4 s,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013066','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013066"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of Landsat instruments using the moon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kieffer, H.H.; Wildey, R.L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A lunar observation by Landsat could provide improved radiometric and geometric calibration of both the Thematic Mapper and the Multispectral Scanner in terms of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometry, determination of the modulation transfer function, and sensitivity to scattered light. A pitch of the spacecraft would be required. -Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMP....56b2701B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMP....56b2701B"><span id="translatedtitle">Absence of <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous spectrum for random scattering zippers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boumaza, Hakim; Marin, Laurent</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A scattering zipper is a system obtained by concatenation of scattering events with equal even number of incoming and outgoing channels. The associated scattering zipper operator is the unitary analog of Jacobi matrices with matrix entries. For infinite identical events and independent and identically distributed random phases, Lyapunov exponents positivity is proved and yields absence of <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> continuous spectrum by Kotani's theory.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=accuracy+AND+confidence&pg=5&id=EJ734323','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=accuracy+AND+confidence&pg=5&id=EJ734323"><span id="translatedtitle">Individual Differences in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The authors investigated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.633a2080F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.633a2080F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical Model for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Metro..26...81S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989Metro..26...81S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Radiometer for Reproducing the Solar Irradiance Unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sapritskii, V. I.; Pavlovich, M. N.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A high-precision <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometer with a thermally stabilized cavity as receiving element has been designed for use in solar irradiance measurements. The State Special Standard of the Solar Irradiance Unit has been built on the basis of the developed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometer. The Standard also includes the sun tracking system and the system for automatic thermal stabilization and information processing, comprising a built-in microcalculator which calculates the irradiance according to the input program. During metrological certification of the Standard, main error sources have been analysed and the non-excluded systematic and accidental errors of the irradiance-unit realization have been determined. The total error of the Standard does not exceed 0.3%. Beginning in 1984 the Standard has been taking part in a comparison with the Å 212 pyrheliometer and other Soviet and foreign standards. In 1986 it took part in the international comparison of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometers and standard pyrheliometers of socialist countries. The results of the comparisons proved the high metrological quality of this Standard based on an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21347391','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21347391"><span id="translatedtitle">Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> thickness determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scheller, Maik; Baaske, Kai; Koch, Martin</p> <p>2010-04-12</p> <p>We present a tunable multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectrometer based on two laser diodes, photoconductive antennas, and a coherent detection scheme. The system is employed to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> thickness of samples utilizing a proposed synthetic difference frequency method to circumvent the 2pi uncertainty known from conventional photomixing systems while preserving a high spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19660000438','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19660000438"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion chambers simplify <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sampson, J. A. R.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>Single or double ion chamber technique measures <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiation intensities in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The ion chambers use rare gases as the ion carrier. Photon absorbed by the gas creates one ion pair so a measure of these is a measure of the number of incident photons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060030502&hterms=Herring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHerring','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060030502&hterms=Herring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHerring"><span id="translatedtitle">Urey: to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> age of Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; Herring, M.; Javadi, H.; Johnson, D. W.; Larson, T.; Malaviarachchi, K.; Sherrit, S.; Stride, S.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Warwick, R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Neutralization&pg=5&id=EJ131115','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Neutralization&pg=5&id=EJ131115"><span id="translatedtitle">Is There a Rule of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Neutralization in Nupe?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krohn, Robert</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A previously prosed rule of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutralization (merging underlying low vowels) is eliminated in an alternative analysis including instead a rule that "breaks" the feature matrix of certain low vowels and redistributes the features of each vowel as a sequence of vowel-like transition plus (a). (Author/RM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........73K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........73K"><span id="translatedtitle">Assignment of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stereochemistry by computation of optical rotation angles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kondru, Rama Krishna</p> <p></p> <p>We have developed simple wire and molecular orbital models to qualitatively and quantitatively understand optical rotation angles of molecules. We reported the first ab initio theoretical approach to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stereochemistry of a complex natural product by calculating molar rotation angles, [M]D. We applied this method for an unambiguous assignment of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stereochemistry of the hennoxazole A. A protocol analogous to population analysis was devised to analyze atomic contributions to the rotation angles for oxiranes, orthoesters, and other organic compounds. The molar rotations for an indoline, an indonone, menthol and menthone were calculated using ab inito methods and compared with experimental values. We reported the first prediction of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration of a natural product, i.e. an a priori assignment of the relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stereochemistry of pitiamide A. Furthermore, we described a strategy that may help to establish structure-function relations for rotation angles by visualizing the electric and magnetic-field perturbations to a molecule's molecular orbitals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17972479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17972479"><span id="translatedtitle">Hitting the target: relatively easy, yet <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> difficult.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mapp, Alistair P; Ono, Hiroshi; Khokhotva, Mykola</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>It is generally agreed that <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-direction judgments require information about eye position, whereas relative-direction judgments do not. The source of this eye-position information, particularly during monocular viewing, is a matter of debate. It may be either binocular eye position, or the position of the viewing-eye only, that is crucial. Using more ecologically valid stimulus situations than the traditional LED in the dark, we performed two experiments. In experiment 1, observers threw darts at targets that were fixated either monocularly or binocularly. In experiment 2, observers aimed a laser gun at targets while fixating either the rear or the front gunsight monocularly, or the target either monocularly or binocularly. We measured the accuracy and precision of the observers' <span class="hlt">absolute</span>- and relative-direction judgments. We found that (a) relative-direction judgments were precise and independent of phoria, and (b) monocular <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-direction judgments were inaccurate, and the magnitude of the inaccuracy was predictable from the magnitude of phoria. These results confirm that relative-direction judgments do not require information about eye position. Moreover, they show that binocular eye-position information is crucial when judging the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> direction of both monocular and binocular targets. PMID:17972479</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ordinary+AND+equation&pg=7&id=EJ657276','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ordinary+AND+equation&pg=7&id=EJ657276"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Risk Aversion and the Returns to Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brunello, Giorgio</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Uses 1995 Italian household income and wealth survey to measure individual <span class="hlt">absolute</span> risk aversion of 1,583 married Italian male household heads. Uses this measure as an instrument for attained education in a standard-log earnings equation. Finds that the IV estimate of the marginal return to schooling is much higher than the ordinary least squares…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000556','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000556"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved cavity-type <span class="hlt">absolute</span> total-radiation radiometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kendall, J. M., Sr.; Plamondon, J. A., Jr.</p> <p>1967-01-01</p> <p>Conical cavity-type <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiometer measures the intensity of radiant energy to an accuracy of one to two percent in a vacuum of ten to the minus fifth torr or lower. There is a uniform response over the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared range, and it requires no calibration or comparison with a radiation standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Description+AND+analysis+AND+Argentina&id=ED513424','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Description+AND+analysis+AND+Argentina&id=ED513424"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Interrogative Intonation Patterns in Buenos Aires Spanish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lee, Su Ar</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In Spanish, each uttered phrase, depending on its use, has one of a variety of intonation patterns. For example, a phrase such as "Maria viene manana" "Mary is coming tomorrow" can be used as a declarative or as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> interrogative (a yes/no question) depending on the intonation pattern that a speaker produces. Patterns of usage also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=318935','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=318935"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7814M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7814M"><span id="translatedtitle">Four Years of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gravity in the Taiwan Orogen (AGTO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mouyen, Maxime; Masson, Frédéric; Hwang, Cheinway; Cheng, Ching-Chung; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Lee, Chiung-Wu; Kao, Ricky; Hsieh, Nicky</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>AGTO is a scientific project between Taiwanese and French institutes, which aim is to improve tectonic knowledge of Taiwan primarily using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements and permanent GPS stations. Both tools are indeed useful to study vertical movements and mass transfers involved in mountain building, a major process in Taiwan located at the convergent margin between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. This convergence results in two subductions north and south of Taiwan (Ryukyu and Manilla trenches, respectively), while the center is experiencing collision. These processes make Taiwan very active tectonically, as illustrated by numerous large earthquakes and rapid uplift of the Central Range. High slopes of Taiwan mountains and heavy rains brought by typhoons together lead to high landslides and mudflows risks. Practically, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements have been yearly repeated since 2006 along a transect across south Taiwan, from Penghu to Lutao islands, using FG5 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters. This transect contains ten sites for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements and has been densified in 2008 by incorporating 45 sites for relative gravity measurements with CG5 gravimeters. The last relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements have been performed in November 2009. Most of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sites have been measured with a good accuracy, about 1 or 2 ?Gal. Only the site located in Tainan University has higher standard deviation, due to the city noise. We note that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity changes seem to follow a trend in every site. However, straightforward tectonic interpretation of these trends is not valuable as many non-tectonic effects are supposed to change g with time, like groundwater or erosion. Estimating and removing these effects leads to a tectonic gravity signal, which has theoretically two origins : deep mass transfers around the site and vertical movements of the station. The latter can be well constrained by permanent GPS stations located close to the measurement pillar. Deep mass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T54B..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T54B..05M"><span id="translatedtitle">Four Years of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gravity in the Taiwan Orogen (AGTO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mouyen, M.; Masson, F.; Hwang, C.; Cheng, C.; Le Moigne, N.; Lee, C.; Kao, R.; Hsieh, N.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>AGTO is a scientific project between Taiwanese and French institutes which aim is to improve tectonic knowledge of Taiwan primarily using <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements and permanent GPS stations. Both tools are indeed useful to study vertical movements and mass transfers involved in mountain building, a major process in Taiwan located at the convergent margin between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. This convergence results in two subductions north and south of Taiwan (Ryukyu and Manilla trenches, respectively), while the center is experiencing collision. These processes make Taiwan very active tectonically, as illustrated by numerous large earthquakes and rapid uplift of the Central Range. High slopes of Taiwan mountains and heavy rains brought by typhoons together lead to high landslides and mudflows risks. Practically, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements have been yearly repeated since 2006 along a transect across south Taiwan, from Penghu to Lutao island, using FG5 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters. This transect contains ten sites for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements and has been densified in 2008 by incorporating 45 sites for relative gravity measurements with CG5 gravimeters. At the end of 2009, the relative gravity network will be densified again in its eastern part, i.e. in the Longitudinal Valley and the Central Range. A fourth set of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements will also be performed at the same period. Most of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sites have been measured with a good accuracy, about 1 or 2 μGal. Only the site located in Tainan University has higher standard deviation, due to the city noise. The stronger change in gravity reaches -7 μGal a -1 west of the Longitudinal Valley and might be explained by tectonic movement along a fault. A large decrease of -5 μGal a-1 is also measured in Tainan city and could be correlated with uplift of this region, also denoted by InSAR, leveling and GPS. Changes occurring in the Central Range are more difficult to interpret due to the small</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.G31A0939M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.G31A0939M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">GNSS <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Antenna Calibration at the National Geodetic Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mader, G. L.; Bilich, A. L.; Geoghegan, C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Geodetic GNSS applications routinely demand millimeter precision and extremely high levels of accuracy. To achieve these accuracies, measurement and instrument biases at the centimeter to millimeter level must be understood. One of these biases is the antenna phase center, the apparent point of signal reception for a GNSS antenna. It has been well established that phase center patterns differ between antenna models and manufacturers; additional research suggests that the addition of a radome or the choice of antenna mount can significantly alter those a priori phase center patterns. For the more demanding GNSS positioning applications and especially in cases of mixed-antenna networks, it is all the more important to know antenna phase center variations as a function of both elevation and azimuth in the antenna reference frame and incorporate these models into analysis software. To help meet the needs of the high-precision GNSS community, the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) now operates an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> antenna calibration facility. Located in Corbin, Virginia, this facility uses field measurements and actual GNSS satellite signals to quantitatively determine the carrier phase advance/delay introduced by the antenna element. The NGS facility was built to serve traditional NGS constituents such as the surveying and geodesy communities, however calibration services are open and available to all GNSS users as the calibration schedule permits. All phase center patterns computed by this facility will be publicly available and disseminated in both the ANTEX and NGS formats. We describe the NGS calibration facility, and discuss the observation models and strategy currently used to generate NGS <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibrations. We demonstrate that NGS <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase center variation (PCV) patterns are consistent with published values determined by other <span class="hlt">absolute</span> antenna calibration facilities, and compare <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibrations to the traditional NGS relative calibrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.G51B0368C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.G51B0368C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...586A.155A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...586A.155A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alvarez-Candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.; Silva, J. S.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Context. Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are extremely difficult to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitude, HV, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, but only few are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V-band <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of TNOs, many of which have been observed and modeled within the program "TNOs are cool", which is one of the Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V-band <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes and phase coefficients by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering a magnitude variability that is due to the rotational light-curve. Results: We obtained 237 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, six of which were without previously reported measurements. Including the data from the literature, we report a total of 110 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes with their respective phase coefficients. The average value of HV is 6.39, bracketed by a minimum of 14.60 and a maximum of -1.12. For the phase coefficients we report a median value of 0.10 mag per degree and a very large dispersion, ranging from -0.88 up to 1.35 mag per degree.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC23A0753B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC23A0753B"><span id="translatedtitle">On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Temperature Calibration for CLARREO Using Multiple Phase Change Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> calibration blackbodies that have <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of temperature sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium - to date) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the temperature sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through a reference material melt temperature, the transient temperature signature of the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt temperature. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). The flight implementation of this new scheme will involve special considerations for packaging the phase change materials to ensure long-term compatibility with the containment system, and design features that help ensure that the on-orbit melt behavior in a microgravity environment is unchanged from pre-flight full gravitational conditions under which the system is characterized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC43A0790B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGC43A0790B"><span id="translatedtitle">On-Orbit <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Temperature Calibration Using Multiple Phase Change Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>NASA’s anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> calibration blackbodies that have <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of temperature sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the temperature sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through the melt point of each reference material, the transient temperature signature from the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt temperature. Using small quantities of phase change material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt temperature accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). Refinements currently underway focus on ensuring that the melt materials in their sealed confinement housings perform as expected in the thermal and microgravity environment of a multi-year spaceflight mission. Thermal soak and cycling tests are underway to demonstrate that there is no dissolution from the housings into the melt materials that could alter melt temperature, and that there is no liquid metal embrittlement of the housings from the metal melt materials. In addition, NASA funding has been recently secured to conduct a demonstration of this scheme in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2757664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2757664"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Absolute</span> bioavailability of a special sustained-release acetylsalicylic acid formulation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lücker, P W; Swoboda, M; Wetzelsberger, N</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Bioavailability of a Special Acetylsalicylic Acid Sustained Release Formulation. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of an acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) sustained release formulation (Contrheuma retard), containing 300 mg ASA as initial dose and 350 mg in a retard formulation, was determined in comparison to a standard ASA solution for intravenous administration in a two-treatment, two-period <span class="hlt">cross</span>-over trial with 6 healthy male volunteers by comparing the areas under the plasma-fluctuation-time curves of the primary metabolite. In addition, it was examined by comparison of the mean times after administration of both formulations, whether the test formulation meets the requirements of a sustained release formulation. The investigations led to the following results: The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> bioavailability of the test formulation was 95%. The statistical comparison of the areas under the concentration-time courses allowed no decision (neither for equivalence nor difference). The maximal concentration of SA after intravenous administration of the standard formulation was reached after 0.4 h on an average and amounted to 62 micrograms/ml. After oral administration of the test formulation, a mean concentration maximum of 28 micrograms/ml was calculated, which had been reached after about 2 h. The differences are statistically significant. The mean time for SA was 6 h after the standard formulation, whereas after administration of the test compound, a mean of 11.5 h was calculated. 24 h following administration, the concentration of SA was 1.3 micrograms/ml after intravenous administration of the standard formulation and 5.5 micrograms/ml after administration of the test formulation. These differences, too, are statistically significant. From the comparison of the mean time for SA, a retard factor of 1.9 was calculated. PMID:2757664</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275306','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275306"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Simultaneity Theory for Cosmology and Universe Acceleration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kipreos, Edward T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An alternate Lorentz transformation, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Lorentz Transformation (ALT), has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains <span class="hlt">absolute</span> simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift–distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe. PMID:25536116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25536116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25536116"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> simultaneity theory for cosmology and universe acceleration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kipreos, Edward T</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An alternate Lorentz transformation, <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Lorentz Transformation (ALT), has similar kinematics to special relativity yet maintains <span class="hlt">absolute</span> simultaneity in the context of a preferred reference frame. In this study, it is shown that ALT is compatible with current experiments to test Lorentz invariance only if the proposed preferred reference frame is locally equivalent to the Earth-centered non-rotating inertial reference frame, with the inference that in an ALT framework, preferred reference frames are associated with centers of gravitational mass. Applying this theoretical framework to cosmological data produces a scenario of universal time contraction in the past. In this scenario, past time contraction would be associated with increased levels of blueshifted light <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from cosmological objects when viewed from our current perspective. The observation that distant Type Ia supernovae are dimmer than predicted by linear Hubble expansion currently provides the most direct evidence for an accelerating universe. Adjusting for the effects of time contraction on a redshift-distance modulus diagram produces a linear distribution of supernovae over the full redshift spectrum that is consistent with a non-accelerating universe. PMID:25536116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...20111806R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...20111806R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Timing of the Crab Pulsar: X-ray, Radio, and Optical Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Lovellette, M. N.; Sheikh, S.; Moon, D.-S.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Roberts, M.; Bloom, E. D.; Tournear, D.; Saz Parkinson, P.; Reilly, K.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>We report on multiwavelength observations of the Crab Pulsar and compare the pulse arrival time at radio, IR, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. Comparing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> arrival times at multiple energies can provide clues to the magnetospheric structure and <span class="hlt">emission</span> region geometry. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> time calibration of each observing system is of paramount importance for these observations and we describe how this is done for each system. We directly compare arrival time determinations for 2--10 keV X-ray observations made contemporaneously with the PCA on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and the USA Experiment on ARGOS. These two X-ray measurements employ very different means of measuring time and satellite position and thus have different systematic error budgets. The comparison with other wavelengths requires additional steps such as dispersion measure corrections and a precise definition of the ``peak'' of the light curve since the light curve shape varies with observing wavelength. We will describe each of these effects and quantify the magnitude of the systematic error that each may contribute. Basic research on X-ray Astronomy at NRL is funded by NRL/ONR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850042546&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850042546&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> spectral irradiance measurements of lightning from 375 to 880 nm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Orville, R. E.; Henderson, R. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The time-integrated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from cloud-to-ground lightning have been recorded in the 375-880 nm region, using a spectrometer-detector and multichannel analyzer system capable of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> spectral irradiance measurements. A schematic drawing of the detector-analyzer system is presented, and the experimental setup is described. A total of ten flashes containing 46 individual strikes were recorded and compared to recordings of 500 flashes from 1981. The average spectral irradiance from 375 to 695 nm for flashes at about 15 km was 3.5 x 10 to the -5th J/sq m per stroke with a standard deviation of 2.0 x 10 to the -5th and a range from 0.7 x 10 to the 0.7-6.8 x 10 to the -5th J/sq m per stroke. The average stroke spectra irradiance from 650 to 880 nm for the same strokes was 1.2 x 10 to the -5th, with a standard deviation of 0.7 x 10 to the -5th and a range from 0.5 to 3.2 x 10 to the -5th J/sq m per stroke. A summary table of spectral irradiance values in 50 nm increment is presented. Analysis of the spectral <span class="hlt">emission</span> data show that unresolved neutral hydrogen lines (NI) at 744.2 nm were more intense than H-alpha <span class="hlt">emission</span> at 656.3 nm. The strong <span class="hlt">emission</span> of a flash with a continuing current was identified as cyanogen (CN) <span class="hlt">emission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21576705','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21576705"><span id="translatedtitle">ARCADE 2 MEASUREMENT OF THE <span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> SKY BRIGHTNESS AT 3-90 GHz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fixsen, D. J.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.</p> <p>2011-06-10</p> <p>The ARCADE 2 instrument has measured the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature of the sky at frequencies 3, 8, 10, 30, and 90 GHz, using an open-aperture cryogenic instrument observing at balloon altitudes with no <span class="hlt">emissive</span> windows between the beam-forming optics and the sky. An external blackbody calibrator provides an in situ reference. Systematic errors were greatly reduced by using differential radiometers and cooling all critical components to physical temperatures approximating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature. A linear model is used to compare the output of each radiometer to a set of thermometers on the instrument. Small corrections are made for the residual <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the flight train, balloon, atmosphere, and foreground Galactic <span class="hlt">emission</span>. The ARCADE 2 data alone show an excess radio rise of 54 {+-} 6 mK at 3.3 GHz in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.731 {+-} 0.004 K. Combining the ARCADE 2 data with data from the literature shows an excess power-law spectrum of T = 24.1 {+-} 2.1 (K) ({nu}/{nu}{sub 0}){sup -2.599{+-}0.036} from 22 MHz to 10 GHz ({nu}{sub 0} = 310 MHz) in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 {+-} 0.001 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhPl...12f2701S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhPl...12f2701S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> calibrated vacuum ultraviolet spectra in the 150-250-nm range from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seely, J. F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, G. E.; Weaver, J. L.; Mostovych, A. N.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Lehmberg, R.; Kjornarattanawanich, Benjawan; Back, C. A.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>High-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra were recorded from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser for the purpose of observing <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the two-plasmon decay instability (TPDI) at 2/3 the NIKE wavelength (165nm). The targets were irradiated by up to 43 overlapping beams with intensity up to ≈1014W/cm2 and with beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets consisted of planar foils of CH, BN, Al, Si, S, Ti, Pd, and Au. Titanium-doped silica aerogels in Pyrex cylinders were also irradiated. The spectra of the target elements were observed from charge states ranging from the neutral atoms to five times ionized. The spectrometer was <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> VUV plasma <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensities were determined. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> from the TPDI at 165-nm wavelength was not observed from any of the irradiated targets. An upper bound on the possible TPDI <span class="hlt">emission</span> was less than 4×10-8 the incident NIKE laser energy. The NIKE laser radiation backscattered from the silica aerogel targets at 248nm was typically 6×10-6 the incident NIKE laser energy, and the spectral broadening corresponded to the 1-THz bandwidth of the ISI smoothing. The spectra from the moderately charged plasma ions (up to five times ionized), spectral linewidths, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> continuum <span class="hlt">emission</span> level, and slope of the continuum were consistent with plasma temperatures in the 100-300-eV range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APh....42...90A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APh....42...90A"><span id="translatedtitle">Precise measurement of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> fluorescence yield of the 337 nm band in atmospheric gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Curry, E.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal San Luis, P.; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Li, S.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; Rouille D'Orfeuil, B.; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>A measurement of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> fluorescence yield of the 337 nm nitrogen band, relevant to ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) detectors, is reported. Two independent calibrations of the fluorescence <span class="hlt">emission</span> induced by a 120 GeV proton beam were employed: Cherenkov light from the beam particle and calibrated light from a nitrogen laser. The fluorescence yield in air at a pressure of 1013 hPa and temperature of 293 K was found to be Y337=5.61±0.06stat±0.22syst photons/MeV. When compared to the fluorescence yield currently used by UHECR experiments, this measurement improves the uncertainty by a factor of three, and has a significant impact on the determination of the energy scale of the cosmic ray spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARB46014V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARB46014V"><span id="translatedtitle">Conversion of far ultraviolet to visible radiation: <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of the conversion efficiency of tetraphenyl butadiene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vest, Robert E.; Coplan, Michael A.; Clark, Charles W.</p> <p></p> <p>Far ultraviolet (FUV) scintillation of noble gases is used in dark matter and neutrino research and in neutron detection. Upon collisional excitation, noble gas atoms recombine into excimer molecules that decay by FUV <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Direct detection of FUV is difficult. Another approach is to convert it to visible light using a wavelength-shifting medium. One such medium, tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) can be vapor-deposited on substrates. Thus the quality of thin TPB films can be tightly controlled. We have measured the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficiency of FUV-to-visible conversion by 1 μm-thick TPB films vs. FUV wavelengths between 130 and 300 nm, with 1 nm resolution. The energy efficiency of FUV to visible conversion varies between 1% and 5%. We make comparisons with other recent results. Work performed at the NIST SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility,.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499624','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499624"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> mass of neutrinos and the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dvornicky, Rastislav; Simkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo; Faessler, Amand</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>The planned rhenium {beta}-decay experiment, called the ''Microcalorimeter Arrays for a Rhenium Experiment'' (MARE), might probe the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the Karlsruhe tritium neutrino mass (KATRIN) experiment, which will take commissioning data in 2011 and will proceed for 5 years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden {beta} decay of {sup 187}Re. It is found that the p-wave <span class="hlt">emission</span> of electron dominates over the s wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos, the Kurie function for the rhenium {beta} decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the end point is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed {beta} decay of {sup 3}H.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AMT.....6.1611X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AMT.....6.1611X"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a stable and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> atmospheric carbon dioxide instrument using spectroscopic null method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wofsy, S. C.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We present a novel spectral method to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision and stability without resorting to calibration tanks during long-term operation. This spectral null method improves precision by reducing spectral proportional noise associated with laser <span class="hlt">emission</span> instabilities. We employ sealed quartz cells with known CO2 column densities to serve as the permanent internal references in the null method, which improve the instrument's stability and accuracy. A prototype instrument - <span class="hlt">ABsolute</span> Carbon dioxide (ABC) is developed using this new approach. The instrument has a one-second precision of 0.02 ppm, which averages down to 0.007 ppm within one minute. Long-term stability of within 0.1 ppm is achieved without any calibrations for over a one-month period. These results have the potential for eliminating the need for calibration cylinders for high accuracy field measurements of carbon dioxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AMTD....6.2055X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AMTD....6.2055X"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a stable and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> atmospheric carbon dioxide instrument using spectroscopic null method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wofsy, S. C.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We present a novel spectral method to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision and stability without resorting to calibration tanks during long-term operation. This spectral null method improves precision by reducing spectral proportional noise associated with laser <span class="hlt">emission</span> instabilities. We employ sealed quartz cells with known CO2 column densities to serve as the permanent internal references in the null method, which improve the instrument's stability and accuracy. A prototype instrument - <span class="hlt">ABsolute</span> Carbon dioxide (ABC) is developed using this new approach. The instrument has one-second precision of 0.02 ppm, which averages down to 0.007 ppm within one minute. Long-term stability of within 0.1 ppm is achieved without any calibrations for over a one-month period. These results have the potential for eliminating the need for calibration cylinders for high accuracy field measurements of carbon dioxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ppya.conf..164D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ppya.conf..164D"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Mass of Neutrino and the First Unique Forbidden β-DECAY of 187Re</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor; Muto, Kazuo</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The planned rhenium β-decay experiment MARE might probe the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mass scale of neutrinos with the same sensitivity as the tritium β-decay experiment KATRIN, which will start data taking in 2011 and will proceed for five years. We present the energy distribution of emitted electrons for the first unique forbidden β-decay of 187Re. It is found that the p-wave <span class="hlt">emission</span> of electron dominates over the s-wave. By assuming mixing of three neutrinos the Kurie function for the rhenium β-decay is derived. It is shown that the Kurie plot near the endpoint is within a good accuracy linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie plot of the superallowed βof 3H.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810044328&hterms=Oil+spill&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DOil%2Bspill','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810044328&hterms=Oil+spill&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DOil%2Bspill"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> tracer dye concentration using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The use of simultaneous airborne-laser-induced dye fluorescence and water Raman backscatter to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> concentration of an ocean-dispersed tracer dye is discussed. Theoretical considerations of the calculation of dye concentration by the numerical comparison of airborne laser-induced fluorescence spectra with laboratory spectra for known dye concentrations using the 3400/cm OH-stretch water Raman scatter as a calibration signal are presented which show that minimum errors are obtained and no data concerning water mass transmission properties are required when the laser wavelength is chosen to yield a Raman signal near the dye <span class="hlt">emission</span> band. Results of field experiments conducted with an airborne conical scan lidar over a site in New York Bight into which rhodamine dye had been injected in a study of oil spill dispersion are then indicated which resulted in a contour map of dye concentrations, with a minimum detectable dye concentration of approximately 2 ppb by weight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22258702','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22258702"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duan, Qianqian; Qin, Feng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhao, Hua; Cao, Wenwu</p> <p>2013-12-07</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantum cutting efficiency of Tb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass was quantitatively measured by an integrating sphere detection system, which is independent of the excitation power. As the Yb{sup 3+} concentration increases, the near infrared quantum efficiency exhibited an exponential growth with an upper limit of 13.5%, but the visible light efficiency was reduced rapidly. As a result, the total quantum efficiency monotonically decreases rather than increases as theory predicted. In fact, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantum efficiency was far less than the theoretical value due to the low radiative efficiency of Tb{sup 3+} (<61%) and significant <span class="hlt">cross</span>-relaxation nonradiative loss between Yb{sup 3+} ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930043090&hterms=density+silicon&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Bsilicon','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930043090&hterms=density+silicon&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddensity%2Bsilicon"><span id="translatedtitle">Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> solar EUV irradiance measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing <span class="hlt">absolute</span> solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23126915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23126915"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> DT neutron yield is obtained without <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF. PMID:23126915</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093879','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093879"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Doeppner, T.; Glenzer, S.; Hartouni, E.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A.; and others</p> <p>2012-10-15</p> <p>A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> DT neutron yield is obtained without <span class="hlt">cross</span>-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24145480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24145480"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> density measurement of SD radicals in a supersonic jet at the quantum-noise-limit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mizouri, Arin; Deng, L Z; Eardley, Jack S; Nahler, N Hendrik; Wrede, Eckart; Carty, David</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> density of SD radicals in a supersonic jet has been measured down to (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10(5) cm(-3) in a modestly specified apparatus that uses a <span class="hlt">cross</span>-correlated combination of cavity ring-down and laser-induced fluorescence detection. Such a density corresponds to 215 ± 21 molecules in the probe volume at any given time. The minimum detectable absorption coefficient was quantum-noise-limited and measured to be (7.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-11) cm(-1), in 200 s of acquisition time, corresponding to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity for the apparatus of (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10(-9) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2). PMID:24145480</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ExFl...49..961O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ExFl...49..961O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortwein, P.; Woiwode, W.; Fleck, S.; Eberhard, M.; Kolb, T.; Wagner, S.; Gisi, M.; Ebert, V.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The release of HCl is an important parameter for industrial combustion and gasification processes, which must be determined in the ppm range for active process control and optimization. Based on a low power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at 1.74 μm, we developed a new tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer for calibration-free, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> in situ HCl detection using the H35Cl (2 ← 0) R(3) absorption line with minimized <span class="hlt">cross</span>-sensitivity to CO2 and H2O. The spectrometer was applied to in situ measurements in a gasification process ( T = 1,130°C, P = 1 atm, L = 28 cm) and yielded an optical resolution of 2.3·10-4, i.e. a HCl sensitivity of 45 ppm (13 ppm·m).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>