Science.gov

Sample records for absolute emission reduction

  1. An absolutely calibrated survey of polarized emission from the northern sky at 1.4 GHz. Observations and data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolleben, M.; Landecker, T. L.; Reich, W.; Wielebinski, R.

    2006-03-01

    A new polarization survey of the northern sky at 1.41 GHz is presented. The observations were carried out using the 25.6 m telescope at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory in Canada, with an angular resolution of 36 arcmin. The data are corrected for ground radiation to obtain Stokes U and Q maps on a well-established intensity scale tied to absolute determinations of zero levels, containing emission structures of large angular extent, with an rms noise of 12 mK. Survey observations were carried out by drift scanning the sky between -29° and +90° declination. The fully sampled drift scans, observed in steps of 0.25° to ˜ 2.5° in declination, result in a northern sky coverage of 41.7% of full Nyquist sampling. The survey surpasses by a factor of 200 the coverage, and by a factor of 5 the sensitivity, of the Leiden/Dwingeloo polarization survey that was until now the most complete large-scale survey. The temperature scale is tied to the Effelsberg scale. Absolute zero-temperature levels are taken from the Leiden/Dwingeloo survey after rescaling those data by the factor of 0.94. The paper describes the observations, data processing, and calibration steps. The data are publicly available at http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/div/konti/26msurvey or http://www.drao.nrc.ca/26msurvey.

  2. Power plant emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  3. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  4. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Bertalot, L.; Ishikawa, M.; Popovichev, S.

    2010-10-15

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10{sup 10} n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10{sup 8} n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  5. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power. PMID:25884101

  6. Towards a targetted emission reduction in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordijk, Leen

    Currently 20 European countries have stated that they will reduce their SO 2-emissions by at least 30% in the years 1993-1995 based on 1980 emissions. Some countries will reduce more, e.g. France by 50 %. Although politically this is an important step, a more or less flat rate of emission reduction throughout Europe is not an efficient solution. The paper describes an alternate emission reduction targetted to those areas where depositions are high and taking into account the source-receptor relationships in Europe. The reductions are calculated by using the model RAINS which is being developed at IIASA. RAINS is a set of linked submodels dealing with energy scenarios, SO 2 emissions, abatement options, long-range transport, deposition, forest soil acidification and lake acidification. For the purpose of this paper an optimization algorithm developed by R. Shaw and J. Young (AES, Canada) has been connected with RAINS. The results show optimal reduction patterns in Europe for a number of different receptor areas and alternative energy scenarios.

  7. Camera-based speckle noise reduction for 3-D absolute shape measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-05-30

    Simultaneous position and velocity measurements enable absolute 3-D shape measurements of fast rotating objects for instance for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. Laser Doppler distance sensors enable simultaneous position and velocity measurements with a single sensor head by evaluating the scattered light signals. The superposition of several speckles with equal Doppler frequency but random phase on the photo detector results in an increased velocity and shape uncertainty, however. In this paper, we present a novel image evaluation method that overcomes the uncertainty limitations due to the speckle effect. For this purpose, the scattered light is detected with a camera instead of single photo detectors. Thus, the Doppler frequency from each speckle can be evaluated separately and the velocity uncertainty decreases with the square root of the number of camera lines. A reduction of the velocity uncertainty by the order of one magnitude is verified by the numerical simulations and experimental results, respectively. As a result, the measurement uncertainty of the absolute shape is not limited by the speckle effect anymore. PMID:27410133

  8. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    PubMed

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained. PMID:23282107

  9. Biexciton cascade emission reveals absolute absorption cross section of single semiconductor nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, Toshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    The sequential two-photon emission process known as biexciton cascade emission is a characteristic phenomenon that occurs in photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). This process occurs when a biexciton state is created in the NCs; thus, the occurrence of the process is related to the photoabsorption properties of the NCs. This paper presents a simple equation that connects the photoabsorption of single NCs and the biexciton cascade emission. The equation is found to be independent of the quantum yields of photoluminescence (PL). With this equation and using an analysis of second-order photon correlation, the absolute absorption cross section σ of the single NCs can be evaluated, obtaining values on the order of 10-14c m2 . This analysis shows that ionization during PL blinking does not affect the validity of the relation, indicating that the evaluation of σ , based on the equation, is applicable for various NCs with unique structures.

  10. Summary of emissions reduction technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA emissions reduction contract programs for EPA aircraft engine classes P2 (turboshaft engines), T1 (jet engines with thrust under 8000 lb), T4 (JT8D) engines), and T2 (jet engines with thrust over 8000 lb) are discussed. The most important aspects of these programs, the commonality of approaches used, the test results, and assessments regarding applications of the derived technology are summarized.

  11. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  12. Emission reductions to meet deposition criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F. B.

    The paper assumes Governments are willing and able to reduce national emissions of pollution to protect the environment. Sulphur dioxide is examined as an important example. Although not necessarily true at the present time, it further assumes: (i) that the cost of reducing these emissions from different industries (and other source types) are known, and that these costs include the secondary consequences of emission control (for example, possible resulting unemployment); (ii) that maximum deposition criteria ( mdc) have been established on some appropriate grid (above which undesirable environmental damage will occur) and that in some gridsquares these mdc are currently being exceeded; and (iii) that priorities for reducing the deposition may be ascribed for each gridsquare. The highest priority may reflect concern over excessive levels of heavy metals in drinking water drawn from wells used by remote homesteads, for example. Gridsquares where more gradual, and hopefully reversible, damage is taking place would be given a rather lower priority. The paper seeks to establish maximum levels of emission in each gridsquare which will result in depositions nowhere exceeding the mdc (on the scale of a gridsquare). It also offers a means of selecting an optimum staged reduction strategy whereby emissions are reduced gradually towards the ultimate maximum levels, and at each stage of the reduction, gives the maximum benefit for the capital outlay consistent with the priorities and costs outlined above. The paper utilizes a very simple analytical model of the deposition field resulting from a single emission. The model is tuned to give the best comparison with the 1985 sulphur deposition field obtained using the much more complex EMEP MSC-W Lagrangian model used operationally for acid-rain analyses in Europe.

  13. The Ground-based H-, K-, and L-band Absolute Emission Spectra of HD 209458b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Deroo, Pieter; Swain, Mark R.; Waldmann, Ingo P.

    2014-11-01

    Here we explore the capabilities of NASA's 3.0 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and SpeX spectrometer and the 5.08 m Hale telescope with the TripleSpec spectrometer with near-infrared H-, K-, and L-band measurements of HD 209458b's secondary eclipse. Our IRTF/SpeX data are the first absolute L-band spectroscopic emission measurements of any exoplanet other than the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. Previous measurements of HD 189733b's L band indicate bright emission hypothesized to result from non-LTE CH4 ν3 fluorescence. We do not detect a similar bright 3.3 μm feature to ~3σ, suggesting that fluorescence does not need to be invoked to explain HD 209458b's L-band measurements. The validity of our observation and reduction techniques, which decrease the flux variance by up to 2.8 orders of magnitude, is reinforced by 1σ agreement with existent Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRAC1 observations that overlap the H, K, and L bands, suggesting that both IRTF/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec can measure an exoplanet's emission with high precision.

  14. The ground-based H-, K-, and L-band absolute emission spectra of HD 209458b

    SciTech Connect

    Zellem, Robert T.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Deroo, Pieter; Swain, Mark R.; Waldmann, Ingo P.

    2014-11-20

    Here we explore the capabilities of NASA's 3.0 m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and SpeX spectrometer and the 5.08 m Hale telescope with the TripleSpec spectrometer with near-infrared H-, K-, and L-band measurements of HD 209458b's secondary eclipse. Our IRTF/SpeX data are the first absolute L-band spectroscopic emission measurements of any exoplanet other than the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. Previous measurements of HD 189733b's L band indicate bright emission hypothesized to result from non-LTE CH{sub 4} ν{sub 3} fluorescence. We do not detect a similar bright 3.3 μm feature to ∼3σ, suggesting that fluorescence does not need to be invoked to explain HD 209458b's L-band measurements. The validity of our observation and reduction techniques, which decrease the flux variance by up to 2.8 orders of magnitude, is reinforced by 1σ agreement with existent Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRAC1 observations that overlap the H, K, and L bands, suggesting that both IRTF/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec can measure an exoplanet's emission with high precision.

  15. Absolute X-ray emission cross section measurements of Fe K transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Natalie; Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Boyce, Kevin R.; Grinberg, Victoria; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Porter, Frederick Scott; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-06-01

    We have measured the absolute X-ray emission cross sections of K-shell transitions in highly charged L- and K-shell Fe ions using the LLNL EBIT-I electron beam ion trap and the NASA GSFC EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS). The cross sections are determined by using the ECS to simultaneously record the spectrum of the bound-bound K-shell transitions and the emission from radiative recombination from trapped Fe ions. The measured spectrum is then brought to an absolute scale by normalizing the measured flux in the radiative recombination features to their theoretical cross sections, which are well known. Once the spectrum is brought to an absolute scale, the cross sections of the K-shell transitions are determined. These measurements are made possible by the ECS, which consists of a 32 channel array, with 14 channels optimized for detecting high energy photons (hν > 10 keV) and 18 channels optimized for detecting low energy photons (hν < 10 keV). The ECS has a large collection area, relatively high energy resolution, and a large bandpass; all properties necessary for this measurement technique to be successful. These data will be used to benchmark cross sections in the atomic reference data bases underlying the plasma modeling codes used to analyze astrophysical spectra, especially those measured by the Soft X-ray Spectrometer calorimeter instrument recently launched on the Hitomi X-ray Observatory.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and supported by NASA grants to LLNL and NASA/GSFC and by ESA under contract No. 4000114313/15/NL/CB.

  16. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  17. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  18. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  19. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  20. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  1. Relation between regional myocardial uptake of /sup 82/Rb and perfusion: absolute reduction of cation uptake in ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, A.P.; Allan, R.M.; L'Abbate, A.; Horlock, P.; Camici, P.; Clark, J.; O'Brien, H.A.; Grant, P.M.

    1982-07-01

    Experiments were undertaken using /sup 82/Rb and position tomography to examine the relation between myocardial perfusion and cation uptake during acute ischemia. /sup 82/Rb was repeatedly eluted from a /sup 82/Sr-/sup 82/Rb generator. In six dogs emission tomograms were used to measure the delivered arterial and myocardial concentrations at rest and after coronary stenosis, stress and ischemia. There was a poor overall relation between regional myocardial uptake and flow measured by microspheres and a large individual variability. Extraction of /sup 82/Rb was inversely related to flow. Significant regional reduction of cation uptake was detected in the tomograms when regional flow decreased by more than 35 percent. This reduction was significantly greater when ischemia was present. A small but significantly greater when ischemia was present. A small but significant decrease (33.0 +/- 9.1 percent, mean +/- standard deviation) in the myocardial uptake of /sup 82/Rb was detected only when flow was increased by more than 120 percent in relation to a control area after administration of dypiridamole. The technique using /sup 82/Rb and tomography was applied in five volunteers and five patients with angina pectoris and coronary artery disease. Myocardial tomograms recorded at rest and after exercise in the volunteers showed homogeneous uptake of cation in reproducible and repeatable scans. In contrast, the patients with coronary artery disease showed an absolute mean decrease of 36 +/- 14 percent in regional myocardial uptake of /sup 82/Rb after exercise. These abnormalities persisted in serial tomograms for more than 20 minutes after the symptoms and electrocardiographic signs of ischemia.

  2. Comparison of simulation to absolute X-ray emission of CH plasma created with the Nike laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busquet, M.; Weaver, J. L.; Colombant, D. G.; Mostovych, A. N.; Feldman, U.; Klapisch, M.; Seely, J. F.; Holland, G.

    2006-06-01

    The Nike laser group at the Naval Research Laboratory has an ongoing effort to improve and benchmark the radiation hydrodynamic simulations used to develop pellet designs for inertial confinement fusion. A new postprocessor, Virtual Spectro, has been added to the FAST code suite for detailed simulation of non-LTE spectra, including radiation transport effects and Stark line profile. This new combination enhances our ability to predict the absolute emission of soft x-rays. An absolutely calibrated transmission grating spectrometer and a high resolution grazing incidence spectrometer have been used to collect time integrated and time resolved spectra emitted by CH targets irradiated at laser intensities of ˜10 TW/cm^2. Comparison between these observations and simulations using Virtual Spectro demonstrates excellent agreement (within factor of ˜1.5) for the absolute emission.

  3. Reduction of chlorofluorocarbon emissions from refrigeration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cordova, A.; Kennicott, M.A.

    1992-09-01

    Recently enacted State and Federal legislation, (The Clean Air Act and Colorado Senate Bill 77), and the implementation of regulations for each, forbid the intentional release of ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) from refrigeration and air conditioning systems to the atmosphere. In addition, an international agreement (The Montreal Protocol), calls for CFC manufacturing reductions, which began in 1991, and eventual discontinuation. The declining supply and resultant escalating costs of CFCs are additional driving forces toward conservation and reuse of present refrigerant resources. Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) currently has an estimated 42,000 pounds of CFCs in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss steps being taken at RFP toward the abatement of CFC releases. The main thrust of our efforts is the use of a refrigerant management system, used to recover and recycle our current CFC stock. Additional methods of further reducing CFC emissions will also be discussed. These include the installation of state-of-the-art oil filtration systems on major chiller units, installation of spring-loaded pressure relief valves and the retrofitting of major chiller units to accept less harmful, alternative refrigerants.

  4. Reduction of chlorofluorocarbon emissions from refrigeration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cordova, A.; Kennicott, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Recently enacted State and Federal legislation, (The Clean Air Act and Colorado Senate Bill 77), and the implementation of regulations for each, forbid the intentional release of ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) from refrigeration and air conditioning systems to the atmosphere. In addition, an international agreement (The Montreal Protocol), calls for CFC manufacturing reductions, which began in 1991, and eventual discontinuation. The declining supply and resultant escalating costs of CFCs are additional driving forces toward conservation and reuse of present refrigerant resources. Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) currently has an estimated 42,000 pounds of CFCs in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss steps being taken at RFP toward the abatement of CFC releases. The main thrust of our efforts is the use of a refrigerant management system, used to recover and recycle our current CFC stock. Additional methods of further reducing CFC emissions will also be discussed. These include the installation of state-of-the-art oil filtration systems on major chiller units, installation of spring-loaded pressure relief valves and the retrofitting of major chiller units to accept less harmful, alternative refrigerants.

  5. Characterization of an atmospheric helium plasma jet by relative and absolute optical emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Nikiforov, Anton Yu; González, Manuel Á.; Leys, Christophe; Pei Lu, Xin

    2013-02-01

    The characteristics of plasma temperatures (gas temperature and electron excitation temperature) and electron density in a pulsed-dc excited atmospheric helium plasma jet are studied by relative and absolute optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-resolution OES is performed for the helium and hydrogen lines for the determination of electron density through the Stark broadening mechanism. A superposition fitting method composed of two component profiles corresponding to two different electron densities is developed to fit the investigated lines. Electron densities of the orders of magnitude of 1021 and 1020 m-3 are characterized for the center and edge regions in the jet discharge when the applied voltage is higher than 13.0 kV. The atomic state distribution function (ASDF) of helium demonstrates that the discharge deviates from the Boltzmann-Saha equilibrium state, especially for the helium lower levels, which are significantly overpopulated. Local electron excitation temperatures T13 and Tspec corresponding to the lower and upper parts of the helium ASDF are defined and found to range from 1.2 eV to 1.4 eV and 0.2 eV to 0.3 eV, respectively. A comparative analysis shows that the Saha balance is valid in the discharge for helium atoms at high excited states.

  6. Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities of (223)Ra and decay progeny in equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Regan, P H; Keightley, J D

    2015-08-01

    Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities have been made of radiochemically pure solutions of (223)Ra in equilibrium with its decay progeny, which had been previously standardised by 4π(liquid scintillation)-γ digital coincidence counting techniques. Two high-purity germanium γ-ray spectrometers were used which had been accurately calibrated using a suite of primary and secondary radioactive standards. Comparison of the activity concentration determined by the primary technique against γ-ray spectrometry measurements using the nuclear data evaluations of the Decay Data Evaluation Project exhibited a range of ~18% in the most intense γ-ray emissions (>1% probability) of the (223)Ra decay series. Absolute γ-ray emission probabilities and standard uncertainties have been determined for the decay of (223)Ra, (219)Rn, (215)Po, (211)Pb, (211)Bi and (207)Tl in equilibrium. The standard uncertainties of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities quoted in this work show a significant improvement over previously reported γ-ray emission probabilities. Correlation coefficients for pairs of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities from the decays of the radionuclides (223)Ra, (219)Rn and (211)Pb have been determined and are presented. The α-transition probabilities of the (223)Ra have been deduced from P(γ+ce) balance using the γ-ray emission probabilities determined in this work with some agreement observed with the published experimental values of the α-emission probabilities. PMID:25933406

  7. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose The U.S. implemented the Clean... SECURITY Coast Guard Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION..., in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, on Ship Emission Reduction Technology...

  8. Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

  9. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted. PMID:27245647

  10. Decision-making using absolute cardiovascular risk reduction and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Ker, J A; Oosthuizen, H; Rheeder, P

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Many clinical guidelines have adopted a multifactorial cardiovascular risk assessment to identify high-risk individuals for treatment. The Framingham risk chart is a widely used risk engine to calculate the absolute cardiovascular risk of an individual. Cost-effective analyses are typically used to evaluate therapeutic strategies, but it is more problematic for a clinician when faced with alternative therapeutic strategies to calculate cost effectiveness. Aim We used a single simulated-patient model to explore the effect of different drug treatments on the calculated absolute cardiovascular risk. Methods The Framingham risk score was calculated on a hypothetical patient, and drug treatment was initiated. After every drug introduced, the score was recalculated. Single-exit pricing of the various drugs in South Africa was used to calculate the cost of reducing predicted cardiovascular risk. Results The cost-effective ratio of an antihypertensive treatment strategy was calculated to be R21.35 per percentage of risk reduction. That of a statin treatment strategy was R22.93 per percentage of risk reduction. Using a high-dose statin, the cost-effective ratio was R12.81 per percentage of risk reduction. Combining the antihypertensive and statin strategy demonstrated a cost-effective ratio of R23.84 per percentage of risk reduction. A combination of several drugs enabled the hypothetical patient to reduce the risk to 14% at a cost-effective ratio of R17.18 per percentage of risk reduction. Conclusion This model demonstrates a method to compare different therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk with their cost-effective ratios. PMID:18516355

  11. The Ethics of Information: Absolute Risk Reduction and Patient Understanding of Screening

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    Some experts have argued that patients should routinely be told the specific magnitude and absolute probability of potential risks and benefits of screening tests. This position is motivated by the idea that framing risk information in ways that are less precise violates the ethical principle of respect for autonomy and its application in informed consent or shared decision-making. In this Perspective, we consider a number of problems with this view that have not been adequately addressed. The most important challenges stem from the danger that patients will misunderstand the information or have irrational responses to it. Any initiative in this area should take such factors into account and should consider carefully how to apply the ethical principles of respect for autonomy and beneficence. PMID:18421509

  12. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  13. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  14. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  15. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  16. Reduction of hydrocarbon emissions can be costly

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to share the Lone Star Greencastle Indiana Plant`s, experiences with changing raw materials in the kiln feed to reduce hydrocarbons emissions. The original change of the plant`s kiln feed composition was made in July of 1995. The plant changed the kiln feed composition for the first time since the plant opened. Shale was replaced in the kiln feed composition with clay, mill scale, and foundry sand, solely to reduce hydrocarbon emissions. At the time it was something that had to be done to keep burning liquid waste, in order to comply with the BIF Tier II limit of 20 ppm of hydrocarbon emissions. The change of raw materials did accomplish what it was supposed to by reducing the hydrocarbon emissions under the allowable limit. Plant personnel did not want to change raw materials, but did not have much of a choice, and had no idea of the repercussions that would follow. I will discuss the positives and negatives of the different raw mix compositions. 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    This project focuses on a new technology that reduces NOx emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxygen-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace.

  18. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  19. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  20. Cermet Filters for Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter Chuen Sun

    2001-08-01

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.

  1. Carbon reduction emissions in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Temchin, Jerome

    2002-02-28

    This project is a feasibility study for a control system for existing backup generators in South Africa. The strategy is to install a system to enable backup generators (BGs) to be dispatched only when a large generator fails. Using BGs to provide ''ten minute reserve'' will save energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by an estimated nearly 500,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year.

  2. Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W.; Toole, Gasper L.

    2012-07-18

    There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

  3. How Effective are Cooperative Emission Reduction Policies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moberg, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Management of air resources in the United States is a highly contentious endeavor based in application of cutting-edge scientific research. New policies created to facilitate better science-based management of air resources are one example of ho integrating research practice with scientific goals can benefit society at large. Wisconsin's Environmental Cooperation Pilot Program (ECPP) and Green Tier Law (GT) are state initiatives that attempt to recast the relationship between government regulators and regulated firms by increasing the degree of emission flexibility allowed under Wisconsin's permitting process. While still in their infancy, these programs have attracted a large degree of national attention for the innovative mechanisms they incorporate to reach this goal. Specifically, their mandated use of Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) as a prerequisite for program eligibility has drawn both praise and ire from various observers both within the state and in the country at large. This study analyzes the effect of this program on each participating firm's emissions of criteria air pollutants from 1990 through 2004. Conclusions drawn through the statistical evaluation are supported by interviews with both regulators and participating firms. Results show that the programs have succeeded in certain specific cases by greatly improving a firm's air emissions, but that the mean trend for all participants is much less significant. Using the Wisconsin activities as case studies, we examine the potential for joint public-private cooperation as an conduit for incorporating scientific results into policy and private action. "Lessons learned" from ECPP and GT are identified, and used to suggest future directions in air quality policy.

  4. Improved statistical determination of absolute neutrino masses via radiative emission of neutrino pairs from atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The atomic transition from an excited state |e ⟩ to the ground state |g ⟩ by emitting a neutrino pair and a photon, i.e., |e ⟩→|g ⟩+|γ ⟩+|νi⟩+|ν¯j⟩ with i , j =1 , 2, 3, has been proposed by Yoshimura and his collaborators as an alternative way to determine the absolute scale m0 of neutrino masses. More recently, a statistical analysis of the fine structure of the photon spectrum from this atomic process has been performed [N. Song et al. Phys. Rev. D 93, 013020 (2016)] to quantitatively examine the experimental requirements for a realistic determination of absolute neutrino masses. In this paper, we show how to improve the statistical analysis and demonstrate that the previously required detection time can be reduced by one order of magnitude for the case of a 3 σ determination of m0˜0.01 eV with an accuracy better than 10%. Such an improvement is very encouraging for further investigations on measuring absolute neutrino masses through atomic processes.

  5. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  6. Impact of fuel quality regulation and speed reductions on shipping emissions: implications for climate and air quality.

    PubMed

    Lack, Daniel A; Cappa, Christopher D; Langridge, Justin; Bahreini, Roya; Buffaloe, Gina; Brock, Charles; Cerully, Kate; Coffman, Derek; Hayden, Katherine; Holloway, John; Lerner, Brian; Massoli, Paola; Li, Shao-Meng; McLaren, Robert; Middlebrook, Ann M; Moore, Richard; Nenes, Athanasios; Nuaaman, Ibraheem; Onasch, Timothy B; Peischl, Jeff; Perring, Anne; Quinn, Patricia K; Ryerson, Tom; Schwartz, Joshua P; Spackman, Ryan; Wofsy, Steven C; Worsnop, Doug; Xiang, Bin; Williams, Eric

    2011-10-15

    Atmospheric emissions of gas and particulate matter from a large ocean-going container vessel were sampled as it slowed and switched from high-sulfur to low-sulfur fuel as it transited into regulated coastal waters of California. Reduction in emission factors (EFs) of sulfur dioxide (SO₂), particulate matter, particulate sulfate and cloud condensation nuclei were substantial (≥ 90%). EFs for particulate organic matter decreased by 70%. Black carbon (BC) EFs were reduced by 41%. When the measured emission reductions, brought about by compliance with the California fuel quality regulation and participation in the vessel speed reduction (VSR) program, are placed in a broader context, warming from reductions in the indirect effect of SO₄ would dominate any radiative changes due to the emissions changes. Within regulated waters absolute emission reductions exceed 88% for almost all measured gas and particle phase species. The analysis presented provides direct estimations of the emissions reductions that can be realized by California fuel quality regulation and VSR program, in addition to providing new information relevant to potential health and climate impact of reduced fuel sulfur content, fuel quality and vessel speed reductions. PMID:21910443

  7. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  8. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  9. Impact of historical air pollution emissions reductions on nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Tzortziou, M.; Duffy, M.; Duncan, B. N.; Hains, J.; Pickering, K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Follette-Cook, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    There have been significant NOx emissions reductions since 2002 in the eastern and central US through a combination of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) call, which required 22 states and the District of Columbia to regulate NOx emissions to mitigate ozone transport, the NOx Budget Trading Program, subsequent EPA rules, court-orders, and state regulations. As reported by the EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI), NOx emissions nationwide have been reduced by 37% between 2002 and 2011. The benefit of these emissions reductions on decreasing nitrogen deposition onto terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems will be presented by comparing CMAQ air quality model simulations for July 2011 from a 12 km domain over the eastern US and a 4 km domain over the Mid-Atlantic with anthropogenic emissions appropriate for 2002 and 2011. Previously we showed that the historical emissions reductions from 2002 to 2011 prevented 9 to 13 ozone standard exceedance days throughout much of the Ohio River Valley and 3 to 9 ozone exceedance days throughout the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area for the month of July 2011. Here, we focus on how the historical emissions reductions decreased nitrogen deposition, subsequently benefiting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The base case simulation with emissions appropriate for 2011 everywhere was evaluated with ground-, ship-, aircraft-, and satellite-based observations, which include measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and GeoCAPE-CBODAQ (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events-Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic Campaign with DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns.

  10. EMISSIONS REDUCTION DATA FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study measured the pollutant emission reduction potential of 29 photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on residential and commercial building rooftops across the U.S. from 1993 through 1997. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 21 electric power companies sponsor...

  11. 10 CFR 300.8 - Calculating emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... composition or output of reporting entities, a reporting entity may need to change previously specified... registration of additional emission reductions. (h) Calculation methods. An entity must calculate any change...

  12. 10 CFR 300.8 - Calculating emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... composition or output of reporting entities, a reporting entity may need to change previously specified... registration of additional emission reductions. (h) Calculation methods. An entity must calculate any change...

  13. 10 CFR 300.8 - Calculating emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... composition or output of reporting entities, a reporting entity may need to change previously specified... registration of additional emission reductions. (h) Calculation methods. An entity must calculate any change...

  14. 10 CFR 300.8 - Calculating emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... composition or output of reporting entities, a reporting entity may need to change previously specified... registration of additional emission reductions. (h) Calculation methods. An entity must calculate any change...

  15. 10 CFR 300.8 - Calculating emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... composition or output of reporting entities, a reporting entity may need to change previously specified... registration of additional emission reductions. (h) Calculation methods. An entity must calculate any change...

  16. Reduction of aircraft gas turbine engine pollutant emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    To accomplish simultaneous reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, required major modifications to the combustor. The modification most commonly used was a staged combustion technique. While these designs are more complicated than production combustors, no insurmountable operational difficulties were encountered in either high pressure rig or engine tests which could not be resolved with additional normal development. The emission reduction results indicate that reductions in unburned hydrocarbons were sufficient to satisfy both near and far-termed EPA requirements. Although substantial reductions were observed, the success in achieving the CO and NOx standards was mixed and depended heavily on the engine/engine cycle on which it was employed. Technology for near term CO reduction was satisfactory or marginally satisfactory. Considerable doubt exists if this technology will satisfy all far-term requirements.

  17. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  18. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  19. Absolute and relative emission spectroscopy study of 3 cm wide planar radio frequency atmospheric pressure bio-plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Nikiforov, Anton Yu; Ionita, Eusebiu-Rosini; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Leys, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of low power atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge generated in Ar gas in long gap of 3 cm is investigated. This plasma source is characterized and analyzed for possible large scale biomedical applications where low gas temperature and potential-less effluent are required. The discharge forms a homogenous glow-like afterglow in ambient air at input power of 30 W with low gas temperature of 330 K, which is desirable in biomedical applications. With absolute calibrated spectroscopy of the discharge, electron density of 0.4 × 1018 m-3 and electron temperature of 1.5 eV are obtained from continuum Bremsstrahlung radiation of the source. Time and spatial resolved emission spectroscopy is used to analyze discharge generation mechanism and active species formation. It is found that discharge dynamics strongly correlates with the discharge current waveform. Strong Ar(2p) excited states emission is observed nearby the electrodes surface on a distance up to 200 μm in the plasma sheath region at 10 ns after the current peak, whereas OH(A) emission is uniform along of the interelectrode gap.

  20. Reduction of power supply EMI emission by switching frequency modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.; Chen, D.Y. . Virginia Power Electronics Center)

    1994-01-01

    Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) emission is always of grave concern for power electronic circuit designers. Due to rapid switching of high current and high voltage, interference emission is a serious problem in switching power circuits. Many products fail to make it to the market because of their failure to comply with the government EMI regulations. Numerous companies have cited EMI problems as the culprit in the delay of their product introduction. EMI noise reduction is generally accomplished by three means: suppression of noise source, isolation of noise coupling path, and filter/shielding. In this paper, another means of EMI noise reduction is proposed. By modulating the PWM frequency of power supply, it is possible to modify noise emission spectrum so that it can pass government EMI regulations. In the paper, measurement of EMI noise is first reviewed. Noise sources of a power switching circuit are then described. The theoretical and the experimental results of the reduction of EMI noise emission by sinewave frequency modulation to distribute the power of the fundamental harmonics onto frequency sideband are discussed.

  1. Costs, emissions reductions, and vehicle repair: evidence from Arizona.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; McConnell, V; Harrington, W

    2000-04-01

    The Arizona inspection and maintenance (I/M) program provides one of the first opportunities to examine the costs and effectiveness of vehicle emission repair. This paper examines various aspects of emission reductions, fuel economy improvements, and repair costs, drawing data from over 80,000 vehicles that failed the I/M test in Arizona between 1995 and the first half of 1996. We summarize the wealth of data on repair from the Arizona program and highlight its limitations. Because missing or incomplete cost information has been a serious shortcoming for the evaluation of I/M programs, we develop a method for estimating repair costs when they are not reported. We find surprising evidence that almost one quarter of all vehicles that take the I/M test are never observed to pass the test. Using a statistical analysis, we provide some information about the differences between the vehicles that pass and those that do not. Older, more polluting vehicles are much more likely never to pass the I/M test, and their expected repair costs are much higher than those for newer cars. This paper summarizes the evidence on costs and emission reductions in the Arizona program, comparing costs and emissions reductions between cars and trucks. Finally, we examine the potential for more cost-effective repair, first through an analysis of tightening I/M cut points and then by calculating the cost savings of achieving different emission reduction goals when the most cost-effective repairs are made first. PMID:10786002

  2. Adaptive Engine Technologies for Aviation CO2 Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive turbine engine technologies are assessed for their potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from commercial air transports.Technologies including inlet, fan, and compressor flow control, compressor stall control, blade clearance control, combustion control, active bearings and enabling technologies such as active materials and wireless sensors are discussed. The method of systems assessment is described, including strengths and weaknesses of the approach. Performance benefit estimates are presented for each technology, with a summary of potential emissions reduction possible from the development of new, adaptively controlled engine components.

  3. Diplomats try to establish greenhouse gas emissions-reduction rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Ministers and other senior officials will participate in the next follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change when they deliberate on how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at a November 2-13 meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentina."The Kyoto conference on the Climate Change Convention was a high-profile event because for the first time industrialized countries adopted emission-reduction targets that are legally binding," said Michael Zammit Cutajar, executive secretary of the convention. "In Buenos Aires, governments will try to establish the rules of the game for reaching these targets.""

  4. Diplomats try to establish greenhouse gas emissions-reduction rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Ministers and other senior officials will participate in the next follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change when they deliberate on how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at a November 2-13 meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentina.“The Kyoto conference on the Climate Change Convention was a high-profile event because for the first time industrialized countries adopted emission-reduction targets that are legally binding,” said Michael Zammit Cutajar, executive secretary of the convention. “In Buenos Aires, governments will try to establish the rules of the game for reaching these targets."”

  5. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  6. Constraining the Absolute Orientation of eta Carinae's Binary Orbit: A 3-D Dynamical Model for the Broad [Fe III] Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in Eta Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). This model is based on full 3-D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of Eta Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectro-images of [Fe III] emission line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA(theta) that the orbital plane projection of the line-of-sight makes with the apastron side of the semi-major axis, and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3-D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blue-shifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA = +38deg, and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i approx. = 130deg to 145deg, Theta approx. = -15deg to +30deg, and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a P A approx. = 302deg to 327deg east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3-D. The companion star, Eta(sub B), thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modeling to determine the stellar masses.

  7. Atmospheric emissions from a passenger ferry with selective catalytic reduction.

    PubMed

    Nuszkowski, John; Clark, Nigel N; Spencer, Thomas K; Carder, Daniel K; Gautam, Mridul; Balon, Thomas H; Moynihan, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    The two main propulsion engines on Staten Island Ferry Alice Austen (Caterpillar 3516A, 1550 hp each) were fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment technology to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). After the installation of the SCR system, emissions from the ferry were characterized both pre- and post-aftertreatment. Prior research has shown that the ferry operates in four modes, namely idle, acceleration, cruise, and maneuvering modes. Emissions were measured for both engines (designated NY and SI) and for travel in both directions between Manhattan and Staten Island. The emissions characterization used an analyzer system, a data logger, and a filter-based particulate matter (PM) measurement system. The measurement of NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) were based on federal reference methods. With the existing control strategy for the SCR urea injection, the SCR provided approximately 64% reduction of NOx for engine NY and 36% reduction for engine SI for a complete round trip with less than 6.5 parts per million by volume (ppmv) of ammonia slip during urea injection. Average reductions during the cruise mode were 75% for engine NY and 47% for engine SI, which was operating differently than engine NY. Reductions for the cruise mode during urea injection typically exceeded 94% from both engines, but urea was injected only when the catalyst temperature reached a 300 degrees C threshold pre- and postcatalyst. Data analysis showed a total NOx mass emission split with 80% produced during cruise, and the remaining 20% spread across idle, acceleration, and maneuvering. Examination of continuous NOx data showed that higher reductions of NOx could be achieved on both engines by initiating the urea injection at an earlier point (lower exhaust temperature) in the acceleration and cruise modes of operation. The oxidation catalyst reduced the CO production 94% for engine NY and 82% for engine SI, although the high CO levels

  8. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM

  9. Impacts of emission reductions on aerosol radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietikainen, J.-P.; Kupiainen, K.; Klimont, Z.; Makkonen, R.; Korhonen, H.; Karinkanta, R.; Hyvarinen, A.-P.; Karvosenoja, N.; Laaksonen, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2015-05-01

    The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ was used to investigate changes in the aerosol burden and aerosol radiative effects in the coming decades. Four different emissions scenarios were applied for 2030 (two of them applied also for 2020) and the results were compared against the reference year 2005. Two of the scenarios are based on current legislation reductions: one shows the maximum potential of reductions that can be achieved by technical measures, and the other is targeted to short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs). We have analyzed the results in terms of global means and additionally focused on eight subregions. Based on our results, aerosol burdens show an overall decreasing trend as they basically follow the changes in primary and precursor emissions. However, in some locations, such as India, the burdens could increase significantly. The declining emissions have an impact on the clear-sky direct aerosol effect (DRE), i.e. the cooling effect. The DRE could decrease globally 0.06-0.4 W m-2 by 2030 with some regional increases, for example, over India (up to 0.84 W m-2). The global changes in the DRE depend on the scenario and are smallest in the targeted SLCF simulation. The aerosol indirect radiative effect could decline 0.25-0.82 W m-2 by 2030. This decrease takes place mostly over the oceans, whereas the DRE changes are greatest over the continents. Our results show that targeted emission reduction measures can be a much better choice for the climate than overall high reductions globally. Our simulations also suggest that more than half of the near-future forcing change is due to the radiative effects associated with aerosol-cloud interactions.

  10. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  11. Augmentor emissions reduction technology program. [for turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colley, W. C.; Kenworthy, M. J.; Bahr, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Technology to reduce pollutant emissions from duct-burner-type augmentors for use on advanced supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Test configurations, representing variations of two duct-burner design concepts, were tested in a rectangular sector rig at inlet temperature and pressure conditions corresponding to takeoff, transonic climb, and supersonic cruise flight conditions. Both design concepts used piloted flameholders to stabilize combustion of lean, premixed fuel/air mixtures. The concepts differed in the flameholder type used. High combustion efficiency (97%) and low levels of emissions (1.19 g/kg fuel) were achieved. The detailed measurements suggested the direction that future development efforts should take to obtain further reductions in emission levels and associated improvements in combustion efficiency over an increased range of temperature rise conditions.

  12. General aviation piston-engine exhaust emission reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.; Houtman, W. H.; Westfield, W. T.; Duke, L. C.; Rezy, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    To support the promulgation of aircraft regulations, two airports were examined, Van Nuys and Tamiami. It was determined that the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from piston-engine aircraft have a significant influence on the CO levels in the ambient air in and around airports, where workers and travelers would be exposed. Emissions standards were set up for control of emissions from aircraft piston engines manufactured after December 31, 1979. The standards selected were based on a technologically feasible and economically reasonable control of carbon monoxide. It was concluded that substantial CO reductions could be realized if the range of typical fuel-air ratios could be narrowed. Thus, improvements in fuel management were determined as reasonable controls.

  13. A Healthy Reduction in Oil Dependence and Carbon Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.; Higgins, M.

    2003-12-01

    Societal dependence on oil as an energy source for personal transportation leads to increasingly negative social consequences including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Our heavy reliance on the automobile for transportation, determined in part by urban sprawl, also contributes to the population's increasingly sedentary lifestyle and to a concomitant degradation in health. We have shown that widespread substitution of exercise, commensurate with previously recommended levels, through biking or walking instead of driving can substantially reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions. For example, if all individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 substituted one hour of cycling for driving the reduction in gasoline demand would be equivalent to the gas produced from 34.9 percent of current oil consumption. Relative to 1990 net US emissions, this constitutes a 10.9 percent reduction in carbon emissions. Therefore, substitution of exercise for driving could improve health, reduce carbon emissions and save more oil than even upper estimates of that contained in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

  14. Black carbon emissions reductions from combustion of alternative jet fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speth, Raymond L.; Rojo, Carolina; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurement campaigns for alternative aviation fuels indicate that black carbon emissions from gas turbines are reduced significantly with the use of alternative jet fuels that are low in aromatic content. This could have significant climate and air quality-related benefits that are currently not accounted for in environmental assessments of alternative jet fuels. There is currently no predictive way of estimating aircraft black carbon emissions given an alternative jet fuel. We examine the results from available measurement campaigns and propose a first analytical approximation (termed 'ASAF') of the black carbon emissions reduction associated with the use of paraffinic alternative jet fuels. We establish a relationship between the reduction in black carbon emissions relative to conventional jet fuel for a given aircraft, thrust setting relative to maximum rated thrust, and the aromatic volume fraction of the (blended) alternative fuel. The proposed relationship is constrained to produce physically meaningful results, makes use of only one free parameter and is found to explain a majority of the variability in measurements across the engines and fuels that have been tested.

  15. Impacts of emission reductions on aerosol radiative effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietikäinen, J.-P.; Kupiainen, K.; Klimont, Z.; Makkonen, R.; Korhonen, H.; Karinkanta, R.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Karvosenoja, N.; Laaksonen, A.; Lihavainen, H.; Kerminen, V.-M.

    2014-12-01

    The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ is used to study the aerosol burden and forcing changes in the coming decades. Four different emissions scenarios are applied for 2030 (two of them applied also for 2020) and the results are compared against reference year 2005. Two of the scenarios are based on current legislation reductions, one shows the maximum potential of reductions that can be achieved by technical measures, and the last one is targeted to short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs). We have analysed the results in terms of global means and additionally focused on 8 sub-regions. Based on our results, aerosol burdens overall show decreasing trend, but in some locations, such as India, the burdens could increase significantly. This has impact on the direct aerosol effect (DRE), which could reduce globally 0.06-0.4 W m-2 by 2030, but can increase over India (up to 0.84 W m-2). The global values depend on the scenario and are lowest with the targeted SLCF simulation. The cloud radiative effect could decline 0.25-0.82 W m-2 by 2030 and occurs mostly over oceans, whereas the DRE effect is mostly over land. Our results show that targeted emission reduction measures can be a~much better choice for the climate than overall high reductions globally. Our simulations also suggest that more than half of the near-future forcing change is due to the radiative effects associated with aerosol-cloud interactions.

  16. Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Don (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period December 2004 through August 2007 for the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3-01136, Task Order 8, Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady of the NASA Glenn Research Center. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence of the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report is for a test program in which NASA funded engine validations of integrated technologies that reduce aircraft engine noise. These technologies address the reduction of engine fan and jet noise, and noise associated with propulsion/airframe integration. The results of these tests will be used by NASA to identify the engineering tradeoffs associated with the technologies that are needed to enable advanced engine systems to meet stringent goals for the reduction of noise. The objectives of this program are to (1) conduct system engineering and integration efforts to define the engine test-bed configuration; (2) develop selected noise reduction technologies to a technical maturity sufficient to enable engine testing and validation of those technologies in the FY06-07 time frame; (3) conduct engine tests designed to gain insight into the sources, mechanisms and characteristics of noise in the engines; and (4) establish baseline engine noise measurements for subsequent use in the evaluation of noise reduction.

  17. Constraining the absolute orientation of η Carinae's binary orbit: a 3D dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, T. I.; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S. P.; Groh, J. H.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) dynamical model for the broad [Fe III] emission observed in η Carinae using the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). This model is based on full 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of η Car's binary colliding winds. Radiative transfer codes are used to generate synthetic spectroimages of [Fe III] emission-line structures at various observed orbital phases and STIS slit position angles (PAs). Through a parameter study that varies the orbital inclination i, the PA θ that the orbital plane projection of the line of sight makes with the apastron side of the semimajor axis and the PA on the sky of the orbital axis, we are able, for the first time, to tightly constrain the absolute 3D orientation of the binary orbit. To simultaneously reproduce the blueshifted emission arcs observed at orbital phase 0.976, STIS slit PA =+38° and the temporal variations in emission seen at negative slit PAs, the binary needs to have an i≈ 130° to 145°, θ≈-15° to +30° and an orbital axis projected on the sky at a PA ≈ 302° to 327° east of north. This represents a system with an orbital axis that is closely aligned with the inferred polar axis of the Homunculus nebula, in 3D. The companion star, ηB, thus orbits clockwise on the sky and is on the observer's side of the system at apastron. This orientation has important implications for theories for the formation of the Homunculus and helps lay the groundwork for orbital modelling to determine the stellar masses. Footnotes<label>1</label>Low- and high-ionization refer here to atomic species with ionizations potentials (IPs) below and above the IP of hydrogen, 13.6 eV.<label>2</label>Measured in degrees from north to east.<label>3</label>θ is the same as the angle φ defined in fig. 3 of O08.<label>4</label>The outer edge looks circular only because this marks the edge of the spherical computational domain of the SPH simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JQSRT..99...21B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JQSRT..99...21B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span>, time-resolved <span class="hlt">emission</span> of non-LTE L-shell spectra from Ti-doped aerogels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Back, C. A.; Feldman, U.; Weaver, J. L.; Seely, J. F.; Constantin, C.; Holland, G.; Lee, R. W.; Chung, H.-K.; Scott, H. A.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2 mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47 3 keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, λ/δλ of 3 20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/924640','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/924640"><span id="translatedtitle">Wind Energy and Air <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Benefits: A Primer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobson, D.; High, C.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26891104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26891104"><span id="translatedtitle">"APEC Blue": Secondary Aerosol <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> from <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Controls in Beijing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>China implemented strict <span class="hlt">emission</span> control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls. Our results show consistently large <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61-67% and 51-57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2-3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as "APEC Blue". We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution. PMID:26891104</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21378132','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21378132"><span id="translatedtitle">SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ABSORPTION, LOCAL SUPPRESSION, AND <span class="hlt">EMISSIVITY</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN MAGNETIC REGIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chou, D.-Y.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Liang Zhichao; Sun, M.-T.</p> <p>2009-11-20</p> <p>Observed acoustic power in magnetic regions is lower than the quiet Sun because of absorption, <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and local suppression of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions. In the previous studies, we have developed a method to measure the coefficients of absorption, <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and local suppression of sunspots. In this study, we go one step further to measure the spatial distributions of three coefficients in two active regions, NOAA 9055 and 9057. The maps of absorption, <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and local suppression coefficients correlate with the magnetic map, including plage regions, except the <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> coefficient of NOAA 9055 where the <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> coefficient is too weak and lost among the noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.124....1W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.124....1W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from residential combustion considering end-uses and spatial constraints: Part II, <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cooking, heating, and other activities in the residential sector are major sources of indoor and outdoor air pollution, especially when solid fuels are used to provide energy. Because of their deleterious effects on the atmosphere and human health, multinational strategies to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have been proposed. This study examines the effects of some possible policies, considering realistic factors that constrain mitigation: end-uses, spatial constraints involving proximity to forest or electricity, existing technology, and assumptions about user behavior. <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> scenarios are applied to a year-2010, spatially distributed baseline of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen oxides, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Scenarios explored are: (1) cleanest current stove, where we assume that existing technology in each land type is applied to burn existing fuels; (2) stove standards, where we assume that stoves are designed to meet performance standards; and (3) clean fuels, where users adopt the cleanest fuels plausible in each land type. We assume that people living in forest access areas continue to use wood regardless of available fuels, so the clean-fuels scenario leads to a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 18-25%, depending on the pollutant, across the study region. Cleaner stoves preferentially affect land types with forest access, where about half of the fuel is used; <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> range from 25 to 82%, depending on the pollutant. If stove performance standards can be met, particulate matter <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are reduced by 62% for the loosest standards and 95% for the tightest standards, and carbon monoxide is reduced by 40% and 62% for the loosest and tightest standards. <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in specific regions and countries depend on the existing fuel mixture and the population division among land types, and are explored for Latin America, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12460490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12460490"><span id="translatedtitle">Electricity generation: options for <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Whittington, H W</p> <p>2002-08-15</p> <p>Historically, the bulk production of electricity has been achieved by burning fossil fuels, with unavoidable gaseous <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, including large quantities of carbon dioxide: an average-sized modern coal-burning power station is responsible for more than 10 Mt of CO(2) each year. This paper details typical <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from present-day power stations and discusses the options for their <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. Acknowledging that the cuts achieved in the past decade in the UK CO(2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have been achieved largely by fuel switching, the remaining possibilities offered by this method are discussed. Switching to less-polluting fossil fuels will achieve some measure of <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, but the basic problem of CO(2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> continues. Of the alternatives to fossil fuels, only nuclear power represents a zero-carbon large-scale energy source. Unfortunately, public concerns over safety and radioactive waste have still to be assuaged. Other approaches include the application of improved combustion technology, the removal of harmful gases from power-station flues and the use of waste heat to improve overall power-station efficiency. These all have a part to play, but many consider our best hope for <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> to be the use of renewable energy. The main renewable energy contenders are assessed in this paper and realistic estimates of the contribution that each could provide are indicated. It appears that, in the time-scale envisaged by planners for <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in CO(2) <span class="hlt">emission</span>, in many countries renewable energy will be unlikely to deliver. At the same time, it is worth commenting that, again in many countries, the level of penetration of renewable energy will fall short of the present somewhat optimistic targets. Of renewable options, wind energy could be used in the short to medium term to cover for thermal plant closures, but for wind energy to be successful, the network will have to be modified to cope with wind's intermittent nature. Globally, hydroelectricity is currently the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827860','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827860"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span> USING HYDROGEN FROM PLASMATRON FUEL CONVERTERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bromberg, L</p> <p>2000-08-20</p> <p>Substantial progress in engine <span class="hlt">emission</span> control is needed in order to meet present and proposed regulations for both spark ignition and diesel engines. Tightening regulations throughout the world reflect the ongoing concern with vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Recently developed compact plasmatron fuel converters have features that are suitable for onboard production of hydrogen for both fuel pretreatment and for exhaust aftertreatment applications. Systems that make use of these devices in conjunction with aftertreatment catalysts have the potential to improve significantly prospects for <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of diesel engine <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Plasmatron fuel converters can provide a rapid response compact means to transform efficiently a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen rich gas. They have been used to reform natural gas [Bromberg1], gasoline [Green], diesel [Bromberg2] and hard-to-reform biofuels [Cohn1] into hydrogen rich gas (H2 + CO). The development of these devices has been pursued for the purpose of reducing engine exhaust pollutants by providing hydrogen rich gas for combustion in spark ignition and possibly diesel engines, as shown in Figure 1 [Cohn2]. Recent developments in compact plasmatron reformer design at MIT have resulted in substantial decreases in electrical power requirements. These new developments also increase the lifetime of the electrodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946469"><span id="translatedtitle">Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen</p> <p>2008-04-30</p> <p>Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of NO{sub x} and Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR <span class="hlt">reduction</span> when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A51B0046K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A51B0046K"><span id="translatedtitle">Deducing a Canopy <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Factor for Biogenic <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karl, T.; Guenther, A.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The IPCC 2001 report states that "there is a serious discrepancy between the isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> derived by [Guenther et al., 1995] based on a global scaling of <span class="hlt">emission</span>" . and "highlights a key uncertainty in global modeling of highly reactive trace gases: namely, what fraction of primary <span class="hlt">emissions</span> escapes immediate reaction/removal in the vegetation canopy or immediate boundary layer and participates in the chemistry on the scales represented by global models?". A recent modeling study [Makar et al., 1999] suggested that up to 40 % of isoprene can be lost due to in-canopy chemistry. However, up to date only limited experimental datasets have been used to constrain canopy <span class="hlt">reduction</span> factors (CRF) . Based on our recent CELTIC (Chemistry, <span class="hlt">Emission</span>, Loss and Transformation in Canopies) initiative we measured VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> above tropical, deciduous and evergreen ecosystems. In this paper we infer a new parameterization for modeling a CRF due to chemically short-lived biogenic compounds of the form: CRF = h/(a x u* x tau +h) (h: canopy height [m], u*: friction velocity [m/s], tau: lifetime [s], a: dimensionless fitting parameter a=1.5 +/- 0.1). This parameterization is based on results obtained during recent field studies in combination with a random walk model. For isoprene we find that the CRF is on the order of 2-5 % for typical daytime conditions. Loss rates for isoprene are somewhat smaller but within the range of previously reported values [Strong et al., 2004], [Stroud et al., 2005]. Many reactive terpenoid compounds (such as beta-caryophellene) with lifetimes on the order of minutes can be substantially reduced (e.g. up to 60-80 %) before they escape the forest canopy. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, and R. Fall, A global model of natural volatile organic compound <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, Journal of geophysical research, 100 (D/5), 8873-8892, 1995. Makar, P., J. Fuentes, D. Wang, R. Staebler, and H. Wiebe, Chemical processing of biogenic hydrocarbons within</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/829853','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/829853"><span id="translatedtitle">SELECTIVE CATALYTIC <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF DIESEL ENGINE NOX <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> USING ETHANOL AS A <span class="hlt">REDUCTANT</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kass, M; Thomas, J; Lewis, S; Storey, J; Domingo, N; Graves, R Panov, A</p> <p>2003-08-24</p> <p>NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400 C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx <span class="hlt">reduction</span> appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR <span class="hlt">reductant</span> was demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10638410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10638410"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Almeida, P; Ribeiro, M J; Bottlaender, M; Loc'h, C; Langer, O; Strul, D; Hugonnard, P; Grangeat, P; Mazière, B; Bendriem, B</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using 123I-epidepride. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 degrees), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of 123I-epidepride, and 12 <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to 123I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a 123I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC + AT) and (SC + CBC + AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of 11C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (% ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC + CBC + AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and 11C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo <span class="hlt">absolute</span> quantitation of 123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10108465','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10108465"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalytic reactor system for the tritium <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wieneke, R.E.</p> <p>1991-12-31</p> <p>Two platinum catalyst reactor subsystems have been built for the new Tritium <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Facility (TERF) at Mound. The two parallel subsystems each consist of three major components: a passive conservation heat exchanger, an electric preheater, and a catalytic reactor. All subsystem components and interconnecting piping are fabricated from Inconel 625 for high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. System connections are welded for longevity and reliability. Active elements are backed up by installed spares, and the reactor catalyst is replaceable. Since double containment of tritium processing systems is an important safety concept, the entire subsystem is enclosed in a stainless steel glovebox. Careful planning during the design phase created thermal isolation from the glovebox, and the ability to translate the entire subsystem from the glovebox for major maintenance. 4 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5911131','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5911131"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalytic reactor system for the tritium <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wieneke, R.E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Two platinum catalyst reactor subsystems have been built for the new Tritium <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Facility (TERF) at Mound. The two parallel subsystems each consist of three major components: a passive conservation heat exchanger, an electric preheater, and a catalytic reactor. All subsystem components and interconnecting piping are fabricated from Inconel 625 for high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. System connections are welded for longevity and reliability. Active elements are backed up by installed spares, and the reactor catalyst is replaceable. Since double containment of tritium processing systems is an important safety concept, the entire subsystem is enclosed in a stainless steel glovebox. Careful planning during the design phase created thermal isolation from the glovebox, and the ability to translate the entire subsystem from the glovebox for major maintenance. 4 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/889826','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/889826"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF NOx <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> FROM COAL COMBUSTION THROUGH OXYGEN ENRICHMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Western Research Institute</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>BOC Process Gas Solutions and Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a pilot-scale test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen enrichment on the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> characteristics of pulverized coal. The combustion test facility (CTF) at WRI was used to assess the viability of the technique and determine the quantities of oxygen required for NOx <span class="hlt">reduction</span> from coal fired boiler. In addition to the experimental work, a series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were made of the CTF under comparable conditions. A series of oxygen enrichment test was performed using the CTF. In these tests, oxygen was injected into one of the following streams: (1) the primary air (PA), (2) the secondary air (SA), and (3) the combined primary and secondary air. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> data were collected from all tests, and compared with the corresponding data from the baseline cases. A key test parameter was the burner stoichiometry ratio. A series of CFD simulation models were devised to mimic the initial experiments in which secondary air was enriched with oxygen. The results from these models were compared against the experimental data. Experimental evidence indicated that oxygen enrichment does appear to be able to reduce NOx levels from coal combustion, especially when operated at low over fire air (OFA) levels. The <span class="hlt">reductions</span> observed however are significantly smaller than that reported by others (7-8% vs. 25-50%), questioning the economic viability of the technique. This technique may find favor with fuels that are difficult to burn or stabilize at high OFA and produce excessive LOI. While CFD simulation appears to predict NO amounts in the correct order of magnitude and the correct trend with staging, it is sensitive to thermal conditions and an accurate thermal prediction is essential. Furthermore, without development, Fluent's fuel-NO model cannot account for a solution sensitive fuel-N distribution between volatiles and char and thus cannot predict the trends seen in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/51910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/51910"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel approach to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of pollution from low <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jozewicz, W.; Natschke, D.F.; Steer, J.; Smolka, A.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The novel approach is described for the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of pollution from coal-fired low <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources (LES) in Krakow, Poland. Coal-based clean burning briquettes will be manufactured and sold in Poland by a new US/Polish joint venture company formed as a result of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Agency for International Development (AID). Briquettes will be primarily distributed to the residential market; however, their potential for use in boiler houses and district heating systems will also be investigated. The key advantage of this project is that the level of pollutants (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and hydrocarbons) currently generated from the stove burning of coal in private houses and in small hand-fed boiler houses will be reduced by approximately 70 percent. This significant air pollution <span class="hlt">reduction</span> will take place without disrupting traffic or requiring heavy investment like other air pollution methods considered. An additional benefit to the consumer is that there is <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> no cost or investment by home or apartment owners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1637407','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1637407"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of arsenic in Sweden and their <span class="hlt">reduction</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lindau, L</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The role of arsenic in Sweden is generally described, including raw materials, exports/imports, products, consumption, etc. An attempt was also made to estimate the transport of arsenic in Sweden. The quantities of arsenic in raw materials, the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of arsenic from such processes as copper smelters and chemical industries, and the amounts of products containing arsenic were calculated. The studies show that a copper smelter is the main user of arsenical materials, the very largest emitting source and also the plant which manufacturers most arsenic products. A summary of measurements of arsenic in air, water and soil in Sweden has also been made. The concentrations near a smelter, in the Baltic, in cities and in "clean-air areas" are given. The efforts made to date to reduce the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of arsenic and the measures planned for the next few years are described. A <span class="hlt">reduction</span> has already been achieved and a further rather large decrease will come, especially in arsenic levels in water. The possibilities of minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic is also discussed. PMID:908306</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5371M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5371M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the impacts of ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on North American air quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Zheng, Q.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Duhamel, A.; Besner, M.; Davignon, D.; Crevier, L.-P.; Bouchet, V. S.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>A unified regional air-quality modelling system (AURAMS) was used to investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on regional air quality, with a focus on particulate-matter formation. Three simulations of one-year duration were performed for a North American domain: (1) a base-case simulation using 2002 Canadian and US national <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventories augmented by a more detailed Canadian <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory for agricultural ammonia; (2) a 30% North-American-wide <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in agricultural ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span>; and (3) a 50% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in Canadian beef-cattle ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The simulations show that a 30% continent-wide <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in agricultural ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> lead to <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in median hourly ±2.5 mass of <1 μg m-3 on an annual basis. The atmospheric response to these <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> displays marked seasonal variations, and on even shorter time scales the impacts of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are highly episodic: 95-percentile hourly ±2.5 mass decreases can be up to a factor of six larger than the median values. A key finding of the modelling work is the linkage between gas and aqueous chemistry and transport; <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> affect gaseous ammonia concentrations close to the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> site, but substantial impacts on particulate matter and atmospheric deposition often occur at considerable distances downwind, with particle nitrate being the main vector of ammonia/um transport. Ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> therefore have trans-boundary and possibly trans-oceanic consequences downwind. Calculations of critical-load exceedances for sensitive ecosystems in Canada suggest that ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> will have a minimal impact on current ecosystem acidification within Canada, but may have a substantial impact on future ecosystem acidification. The 50% Canadian beef-cattle ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> scenario was used to examine model sensitivity to uncertainties in the new Canadian agricultural ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A31H..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A31H..03M"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of anthropogenic trace gases around the US based on paired atmospheric observations of fossil fuel CO2 from 14C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, J. B.; Lehman, S.; Montzka, S. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, B. R.; Wolak, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Southon, J. R.; Turnbull, J. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Fischer, M. L.; Tans, P. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The small radiocarbon fraction of atmospheric CO2 (~1:10^12 14C:C) has proven to be an ideal tracer for the fossil fuel derived component of observed CO2 (Cff) over large industrialized land areas. A growing number of 14CO2 measurements are now being made in air sampled from a network of tall towers and airborne profiling sites around the US alongside measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, and a large suite of halo- and hydro-carbons. Cff paired with boundary-layer enhancements of more than 20 other anthropogenic gases measured in the same samples allow us to determine apparent <span class="hlt">emissions</span> ratios for each gas with respect to Cff (where apparent ratios refer to those at the time of observation rather than at the time of <span class="hlt">emission</span>). Here we compare seasonal and spatial variability of apparent <span class="hlt">emissions</span> ratios for regions of significant urban and industrial <span class="hlt">emissions</span> around the US, including sites in California, Texas, the mid-west, south-east and north-east . Statistically significant and coherent spatial and seasonal patterns in apparent <span class="hlt">emissions</span> ratios are determined for many gases over multiple years. These can in turn be combined with appropriate spatial footprints over which the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of fossil fuel derived CO2 has been independently determined based on inventories and process models in order to estimate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the correlate gases in different regions, following simple scaling methods we have outlined previously [Miller et al. 2012, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JD017048]. This approach provides some of the first reliable "top down", observationally-based <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates for these gases, many of which influence climate, air quality and stratospheric ozone. Unlike most "bottom up" inventories, our estimates of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> trace gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are accompanied by quantifiable estimates of uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2022','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2022"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and Efficiency Improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-12-02</p> <p>In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled �Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program.� The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-<span class="hlt">emission</span> sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI�s cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI�s combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B14B..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B14B..05H"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">Emission</span> From Plants Depends on <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> by Ascorbate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halbach, S.; Ernst, D.; Fleischmann, F.; Battke, F.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The importance of vegetation for the ecological Hg cycle has been recognized recently. One step in this cycle is the poorly understood phytogenic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of dissolved Hg(II) to volatile Hg(0) which had initially been reported for common reed growing on Hg-contaminated sediments. The hitherto unknown mechanism of this <span class="hlt">reduction</span> was the objective of our investigations. Young barley and European-beech plants were cultivated for 24 h and 2 days, respectively, on a sterile hydroponic medium containing 20-40 µM HgCl2. Within 10 min after seclusion in a closed exposure system, the Hg(0) <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the encapsulated aerial part of the plants reached 10 times the control value in a plant-free system and was proportional to the Hg(II) concentration in the medium. At 20 µM Hg(II) in the medium, a flux of 12.8 µg Hg(0)/m2/h was estimated for beech leaves. The phytogenic Hg(II) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> was further examined by addition of powderized homogenates from deep-frozen leaves (barley, beech, Arabidopsis thaliana) or from needles (Norway spruce) to solutions of 1-5 µM Hg(II). These samples consistently produced a strong transient Hg(0) release at neutral pH that was even reinforced in alkaline medium and vanished at acidic pH. The very same pH dependence was observed after addition of pure L(+)-ascorbate (AA) instead of plant material to the HgCl2 solutions, whereas the <span class="hlt">reductants</span> NADPH and GSH produced only little or no Hg(0), respectively. At neutral and alkaline pH, the Hg(II)-reducing capacity of spruce needle homogenates was 2 - 4 times that of beech leaves, which paralleled a 6-fold difference in AA concentrations. Homogenates from whole wildtype-plants of Arabidopsis reduced 8-times more Hg(II) than those from the AA-deficient mutant vtc1-1 (AA concentration 30% of wild type). A comparison of literature data on AA concentrations revealed for wetland plants a range from 0.3 µmol/g DW (Phragmites communis) over 15.0 (Typha latifolia) to < 34.1 (Spartina altiflora), and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1021277','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1021277"><span id="translatedtitle">NOx <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min</p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full <span class="hlt">emission</span> control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls over Beijing. The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> did not appear to recover after the <span class="hlt">emission</span> control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. Model simulations suggest that the effect of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/838872','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/838872"><span id="translatedtitle">Locomotive <span class="hlt">Emission</span> and Engine Idle <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Technology Demonstration Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>John R. Archer</p> <p>2005-03-14</p> <p>In response to a United States Department of Energy (DOE) solicitation, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA), in partnership with CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT), submitted a proposal to DOE to support the demonstration of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) technology on fifty-six CSXT locomotives. The project purpose was to demonstrate the idle fuel savings, the Nitrous Oxide (NOX) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and the noise <span class="hlt">reduction</span> capabilities of the APU. Fifty-six CSXT Baltimore Division locomotives were equipped with APUs, Engine Run Managers (ERM) and communications equipment to permit GPS tracking and data collection from the locomotives. Throughout the report there is mention of the percent time spent in the State of Maryland. The fifty-six locomotives spent most of their time inside the borders of Maryland and some spent all their time inside the state borders. Usually when a locomotive traveled beyond the Maryland State border it was into an adjoining state. They were divided into four groups according to assignment: (1) Power Unit/Switcher Mate units, (2) Remote Control units, (3) SD50 Pusher units and (4) Other units. The primary data of interest were idle data plus the status of the locomotive--stationary or moving. Also collected were main engine off, idling or working. Idle data were collected by county location, by locomotive status (stationary or moving) and type of idle (Idle 1, main engine idling, APU off; Idle 2, main engine off, APU on; Idle 3, main engine off, APU off; Idle 4, main engine idle, APU on). Desirable main engine idle states are main engine off and APU off or main engine off and APU on. Measuring the time the main engine spends in these desirable states versus the total time it could spend in an engine idling state allows the calculation of Percent Idle Management Effectiveness (%IME). IME is the result of the operation of the APU plus the implementation of CSXT's Warm Weather Shutdown Policy. It is difficult to separate the two. The units</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=139123&keyword=SCR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65339482&CFTOKEN=68805204','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=139123&keyword=SCR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65339482&CFTOKEN=68805204"><span id="translatedtitle">GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span> FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span> CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> provided by selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and perf...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=205717&keyword=travel+AND+health&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76786176&CFTOKEN=30761212','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=205717&keyword=travel+AND+health&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76786176&CFTOKEN=30761212"><span id="translatedtitle">IMPACT OF <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span> ON EXPOSURES AND EXPOSURE DISTRIBUTIONS: APPLICATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC EXPOSURE MODEL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><p>Anticipated results include the following. (1) We will estimate intake fraction (i.e., the fraction of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that are inhaled) for major source categories, over time, and by spatial location. Higher intake fraction indicates a greater exposure <span class="hlt">reduction</span> per <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduct</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.7183M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.7183M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the impacts of ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on North American air quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Zheng, Q.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Duhamel, A.; Besner, M.; Davignon, D.; Crevier, L.-P.; Bouchet, V. S.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>A unified regional air-quality modelling system (AURAMS) was used to investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on regional air quality, with a focus on particulate-matter formation. Three simulations of one-year duration were performed for a North American domain: (1) a base-case simulation using 2002 Canadian and US national <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventories augmented by a more detailed Canadian <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory for agricultural ammonia; (2) a 30% North-American-wide <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in agricultural ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span>; and (3) a 50% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in Canadian beef-cattle ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The simulations show that a 30% continent-wide <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in agricultural ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> lead to <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in median hourly PM2.5 mass of <1 μg m-3 on an annual basis. The atmospheric response to these <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> displays marked seasonal variations, and on even shorter time scales, the impacts of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are highly episodic: 95th-percentile hourly PM2.5 mass decreases can be up to a factor of six larger than the median values. A key finding of the modelling work is the linkage between gas and aqueous chemistry and transport; <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> affect gaseous ammonia concentrations close to the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> site, but substantial impacts on particulate matter and atmospheric deposition often occur at considerable distances downwind, with particle nitrate being the main vector of ammonia/um transport. Ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> therefore have trans-boundary consequences downwind. Calculations of critical-load exceedances for sensitive ecosystems in Canada suggest that ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> will have a minimal impact on current ecosystem acidification within Canada, but may have a substantial impact on future ecosystem acidification. The 50% Canadian beef-cattle ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> scenario was used to examine model sensitivity to uncertainties in the new Canadian agricultural ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory, and the simulation results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800017799','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800017799"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of nitric oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a combustor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Craig, R. A.; Pritchard, H. O. (Inventor)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A turbojet combustor and method for controlling nitric oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by employing successive combustion zones is described. After combustion of an initial portion of the fuel in a primary combustion zone, the combustion products of the primary zone are combined with the remaining portion of fuel and additional plenum air and burned in a secondary combustion zone under conditions that result in low nitric oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Low nitric oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are achieved by a novel turbojet combustor arrangement which provides flame stability by allowing stable combustion to be accompanied by low nitric oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> resulting from controlled fuel-lean combustion (ignited by the <span class="hlt">emission</span> products from the primary zone) in a secondary combustion zone at a lower combustion temperature resulting in low <span class="hlt">emission</span> of nitric oxide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21688812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21688812"><span id="translatedtitle">NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and its effects on ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I; Shao, Min</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>We applied a daily assimilated inversion method to estimate NO(x) (NO + NO(2)) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). This method allows for estimating <span class="hlt">emission</span> changes with a finer temporal resolution than previous studies and shows that the progression of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> corresponds roughly to the scheduled implementation of <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls over Beijing. OMI column NO(2) <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14% over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NO(x) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full <span class="hlt">emission</span> control period (July 20-Sep 20, 2008). Meteorological changes from summer 2007 to 2008 are the main factor contributing to the column NO(2) decreases not accounted for by the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. The surface ozone changes due to NO(x) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> are negligible using a standard VOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory. When using enhanced VOC (particularly aromatics) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> derived from in situ observations, urban Beijing shifted O(3) production from the VOC-limited regime toward the NO(x)-limited regime resulting in a more substantial ozone decrease (up to 10 ppbv). PMID:21688812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvL..94d5002W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvL..94d5002W"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Benchmark for an Improved Simulation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Soft-X-Ray <span class="hlt">Emission</span> from Polystyrene Targets Irradiated with the Nike Laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weaver, J. L.; Busquet, M.; Colombant, D. G.; Mostovych, A. N.; Feldman, U.; Klapisch, M.; Seely, J. F.; Brown, C.; Holland, G.</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolutely</span> calibrated, time-resolved spectral intensity measurements of soft-x-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> (hν˜0.1 1.0 keV) from laser-irradiated polystyrene targets are compared to radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include our new postprocessor, Virtual Spectro. This new capability allows a unified, detailed treatment of atomic physics and radiative transfer in nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions for simple spectra from low-Z materials as well as complex spectra from high-Z materials. The excellent agreement (within a factor of ˜1.5) demonstrates the powerful predictive capability of the codes for the complex conditions in the ablating plasma. A comparison to data with high spectral resolution (E/δE˜1000) emphasizes the importance of including radiation coupling in the quantitative simulation of <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A34B..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A34B..02F"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations and Modeling of US Power Plant NOx <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> and Their Impact on Air Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; McKeen, S.; Hsie, E.; Trainer, M.; Heckel, A.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Nitrogen oxide (NOx) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O3). One of the largest US sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of US anthropogenic NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> prior to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies. Continuous <span class="hlt">emission</span> monitoring data demonstrate that overall US power plant NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> decreased about 50% during the summer ozone season since the late 1990's. Space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to these <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and bottom-up <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, than in the northeast US urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O3 across much of the eastern US in response to these <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1093583','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1093583"><span id="translatedtitle">Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">Emission-reduction</span> Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina</p> <p>2012-04-06</p> <p>Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> energy use and CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emission-reduction</span> technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38041&keyword=hall+AND+effect&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76220375&CFTOKEN=15389610','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38041&keyword=hall+AND+effect&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76220375&CFTOKEN=15389610"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF POLLUTANT <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM INDUSTRIAL BOILERS BY COMBUSTION MODIFICATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The paper describes results of a field test program to investigate the usefulness of combustion modification in reducing NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from industrial boilers (ranging in size from 11 to 528 GJ/hr). The gaseous and particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal, oil, and natural-gas fuels were ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208084','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=208084"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM IN VITRO SWINE MANURE USING MONENSIN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Storage of swine manure is associated with the generation of malodorous compounds and <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. These are produced as a result of anaerobic degradation of materials present in manure and include sulfides, methane, organic acids, ammonia, and other volatile compounds. Because odor <span class="hlt">emission</span> from li...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26e5004A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMiMi..26e5004A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of thermal <span class="hlt">emission</span> background in high temperature microheaters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Philip R.; Mah, Merlin L.; Olson, Kyle D.; Taylor, Lucas N.; Talghader, Joseph J.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>High temperature microheaters have been designed and constructed to reduce the background thermal <span class="hlt">emission</span> radiation produced by the heater. Such heaters allow one to probe luminescence with very low numbers of photons where the background <span class="hlt">emission</span> would overwhelm the desired signal. Two methods to reduce background <span class="hlt">emission</span> are described: one with low <span class="hlt">emission</span> materials and the other with interference coating design. The first uses platforms composed of material that is transparent to mid-infrared light and therefore of low <span class="hlt">emissivity</span>. Heating elements are embedded in the periphery of the heater. The transparent platform is composed of aluminum oxide, which is largely transparent for wavelengths less than about 8 μm. In the luminescent microscopy used to test the heater, an optical aperture blocks <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the heating coils while passing light from the heated objects on the transparent center of the microheater. The amount of infrared light transmitted through the aperture was reduced by 90% as the aperture was moved from the highly <span class="hlt">emissive</span> heater coils at 450 °C to the largely transparent center at the same temperature. The second method uses microheaters with integrated multilayer interference structures designed to limit background <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the spectral range of the low-light luminescence object being measured. These heaters were composed of aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, and platinum and were operated over a large range of temperatures, from 50 °C to 600 °C. At 600 °C, they showed a background photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> only 1/800 that of a comparison heater without the multilayer interference structure. In this structure, the radiation background was sufficiently reduced to easily monitor weak thermoluminescent <span class="hlt">emission</span> from CaSO4:Ce,Tb microparticles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Geomo.268..177S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Geomo.268..177S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in soil aggregation in response to dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Swet, Nitzan; Katra, Itzhak</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> by aeolian (wind) soil erosion depends on the topsoil properties of the source area, especially on the nature of the aggregates where most dust particles are held. Although the key role of soil aggregates in dust <span class="hlt">emission</span>, the response of soil aggregation to aeolian processes and its implications for dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> remain unknown. This study focuses on aggregate size distribution (ASD) analyses before and after in-situ aeolian experiments in semiarid loess soils that are associated with dust <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Wind tunnel simulations show that particulate matter (PM) <span class="hlt">emission</span> and saltation rates depend on the initial ASD and shear velocity. Under all initial ASD conditions, the content of saltator-sized aggregates (63-250 μm) increased by 10-34% due to erosion of macro-aggregates (> 500 μm), resulting in a higher size ratio (SR) between the saltators and macro-aggregates following the aeolian erosion. The results revealed that the saltator production increases significantly for soils that are subjected to short-term (anthropogenic) disturbance of the topsoil. The findings highlight a decrease in soil aggregation for all initial ASD's in response to aeolian erosion, and consequently its influence on the dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> potential. Changes in ASD should be considered as a key parameter in dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> models of complex surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074024"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative technologies for the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from palm oil mills in Thailand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaewmai, Roihatai; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Musikavong, Charongpun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Alternative methodologies for the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from crude palm oil (CPO) production by a wet extraction mill in Thailand were developed. The production of 1 t of CPO from mills with biogas capture (four mills) and without biogas capture (two mills) in 2010 produced GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 935 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), on average. Wastewater treatment plants with and without biogas capture produced GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 64 and 47% of total GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span>, respectively. The rest of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> mostly originated from the acquisition of fresh fruit bunches. The establishment of a biogas recovery system must be the first step in the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. It could reduce GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 373 kgCO2eq/t of CPO. The main source of GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> of 163 kgCO2eq/t of CPO from the mills with biogas capture was the open pond used for cooling of wastewater before it enters the biogas recovery system. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> could be accomplished by (i) using a wastewater-dispersed unit for cooling, (ii) using a covered pond, (iii) enhancing the performance of the biogas recovery system, and (iv) changing the stabilization pond to an aerated lagoon. By using options i-iv, <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 216, 208, 92.2, and 87.6 kgCO2eq/t of CPO, respectively, can be achieved. PMID:24074024</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EnMan..46..555L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EnMan..46..555L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential CO2 <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> by Development of Non-Grain-Based Bioethanol in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Assessment of the potential CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO2 <span class="hlt">reduction</span> coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO2 with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China’s greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1832"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Nitrogen Oxide <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> for lean Burn Engine Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McGill, R.N.</p> <p>1998-08-04</p> <p>Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both <span class="hlt">emission</span> control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...20912001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...20912001D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “<span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/405647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/405647"><span id="translatedtitle">Neural network based supervisory & closed loop controls for NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and heat rate improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Radl, B.J.; Corfman, D.; Kish, B.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This paper discusses the operational experience gained from installing a neural network based supervisor setpoint control system for selected combustion parameters at Penn Power`s New Castle station. The primary goal of the program is to reduce NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> while maintaining or improving heat rate. The program was jointly funded by Ohio Edison, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Pegasus Technologies Corp. The target power station, Penn Power`s New Castle Unit 5, is a 1950`s vintage Babcock & Wilcox wall fired furnace with gross generation capacity of 150 MW. Before installation of the neural network system (NeuSIGHT), NOx averaged 0.75 to 0.80 lbs/mbtu at full load conditions. Previous testing reduced this from 1.0 lbs/mbtu under normal operating conditions. To meet the new Pennsylvania DER limits, which set an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> tonnage limit on NOx, and operate for a full year, a further NOx <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of 20% was required. The control system setup interfaced a Unix workstation to a Bailey Controls N90 DCS. The neural network and data collection/processing system resided on the workstation. New setpoints were determined by the neural network periodically. These setpoints were constrained within existing control system limits. The objective was to model the multi-dimensional and non-linear problem of NOx formation in the furnace with a neural network. Once modeled the neural network performed many {open_quote}what if{close_quote} simulations to optimize setpoints for the current operating conditions. To keep up with changes in operating conditions the neural network was set to continually learn from the most recent set of measurements. Conditioning algorithms for the input data and output setpoints were developed to handle the inherently {open_quote}noisy{close_quote} input data and to provide stable output recommendations. Test results and parameters used for combustion optimization are summarized in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908255','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/908255"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuel Savings and <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> these systems for the next generation of vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/analysis/requests/archive/2001/gps/pdf/gpsstudy.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/analysis/requests/archive/2001/gps/pdf/gpsstudy.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Power Plant <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> Using a Generation Performance Standard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In an earlier analysis completed in response to a request received from Representative David McIntosh, Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, assuming a policy instrument patterned after the sulfur dioxide allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard as an instrument for reducing carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005873','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005873"><span id="translatedtitle">Exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> for intermittent combustion aircraft engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moffett, R. N.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27325548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27325548"><span id="translatedtitle">Scenario analysis to vehicular <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Xiurui; Fu, Liwei; Ji, Muse; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Motor vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are increasingly becoming one of the important factors affecting the urban air quality in China. It is necessary and useful to policy makers to demonstrate the situation given the relevant pollutants <span class="hlt">reduction</span> measures are taken. This paper predicted the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials of conventional pollutants (PM10, NOx, CO, HC) under different control strategies and policies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during 2011-2020. There are the baseline and 5 control scenarios designed, which presented the different current and future possible vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span> control measures. Future population of different kinds of vehicles were predicted based on the Gompertz model, and vehicle kilometers travelled estimated as well. After that, the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> under the different scenarios during 2011-2020 could be estimated using <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors and activity level data. The results showed that, the vehicle population in the BTH region would continue to grow up, especially in Tianjin and Hebei. Comparing the different scenarios, <span class="hlt">emission</span> standards updating scenario would achieve a substantial <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and keep rising up for all the pollutants, and the scenario of eliminating high-<span class="hlt">emission</span> vehicles can reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> more effectively in short-term than in long-term, especially in Beijing. Due to the constraints of existing economical and technical level, the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> effect of promoting new energy vehicles would not be significant, especially given the consideration of their lifetime impact. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> effect of population regulation scenario in Beijing cannot be ignorable and would keep going up for PM10, CO and HC, excluding NOx. Under the integrated scenario considering all the control measures it would achieve the maximum <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential of <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which means to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of PM10, NOx, CO, HC, by 56%, 59%, 48%, 52%, respectively, compared to BAU scenario for the whole BTH region in 2020. PMID:27325548</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308838','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308838"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement procedure for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> broadband infrared up-conversion photoluminescent quantum yields: Correcting for absorption/re-<span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>MacDougall, Sean K. W.; Ivaturi, Aruna; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Richards, Bryce S.</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>The internal photoluminescent quantum yield (iPLQY) – defined as the ratio of emitted photons to those absorbed – is an important parameter in the evaluation and application of luminescent materials. The iPLQY is rarely reported due to the complexities in the calibration of such a measurement. Herein, an experimental method is proposed to correct for re-<span class="hlt">emission</span>, which leads to an underestimation of the absorption under broadband excitation. Although traditionally the iPLQY is measured using monochromatic sources for linear materials, this advancement is necessary for nonlinear materials with wavelength dependent iPLQY, such as the application of up-conversion to solar energy harvesting. The method requires an additional measurement of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> line shape that overlaps with the excitation and absorption spectra. Through scaling of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum, at the long wavelength edge where an overlap of excitation does not occur, it is possible to better estimate the value of iPLQY. The method has been evaluated for a range of nonlinear material concentrations and under various irradiances to analyze the necessity and boundary conditions that favor the proposed method. Use of this refined method is important for a reliable measurement of iPLQY under a broad illumination source such as the Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/543186','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/543186"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint implementation as a financing instrument for global <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Metz, B.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>Joint implementation is based on the idea of cost-effectiveness by providing parties with the opportunity to partially off-set their own <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with cheaper <span class="hlt">reductions</span> achieved elsewhere. Joint implementation can be defined as realization of <span class="hlt">reduction</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by one investor on the territory of another. Joint implementation could contribute to the North-South cooperation that is embedded in the Climate Convention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817159C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817159C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>On road transport <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. For achieving prospective carbon <span class="hlt">reduction</span> targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> strategies by using International Vehicle <span class="hlt">Emission</span> (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of urban sector GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous <span class="hlt">emission</span>, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315668','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315668"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Quantitation of Myocardial Blood Flow in Human Subjects with or without Myocardial Ischemia using Dynamic Flurpiridaz F 18 Positron <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Packard, René R. S.; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Dahlbom, Magnus; Czernin, Johannes; Maddahi, Jamshid</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of myocardial blood flow (MBF) by positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (PET) is an established method of analyzing coronary artery disease (CAD) but subject to the various shortcomings of available radiotracers. Flurpiridaz F 18 is a novel PET radiotracer which exhibits properties of an ideal tracer. Methods A new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> perfusion quantitation method with Flurpiridaz was developed, taking advantage of the early kinetics and high first-pass extraction by the myocardium of this radiotracer, and the first in human measurements of MBF performed in 7 normal subjects and 8 patients with documented CAD. PET images with time-activity curves were acquired at rest and during adenosine stress. Results In normal subjects, regional MBF between coronary artery territories did not differ significantly, leading to a mean global MBF of 0.73 mL/min/g at rest and 2.53 mL/min/g during stress, with a mean global myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of 3.70. CAD vascular territories with <50% stenosis demonstrated a mean MBF of 0.73 at rest and 2.02 during stress, leading to a mean MFR of 2.97. CAD vascular territories with ≥50% stenosis exhibited a mean MBF of 0.86 at rest and 1.43 during stress, leading to a mean MFR of 1.86. Differences in stress MBF and MFR between normal and CAD territories, as well as between <50% and ≥50% stenosis vascular territories, were significant (P<0.01). Conclusion <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> quantitation of MBF in humans with the novel PET radiotracer Flurpiridaz is feasible over a wide range of cardiac flow in the presence or absence of stress-inducible myocardial ischemia. The significant decrease in stress MBF and ensuing MFR in CAD territories allows a clear distinction between vascular territories exhibiting stress-inducible myocardial ischemia and those with normal perfusion. PMID:25071096</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=56602&keyword=solar+AND+pv&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74134650&CFTOKEN=35005150','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=56602&keyword=solar+AND+pv&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74134650&CFTOKEN=35005150"><span id="translatedtitle">NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> IMPACT FROM ROOFTOP PV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This effort will determine the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> impacts to the U.S. PV generated electricity when PV systems are installed on building rooftops and employed as demand-side power supplies. The national assessment will be based on data provided by existing rooftop PV systems that have be...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=200527','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=200527"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Fumigant <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Using Chemical and Organic Amendments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Water seal (water application to soil surface) has been shown as a cost effective method to reduce fumigant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in comparison with standard high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp. Application of excess amount of water, however, inhibits fumigant diffusion within the soil profile and may affect ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238131','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238131"><span id="translatedtitle">Plastic Films for Soil Fumigation: Permeability and <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Soil fumigation is being increasingly regulated to protect human and environmental health. Current California regulations are based on field data and, in effect, assume that use of a standard polyethylene tarp does not reliably reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Plastic tarps used to cover the soil surface during so...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12809311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12809311"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> by shallow slurry injection: injection efficiency and additional energy demand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hansen, Martin N; Sommer, Sven G; Madsen, Niels P</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Ammonia (NH3) <span class="hlt">emission</span> from livestock production causes undesirable environmental effects and a loss of plant-available nitrogen. Much atmospheric NH3 is lost from livestock manure applied in the field. The NH3 <span class="hlt">emission</span> may be reduced by slurry injection, but slurry injection in general, and especially on grassland, increases the energy demand and places heavy demands on the slurry injection techniques used. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in NH3 <span class="hlt">emission</span>, injection efficiency, and energy demand of six different shallow slurry-injection techniques was examined. The NH3 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from cattle slurry applied to grassland was reduced by all the injectors tested in the study, but there were major differences in the NH3 <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential of the different types of injectors. Compared with the trailing hose spreading technique, the NH3 loss was reduced by 75% when cattle slurry was injected using the most efficient slurry injection technique, and by 20% when incorporated by the least efficient injection technique. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in NH3 <span class="hlt">emission</span> was correlated with injection depth and the volume of the slot created. The additional energy demand for reducing ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by slurry injection was approximately 13 000 kJ ha(-1) for a 20% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and 34 000 kJ ha(-1) for a 75% <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. The additional energy demand corresponds to additional <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of, respectively, 5.6 and 14.5 kg CO2 per ha injected. PMID:12809311</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3867670','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3867670"><span id="translatedtitle">A methodological survey of the analysis, reporting and interpretation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Risk <span class="hlt">ReductiOn</span> in systematic revieWs (ARROW): a study protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Clinicians, providers and guideline panels use <span class="hlt">absolute</span> effects to weigh the advantages and downsides of treatment alternatives. Relative measures have the potential to mislead readers. However, little is known about the reporting of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measures in systematic reviews. The objectives of our study are to determine the proportion of systematic reviews that report <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measures of effect for the most important outcomes, and ascertain how they are analyzed, reported and interpreted. Methods/design We will conduct a methodological survey of systematic reviews published in 2010. We will conduct a 1:1 stratified random sampling of Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane systematic reviews. We will calculate the proportion of systematic reviews reporting at least one <span class="hlt">absolute</span> estimate of effect for the most patient-important outcome for the comparison of interest. We will conduct multivariable logistic regression analyses with the reporting of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> estimate of effect as the dependent variable and pre-specified study characteristics as the independent variables. For systematic reviews reporting an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> estimate of effect, we will document the methods used for the analysis, reporting and interpretation of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> estimate. Discussion Our methodological survey will inform current practices regarding reporting of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> estimates in systematic reviews. Our findings may influence recommendations on reporting, conduct and interpretation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> estimates. Our results are likely to be of interest to systematic review authors, funding agencies, clinicians, guideline developers and journal editors. PMID:24330779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489071"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopy study of 3 cm wide planar radio frequency atmospheric pressure bio-plasma source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deng, Xiaolong; Nikiforov, Anton Yu Leys, Christophe; Ionita, Eusebiu-Rosini; Dinescu, Gheorghe</p> <p>2015-08-03</p> <p>The dynamics of low power atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge generated in Ar gas in long gap of 3 cm is investigated. This plasma source is characterized and analyzed for possible large scale biomedical applications where low gas temperature and potential-less effluent are required. The discharge forms a homogenous glow-like afterglow in ambient air at input power of 30 W with low gas temperature of 330 K, which is desirable in biomedical applications. With <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibrated spectroscopy of the discharge, electron density of 0.4 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and electron temperature of 1.5 eV are obtained from continuum Bremsstrahlung radiation of the source. Time and spatial resolved <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopy is used to analyze discharge generation mechanism and active species formation. It is found that discharge dynamics strongly correlates with the discharge current waveform. Strong Ar(2p) excited states <span class="hlt">emission</span> is observed nearby the electrodes surface on a distance up to 200 μm in the plasma sheath region at 10 ns after the current peak, whereas OH(A) <span class="hlt">emission</span> is uniform along of the interelectrode gap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744944"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from sewage sludge anaerobic digestion in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, H-T; Kong, X-J; Zheng, G-D; Chen, C-C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Sewage sludge is a considerable source of greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the field of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from sludge anaerobic digestion, including direct and indirect <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as well as replaceable <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> due to biogas being reused instead of natural gas, were quantified respectively. The results indicated that no GHG generation needed to be considered during the anaerobic digestion process. Indirect <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption on-site and sludge transportation. Overall, the total GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> owing to relative subtraction from anaerobic digestion rather than landfill, and replaceable GHG <span class="hlt">reduction</span> caused by reuse of its product of biogas, were quantified to be 0.7214 (northern China) or 0.7384 (southern China) MgCO2 MgWS(-1) (wet sludge). PMID:26744944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=greenhouse+AND+gas&pg=2&id=EJ853291','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=greenhouse+AND+gas&pg=2&id=EJ853291"><span id="translatedtitle">Institutionalizing a Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Target at Yale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rauch, Jason N.; Newman, Julie</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development and implementation of how a greenhouse gas GHG <span class="hlt">reduction</span> target at Yale University has resulted in broad and long-term institutional commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews are conducted with key individuals representing those most directly involved in developing and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=277016','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=277016"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of methods for methyl iodide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and pest control using a simulation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Various methods have been developed to reduce atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the agricultural use of highly volatile pesticides and mitigate their adverse environmental effects. The effectiveness of various methods on <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and pest control was assessed using simulation model in this study...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775019','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775019"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF INHERENT MERCURY <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> IN PC COMBUSTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going</p> <p>1999-08-06</p> <p>Mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the refinement of the rate constants used in the kinetic mechanism for mercury oxidation. The possible reactions leading to mercury oxidation are reviewed. Rate constants for these reactions are discussed, using both literature sources and detailed estimates. The resulting mechanism represents the best present picture of the overall chlorine homogeneous oxidation chemistry. Application of this mechanism to the data will be explored in the subsequent reporting period. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of two meeting papers presented during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1998a,b).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775018','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775018"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF INHERENT MERCURY <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> IN PC COMBUSTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going</p> <p>1999-08-06</p> <p>Mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> compliance is one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggests that inherent mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of the mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2} , followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the development and application of a kinetics model to the oxidation data developed in the present program and literature data under MSW conditions. The results indicate that the pathway Hg + Cl = HgCl followed by HgCl + HCl = HgCl{sub 2} + H predominates over Hg + Cl{sub 2} under high-temperature conditions. This primarily occurs because Cl{sub 2} concentrations are too low under the present conditions to contribute significantly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013NatGe...6..191A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013NatGe...6..191A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Predator-induced <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of freshwater carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atwood, Trisha B.; Hammill, Edd; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Srivastava, Diane S.; Richardson, John S.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Predators can influence the exchange of carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere by altering ecosystem processes such as decomposition and primary production, according to food web theory. Empirical knowledge of such an effect in freshwater systems is limited, but it has been suggested that predators in odd-numbered food chains suppress freshwater carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and predators in even-numbered food chains enhance <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Here, we report experiments in three-tier food chains in experimental ponds, streams and bromeliads in Canada and Costa Rica in the presence or absence of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and invertebrate (Hesperoperla pacifica and Mecistogaster modesta) predators. We monitored carbon dioxide fluxes along with prey and primary producer biomass. We found substantially reduced carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the presence of predators in all systems, despite differences in predator type, hydrology, climatic region, ecological zone and level of in situ primary production. We also observed lower amounts of prey biomass and higher amounts of algal and detrital biomass in the presence of predators. We conclude that predators have the potential to markedly influence carbon dioxide dynamics in freshwater systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468190','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468190"><span id="translatedtitle">Chloropicrin <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> by Soil Amendment with Biochar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its <span class="hlt">emissions</span> must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP <span class="hlt">emission</span>, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP <span class="hlt">emission</span> and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP’s bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP <span class="hlt">emission</span> losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g-1. There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26075904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26075904"><span id="translatedtitle">Chloropicrin <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> by Soil Amendment with Biochar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its <span class="hlt">emissions</span> must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP <span class="hlt">emission</span>, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP <span class="hlt">emission</span> and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP's bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP <span class="hlt">emission</span> losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g(-1). There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MAR.G1327P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MAR.G1327P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, Alfred, Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384056"><span id="translatedtitle">The determination of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity of 234mPa's 1001 keV gamma <span class="hlt">emission</span> using Monte Carlo simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Begy, Robert-Csaba; Cosma, Constantin; Timar, Alida; Fulea, Dan</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The 1001 keV gamma line of (234m)Pa became important in gamma spectrometric measurements of samples with (238)U content with the advent of development of HpGe detectors of great dimension and high efficiency. In this study the <span class="hlt">emission</span> probability of the 1001 keV (Y(gamma)) peak of (234m)Pa, was determined by gamma-ray spectrometric measurements performed on glass with Uranium content using Monte Carlo simulation code for efficiency calibration. This method of calculation was not applied for the values quoted in literature so far, at least to our knowledge. The measurements gave an average of 0.836 +/- 0.022%, a value that is in very good agreement to some of the recent results previously presented. PMID:19384056</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775020','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775020"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF INHERENT MERCURY <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> IN PC COMBUSTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going</p> <p>1999-08-06</p> <p>Mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on testing of the kinetic mechanism reported in the previous semiannual report, and the interpretation of data (both ours and literature). This model yields good qualitative agreement with the data and indicates that mercury oxidation occurs during the thermal quench of the combustion gases. The model also suggests that atomic chlorine is the key oxidizing species. The oxidation is limited to a temperature window between 700-400 C that is defined by the overlap of (1) a region of significant superequilibrium Cl concentration, and (2) a region where oxidized mercury is favored by equilibrium. Above 700 C reverse reactions effectively limit oxidized mercury concentrations. Below 400 C, atomic chlorine concentrations are too low to support further oxidation. The implication of these results are that homogeneous oxidation is governed primarily by (1) HCl concentration, (2) quench rate, and (3) background gas composition. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of one journal paper that was accepted for publication during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20082329','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20082329"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost analysis for compliance with EPA's regional NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for fossil-fired power generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, D.; Mann, A.; Ward, J.; Ramezan, M.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>To achieve a more stringent ambient-air ozone standard promulgated in 1997, the U.S. EPA has established summer NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> limits for fossil-fired electric power generating units in the Ozone Transport Rulemaking region, consisting of 22 eastern and midwestern states and the District of Columbia. These jurisdictions are required to submit State Implementation Plans by September 1999 in response to EPA's rule, with compliance required by 2007. There are 1757 affected units in this region. In the present study, projected state-by-state growth rates for power production are used to estimate power production and NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by unit in the year 2007. NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> expected by January 1, 2000 due to Title IV compliance are estimated, leaving a substantial balance of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> to be achieved by post-combustion NOx control. Cost estimates are developed for achieving these remaining <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770008095','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770008095"><span id="translatedtitle">Screening analysis and selection of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> concepts for intermittent combustion aircraft engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rezy, B. J.; Meyers, J. E.; Tucker, J. R.; Stuckas, S. J.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>An analysis was conducted to screen, evaluate, and select three engine exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> concepts from a group of 14 candidate alternatives. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to survey the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technology state-of-the-art and establish contact with firms working on intermittent combustion engine development and pollution <span class="hlt">reduction</span> problems. Concept development, advantages, disadvantages, and expected <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> responses are stated. A set of cost effectiveness criteria was developed, appraised for relative importance, and traded off against each concept so that its merit could be determined. A decision model was used to aid the evaluators in managing the criteria, making consistent judgements, calculating merit scores, and ranking the concepts. An Improved Fuel Injection System, Improved Cooling Combustion Chamber, and a Variable Timing Ignition System were recommended to NASA for approval and further concept development. An alternate concept, Air Injection, was also recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53H..07T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC53H..07T"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimated Impacts of <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> on Wheat and Maize Crops</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tebaldi, C.; Lobell, D. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>An ability to quantify the impacts associated with different <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenarios acrossa broad range of economic and environmental outcomes would be helpful for guidingpolicy on energy and greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. One outcome of particular interest,especially for food insecure populations, are effects on agricultural productivity. Inthis study we use empirical models of the relation between climate and CO2concentration on the one hand, and changes in crop yields on the other, tocharacterize the differential impacts on the future productivity of two major crops oftwo level of forcings: those associated with RCP4.5 and those associated withRCP8.5. This study is part of a larger project on the Benefits of ReducingAnthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE). We consider differential effects on maize andwheat yields at the global scale from expected changes in mean temperature andprecipitation under the two scenarios. We also characterize differential levels ofexposure to damaging heat extremes. Several time horizons are considered,characterizing expected impacts over the short, middle and long terms over the 21stcentury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/416351','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/416351"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy use, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and air pollution <span class="hlt">reduction</span> strategies in Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17711002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17711002"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by multipurpose buffer strips on arable fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sloots, K; van der Vlies, A W</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the area managed by Hollandse Delta, agriculture is under great pressure and the social awareness of the agricultural sector is increasing steadily. In recent years, a stand-still has been observed in water quality, in terms of agrochemicals, and concentrations even exceed the standard. To improve the waterquality a multi-purpose Field Margin Regulation was drafted for the Hoeksche Waard island in 2005. The regulation prescribes a crop-free strip, 3.5 m wide, alongside wet drainage ditches. The strip must be sown with mixtures of grasses, flowers or herbs. No crop protection chemicals or fertilizer may be used on the strips. A total length of approximately 200 km of buffer strip has now been laid. Besides reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, the buffer strips also stimulate natural pest control methods and encourage local tourism. Finally, the strips should lead to an improvement in the farmers' image. The regulation has proved to be successful. The buffer strips boosted both local tourism and the image of the agricultural sector. Above all, the strips provided a natural shield for <span class="hlt">emission</span> to surface water, which will lead to an improvement of the water quality and raise the farmers' awareness of water quality and the environment. PMID:17711002</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780024154','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780024154"><span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft gas turbine low-power <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technology program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dodds, W. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Bahr, D. W.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Advanced aircraft turbine engine combustor technology was used to reduce low-power <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons to levels significantly lower than those which were achieved with current technology. Three combustor design concepts, which were designated as the hot-wall liner concept, the recuperative-cooled liner concept, and the catalyst converter concept, were evaluated in a series of CF6-50 engine size 40 degree-sector combustor rig tests. Twenty-one configurations were tested at operating conditions spanning the design condition which was an inlet temperature and pressure of 422 K and 304 kPa, a reference velocity of 23 m/s and a fuel-air-ration of 10.5 g/kg. At the design condition typical of aircraft turbine engine ground idle operation, the best configurations of all three concepts met the stringent <span class="hlt">emission</span> goals which were 10, 1, and 4 g/kg for CO, HC, and Nox, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.101..209D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.101..209D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and urban ozone responses under more stringent US standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Downey, Nicole; Emery, Chris; Jung, Jaegun; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Hebert, Laura; Blewitt, Doug; Yarwood, Greg</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We use a photochemical grid model instrumented with the high-order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) to evaluate the response of ozone (O3) to <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in US-wide anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and to estimate <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> necessary to meet more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for O3. We simulate hourly O3 response to nationwide <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compound (VOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> throughout 2006 and compare O3 responses in 4 US cities: Los Angeles, Sacramento, St. Louis, and Philadelphia. We compare O3 responses between NOx-rich, O3-inhibited urban core sites and NOx-sensitive, higher O3 suburban sites and analyze projected O3 frequency distributions, which can be used to drive health effect models. We find that 2006 anthropogenic NOx and VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> must be reduced by 60-70% to reach annual 4th highest (H4) maximum daily 8-h (MDA8) O3 of 75 ppb (the current US standard) in Sacramento, St. Louis, and Philadelphia, and by 80-85% to reach an H4 MDA8 of 60 ppb. Los Angeles requires larger <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and achieves an H4 MDA8 of 75 ppb with 92% <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and 60 ppb with 97% <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. As <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are reduced, hourly and MDA8 frequency distributions tend toward mid-level background distributions. Mid-level O3 exposure is an important driver of O3 health impacts calculated by epidemiological models. A significant fraction (at least 48%) of summertime integrated MDA8 O3 at all sites remains after complete elimination of US anthropogenic NOx and VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, implying that mid-level O3 exposure due to background will become more important as domestic precursor <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are controlled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20222727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20222727"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the air pollutants <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 85%. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC <span class="hlt">reductions</span> came mainly from mobile source and fugitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. Based on the <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the <span class="hlt">emission</span> changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008. PMID:20222727</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7270018','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7270018"><span id="translatedtitle">In-home demonstration of the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of woodstove <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the use of densified logs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnett, S.G.; Bighouse, R.D.</p> <p>1992-07-07</p> <p>There is a need to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of 52% in PM grams per hour <span class="hlt">emissions</span> overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> percentage was similar for both types of stoves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178450','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178450"><span id="translatedtitle">In-Home Demonstration of the <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Woodstove <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from the Use of Densified Logs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnett, Stockton G.; Bidhouse, Roger D.</p> <p>1992-07-07</p> <p>There is a need to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of 52% in PM grams per hour <span class="hlt">emissions</span> overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> percentage was similar for both types of stoves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/97281','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/97281"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX <span class="hlt">reduction</span> provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, ``CAAA Case``. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program <span class="hlt">emission</span> projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories and with the <span class="hlt">emission</span> projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected <span class="hlt">emission</span> scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544914"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from marine diesels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L</p> <p>2009-05-15</p> <p>Diesel engine <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx <span class="hlt">reduction</span> capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1856420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1856420"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial perfusion at rest and during exercise with positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography after human cardiac transplantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krivokapich, J; Stevenson, L W; Kobashigawa, J; Huang, S C; Schelbert, H R</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The maximal exercise capacity of cardiac transplant recipients is reduced compared with that of normal subjects. To determine if this reduced exercise capacity is related to inadequate myocardial perfusion during exercise, myocardial perfusion was measured noninvasively with use of positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography and nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia. Twelve transplant recipients with no angiographic evidence of accelerated coronary atherosclerosis were studied. Serial N-13 ammonia imaging was performed at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. The results were compared with those from 10 normal volunteers with a low probability of having cardiac disease. A two-compartment kinetic model for estimating myocardial perfusion was applied to the data. Transplant recipients achieved a significant lower exercise work load than did the volunteers (42 +/- 16 vs. 128 +/- 22 W), but a higher venous lactate concentration (31.3 +/- 14.9 vs. 13.7 +/- 4.1 mg/100 ml). Despite the difference in exercise work load, there was no significant difference in the cardiac work achieved by transplant recipients and normal subjects as evidenced by similar rate-pressure products of 24,000 +/- 3,400 versus 21,300 +/- 2,800 betas/min per mm Hg, respectively. In addition, myocardial blood flow during exercise was not significantly different between the two groups (1.70 +/- 0.60 vs. 1.56 +/- 0.71 ml/min per g, respectively). This study demonstrates that the myocardial flow response to the physiologic stress of exercise is appropriate in transplant recipients and does not appear to explain the decreased exercise capacity in these patients. PMID:1856420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5392517"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> myocardial perfusion at rest and during exercise with positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography after human cardiac transplantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krivokapich, J.; Stevenson, L.W.; Kobashigawa, J.; Huang, S.C.; Schelbert, H.R. )</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The maximal exercise capacity of cardiac transplant recipients is reduced compared with that of normal subjects. To determine if this reduced exercise capacity is related to inadequate myocardial perfusion during exercise, myocardial perfusion was measured noninvasively with use of positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography and nitrogen (N)-13 ammonia. Twelve transplant recipients with no angiographic evidence of accelerated coronary atherosclerosis were studied. Serial N-13 ammonia imaging was performed at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. The results were compared with those from 10 normal volunteers with a low probability of having cardiac disease. A two-compartment kinetic model for estimating myocardial perfusion was applied to the data. Transplant recipients achieved a significant lower exercise work load than did the volunteers (42 {plus minus} 16 vs. 128 {plus minus} 22 W), but a higher venous lactate concentration (31.3 {plus minus} 14.9 vs. 13.7 {plus minus} 4.1 mg/100 ml). Despite the difference in exercise work load, there was no significant difference in the cardiac work achieved by transplant recipients and normal subjects as evidenced by similar rate-pressure products of 24,000 {plus minus} 3,400 versus 21,300 {plus minus} 2,800 betas/min per mm Hg, respectively. In addition, myocardial blood flow during exercise was not significantly different between the two groups (1.70 {plus minus} 0.60 vs. 1.56 {plus minus} 0.71 ml/min per g, respectively). This study demonstrates that the myocardial flow response to the physiologic stress of exercise is appropriate in transplant recipients and does not appear to explain the decreased exercise capacity in these patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310723&keyword=Scientific+AND+Method&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68582422&CFTOKEN=21235420','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310723&keyword=Scientific+AND+Method&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68582422&CFTOKEN=21235420"><span id="translatedtitle">A Method to Exchange Air Nitrogen <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> for Watershed Nitrogen Load <span class="hlt">Reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Presentation of the method developed for the Chesapeake Bay Program to estimate changes in nitrogen loading to Chesapeake due to changes in Bay State state-level nitrogen oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to support air-water trading by the Bay States. Type for SticsUnder AMAD Application QAPP, QA...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16..265V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16..265V"><span id="translatedtitle">The sensitivities of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for the mitigation of UK PM2.5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieno, M.; Heal, M. R.; Williams, M. L.; Carnell, E. J.; Nemitz, E.; Stedman, J. R.; Reis, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a key objective for air pollution control policies in the UK and elsewhere. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been identified as a major contributor to adverse human health effects in epidemiological studies and underpins ambient PM2.5 legislation. As a range of <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources and atmospheric chemistry transport processes contribute to PM2.5 concentrations, atmospheric chemistry transport models are an essential tool to assess <span class="hlt">emissions</span> control effectiveness. The EMEP4UK atmospheric chemistry transport model was used to investigate the impact of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in UK anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of primary PM2.5, NH3, NOx, SOx or non-methane VOC on surface concentrations of PM2.5 in the UK for a recent year (2010) and for a future current legislation <span class="hlt">emission</span> (CLE) scenario (2030). In general, the sensitivity to UK mitigation is rather small. A 30 % <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in UK <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of any one of the above components yields (for the 2010 simulation) a maximum <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in PM<i/>2.5 in any given location of ˜ 0.6 µg m-3 (equivalent to ˜ 6 % of the modelled PM2.5). On average across the UK, the sensitivity of PM2.5 concentrations to a 30 % <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in UK <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of individual contributing components, for both the 2010 and 2030 CLE baselines, increases in the order NMVOC, NOx, SO<i/>x, NH3 and primary PM2.5; however there are strong spatial differences in the PM2.5 sensitivities across the UK. Consequently, the sensitivity of PM2.5 to individual component <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> varies between area and population weighting. <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in NH3 have the greatest effect on area-weighted PM2.5. A full UK population weighting places greater emphasis on <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of primary PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which is simulated to be the most effective single-component control on PM2.5 for the 2030 scenario. An important conclusion is that weighting corresponding to the average exposure indicator metric (using data from the 45</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol33-sec1042-820.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol33-sec1042-820.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 1042.820 - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> standards and required <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for remanufactured engines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... under this subpart only if they have NOX <span class="hlt">emissions</span> equivalent to or less than baseline NOX levels and PM... certified for locomotive engines under 40 CFR part 1033 may be deemed to also meet the requirements of this... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Emission</span> standards and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol32-sec1042-820.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol32-sec1042-820.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 1042.820 - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> standards and required <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for remanufactured engines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... under this subpart only if they have NOX <span class="hlt">emissions</span> equivalent to or less than baseline NOX levels and PM... certified for locomotive engines under 40 CFR part 1033 may be deemed to also meet the requirements of this... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Emission</span> standards and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol34-sec1042-820.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol34-sec1042-820.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 1042.820 - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> standards and required <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for remanufactured engines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... under this subpart only if they have NOX <span class="hlt">emissions</span> equivalent to or less than baseline NOX levels and PM... certified for locomotive engines under 40 CFR part 1033 may be deemed to also meet the requirements of this... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Emission</span> standards and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19699584"><span id="translatedtitle">Hg2+ <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and re-<span class="hlt">emission</span> from simulated wet flue gas desulfurization liquors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wo, Jingjing; Zhang, Meng; Cheng, Xiaoya; Zhong, Xiaohang; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Xinhua</p> <p>2009-12-30</p> <p>In this study, considering that Hg(2+) in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems can easily be reduced and then released into atmosphere, causing secondary pollution, the researches about Hg(2+) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and Hg(0) re-<span class="hlt">emission</span> mechanism were carried out. The effects of several experimental parameters on the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> were studied, including initial pH, temperature, and concentrations of Cl(-) and S(IV). Our experimental results indicated that Cl(-) had a restraining effect on the Hg(2+) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and Hg(0) re-<span class="hlt">emission</span>, after 24h reaction, only 20.5% of Hg(2+) was reduced with 100mM Cl(-) in simulated desulfurization solution. Cl(-) can slow Hg(2+) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and Hg(0) re-<span class="hlt">emissions</span> dramatically through changing reaction mechanism, with formation of new intermediate: ClHgSO(3)(-), which can decompose to Hg(0), but much more slowly than Hg(SO(3))(2)(2-) or HgSO(3). Simulating the conditions of the practical application (initial pH 5, T=50 degrees C, S(IV)=5 mM, Cl(-)=100 mM), we also found that Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), F(-), etc. all had obvious effects on <span class="hlt">reduction</span> rates. Based on the material balance and characteristic of the reactants, the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> mechanism of Hg(2+) has been established, providing theoretical basis for industrial application of mercury control in wet FGD systems. PMID:19699584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338058"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> from thermal power plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prisyazhniuk, Vitaly A</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Major polluters of man's environment are thermal power stations (TPS) and power plants, which discharge into the atmosphere the basic product of carbon fuel combustion, CO2, which results in a build-up of the greenhouse effect and global warm-up of our planet's climate. This paper is intended to show that the way to attain environmental safety of the TPS and to abide by the decisions of the Kyoto Protocol lies in raising the efficiency of the heat power stations and reducing their fuel consumption by using nonconventional thermal cycles. Certain equations have been derived to define the quantitative interrelationship between the growth of efficiency of the TPS, decrease in fuel consumption and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of discharge of dust, fuel combustion gases, and heat into the environment. New ideas and new technological approaches that result in raising the efficiency of the TPS are briefly covered: magneto-hydrodynamic resonance, the Kalina cycle, and utilizing the ambient heat by using, as the working medium, low-boiling substances. PMID:16338058</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828939"><span id="translatedtitle">9th Diesel Engine <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> (DEER) Workshop 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kukla, P; Wright, J; Harris, G; Ball, A; Gu, F</p> <p>2003-08-24</p> <p>The PowerTrap{trademark} is a non-exhaust temperature dependent system that cannot become blocked and features a controlled regeneration process independent of the vehicle's drive cycle. The system has a low direct-current power source requirement available in both 12-volt and 24-volt configurations. The system is fully programmable, fully automated and includes Euro IV requirements of operation verification. The system has gained European component-type approval and has been tested with both on- road and off-road diesel fuel up to 2000 parts per million. The device is fail-safe: in the event of a device malfunction, it cannot affect the engine's performance. Accumulated mileage testing is in excess of 640,000 miles to date. Vehicles include London-type taxicabs (Euro 1 and 2), emergency service fire engines (Euro 1, 2, and 3), inner city buses, and light-duty locomotives. Independent test results by Shell Global Solutions have consistently demonstrated 85-99 percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of ultrafines across the 7-35 nanometer size range using a scanning mobility particle sizer with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and off-road high-sulfur fuel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IJTPE.127..201M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IJTPE.127..201M"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in CO2 <span class="hlt">Emission</span> by Biomass Power Generation with Thinning Residues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makino, Yosuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo</p> <p></p> <p>In Japan, forest thinning residues as woody biomass have potential to increase domestic primary energy supply, because there still remain many conifer plantations where thinning is not carried out. However, taking the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in carbon stock in forests into account, the additional thinning for energy supply may not contribute to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Considering the change in the carbon stock in forests, this paper discusses the potential of <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> by biomass power generation with thinning residues. As power generation systems with thinning residues, co-firing with coal in a utility's power station and a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with gasification system are taken into account. The results suggest that the co-firing of woody biomass supplied by the additional thinning at utilities' coal-fired power stations has a potential for reducing overall CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2706272','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2706272"><span id="translatedtitle">Sharing global CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> among one billion high emitters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We present a framework for allocating a global carbon <span class="hlt">reduction</span> target among nations, in which the concept of “common but differentiated responsibilities” refers to the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO2 distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and find corresponding limits on national aggregate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from this cap. All of the world's high CO2-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global <span class="hlt">emission</span> goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national <span class="hlt">reduction</span> targets, which are determined by “Business as Usual” projections of national carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2030 by 13 GtCO2 would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the world's lowest CO2 emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled. PMID:19581586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.A23A0762N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.A23A0762N"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional Attribution of Ozone Production and Associated Radiative Forcing: a Step to Crediting NOx <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naik, V.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L.; Schwarzkopf, D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Oppenheimer, M.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The global distribution of tropospheric ozone (O3) depends on the location of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of its precursors in addition to chemical and dynamical factors. The global picture of O3 forcing is, therefore, a sum of regional forcings arising from <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of precursors from different sources. The Kyoto Protocol does not include ozone as a greenhouse gas, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of ozone precursors made under Kyoto or any similar agreement would presently receive no credit. In this study, we quantitatively estimate the contribution of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of nitrogen oxides (NOx), the primary limiting O3 precursor in the non-urban atmosphere, from specific countries and regions of the world to global O3 concentration distributions. We then estimate radiative forcing resulting from the regional perturbations of NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This analysis is intended as an early step towards incorporating O3 into the Kyoto Protocol or any successor agreement. Under such a system countries could obtain credit for improvements in local air quality that result in <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of O3 concentrations because of the associated <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in radiative forcing. We use the global chemistry transport model, MOZART-2, to simulate the global O3 distribution for base year 1990 and perturbations to this distribution caused by a 10% percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in the base <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of NOx from the United States, Europe, East Asia, India, South America, and Africa. We calculate the radiative forcing for the simulated base and perturbed O3 distributions using the GFDL radiative transfer model. The difference between the radiative forcing from O3 for the base and perturbed distributions provides an estimate of the marginal radiative forcing from a region's <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of NOx. We will present a quantitative analysis of the magnitude, spatial, and temporal distribution of radiative forcing resulting from marginal changes in the NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from each region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780025159','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780025159"><span id="translatedtitle">Results and status of the NASA aircraft engine <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technology programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jones, R. E.; Diehl, L. A.; Petrash, D. A.; Grobman, J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The results of an aircraft engine <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> study are reviewed in detail. The capability of combustor concepts to produce significantly lower levels of exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> than present production combustors was evaluated. The development status of each combustor concept is discussed relative to its potential for implementation in aircraft engines. Also, the ability of these combustor concepts to achieve proposed NME and NCE EPA standards is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780018200','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780018200"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Several combustor concepts were designed and tested to demonstrate significant <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in aircraft engine idle pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant <span class="hlt">reductions</span>: the hot wall combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners; the recuperative cooling combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber; and the catalytic converter combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultralow levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770010151','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770010151"><span id="translatedtitle">Future development programs. [for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and production of aircraft engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Waters, L.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A company program was planned which has a main drive to develop those <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> concepts that have the promise of earliest success. These programs were proposed in an attempt to enhance existing engine systems, exploiting their potential for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> as far as is compatible with retaining the well established features in them that are well understood and in current production. The intended programs identified in the area of new concepts were: (1) upgrading the TCM fuel system, (2) evaluation of accelerator pump, (3) reduced cooling requirement, and (4) variable spark timing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780059637&hterms=Catalytic+converter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCatalytic%2Bconverter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780059637&hterms=Catalytic+converter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCatalytic%2Bconverter"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Three combustor concepts have been designed and tested to demonstrate significant <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in aircraft engine idle pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant <span class="hlt">reductions</span>: the Hot Wall Combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners, the Recuperative Cooling Combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber, and the Catalytic Converter Combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultra-low levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can be achieved with this technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1315105B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1315105B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in aircraft particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in soot <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were measured for both the pure FT fuels (<span class="hlt">reductions</span> of 84% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (64%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest <span class="hlt">reductions</span> at idle conditions. The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g. at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are expected for all alternative fuels with similar <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the feedstock. As the plume cools downwind of the engine, nucleation-mode aerosols form. For the pure FT fuels, <span class="hlt">reductions</span> (94% averaged over all powers) in downwind particle number <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were similar to those measured at the exhaust plane (84</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011154','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011154"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of NASA aircraft engine <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and upper atmosphere measurement programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rudey, R. A.; Lezberg, E. A.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Advanced <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> techniques for five existing aircraft gas turbine engines are evaluated. Progress made toward meeting the 1979 EPA standards in rig tests of combustors for the five engines is reported. Results of fundamental combustion studies suggest the possibility of a new generation of jet engine combustor technology that would reduce oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> far below levels currently demonstrated in the engine-related programs. The Global Air Sampling Program (GAS) is now in full operation and is providing data on constituent measurements of ozone and other minor upper-atmosphere species related to aircraft <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThEng..62...43R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThEng..62...43R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in nitrogen oxides <span class="hlt">emission</span> on TGME-464 boiler of IRU power plant (Estonia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roslyakov, P. V.; Ionkin, I. L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The possibility for realization of measures on a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in nitrogen oxides <span class="hlt">emission</span> on a TGME-464 (plant no. 2) boiler of the IRU power plant (Tallinn, Estonia) is investigated. Low-cost techno-logical measures, namely, nonstoichiometric burning and burning with the moderate controlled chemical underburning, are proposed and experimentally tested. Recommendations on the implementation of low-<span class="hlt">emission</span> modes of burning natural gas into mode diagrams of the boiler are given. Nitrogen oxides <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are reduced to the required level as a result of the implementation of the proposed measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411751G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411751G"><span id="translatedtitle">Air quality modelling : effects of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on concentrations of particulate matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girault, L.; Roustan, Y.; Seigneur, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has adverse effects on human health. PM acts primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular (due to their small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs), but they are also known effects on the skin. In France, the "Particulate Plan" - developed as part of the second National Environmental Health Plan - aims to reduce by 30% fine PM (noted PM2.5because these particles have an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) by 2015. A recent study by Airparif (the organization in charge of monitoring air quality in the Paris region, the Île-de-France) and LSCE (Laboratory of climate and the environmental science, France) has allowed, through a large measurement campaign conducted between 2009 and 2011, to quantify the proportion of PM produced in Île-de-France and those transported from the surrounding areas. The study by numerical modelling of air pollution presented here complements these results by investigating future <span class="hlt">emission</span> scenarios. The CEREA develops and uses an air quality model which simulates the concentrations of pollutants from an <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory, meteorological data and boundary conditions of the area studied. After an evaluation of simulation results for the year 2005, the model is used to assess the effects of various scenarios of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in NOx and NH3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on the concentrations of PM2.5in Île-de-France. The effects of the controls on the local pollution and the long-range pollution are considered separately. For each emitted species, three scenarios of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are identified: an <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> at the local level (Île-de-France), a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> at the regional scale (France) and a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> at the continental scale (across Europe). In each case, a 15% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is applied. The comparison of the results allows us to assess the respective contributions of local <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and long-range transport to PM2.5 concentrations. For instance, the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Europe leads to a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27337915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27337915"><span id="translatedtitle">[Effects of Eliminating Backward Production Capacities on <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Dioxin <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> in Key Industries].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geng, Jing; Lu, Yong-long; Ren, Bing-nan; Wang, Tie-yu</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Phase-out of backward production facilities can significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of unintentional persistent organic pollutants from the industrial thermal process. An estimation of reduced dioxin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to closure of backward production capacities is valuable to objectively evaluate China's efforts in and contribution to performing the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Our group previously evaluated environmental effects of the phase-out of backward production facilities on dioxin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 2006 to 2009. Based on the above study, due to the phase-out of backward production capacities from 2010 to 2013, the <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in dioxin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to air from power generation sector, coke sector, and iron & steel (including ferroalloy) sector were estimated to be 86.13, 133.94 and 78.78 g · a⁻¹, respectively. Because the <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors used in this paper are a little bit conservative, the actual reduced <span class="hlt">emissions</span> may be greater than the estimated values. Besides the industrial sectors mentioned above, reduced dioxin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can also be estimated in more industrial sectors such as cement, calcium carbide, metal smelting and papermaking sectors. The paper also provided methods for the future comprehensive evaluation of dioxin <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. PMID:27337915</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MPLB...2950148S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MPLB...2950148S"><span id="translatedtitle">Traffic accident and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> through intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, Jing; Tan, Jin-Hua</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Heavy fog weather can increase traffic accidents and lead to freeway closures which result in delays. This paper aims at exploring traffic accident and <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics in heavy fog, as well as freeway intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather. A driving simulator experiment is conducted for obtaining driving behaviors in heavy fog. By proposing a multi-cell cellular automaton (CA) model based on the experimental data, the role of intermittent release measures on the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of traffic accidents and CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is studied. The results show that, affected by heavy fog, when cellular occupancy ρ < 0.8, the probability of traffic accidents is much higher; and CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> increase significantly when ρ < 0.2. After an intermittent release measure is applied, the probability of traffic accidents and level of CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> become reasonable. Obviously, the measure can enhance traffic safety and reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4806840','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4806840"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span>, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span>, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative <span class="hlt">reduction</span> scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996–2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative <span class="hlt">reduction</span> are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27010658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27010658"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span>, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span>, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative <span class="hlt">reduction</span> scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative <span class="hlt">reduction</span> are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6523968','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6523968"><span id="translatedtitle">A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. ); Bradley, R.A. . Office of Environmental Analysis)</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-<span class="hlt">emission</span> fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging <span class="hlt">emission</span> source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, natural gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22974075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22974075"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse gas and criteria <span class="hlt">emission</span> benefits through <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of vessel speed at sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khan, M Yusuf; Agrawal, Harshit; Ranganathan, Sindhuja; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R</p> <p>2012-11-20</p> <p>Reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from ocean-going vessels (OGVs) as they sail near populated areas is a widely recognized goal, and Vessel Speed <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> (VSR) is one of several strategies that is being adopted by regulators and port authorities. The goal of this research was to measure the <span class="hlt">emission</span> benefits associated with greenhouse gas and criteria pollutants by operating OGVs at reduced speed. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> were measured from one Panamax and one post-Panamax class container vessels as their vessel speed was reduced from cruise to 15 knots or below. VSR to 12 knots yielded carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> (in kg/nautical mile (kg/nmi)) of approximately 61% and 56%, respectively, as compared to vessel cruise speed. The mass <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate (kg/nmi) of PM(2.5) was reduced by 69% with VSR to 12 knots alone and by ~97% when coupled with the use of the marine gas oil (MGO) with 0.00065% sulfur content. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> data from vessels while operating at sea are scarce and measurements from this research demonstrated that tidal current is a significant parameter affecting <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors (EFs) at lower engine loads. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> factors at ≤20% loads calculated by methodology adopted by regulatory agencies were found to underestimate PM(2.5) and NO(x) by 72% and 51%, respectively, when compared to EFs measured in this study. Total pollutant emitted (TPE) in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> control area (ECA) was calculated, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> benefits were estimated as the VSR zone increased from 24 to 200 nmi. TPE(CO2) and TPE(PM2.5) estimated for large container vessels showed benefits for CO(2) (2-26%) and PM(2.5) (4-57%) on reducing speeds from 15 to 12 knots, whereas TPE(CO2) and TPE(PM2.5) for small and medium container vessels were similar at 15 and 12 knots. PMID:22974075</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.9647C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.9647C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A decision support system for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> assessment: the OPERA LIFE+ project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carnevale, Claudio; Bianchessi, Nicola; Finzi, Giovanna; Pederzoli, Anna; Pisoni, Enrico; Volta, Marialuisa; Deserti, Marco; De Munari, Eriberto; Stortini, Michele; Veronesi, Paolo; Gianfreda, Roberta; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Blond, Nadege; Mark-Hummel, Lioba; Clappier, Alain; Perron, Gilles</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In last decades, air pollution modelling assumed a key role for the definition and evaluation of suitable <span class="hlt">emission</span> control strategies, supporting Regional Decision Makers in the design of long-term plans for air quality improvement. This is a complex task, due to the non-linear chemical reactions and physical processes that bring to secondary pollution formation and accumulation, involving precursor <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, namely VOC, NOx, NH3, primary PM and SO2. The problem is even more complex when constraining policy to a fixed budget. This paper presents the first results of the OPERA (Operational Procedure for <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Assessment) LIFE+ project (2010-2013, www.operatool.eu) aiming to design and to implement an enhanced approach to identify efficient regional policies (1) complying with National and EU air quality standards, (2) with local <span class="hlt">emission</span> and meteorological features, financial, technological and social constraints and (3) considering potential synergies with actions to reduce GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The proposed methodology is based on a multi-objective (air quality, internal and external costs) optimization problem. The decision variables are the technical and non-technical <span class="hlt">emission</span> abatement measures. Artificial neural networks, identified processing long-term 3D deterministic multi-phase modelling system simulation outputs, describe the nonlinear relations between the control variables (precursor <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>) and the air quality indexes (AQIs), defining the air quality objective. The internal costs are due to <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> measures implementation, while the external costs assess the damage due to population pollution exposure. The methodology has been implemented in a software tool (RIAT+) and tested on two regional applications, Emilia Romagna (IT) and Alsace (FR).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215028','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215028"><span id="translatedtitle">Transformative <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Transportation Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vimmerstedt, Laura; Brown, Austin; Newes, Emily; Markel, Tony; Schroeder, Alex; Zhang, Yimin; Chipman, Peter; Johnson, Shawn</p> <p>2015-04-30</p> <p>The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. Battery cost <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in petroleum use and greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, which are summarized in Table ES-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=73655&keyword=buy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64199043&CFTOKEN=37830791','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=73655&keyword=buy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64199043&CFTOKEN=37830791"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span>: PARTNERSHIP WITH CORNING AND SYRACUSE CHINA TO REDUCE LEAD RELEASE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study will utilize the voluntary initiative for source <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (VISR) approach. The targeted companies= processes will be reviewed in order to ascertain the steps associated with the greatest air pathway <span class="hlt">emission</span>. These two facilities were identified by the EPA OPPTS mo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38249&keyword=liquid+AND+natural+AND+gas&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61088289&CFTOKEN=94743688','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38249&keyword=liquid+AND+natural+AND+gas&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61088289&CFTOKEN=94743688"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF CO2 <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM MOBILE SOURCES BY ALTERNATIVE FUELS DERIVED FROM BIOMASS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The paper discusses process options for utilizing biomass to obtain greatest <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of carbon dioxide (CO2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from motor vehicles at least cost. (NOTE: The Energy Policy Act of 1992 seeks to displace 30% of the U.S. petroleum requirement by the year 2010 with an altern...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=138743&keyword=SCR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65339482&CFTOKEN=68805204','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=138743&keyword=SCR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65339482&CFTOKEN=68805204"><span id="translatedtitle">INVESTIGATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> IMPACT ON MERCURY SPECIATION UNDER SIMULATED NOX <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> CONTROL CONDITIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SCR) technology is being increasingly applied for controlling <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired boilers. Some recent field and pilot studies suggest that the operation of SCR could affect the chemical form of mercury in the coal com...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance of reports and registration of entity <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. 300.12 Section 300.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance of reports and registration of entity <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. 300.12 Section 300.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance of reports and registration of entity <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. 300.12 Section 300.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/952915','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/952915"><span id="translatedtitle">Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span>: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mccarl, Bruce A.; Schneider, Uwe; Murray, Brian; Williams, Jimmy; Sands, Ronald D.</p> <p>2001-05-14</p> <p>This paper examines the relative contribution of agricultural and forestry activities in an <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> program, focusing in part on the relative desirability of sequestration in forests and agricultural soils. The analysis considers the effects of competition for land and other resources between agricultural activities, forestry activities and traditional production. In addition, the paper examines the influence of saturation and volatility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305889"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from woody biomass waste for energy as an alternative to open burning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Woody biomass waste is generated throughout California from forest management, hazardous fuel <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and agricultural operations. Open pile burning in the vicinity of generation is frequently the only economic disposal option. A framework is developed to quantify air <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for projects that alternatively utilize biomass waste as fuel for energy production. A demonstration project was conducted involving the grinding and 97-km one-way transport of 6096 bone-dry metric tons (BDT) of mixed conifer forest slash in the Sierra Nevada foothills for use as fuel in a biomass power cogeneration facility. Compared with the traditional open pile burning method of disposal for the forest harvest slash, utilization of the slash for fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 98% (6 kg PM/BDT biomass), nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 54% (1.6 kg NOx/BDT), nonmethane volatile organics (NMOCs) by 99% (4.7 kg NMOCs/BDT), carbon monoxide (CO) by 97% (58 kg CO/BDT), and carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) by 17% (0.38 t CO2e/BDT). <span class="hlt">Emission</span> contributions from biomass processing and transport operations are negligible. CO2e benefits are dependent on the <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics of the displaced marginal electricity supply. Monetization of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> will assist with fuel sourcing activities and the conduct of biomass energy projects. PMID:21305889</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1071974','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1071974"><span id="translatedtitle">Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in Energy Consumption and GHG <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> (Brochure)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15006618','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15006618"><span id="translatedtitle">POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in risk that could be achieved through <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in coal plant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in human health risk that could be achieved through <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in coal plant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Three scenarios for reducing Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% <span class="hlt">reduction</span>; and, (3) A 90% <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. These <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were assumed to translate linearly into a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatCC...6..503S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatCC...6..503S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate and health impacts of US <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> consistent with 2 °C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shindell, Drew T.; Lee, Yunha; Faluvegi, Greg</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">emissions</span> trajectory for the US consistent with 2 °C warming would require marked societal changes, making it crucial to understand the associated benefits. Previous studies have examined technological potentials and implementation costs and public health benefits have been quantified for less-aggressive potential <span class="hlt">emissions-reduction</span> policies (for example, refs ,), but researchers have not yet fully explored the multiple benefits of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> consistent with 2 °C. We examine the impacts of such highly ambitious scenarios for clean energy and vehicles. US transportation <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> avoid ~0.03 °C global warming in 2030 (0.15 °C in 2100), whereas energy <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> avoid ~0.05-0.07 °C 2030 warming (~0.25 °C in 2100). Nationally, however, clean energy policies produce climate disbenefits including warmer summers (although these would be eliminated by the remote effects of similar policies if they were undertaken elsewhere). The policies also greatly reduce damaging ambient particulate matter and ozone. By 2030, clean energy policies could prevent ~175,000 premature deaths, with ~22,000 (11,000-96,000 95% confidence) fewer annually thereafter, whereas clean transportation could prevent ~120,000 premature deaths and ~14,000 (9,000-52,000) annually thereafter. Near-term national benefits are valued at ~US$250 billion (140 billion to 1,050 billion) per year, which is likely to exceed implementation costs. Including longer-term, worldwide climate impacts, benefits roughly quintuple, becoming ~5-10 times larger than estimated implementation costs. Achieving the benefits, however, would require both larger and broader <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> than those in current legislation or regulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717718"><span id="translatedtitle">[Energy Conservation and <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero <span class="hlt">emission</span>" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants <span class="hlt">emission</span> of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning. PMID:26717718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16573194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16573194"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of European national legislation efficiency on the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of air pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coutinho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Ferreira, Joana; Lopes, Myriam; Borrego, Carlos</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Since 1995, the Institute for Environment and Development in Portugal has obtained >300 stack samples from various point sources of Portuguese industries. A coherent database was made with the collected results. The limit values fixed by several European legal documents consulted, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, and Dutch <span class="hlt">emission</span> legislation, were applied to the Institute for Environment and Development stack sampling inventory (from 1995 to 2000) to evaluate the efficiency of these standards in promoting the control and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of atmospheric pollutants <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, especially regarding nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter. The conclusion was that the original Portuguese legislation was not restrictive enough and not very efficient regarding <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. In contrast, the Dutch and Italian legislations are quite restrictive but very efficient concerning <span class="hlt">emission</span> control for the three pollutants analyzed. One of the outcomes of this study was the publication of a new law in Portugal regulating the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of atmospheric pollutants. The strategy of this <span class="hlt">emissions</span> control law follows the conclusions found in this study including the concept of a mass flow threshold and different approaches depending on source dimension. PMID:16573194</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21036914','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21036914"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of atmospheric mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> measures relevant for application in Poland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hlawiczka, S.; Fudala, J.</p> <p>2008-03-15</p> <p>Fuel combustion for heat and power generation, together with cement production, were the most significant sources of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> in Poland in 2003, with 57 and 27% of Hg <span class="hlt">emission</span>, respectively. It was found that in Poland, Hg <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> measures need to be focused on the energy generation sector. Sorbent injection upstream of an electrostatic precipitator or fabric filter, mercury oxidation upstream of a wet or dry flue gas desulphurisation installation, together with Hg capture on sorbents, should be considered as priority in Polish conditions. This refers mainly to fuel combustion processes but also to the production of cement. For economic reasons it seems advisable that, apart from activated carbons as sorbents, application of zeolites obtained from power plant fly ash should also be considered. Application of primary methods seems to be very promising in Polish conditions, although they should be considered rather as an additional option apart from sorbent injection as the best option. Switching from coal to liquid and gaseous fuels shows the highest potential for reducing Hg <span class="hlt">emission</span>. For chlorine production using the mercury cell electrolysis method, strict monitoring of Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and good housekeeping of Hg releasing processes seems a promising approach, but the main activity should focus on changing mercury-based technologies into membrane cell methods. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> abatement potential for the atmospheric mercury in Poland has been roughly assessed, showing that in perspective of 2015, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> could be reduced to about 25% of the anthropogenic atmospheric Hg <span class="hlt">emission</span> in 2003.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511714I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511714I"><span id="translatedtitle">An Interfacial Europium Complex on SiO2 Nanoparticles: <span class="hlt">Reduction</span>-Induced Blue <span class="hlt">Emission</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishii, Ayumi; Hasegawa, Miki</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In this study, Eu-coated SiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared, consisting of an interfacial complex of Eu and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) at the solid surfaces of the SiO2/Eu nanostructures. The as-prepared SiO2/Eu/phen nanoparticles exhibits sharp red <span class="hlt">emission</span> via energy transfer from the phen to the EuIII. After sintering at 200 °C in air, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> is tuned from red to blue. The blue <span class="hlt">emission</span> is originated from EuII. This <span class="hlt">reduction</span>-induced <span class="hlt">emissive</span> phenomenon resulted from the electron-donating environment created by the surrounding phen and SiO2, which is the first reported fabrication of a stable EuII-based <span class="hlt">emissive</span> material using mild conditions (reaction in air and at low temperature) and an organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure. The existence of two different stable oxidation states with characteristic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, blue <span class="hlt">emissive</span> EuII and red <span class="hlt">emissive</span> EuIII, suggests significant potential applications as novel luminescent materials with inorganic-organic hybrid structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485170','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4485170"><span id="translatedtitle">An Interfacial Europium Complex on SiO2 Nanoparticles: <span class="hlt">Reduction</span>-Induced Blue <span class="hlt">Emission</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ishii, Ayumi; Hasegawa, Miki</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study, Eu-coated SiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared, consisting of an interfacial complex of Eu and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) at the solid surfaces of the SiO2/Eu nanostructures. The as-prepared SiO2/Eu/phen nanoparticles exhibits sharp red <span class="hlt">emission</span> via energy transfer from the phen to the EuIII. After sintering at 200 °C in air, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> is tuned from red to blue. The blue <span class="hlt">emission</span> is originated from EuII. This <span class="hlt">reduction</span>-induced <span class="hlt">emissive</span> phenomenon resulted from the electron-donating environment created by the surrounding phen and SiO2, which is the first reported fabrication of a stable EuII-based <span class="hlt">emissive</span> material using mild conditions (reaction in air and at low temperature) and an organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure. The existence of two different stable oxidation states with characteristic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, blue <span class="hlt">emissive</span> EuII and red <span class="hlt">emissive</span> EuIII, suggests significant potential applications as novel luminescent materials with inorganic-organic hybrid structures. PMID:26122318</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmEn..66...33L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmEn..66...33L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of methods for methyl iodide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and pest control using a simulation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, Lifang; Ashworth, Daniel J.; Šimunek, Jirka; Xuan, Richeng; Yates, Scott R.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The increasing registration of the fumigant methyl iodide within the USA has led to more concerns about its toxicity to workers and bystanders. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> mitigation strategies are needed to protect the public and environmental health while providing effective pest control. The effectiveness of various methods on <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and pest control was assessed using a process-based mathematical model in this study. Firstly, comparisons between the simulated and laboratory measured <span class="hlt">emission</span> fluxes and cumulative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were made for methyl iodide (MeI) under four <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> treatments: 1) control, 2) using soil with high organic matter content (HOM), 3) being covered by virtually impermeable film (VIF), and 4) irrigating soil surface following fumigation (Irrigation). Then the model was extended to simulate a broader range of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> strategies for MeI, including 5) being covered by high density polyethylene (HDPE), 6) increasing injection depth from 30 cm to 46 cm (Deep), 7) HDPE + Deep, 8) adding a reagent at soil surface (Reagent), 9) Reagent + Irrigation, and 10) Reagent + HDPE. Furthermore, the survivability of three types of soil-borne pests (citrus nematodes [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], barnyard seeds [Echinochloa crus-galli], fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]) was also estimated for each scenario. Overall, the trend of the measured <span class="hlt">emission</span> fluxes as well as total <span class="hlt">emission</span> were reasonably reproduced by the model for treatments 1 through 4. Based on the numerical simulation, the ranking of effectiveness in total <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> was VIF (82.4%) > Reagent + HDPE (73.2%) > Reagent + Irrigation (43.0%) > Reagent (23.5%) > Deep + HDPE (19.3%) > HOM (17.6%) > Deep (13.0%) > Irrigation (11.9%) > HDPE (5.8%). The order for pest control efficacy suggests, VIF had the highest pest control efficacy, followed by Deep + HDPE, Irrigation, Reagent + Irrigation, HDPE, Deep, Reagent + HDPE, Reagent, and HOM. Therefore, VIF is the optimal method disregarding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812541B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812541B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate and mortality changes due to <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in household cooking <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergman, Tommi; Mielonen, Tero; Arola, Antti; Kokkola, Harri</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Household cooking is a significant cause for health and environmental problems in the developing countries. There are more than 3 billion people who use biomass for fuel in cooking stoves in their daily life. These cooking stoves use inadequate ventilation and expose especially women and children to indoor smoke. To reduce problems of the biomass burning, India launched an initiative to provide affordable and clean energy solutions for the poorest households by providing clean next-generation cooking stoves. The improved cooking stoves are expected to improve outdoor air quality and to reduce the climate-active pollutants, thus simultaneously slowing the climate change. Previous research has shown that the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of black carbon can be decreased substantially, as much as 90 % by applying better technology in cooking stoves. We have implemented reasonable (50% decrease) and best case (90% decrease) scenarios of the <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in black and organic carbon due to improved cooking stoves in India into ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model. The global simulations of the scenarios will be used to study how the <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in India affect the pollutant concentrations and radiation. The simulated <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in particulate concentrations will also be used to estimate the decrease in mortality rates. Furthermore, we will study how the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> would affect the global climate and mortality if a similar initiative would be applied in other developing countries.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844402"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of cyclic adsorbed and desorbed NO(x) in diesel <span class="hlt">emission</span> using nonthermal plasma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuwahara, Takuya; Nakaguchi, Harunobu; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Considering the recent stringent regulations governing diesel NO(x) <span class="hlt">emission</span>, an aftertreatment system for the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of NO(x) in the exhaust gas has been proposed and studied. The proposed system is a hybrid method combining nonthermal plasma and NOx adsorbent. The system does not require precious metal catalysts or harmful chemicals such as urea and ammonia. In the present system, NO(x) in diesel <span class="hlt">emission</span> is treated by adsorption and desorption by adsorbent as well as nonthermal plasma <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. In addition, the remaining NO(x) in the adsorbent is desorbed again in the supplied air by residual heat. The desorbed NO(x) in air recirculates into the intake of the engine, and this process, i.e., exhaust gas components' recirculation (EGCR) achieves NO(x) <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. Alternate utilization of two adsorption chambers in the system can achieve high-efficiency NO(x) removal continuously. An experiment with a stationary diesel engine for electric power generation demonstrates an energy efficiency of 154 g(NO2)/kWh for NO(x) removal and continuous NO(x) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of 70.3%. Considering the regulation against diesel <span class="hlt">emission</span> in Japan, i.e., the new regulation to be imposed on vehicles of 3.5-7.5 ton since 2016, the present aftertreatment system fulfills the requirement with only 1.0% of engine power. PMID:26844402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300731','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300731"><span id="translatedtitle">MEASUREMENTS OF ABSORPTION, <span class="hlt">EMISSIVITY</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span>, AND LOCAL SUPPRESSION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chou, D.-Y.; Liang, Z.-C.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Sun, M.-T.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The power of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions is lower relative to the quiet Sun. Absorption, <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and local suppression of acoustic waves contribute to the observed power <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in magnetic regions. We propose a model for the energy budget of acoustic waves propagating through a sunspot in terms of the coefficients of absorption, <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, and local suppression of the sunspot. Using the property that the waves emitted along the wave path between two points have no correlation with the signal at the starting point, we can separate the effects of these three mechanisms. Applying this method to helioseismic data filtered with direction and phase-velocity filters, we measure the fraction of the contribution of each mechanism to the power deficit in the umbra of the leading sunspot of NOAA 9057. The contribution from absorption is 23.3 {+-} 1.3%, <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> 8.2 {+-} 1.4%, and local suppression 68.5 {+-} 1.5%, for a wave packet corresponding to a phase velocity of 6.98 x 10{sup -5} rad s{sup -1}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=196763','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=196763"><span id="translatedtitle">GREENHOUSE GAS <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF AEROBIC WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN SWINE FARMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> is an attractive approach to help producers implement cleaner treatment technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons. Our objectives were to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from implementation of aerobic technology in USA sw...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18284137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18284137"><span id="translatedtitle">Thiosulfate and manure amendment with water application and tarp on 1,3-dichloropropene <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McDonald, Jason A; Gao, Suduan; Qin, Ruijun; Trout, Thomas J; Hanson, Bradley D</p> <p>2008-01-15</p> <p>Reducing fumigant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is required for minimizing bystander risk and environmental impact. Effective and economic field management methods including commonly used surface sealing technique and soil amendments are needed for achieving <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. This research determined the effectiveness of ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) and composted manure amendments to surface soil in combination with water application or high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp on reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 1,3-D from soil columns. Surface treatments included an untreated control, water seal (single water application at time of fumigant injection), ATS amendments at 1:1 and 2:1 molar ratio of ATS:fumigant, composted steer manure at 3.5 kg m(-2), and HDPE tarp over 1:1 ATS or the manure amendment. Cumulative 1,3-D <span class="hlt">emission</span> loss over two weeks was greatest for the control (52% of applied). The HDPE tarp over ATS and manure treatments had the lowest 1,3-D <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at 24 and 16%, respectively. Treatments with ATS or manure alone reduced 1,3-D <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (29-39%) more effectively than water seal (43%) and further benefit was gained with the addition of HDPE tarp. Amendment of surface soil with organic materials shows greater potential in minimizing fumigant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> than with chemicals with the need for a better understanding of the organic-fumigant reaction mechanism. PMID:18284137</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1015866','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1015866"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mark Scotto</p> <p>2010-05-30</p> <p>Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The actual NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">reduction</span> that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technology, Selective Catalytic <span class="hlt">Reduction</span>. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030637','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1030637"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna</p> <p>2010-05-30</p> <p>Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The actual NOx <span class="hlt">reduction</span> that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technology, Selective Catalytic <span class="hlt">Reduction</span>. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMGC13A0693B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMGC13A0693B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> potentials of total energy consumption and GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Xiamen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bin, C.; Cui, S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Urban areas contain 40% of the population and contribute 75% of the Chinese national economy. The 35 largest cities in China, which contain 18% of the population, contribute 40% of China’s energy uses and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Therefore, an insight into energy consumption and quantification of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from urban areas are extremely important for identifying effects of energy-saving policies and finding solution to GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in urban centers. This paper applies the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system for modeling the total energy consumption and associated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Xiamen city. Energy consumption under different sets of policy and technology options are analyzed for a time span of 2007-2020 and GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are estimated. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of Xiamen city. The ‘Business as Usual’ scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. The ‘Integrated’ scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available <span class="hlt">reduction</span> measures such as clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control and new and renewable energy development and utilization are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Xiamen up to 2020 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials in the ‘Integrated’ scenario and the relative contribution rate of <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials of each measure have been estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PhDT........37B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PhDT........37B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in U.S. Cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blackhurst, Michael F.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">reduction</span> opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> given realistic financial constraints and authority over <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from communities. I identify improved and alternative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, help communities set meaningful <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG <span class="hlt">reductions</span> given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22258589','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22258589"><span id="translatedtitle">Breakdown voltage <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by field <span class="hlt">emission</span> in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal</p> <p>2014-03-24</p> <p>Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field <span class="hlt">emission</span> of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field <span class="hlt">emission</span> electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/816573','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/816573"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>Accurate and verifiable <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/510346','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/510346"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactive simulation and analysis of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> systems in commercial boilers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Diachin, D.; Freitag, L.; Heath, D.; Herzog, J.; Plassmann, P.; Michels, W.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>In this paper the authors describe an interactive virtual environment developed to model an <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> system for commercial boilers. The interactive environment is used to optimize the performance of the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> system through the spatial adjustment and spray reconfiguration of reagent injectors. They describe the three principal components of the system: a computational model for the particle dynamics, a three-dimensional display device and graphics environment, and the communication layer that allows the interaction of the user in the visualization environment with the computational model. Timing results for each component are given for three hardware configurations that demonstrate the real-time performance of this tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122...41C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122...41C"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on summertime aerosol feedbacks: A case study over the PO valley</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carnevale, C.; Finzi, G.; Pederzoli, A.; Turrini, E.; Volta, M.; Ferrari, F.; Gianfreda, R.; Maffeis, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study presents an evaluation of the impact by future pollutant anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on summertime aerosol feedbacks over the Po valley. The fully coupled on line model Wrf/Chem has been used to examine the air quality and meteorology response over the region to 2020 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> with respect to a simulation base case (2013). Future changes in net short wave radiation flux (SW) are also analyzed. The model domain is a 6 × 6 km2 resolution grid over Northern Italy; the simulation period covers two summer months (July-August). The work is divided into two parts. In the first, model results for the Base Case simulation (BC) are evaluated by comparing Wrf/Chem output to surface observations provided by two monitoring networks. Approximately 25 sites belonging to the regional ARPA Lombardia Network are used for both chemistry (NO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations) and meteorology (wind speed and 2-meters temperature) evaluation; 4 stations part of the global AEROsol Robotic Network (AERONET) are used for the evaluation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). In the second part, a Maximum Feasible <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> (MFR) scenario at 2020 have been simulated for the same months; monthly direct, indirect and overall aerosols feedbacks for both BC and MFR have been computed and analyzed. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in the MFR 2020 lead to a sensible change in the aerosol overall feedbacks for all variables; a drop of SW over the valley (cooling effect) is visible in both BC and MFR, but it is less significant in the MFR (-5 W m-2) compared to the BC (-45 W m-2). This difference is mainly due to the abatement of SO2 primary <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which leads to lower sulfates concentrations scattering radiation, thus mitigates the cooling effect and favors the warming. As SW is higher in the MFR, T2 also increases over land with respect to the BC (the cooling of -0.5 °C estimated in the Base Case almost disappears). The overall effects lead to an enhancement of PM10 concentration in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol7/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol7-part60-subpartOOOO-app2.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol7/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol7-part60-subpartOOOO-app2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Required Minimum SO2 <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Efficiency (Zc)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...) , rounded to one decimal place. R = The sulfur <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> efficiency achieved in percent, carried to... sweetening unit, expressed as mole percent H2S (dry basis) rounded to one decimal place. Z = The minimum...) H2S content of acid gas (Y), % Sulfur feed rate (X), LT/D 2.0 ≤ X ≤ 5.0 5.0 300.0 Y ≥ 50 74.0...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926546','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926546"><span id="translatedtitle">Dimension <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Multivariable Optical <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Spectrometer Datasets for Industrial Plasma Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A new data dimension-<span class="hlt">reduction</span> method, called Internal Information Redundancy <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> (IIRR), is proposed for application to Optical <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Spectroscopy (OES) datasets obtained from industrial plasma processes. For example in a semiconductor manufacturing environment, real-time spectral <span class="hlt">emission</span> data is potentially very useful for inferring information about critical process parameters such as wafer etch rates, however, the relationship between the spectral sensor data gathered over the duration of an etching process step and the target process output parameters is complex. OES sensor data has high dimensionality (fine wavelength resolution is required in spectral <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements in order to capture data on all chemical species involved in plasma reactions) and full spectrum samples are taken at frequent time points, so that dynamic process changes can be captured. To maximise the utility of the gathered dataset, it is essential that information redundancy is minimised, but with the important requirement that the resulting reduced dataset remains in a form that is amenable to direct interpretation of the physical process. To meet this requirement and to achieve a high <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in dimension with little information loss, the IIRR method proposed in this paper operates directly in the original variable space, identifying peak wavelength <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and the correlative relationships between them. A new statistic, Mean Determination Ratio (MDR), is proposed to quantify the information loss after dimension <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and the effectiveness of IIRR is demonstrated using an actual semiconductor manufacturing dataset. As an example of the application of IIRR in process monitoring/control, we also show how etch rates can be accurately predicted from IIRR dimension-reduced spectral data. PMID:24451453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212442','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212442"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem</p> <p>2011-05-11</p> <p>Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> because <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in standardized driving cycles are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14...11B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14...11B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in aircraft particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability, and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in soot <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were measured for both the pure FT fuels (<span class="hlt">reductions</span> in mass of 86% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (66%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest <span class="hlt">reductions</span> at idle conditions. At 7% power, this corresponds to a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> from 7.6 mg kg-1 for JP-8 to 1.2 mg kg-1 for the natural gas FT fuel. At full power, soot <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were reduced from 103 to 24 mg kg-1 (JP-8 and natural gas FT, respectively). The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g., at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the natural gas FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are expected for all alternative fuels with similar <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18350907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18350907"><span id="translatedtitle">Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of air pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of total PAH flue gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers. PMID:18350907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/401879','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/401879"><span id="translatedtitle">On the possibilities of <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in <span class="hlt">emission</span> caused by home tile stoves in Cracow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Szewczyk, W.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The coal-fired tile stoves are still very popular in Poland. The estimated total number of such home stoves operated in Cracow reaches ca. 100 000. Operation of these stoves during the heating season belongs to the most significant sources of air pollution. Type and scale of <span class="hlt">emission</span> of the most important pollutants, caused by coal combustion in home stoves in Cracow has been determined basing upon the investigations carried out at the laboratory of the Department of Power Engineering Machines and Devices, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow, Poland within the American-Polish Program of Elimination of Low <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Sources in Cracow. Further experiments included in this Program allowed to estimate the attainable efficiency of home tile stoves and possible <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> resulting from their operation. A short discussion of these data and capacities is presented in this lecture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/794282','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/794282"><span id="translatedtitle">DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span>'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all <span class="hlt">emissions</span> simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AtmEn.140..495S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AtmEn.140..495S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Black carbon and fine particle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Finnish residential wood combustion: <span class="hlt">Emission</span> projections, <span class="hlt">reduction</span> measures and the impact of combustion practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savolahti, Mikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Tissari, Jarkko; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Sippula, Olli; Jokiniemi, Jorma</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Residential wood combustion (RWC) is a major source of black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Finland. Making a robust assessment of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on a national level is a challenge due to the varying heater technologies and the effect of users' combustion practices. In this paper we present an update of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> calculation scheme for Finnish RWC, including technology-specific <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors based on national measurements. Furthermore, we introduce a transparent method to assess the impact of poor combustion practices on <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Using a Finnish <span class="hlt">emission</span> model, we assessed the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2000, 2010 and 2030, as well as the cost-efficiency of potential <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> measures. The results show that RWC is the biggest source of both PM2.5 and BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Finland, accounting for 37% and 55% of the total respective <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. It will also remain the biggest source in the future, and it's role may become even more pronounced if wood consumption continues to increase. Sauna stoves cause the most <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and also show the biggest potential for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. Informational campaigns targeted to improve heater users' combustion practices appear as a highly cost-efficient measure, although their impact on country-level <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was estimated to be relatively limited.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ERL....10k4015W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ERL....10k4015W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite measurements oversee China’s sulfur dioxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from coal-fired power plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Martin, Randall V.; Philip, Sajeev; Liu, Fei; Li, Meng; Jiang, Xujia; He, Kebin</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>To evaluate the real <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in sulfur dioxide (SO2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal-fired power plants in China, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) remote sensing SO2 columns were used to inversely model the SO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> burdens surrounding 26 isolated power plants before and after the effective operation of their flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facilities. An improved two-dimensional Gaussian fitting method was developed to estimate SO2 burdens under complex background conditions, by using the accurate local background columns and the customized fitting domains for each target source. The OMI-derived SO2 burdens before effective FGD operation were correlated well with the bottom-up <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates (R = 0.92), showing the reliability of the OMI-derived SO2 burdens as a linear indicator of the associated source strength. OMI observations indicated that the average lag time period between installation and effective operation of FGD facilities at these 26 power plants was around 2 years, and no FGD facilities have actually operated before the year 2008. The OMI estimated average SO2 removal equivalence (56.0%) was substantially lower than the official report (74.6%) for these 26 power plants. Therefore, it has been concluded that the real <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in China associated with the FGD facilities at coal-fired power plants were considerably diminished in the context of the current weak supervision measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1237922','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1237922"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of Vehicle Weight <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kelly, Jarod C.; Sullivan, John L.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad</p> <p>2015-10-20</p> <p>This study examines the vehicle-cycle impacts associated with substituting lightweight materials for those currently found in light-duty passenger vehicles. We determine part-based energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> ratios by collecting material substitution data from both the literature and automotive experts and evaluating that alongside known mass-based energy use and GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> ratios associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts, along with full vehicle systems, are examined for lightweighting via material substitution to observe the associated impact on GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Results are contextualized by additionally examining fuel-cycle GHG <span class="hlt">reductions</span> associated with mass <span class="hlt">reductions</span> relative to the baseline vehicle during the use phase and also determining material pair breakeven driving distances for GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The findings show that, while material substitution is useful in reducing vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs depending upon the material substitution pair. However, for a vehicle’s total life cycle, fuel economy benefits are greater than the increased burdens associated with the vehicle manufacturing cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. The vehicle cycle will become increasingly important in total vehicle life-cycle GHGs, since fuel-cycle GHGs will be gradually reduced as automakers ramp up vehicle efficiency to meet fuel economy standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatCC...6..162P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatCC...6..162P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of solid waste disposal rates and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> targets for landfill gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Powell, Jon T.; Townsend, Timothy G.; Zimmerman, Julie B.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Landfill disposal of municipal solid waste represents one of the largest anthropogenic global methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources, and recent policy approaches have targeted significant <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to combat climate change in the US (ref. ). The efficacy of active gas collection systems in the US was examined by analysing performance data, including fire occurrence, from more than 850 landfills. A generalized linear model showed that the operating status of a landfill--open and actively receiving waste or closed--was the most significant predictor of collection system performance. Gas collection systems at closed landfills were statistically significantly more efficient (p < 0.001) and on average 17 percentage points more efficient than those at open landfills, but open landfills were found to represent 91% of all landfill methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. These results demonstrate the clear need to target open landfills to achieve significant near-term methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. This observation is underscored by landfill disposal rates in the US significantly exceeding previously reported national estimates, with this study reporting 262 million tonnes in the year 2012 compared with 122 million tonnes in 2012 as estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25639120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25639120"><span id="translatedtitle">[Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> growth].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" <span class="hlt">emission</span> trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and <span class="hlt">emission</span>, not only for setting industry-specified intensity <span class="hlt">reduction</span> target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span>. The contributions of service industries to national carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry. PMID:25639120</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A54B..05W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A54B..05W"><span id="translatedtitle">Maximum Regional <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In the residential sector, major activities that generate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional <span class="hlt">emission</span> calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current <span class="hlt">emissions</span> within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> compared with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21719072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21719072"><span id="translatedtitle">Energetic valorization of wood waste: estimation of the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vanneste, J; Van Gerven, T; Vander Putten, E; Van der Bruggen, B; Helsen, L</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the potential CO(2) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> related to a partial switch from fossil fuel-based heat and electricity generation to renewable wood waste-based systems in Flanders. The results show that valorization in large-scale CHP (combined heat and power) systems and co-firing in coal plants have the largest CO(2) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> per TJ wood waste. However, at current co-firing rates of 10%, the CO(2) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> per GWh of electricity that can be achieved by co-firing in coal plants is five times lower than the CO(2) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> per GWh of large-scale CHP. Moreover, analysis of the effect of government support for co-firing of wood waste in coal-fired power plants on the marginal costs of electricity generation plants reveals that the effect of the European <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is effectively counterbalanced. This is due to the fact that biomass integrated gasification combined cycles (BIGCC) are not yet commercially available. An increase of the fraction of coal-based electricity in the total electricity generation from 8 to 10% at the expense of the fraction of gas-based electricity due to the government support for co-firing wood waste, would compensate entirely for the CO(2) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by substitution of coal by wood waste. This clearly illustrates the possibility of a 'rebound' effect on the CO(2) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> due to government support for co-combustion of wood waste in an electricity generation system with large installed capacity of coal- and gas-based power plants, such as the Belgian one. PMID:21719072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124321','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124321"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of green-house gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and landfill gas utilization between a landfill system and an incineration system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haibin Han; Jisheng Long; Shude Li; Guangren Qian</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Electricity generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">reductions</span> were researched by making comparisons between municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill and incineration systems with three different electricity generation efficiencies - 10%, 21%, and 24.7%. For MSW landfill systems, it is shown that the total electricity generation is 198,747 MWh, and the total GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is 1,386,081 tonne CO( 2) during a 21-year operation period. For incineration systems, the total electricity generation is 611,801 MWh, and the total GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is 1,339,158 tonne CO(2) during a 10-year operation period even if the electricity generation efficiency is only 10%. It is also shown that electricity generation increases quicker than the GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> with the increase of electricity generation efficiency. However, incineration systems show great superiority in LFG utilisation and GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. PMID:20124321</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ1000865','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ1000865"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value Meaningfully</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wade, Angela</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>What is the meaning of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value equations? <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24758145','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24758145"><span id="translatedtitle">Black carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in gasoline exhaust and a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto</p> <p>2014-05-20</p> <p>Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C). PMID:24758145</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AtmEn.134...96N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AtmEn.134...96N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling road dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Road dust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. These include speed <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share <span class="hlt">reductions</span> occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in studded tyre share together with a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed <span class="hlt">reduction</span> on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016HMT...tmp..135S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016HMT...tmp..135S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span>, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmEn..70..236Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AtmEn..70..236Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconciling NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and ozone trends in the U.S., 2002-2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Wei; Cohan, Daniel S.; Napelenok, Sergey L.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Dynamic evaluation seeks to assess the ability of photochemical models to replicate changes in air quality as <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and other conditions change. When a model fails to replicate an observed change, a key challenge is to discern whether the discrepancy is caused by errors in meteorological simulations, errors in <span class="hlt">emission</span> magnitudes and changes, or inaccurate responses of simulated pollutant concentrations to <span class="hlt">emission</span> changes. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is applied to simulate the ozone (O3) change after the NOx SIP Call and mobile <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls substantially reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the eastern U.S. from 2002 to 2006. For both modeled and observed O3, changes in episode average daily maximal 8-h O3 were highly correlated (R2 = 0.89) with changes in the 95th percentile, although the magnitudes of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> increased nonlinearly at high percentile O3 concentrations. Observed downward changes in mean NOx (-11.6 to -2.5 ppb) and 8-h O3 (-10.4 to -4.7 ppb) concentrations in metropolitan areas in the NOx SIP Call region were under-predicted by 31%-64% and 26%-66%, respectively. The under-predicted O3 improvements in the NOx SIP Call region could not be explained by adjusting for temperature biases in the meteorological input, or by considering uncertainties in the chemical reaction rate constants. However, the under-prediction in O3 improvements could be alleviated by 5%-31% by constraining NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in each year based on observed NOx concentrations. This demonstrates the crucial need to accurately characterize changes in precursor <span class="hlt">emissions</span> when dynamically evaluating a model's ability to simulate O3 responses to those changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25605880','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25605880"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation from Indonesia's moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C; Baccini, Alessandro</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>To reduce greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas ("concessions") for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17-127%, 44-129%, or 3.1-11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia's moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation over that decade would have been 241-615 MtCO2e (2.8-7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213-545 MtCO2e (2.5-6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30-7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95-19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of <span class="hlt">emissions</span>) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of <span class="hlt">emissions</span>). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed. PMID:25605880</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25780953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25780953"><span id="translatedtitle">Selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lehtoranta, Kati; Vesala, Hannu; Koponen, Päivi; Korhonen, Satu</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To meet stringent NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> limits, selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340 °C NOx <span class="hlt">reduction</span> was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which are a growing concern. PMID:25780953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HTMP...35..183Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HTMP...35..183Y"><span id="translatedtitle">EAF Gas Waste Heat Utilization and Discussion of the Energy Conservation and CO2 <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Ling-zhi; Zhu, Rong; Ma, Guo-hong</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>As a large number of energy was taken away by the high temperature furnace gas during the EAF smelting process, a huge economic and environmental benefits would obtained to recycle and utilize. In this paper, the energy of the EAF was analyzed theoretically with the hot metal ratio of 50%. Combined with the utilization of the gas waste heat during the scrap preheating, electricity generation, production of steam and production of coal gas processes, the effect of the energy saving and <span class="hlt">emission</span> was calculated with comprehensive utilization of the high temperature furnace gas. An optimal scheme for utilization of the waste heat was proposed based on the calculation. The results show that the best way for energy saving and carbon <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is the production of coal gas, while the optimal scheme for waste heat utilization is combined the production of coal gas with the scrap preheating, which will save 170 kWh/t of energy and decrease 57.88 kg/t of carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span>. As hot metal ratio in EAF steelmaking is often more than 50%, which will produce more EAF gas waste heat, optimizing EAF gas waste heat utilization will have more obvious effect on energy saving and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117117','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117117"><span id="translatedtitle">Verifiable <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in European urban areas with air-quality models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skouloudis, A N; Rickerby, D G</p> <p>2016-07-18</p> <p>The first and second AutoOil programmes were conducted since 1992 as a partnership between the European Commission and the automobile and oil industries. These have introduced <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in Europe based on numerical modelling for a target year. They aimed to identify the most cost-effective way to meet desired future air quality over the whole European Union. In their time, these regulatory efforts were considered an important step towards a new approach for establishing European <span class="hlt">emission</span> limits. With this work, we review the effectiveness of forecasts carried out with numerical modelling and compare these with the actual measurements at the target year, which was the year 2010. Based on these comparisons and new technological innovations these methodologies can incorporate new sectorial assessments for improving the accuracy of the modelling forecasts and for examining the representativeness of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, as well as for the simultaneous assessment of population exposure to cocktails of toxic substances under realistic climatological conditions. We also examined at the ten AutoOil domains the geographical generalisation of the forecasts for CO and NO2 at 1065 European urban areas on the basis of their population and the local population density. PMID:27117117</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25816113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25816113"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in inorganic fine particulate matter sensitivities to precursors due to large-scale US <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holt, Jareth; Selin, Noelle E; Solomon, Susan</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>We examined the impact of large US <span class="hlt">emissions</span> changes, similar to those estimated to have occurred between 2005 and 2012 (high and low <span class="hlt">emissions</span> cases, respectively), on inorganic PM2.5 sensitivities to further NOx, SO2, and NH3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> using the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Sensitivities to SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are larger year-round and across the US in the low <span class="hlt">emissions</span> case than the high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> case due to more aqueous-phase SO2 oxidation. Sensitivities to winter NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are larger in the low <span class="hlt">emissions</span> case, more than 2× those of the high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> case in parts of the northern Midwest. Sensitivities to NH3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are smaller (∼40%) in the low <span class="hlt">emissions</span> case, year-round, and across the US. Differences in NOx and NH3 sensitivities indicate an altered atmospheric acidity. Larger sensitivities to SO2 and NOx in the low <span class="hlt">emissions</span> case imply that reducing these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> may improve air quality more now than they would have in 2005; conversely, NH3 <span class="hlt">reductions</span> may not improve air quality as much as previously assumed. PMID:25816113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15504666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15504666"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy conservation and CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> due to recycling in Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pimenteira, C A P; Pereira, A S; Oliveira, L B; Rosa, L P; Reis, M M; Henriques, R M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The present paper aims to make the energy saving potential provided by waste recycling in Brazil evident by pointing out more specifically the benefits regarding climate change mitigation. In this case, based on the energy saved due to the recycling process of an exogenous amount of waste, we have built two scenarios in order to show the potential for indirectly avoiding CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the country as a result of the recycling process. According to the scenario, 1 Mt and 3.5 Mt of CO2, respectively, would be avoided per year due to solid waste recycling. The international context for greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol has been taken into account. PMID:15504666</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433749','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433749"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in air <span class="hlt">emissions</span> attainable through implementation of district heating and cooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bloomquist, R.G.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air <span class="hlt">emissions</span> associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air <span class="hlt">emissions</span> credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9l5007B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9l5007B"><span id="translatedtitle">Scenario analysis for nutrient <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in the European inland waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouraoui, F.; Thieu, V.; Grizzetti, B.; Britz, W.; Bidoglio, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Despite a large body of legislation, high nutrient loads are still emitted in European inland waters. In the present study we evaluate a set of alternative scenarios aiming at reducing nitrogen and phosphorus <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from anthropogenic activities to all European Seas. In particular, we tested the full implementation of the European Urban Waste Water Directive, which controls <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from point source. In addition, we associated the full implementation of this Directive with a ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents. Then we tested two human diet scenarios and their impacts on nutrient <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. We also developed a scenario based on an optimal use of organic manure. The impacts of all our scenarios were evaluated using a statistical model of nitrogen and phosphorus fate (GREEN) linked to an agro-economic model (CAPRI). We show that the ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents coupled with the full implementation of the Urban Waste Water Directive is the most effective approach for reducing phosphorus <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from human based activities. Concerning nitrogen, the highest <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are obtained with the optimized use of organic manure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733461','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733461"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from domestic anaerobic digesters linked with sustainable sanitation in rural China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DHINGRA, RADHIKA; CHRISTENSEN, ERICK R.; LIU, YANG; ZHONG, BO; WU, CHANG-FU; YOST, MICHAEL G.; REMAIS, JUSTIN V.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Anaerobic digesters provide clean, renewable energy (biogas) by converting organic waste to methane, and are a key part of China's comprehensive rural energy plan. Here, experimental and modeling results are used to quantify the net greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> from substituting a household anaerobic digester for traditional energy sources in Sichuan, China. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and radial plume mapping were used to estimate the mass flux of fugitive methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from active digesters. Using household energy budgets, the net improvement in GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> associated with biogas installation was estimated using global warming commitment (GWC) as a consolidated measure of the warming effects of GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from cooking. In all scenarios biogas households had lower GWC than non-biogas households, by as much as 54%. Even biogas households with methane leakage exhibited lower GWC than non-biogas households, by as much as 48%. Based only on the averted GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over 10 years, the monetary value of a biogas installation was conservatively estimated at US$28.30 ($16.07 ton−1 CO2-eq.), which is available to partly offset construction costs. The interaction of biogas installation programs with policies supporting improved stoves, renewable harvesting of biomass, and energy interventions with substantial health co-benefits, are discussed. PMID:21348471</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21348471','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21348471"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from domestic anaerobic digesters linked with sustainable sanitation in rural China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dhingra, Radhika; Christensen, Erick R; Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Chang-Fu; Yost, Michael G; Remais, Justin V</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Anaerobic digesters provide clean, renewable energy (biogas) by converting organic waste to methane, and are a key part of China's comprehensive rural energy plan. Here, experimental and modeling results are used to quantify the net greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">reduction</span> from substituting a household anaerobic digester for traditional energy sources in Sichuan, China. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and radial plume mapping were used to estimate the mass flux of fugitive methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from active digesters. Using household energy budgets, the net improvement in GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> associated with biogas installation was estimated using global warming commitment (GWC) as a consolidated measure of the warming effects of GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from cooking. In all scenarios biogas households had lower GWC than nonbiogas households, by as much as 54%. Even biogas households with methane leakage exhibited lower GWC than nonbiogas households, by as much as 48%. Based only on the averted GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over 10 years, the monetary value of a biogas installation was conservatively estimated at US$28.30 ($16.07 ton(-1) CO(2)-eq), which is available to partly offset construction costs. The interaction of biogas installation programs with policies supporting improved stoves, renewable harvesting of biomass, and energy interventions with substantial health cobenefits are discussed. PMID:21348471</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21233730','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21233730"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of additives on the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during pulverized coal combustion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yoshihiko Ninomiya; Qunying Wang; Shuyin Xu; Katsuharu Mizuno; Isao Awaya</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Two bituminous coals used in coal-fired power plants were mixed with either Ca- or Mg-based chemical additives. Coals and the mixtures were burnt in a laboratory-scale drop tube furnace, respectively. The impact of the additives on the transformations of coal minerals, as well as on the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 {mu}m (PM2.5), was investigated. The generated ash particles were collected using a cyclone combined with a low-pressure impactor. The physical and chemical properties of these ash particles were analyzed. The results indicate that the addition of chemical additives can affect the mineral transformation process, and thus, control the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of PM2.5 and PM1 during combustion. In particular, additives have a considerable impact on the particle size distribution and chemical composition of PM, wherein it improves the degree of coalescence of submicron and fine mineral particles, which reduces PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The effects of additive on the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> depend on the type of coals being used. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..35.8811T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..35.8811T"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of future climate change and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on nitrogen and sulfur deposition over the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Woo, Jung-Hun; He, Shan; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Potential impacts of global climate change and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on the total nitrogen and sulfur deposition over the US are investigated. Three future years' annual average deposition rates (i.e., 2049-2051) are compared with historic ones (i.e., 2000-2002) accounting for existing US and individual State's <span class="hlt">emission</span> regulations and strategies. Impacts of global climate change alone on regional nitrogen and sulfur deposition are small compared to impacts from <span class="hlt">emission</span> control-related <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for the projections used in this study. The combined effect of climate change and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> is a decrease in the annual average nitrogen and sulfur deposition over the US. Reduced nitrogen species dominate oxidized nitrogen deposition in the future. Spatial distribution plots for both components show lower deposition rates in the future mainly in the middle and eastern States where <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in NOx and SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are more pronounced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266019"><span id="translatedtitle">[The response of forest ecosystems to <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in industrial atmospheric <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the Kola Subarctic].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koptsik, G N; Koptsik, S V; Smirnova, I E; Kudryavtseva, A D; Turbabina, K A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In spite of <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in atmospheric <span class="hlt">emission</span>, current state of forest ecosystems within the impact zone of Severonickel enterprise still reflects the entire spectrum of anthropogenic digression stages. As the distance to the enterprise grows shorter, structural-functional changes in forest communities are manifested in dropping out of mosses and lichens, replacement of undershrub by Poaceae, worsening of timber stand and undergrowth conditions and their progressive dying-off, and, as a result, in forming of anthropogenic wastelands. Alterations of elemental composition of fir bark and needles due to exposure to pollutants consist in accumulation of nickel, copper, cobalt, arsenic, and sulfur along with depletion of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. According to the data obtained by correlation and multiparameter analyses, the accumulation of heavy metals in fir organs is closely related to the increasing of their concentration in root-inhabited soil layers as the distance to the pollution source is getting shorter. By comparison with the background fir grove, concentration of available compounds of nickel and copper in the ground litter of open fir-birch woodland near the enterprise increases by the factor of 30-60, reaching up 280 and 130 mg/kg respectively. With the increasing of anthropogenic stress, the ground litter becomes depleted of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and zinc. For the first time, the coupled dynamics of vegetation and soil state in fir forests as a response to <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in atmospheric <span class="hlt">emission</span> is tracked back. The most distinguishable response to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> appears to be the development of small-leaved plants' young growth within the impact zone. For the last decade, concentration of nickel in fir needles and in ground litter has reduced by the factor of 1.2-2. As for copper, its concentration in needles has reduced by the factor of 2-4, though in ground litter remains the same. By comparison with the period of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26252876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26252876"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in Belgrade area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated <span class="hlt">reduction</span> was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required <span class="hlt">reduction</span> obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern. PMID:26252876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20739121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20739121"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of VOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> from natural flours filled biodegradable bio-composites for automobile interior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ki-Wook; Lee, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Yun, Ju-Ho; Yoo, Seung-Eul; Sohn, Jong Ryeul</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Various experiments, such as the thermal extract (TE) method, field and <span class="hlt">emission</span> cell (FLEC) method and 20 L small chamber, were performed to examine the total volatile organic compound (TVOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from bio-composites. The TVOC of neat poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was ranged from 0.26 mg/m(2)h to 4.11 mg/m(2)h with increasing temperature. For both PLA bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour, the temperature increased from 0.30 mg/m(2)h to 3.72 mg/m(2)h and from 0.19 mg/m(2)h to 8.74 mg/m(2)h, respectively. The TVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of all samples increased gradually with increasing temperature. Above 70°C, both PLA-P and PLA-C composites had higher TVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors than neat PLA due to the rapid <span class="hlt">emission</span> of natural volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as furfural (2-furancarboxyaldehyde). PLA composites containing 30 wt% flour had high 1,4-dioxane <span class="hlt">reduction</span> ability, >50%. The TVOC of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was emitted rapidly from 50 °C to 90 °C due to succinic acid from the pyrolysis of PBS. The TVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of PLA bio-composite and PBS bio-composites were reduced using the bake-out method (temperature at 70 °C and baking time 5h). The initial TVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of the PLA and PBS bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour were reduced by the baking treatment using FLEC. The TVOC factors from PLA and PBS decreased until 5 days and were commonly maintained a relatively constant value after 5 days using 20L small chamber. The decrease in TVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> showed a similar trend to that of the TE and FLEC method. This method confirmed the beneficial effect of the baking treatment effect for polypropylene and linear density polyethylene (LDPE). PMID:20739121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........37B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........37B"><span id="translatedtitle">Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in U.S. Cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blackhurst, Michael F.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">reduction</span> opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> given realistic financial constraints and authority over <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from communities. I identify improved and alternative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, help communities set meaningful <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG <span class="hlt">reductions</span> given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol12-sec63-1427.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol12-sec63-1427.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.1427 - Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technique. 63.1427 Section 63.1427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=241164','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=241164"><span id="translatedtitle">ALTERNATIVES TO METHYL BROMIDE STUDIES IN GAINESVILLE 2001-2008: SUMMARY OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> STUDIES OF PRE-PLANT SOIL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of pre-plant soil fumigants is important because EPA is proposing untreated buffer zones around fields for injection applications of current fumigants. Credits will be given to proven <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> practices that would decrease the downwind off-site concentrations of fumiga...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238667','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238667"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternatives to Methyl bromide studies in Gainesville 2001-2008: Summary of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> studies of pre-plant soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of pre-plant soil fumigants is important because EPA is proposing untreated buffer zones around fields for injection applications of current fumigants. Credits will be given to proven <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> practices that would decrease the downwind off-site concentrations of fumiga...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol12-sec63-1427.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol12-sec63-1427.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.1427 - Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process vent requirements for processes using extended cookout as an epoxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technique. 63.1427 Section 63.1427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003649.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003649.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Eosinophil count - <span class="hlt">absolute</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eosinophils; <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26318225"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric impacts of black carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> through the strategic use of biodiesel in California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hongliang; Magara-Gomez, Kento T; Olson, Michael R; Okuda, Tomoaki; Walz, Kenneth A; Schauer, James J; Kleeman, Michael J</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>The use of biodiesel as a replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel has gained interest as a strategy for greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, energy security, and economic advantage. Biodiesel adoption may also reduce particulate elemental carbon (EC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from conventional diesel engines that are not equipped with after-treatment devices. This study examines the impact of biodiesel blends on EC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a commercial off-road diesel engine and simulates the potential public health benefits and climate benefits. EC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the commercial off-road engine decreased by 76% when ultra-low sulfur commercial diesel (ULSD) fuel was replaced by biodiesel. Model calculations predict that reduced EC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> translate directly into reduced EC concentrations in the atmosphere, but the concentration of secondary particulate matter was not directly affected by this fuel change. Redistribution of secondary particulate matter components to particles emitted from other sources did change the size distribution and therefore deposition rates of those components. Modification of meteorological variables such as water content and temperature influenced secondary particulate matter formation. Simulations with a source-oriented WRF/Chem model (SOWC) for a severe air pollution episode in California that adopted 75% biodiesel blended with ULSD in all non-road diesel engines reduced surface EC concentrations by up to 50% but changed nitrate and total PM2.5 mass concentrations by less than ±5%. These changes in concentrations will have public health benefits but did not significantly affect radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. The removal of EC due to the adoption of biodiesel produced larger coatings of secondary particulate matter on other atmospheric particles containing residual EC leading to enhanced absorption associated with those particles. The net effect was a minor change in atmospheric optical properties despite a large change in atmospheric EC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26393414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26393414"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of Vehicle Weight <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad</p> <p>2015-10-20</p> <p>This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from lightweighting. The fuel <span class="hlt">reduction</span> value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV. PMID:26393414</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4758222','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4758222"><span id="translatedtitle">“APEC Blue”: Secondary Aerosol <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> from <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Controls in Beijing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>China implemented strict <span class="hlt">emission</span> control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls. Our results show consistently large <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61–67% and 51–57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2–3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as “APEC Blue”. We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution. PMID:26891104</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...620668S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...620668S"><span id="translatedtitle">“APEC Blue”: Secondary Aerosol <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> from <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Controls in Beijing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>China implemented strict <span class="hlt">emission</span> control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls. Our results show consistently large <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61-67% and 51-57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2-3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as “APEC Blue”. We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...30W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp...30W"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of future <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in aerosol <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on climate extremes in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhili; Lin, Lei; Yang, Meilin; Xu, Yangyang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the effect of reduced aerosol <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on projected temperature and precipitation extremes in China during 2031-2050 and 2081-2100 relative to present-day conditions using the daily data output from the Community Earth System Model ensemble simulations under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 with an applied aerosol <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and RCP8.5 with fixed 2005 aerosol <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (RCP8.5_FixA) scenarios. The reduced aerosol <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of RCP8.5 magnify the warming effect due to greenhouse gases (GHG) and lead to significant increases in temperature extremes, such as the maximum of daily maximum temperature (TXx), minimum of daily minimum temperature (TNn), and tropical nights (TR), and precipitation extremes, such as the maximum 5-day precipitation amount, number of heavy precipitation days, and annual total precipitation from days ˃95th percentile, in China. The projected TXx, TNn, and TR averaged over China increase by 1.2 ± 0.2 °C (4.4 ± 0.2 °C), 1.3 ± 0.2 °C (4.8 ± 0.2 °C), and 8.2 ± 1.2 (30.9 ± 1.4) days, respectively, during 2031-2050 (2081-2100) under the RCP8.5_FixA scenario, whereas the corresponding values are 1.6 ± 0.1 °C (5.3 ± 0.2 °C), 1.8 ± 0.2 °C (5.6 ± 0.2 °C), and 11.9 ± 0.9 (38.4 ± 1.0) days under the RCP8.5 scenario. Nationally averaged increases in all of those extreme precipitation indices above due to the aerosol <span class="hlt">reduction</span> account for more than 30 % of the extreme precipitation increases under the RCP8.5 scenario. Moreover, the aerosol <span class="hlt">reduction</span> leads to decreases in frost days and consecutive dry days averaged over China. There are great regional differences in changes of climate extremes caused by the aerosol <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. When normalized by global mean surface temperature changes, aerosols have larger effects on temperature and precipitation extremes over China than GHG.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21608496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21608496"><span id="translatedtitle">Photochemical modeling in California with two chemical mechanisms: model intercomparison and response to <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Chenxia; Kelly, James T; Avise, Jeremy C; Kaduwela, Ajith P; Stockwell, William R</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>An updated version of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC) chemical mechanism (SAPRC07C) was implemented into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.6. CMAQ simulations using SAPRC07C and the previously released version, SAPRC99, were performed and compared for an episode during July-August, 2000. Ozone (O3) predictions of the SAPRC07C simulation are generally lower than those of the SAPRC99 simulation in the key areas of central and southern California, especially in areas where modeled concentrations are greater than the federal 8-hr O3 standard of 75 parts per billion (ppb) and/or when the volatile organic compound (VOC)/nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratio is less than 13. The relative changes of ozone production efficiency (OPE) against the VOC/NOx ratio at 46 sites indicate that the OPE is reduced in SAPRC07C compared with SAPRC99 at most sites by as much as approximately 22%. The SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C mechanisms respond similarly to 20% <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in anthropogenic VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The response of the mechanisms to 20% NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> can be grouped into three cases. In case 1, in which both mechanisms show a decrease in daily maximum 8-hr O3 concentration with decreasing NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, the O3 decrease in SAPRC07C is smaller. In case 2, in which both mechanisms show an increase in O3 with decreasing NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, the O3 increase is larger in SAPRC07C. In case 3, SAPRC07C simulates an increase in O3 in response to reduced NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> whereas SAPRC99 simulates a decrease in O3 for the same region. As a result, the areas where NOx controls would be disbeneficial are spatially expanded in SAPRC07C. Although the results presented here are valuable for understanding differences in predictions and model response for SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C, the study did not evaluate the impact of mechanism differences in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guidance for using numerical models in demonstrating air quality attainment</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19645270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19645270"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-world energy use and <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates for idling long-haul trucks and selected idle <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technologies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>Long-haul freight trucks typically idle for 2000 or more hours per year, motivating interest in reducing idle fuel use and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Fuel-use rates are estimated based on electronic control unit (ECU) data for truck engines and measurements for APU engines. Engine <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors were measured using a portable <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurement system. Indirect <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from SP were based on average utility grid <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors. Base engine fuel use and APU and SP electrical load were analyzed for 20 trucks monitored for more than 1 yr during 2.76 million mi of activity within 42 U.S. states. The average base engine fuel use varied from 0.46 to 0.65 gal/hr. The average APU fuel use varied from 0.24 to 0.41 gal/hr. Fuel-use rates are typically lowest in mild weather, highest in hot or cold weather, and depend on engine speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]). Compared with the base engine, APU fuel use and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are lower by 36-47%. Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are lower by 80-90%. <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> vary from approximately 10 to over 50%. SP leads to more substantial <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, except for SO2. The actual achievable <span class="hlt">reductions</span> will be lower because only a fraction of base engine usage will be replaced by APUs, SP, or both. Recommendations are made for reducing base engine fuel use and <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, accounting for variability in fuel use and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, and further work to quantify real-world avoided fuel use and <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. PMID:19645270</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhDT.......124K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhDT.......124K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The Production, Value, and <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Responsibility of Carbon <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> through Electricity Consumption of Manufacturing Industries in South Korea and Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kitikun, Medhawin</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation provides a new method of measuring efforts by manufacturing industries to reduce their <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by curtailing electricity consumption. Employing comprehensive firm-level data from the National Manufacture Annual Surveys of South Korea and Thailand, I construct the measure from estimates of revenue functions by industry. The data consists of firms from more than 20 industries in each year from 1982 to 2005 for Korea and from 2001 to 2008 for Thailand. With a total of more than two million observations, I estimate revenue functions for each industry and year. Here, I use three inputs: number of employees(L), fixed asset stock(K), and electricity consumption(E) and two types of functional forms to represent each industry's revenue function. Second, under market competitive condition, I find that profit maximizing firms deviated their level of electricity usage in production from the profit-maximizing level during the time period for both countries, and I develop a theoretical framework to explain this behavior. Then, I tested the theory using my empirical models. Results support the notion of a hidden environmental value expressed by firms in the form of voluntary deviations from profit-maximizing levels of input demand. The measure used is the gap between the marginal revenue product of electricity and its price. This gap should increase with income, consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve literature. My current model provides considerable support for this proposition. Estimates indicate, in most industries, a negative relationship between per-capita income and <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In the final section of the dissertation, I consider the equitable distribution of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> burden under an international agreement such as the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> effort, Kyoto Protocol. Both developed and developing countries have to cut their <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to a specific <span class="hlt">reduction</span> percentage target. Domestically, I present two extreme scenarios. In the first scenario</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26574082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26574082"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials of primary air pollutants from residential solid fuel combustion by adopting cleaner fuels in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Guofeng</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Residential low efficient fuel burning is a major source of many air pollutants produced during incomplete combustions, and household air pollution has been identified as one of the top environmental risk factors. Here we compiled literature-reported <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSPs), PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different household energy sources, and quantified the potential for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by clean fuel adoption. The burning of crop straws, firewood and coal chunks in residential stoves had high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per unit fuel mass but lower thermal efficiencies, resulting in high levels of pollution <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per unit of useful energy, whereas pelletized biofuels and coal briquettes had lower pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and higher thermal efficiencies. Briquetting coal may lead to 82%-88% CO, 74%-99% TSP, 73%-76% PM2.5, 64%-98% OC, 92%-99% EC and 80%-83% PAH <span class="hlt">reductions</span> compared to raw chunk coal. Biomass pelletizing technology would achieve 88%-97% CO, 73%-87% TSP, 79%-88% PM2.5, 94%-96% OC, 91%-99% EC and 63%-96% PAH <span class="hlt">reduction</span> compared to biomass burning. The adoption of gas fuels (i.e., liquid petroleum gas, natural gas) would achieve significant pollutant <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, nearly 96% for targeted pollutants. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is related not only to fuel change, but also to the usage of high efficiency stoves. PMID:26574082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042668','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042668"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of power plant <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on a nearby wilderness area: a case study in northwestern Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mast, M. Alisa; Ely, Daniel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the effect of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> at two coal-fired power plants in northwestern Colorado on a nearby wilderness area. Control equipment was installed at both plants during 1999–2004 to reduce SO2 and NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. One challenge was separating the effects of local from regional <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which also declined during the study period. The long-term datasets examined confirm that <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> had a beneficial effect on air and water quality in the wilderness. Despite a 75 % <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, sulfate aerosols measured in the wilderness decreased by only 20 %. Because the site is relatively close to the power plants (2 to sulfate, particularly under conditions of low relative humidity, might account for this less than one-to-one response. On the clearest days, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> controls appeared to improve visibility by about 1 deciview, which is a small but perceptible improvement. On the haziest days, however, there was little improvement perhaps reflecting the dominance of regional haze and other components of visibility degradation particularly organic carbon and dust. Sulfate and acidity in atmospheric deposition decreased by 50 % near the southern end of the wilderness of which 60 % was attributed to power plant controls and the remainder to <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in regional sources. Lake water sulfate responded rapidly to trends in deposition declining at 28 lakes monitored in and near the wilderness. Although no change in the acid–base status was observed, few of the lakes appear to be at risk from chronic or episodic acidification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/361986','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/361986"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility of implementing new mobile and stationary source region-wide incentive-based <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Erbes, R.E.; Halvey, R.; Kuzmyak, R.; Latimer, D.; Margolis, J.; Rohr, M.; DeSantis, S.; Weiss, M.; Williams, R.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>It is recognized that, as facilities install increasingly stringent <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls, further air quality gains at the individual facility level become incrementally smaller. Therefore, further <span class="hlt">reductions</span> can be accomplished only through regional and multi-source sector <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. It is also generally recognized that properly constructed and implemented incentive-based air quality management systems that rely on market forces rather than command and control forces, can achieve greater, cheaper, and faster <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. This paper reports a study that examined the conceptual feasibility of instituting a multi-source sector, regional, incentive-based <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> system for the western United States. Both mobile source and stationary source <span class="hlt">reduction</span> strategies, as well as inter-sector <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> trading, were examined. The study was based on lessons learned from implementation of similar systems in both local (e.g., the South Coast Air Quality Management District RECLAIM program) and regional settings (e.g., the Title IV Acid Rain Program). These lessons were then applied to the uniqueness of the West (e.g., widely dispersed stationary sources and widely dispersed concentrations of mobile sources, over 280 individual Native American lands and governments, multiple state and local agencies, numerous Class 1 areas, etc.) to examine the feasibility of a multi-source sector regional incentive-based air quality management program. The study concluded: Implementation of a region-wide incentive-based <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> program in the West that incorporates both mobile and stationary sources appears to be feasible, although there are considerable regulatory, administrative, political, and stakeholder hurdles that must be overcome to implement such a program; and, There do not appear to be major legal or institutional barriers that would prevent the use of such programs in the West.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19746724','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19746724"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of fine particle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from wood combustion with optimized condensing heat exchangers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gröhn, Arto; Suonmaa, Valtteri; Auvinen, Ari; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Jokiniemi, Jorma</p> <p>2009-08-15</p> <p>In this study, we designed and built a condensing heat exchanger capable of simultaneous fine particle <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and waste heat recovery. The deposition mechanisms inside the heat exchanger prototype were maximized using a computer model which was later compared to actual measurements. The main deposition mechanisms were diffusio- and thermophoresis which have previously been examined in similar conditions only separately. The obtained removal efficiency in the experiments was measured in the total number concentration and ranged between 26 and 40% for the given pellet stove and the heat exchanger. Size distributions and number concentrations were measured with a TSI Fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The computer model predicts that there exists a specific upper limit for thermo- and diffusiophoretic deposition for each temperature and water vapor concentration in the flue gas. PMID:19746724</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ERL.....6b4005P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ERL.....6b4005P"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnosing the uncertainty and detectability of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for REDD + under current capabilities: an example for Panama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pelletier, Johanne; Ramankutty, Navin; Potvin, Catherine</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>In preparation for the deployment of a new mechanism that could address as much as one fifth of global greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD +), important work on methodological issues is still needed to secure the capacity to produce measurable, reportable, and verifiable <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from REDD + in developing countries. To contribute to this effort, we have diagnosed the main sources of uncertainty in the quantification of <span class="hlt">emission</span> from deforestation for Panama, one of the first countries to be supported by the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility of the World Bank and by UN-REDD. Performing sensitivity analyses using a land-cover change <span class="hlt">emissions</span> model, we identified forest carbon stocks and the quality of land-cover maps as the key parameters influencing model uncertainty. The time interval between two land-cover assessments, carbon density in fallow and secondary forest, and the accuracy of land-cover classifications also affect our ability to produce accurate estimates. Further, we used the model to compare <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from five different deforestation <span class="hlt">reduction</span> scenarios drawn from governmental input. Only the scenario simulating a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in deforestation by half succeeds in crossing outside the confidence bounds surrounding the baseline <span class="hlt">emission</span> obtained from the uncertainty analysis. These results suggest that with current data, real <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in developing countries could be obscured by their associated uncertainties. Ways of addressing the key sources of error are proposed, for developing countries involved in REDD + , for improving the accuracy of their estimates in the future. These new considerations confirm the importance of current efforts to establish forest monitoring systems and enhance capabilities for REDD + in developing countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B53A0934S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B53A0934S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Application Of Biofilter System For <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Of Methane <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> From Modern Sanitary Landfills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sung, K.; Park, S.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by anthropogenic activities has been related to global climate change. Methane, the second most important GHG after CO2, is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Therefore, methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> control is of utmost importance for global warming <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. To minimize leachate production and protect groundwater resources, modern sanitary landfills are equipped with composite covers and gas collection systems. Methane from modern sanitary landfills is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills where it is recovered as energy and burned at the site. However, the efficiency of energy recovery systems in larger landfills is reduced as the amount of CH4 generated from landfill begins to decrease. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system was investigated to treat CH4 gas emitted from modern sanitary landfills by conducting batch and column experiments using landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast as the filter bed medium. From the batch experiments to measure the influence of moisture content and temperature of the filter medium on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system, the optimum moisture content and temperature were found to be 10-15% by weight and 25-35°C, respectively. The column experiment was conducted to measure the influence of inlet CH4 concentration and CH4 loading rate on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system. As the inlet CH4 concentration decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. Up to a CH4 loading rate of 2785 g CH4 m3 h- 1 (EBRT = 7.7 min), the CH4 removal efficiency of the biofilter was able to reach 100%. Based on the results of the study, the installation of a properly managed biofilter system should be capable of achieving a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in atmospheric CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from modern sanitary landfills at low CH4 generation stage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.......157L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT.......157L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for three commercial reference buildings in Salt Lake City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lucich, Stephen M.</p> <p></p> <p>In the United States, the buildings sector is responsible for approximately 40% of the national carbon dioxide (CO2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. CO2 is created during the generation of heat and electricity, and has been linked to climate change, acid rain, a variety of health threats, surface water depletion, and the destruction of natural habitats. Building energy modeling is a powerful educational tool that building owners, architects, engineers, city planners, and policy makers can use to make informed decisions. The aim of this thesis is to simulate the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that may be achieved for three commercial buildings located in Salt Lake City, UT. The following two questions were used to guide this process: 1. How much can a building's annual CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> be reduced through a specific energy efficiency upgrade or policy? 2. How much can a building's annual CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> be reduced through the addition of a photovoltaic (PV) array? How large should the array be? Building energy simulations were performed with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlus software, commercial reference building models, and TMY3 weather data. The chosen models were a medium office building, a primary school, and a supermarket. Baseline energy consumption data were simulated for each model in order to identify changes that would have a meaningful impact. Modifications to the buildings construction and operation were considered before a PV array was incorporated. These modifications include (1) an improved building envelope, (2) reduced lighting intensity, and (3) modified HVAC temperature set points. The PV array sizing was optimized using a demand matching approach based on the method of least squares. The arrays tilt angle was optimized using the golden section search algorithm. Combined, energy efficiency upgrades and the PV array reduced building CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 58.6, 54.0, and 52.2% for the medium office, primary school, and supermarket, respectively. However, for these models, it was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.7987M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.7987M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from specific sources reflected on key components concentrations of ambient PM10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Minguillon, M. C.; Querol, X.; Monfort, E.; Alastuey, A.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Miro, J. V.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The relationship between specific particulate <span class="hlt">emission</span> control and ambient levels of some PM10 components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits (middle product for the manufacture of ceramic glaze) are produced. The PM10 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000 to 2007 taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems (mainly bag filters) were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/CE, leading to a marked decrease in PM10 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. On the other hand, ambient PM10 sampling was carried out from April 2002 to July 2008 at three urban sites and one suburban site of the area and a complete chemical analysis was made for about 35 % of the collected samples, by means of different techniques (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Ion Chromatography, selective electrode and elemental analyser). The series of chemical composition of PM10 allowed us to apply a source contribution model (Principal Component Analysis), followed by a multilinear regression analysis, so that PM10 sources were identified and their contribution to bulk ambient PM10 was quantified on a daily basis, as well as the contribution to bulk ambient concentrations of the identified key components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl). The contribution of the sources identified as the manufacture and use of ceramic glaze components, including the manufacture of ceramic frits, accounted for more than 65, 75, 58, 53, and 53% of ambient Zn, As, Pb, Cs and Tl levels, respectively (with the exception of Tl contribution at one of the sites). The important <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of these sources during the study period had an impact on ambient key components levels, such that there was a high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1042637"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993087"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023471','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023471"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Van Zante, Dale; Suder, Kenneth</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of fuel burn, noise and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are: a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney; an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney and FAA; and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvS..17j3502A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvS..17j3502A"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study of the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of field <span class="hlt">emission</span> by gas injection in vacuum for accelerator applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Almaksour, K.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Dessante, Ph.; Odic, E.; Simonin, A.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Lepetit, B.; Alamarguy, D.; Bayle, F.; Teste, Ph.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Field <span class="hlt">emission</span> current from surfaces under vacuum and at high field strengths can be reduced by the injection of gas into the evacuated volume. In this paper, the effects of H2, He, N2, and Ar on this "dark" current emitted from a tungsten carbide point cathode for 2 cm gap distance is studied. Exposure to any of these gases at pressures on the order of 10-3-10-2 Pa was found to reduce the <span class="hlt">emission</span> current by up to 90% with a time constant on the order of ˜1 minute as compared to the current at 10-6 Pa. The effect was strongly dependent on the gas nature, with Ar and N2 having larger effects at lower pressures than He and H2. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> was reversible, with the current increasing to near its original value with a time constant on the order of ˜1-10 minutes after pumping down. The effect of the gas remained in the absence of electric field, whatever the gas pressure. Mechanisms for these and related phenomena are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ERL.....4d4001P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ERL.....4d4001P"><span id="translatedtitle">Mamizu climate policy: an evaluation of Japanese carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pielke, Roger A., Jr.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>This letter evaluates Japan's so-called 'Mamizu' climate policies proposed in mid-2009 in terms of the implied rates of decarbonization of the Japanese economy for short-term and long-term targets. The letter uses the Kaya identity to structure the evaluation, employing both a bottom up approach (based on projections of future Japanese population, economic growth, and technology) and a top down approach (deriving implied rates of decarbonization consistent with the targets and various rates of economic growth). Both approaches indicate that the Japanese economy would have to achieve rates of decarbonization of 2.6% to meet a 2020 target of reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 15% below 2005 levels, and 5.0% to meet a 2050 target of an 80% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> below 2005 levels. A target of 25% below 1990 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> proposed by the opposition party (which subsequently formed a government following elections in August 2009) implies a rate of decarbonization of 4.6% annually to 2020. The letter argues that international criticism of Japanese Mamizu climate policy proposals as being too weak was unfounded, and if anything, the proposals may have been too ambitious. In either case, climate policy would be strengthened through the support of a diversity of approaches to decarbonization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2155E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2155E"><span id="translatedtitle">Willingness to engage in energy conservation and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>: An empirical investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eluwa, S. E.; Siong, H. C.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Africa's response to climate change has largely been focused on adaptation rather than mitigation. The reason for this is based on the fact that the continent contributes very little to global CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Again, mitigation policies like carbon tax as being practised in developed countries may be costly and difficult to implement in a continent where most economies are fragile. Using behavioural change as an adaptation approach, we examined the opinion of Ibadan city residents towards energy conservation and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. A total of 822 respondents were sampled across the three residential neighbourhoods of the city. Results from the study showed that female and male respondents differed in their opinion towards energy conservation. However, the female respondents tended to record higher mean scores on majority of the items used to capture energy conservation behaviour than their male counterparts. Also, those with higher level of education seemed to be more conscious of the environmental consequences arising from energy use at home than those with lower educational background. However, very slight variations were recorded in the mean value score across the different age groups, those respondents above 50 years scored a bit higher than other age groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23550802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23550802"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of particulate matter and NO(x) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using 4-way catalyzed filtration systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swanson, Jacob J; Watts, Winthrop F; Newman, Robert A; Ziebarth, Robin R; Kittelson, David B</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The next generation of diesel <span class="hlt">emission</span> control devices includes 4-way catalyzed filtration systems (4WCFS) consisting of both NOx and diesel particulate matter (DPM) control. A methodology was developed to simultaneously evaluate the NOx and DPM control performance of miniature 4WCFS made from acicular mullite, an advanced ceramic material (ACM), that were challenged with diesel exhaust. The impact of catalyst loading and substrate porosity on catalytic performance of the NOx trap was evaluated. Simultaneously with NOx measurements, the real-time solid particle filtration performance of catalyst-coated standard and high porosity filters was determined for steady-state and regenerative conditions. The use of high porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 99% and solid and total particulate matter by 95% when averaged over 10 regeneration cycles. A "regeneration cycle" refers to an oxidizing ("lean") exhaust condition followed by a reducing ("rich") exhaust condition resulting in NOx storage and NOx <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (i.e., trap "regeneration"), respectively. Standard porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 60-75% and exhibited 99.9% filtration efficiency. The rich/lean cycling used to regenerate the filter had almost no impact on solid particle filtration efficiency but impacted NOx control. Cycling resulted in the formation of very low concentrations of semivolatile nucleation mode particles for some 4WCFS formulations. Overall, 4WCFS show promise for significantly reducing diesel <span class="hlt">emissions</span> into the atmosphere in a single control device. PMID:23550802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..80..190V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..80..190V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst <span class="hlt">reduction</span>), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major <span class="hlt">emissions</span> such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023057','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150023057"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Van Zante, Dale E.; Suder, Kenneth L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of fuel burn, noise and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney, an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney FAA and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/619602','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/619602"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and pyrolysis gas destruction in an acoustically driven dump combustor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pont, G.; Cadou, C.P.; Karagozian, A.R.; Smith, O.I.</p> <p>1998-04-01</p> <p>The research described here focuses on the enhancement of hazardous waste and pyrolysis gas surrogate destruction and the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in nitric oxide and unburned hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in an acoustically resonant dump combustor. While several prior studies have focused on flowfield interrogation and hazardous waste surrogate destruction under conditions of natural acoustic excitation, the present study focuses on the device`s behavior under externally forced acoustic excitation. The effect of external forcing on hazardous waste surrogate destruction in the device was recently found to be significant, yielding destruction rates for the surrogate SF{sub 6} that increased by as much as four orders of magnitude with acoustic forcing at specific resonant modes. The present study also indicates a significant improvement in performance with external forcing at the same acoustic modes as those explored earlier. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of NO are seen to decrease by nearly 60%, unburned hydrocarbons are seen to drop by over two orders of magnitude, and waste and pyrolysis gas surrogate destruction is seen to increase by nearly three orders of magnitude, all with external forcing at a specific acoustic mode of the device. The present observations further support the idea that acoustically resonant conditions can render the dump combustor device extremely efficient as well as highly controllable as a small-scale thermal treatment system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/983133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/983133"><span id="translatedtitle">A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Through Supervisory Control Methods Part 2: Experimental Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Methodologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, David E; Lohse-Busch, Henning; Irick, David Kim</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to multiple 'cold' start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal <span class="hlt">emissions</span> tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts. A continuation of previous analytical work, this research, experimentally verifies a vehicle supervisory control system for a pre-transmission parallel PHEV powertrain architecture. Energy management strategies are evaluated and implemented in a virtual environment for preliminary assessment of petroleum displacement benefits and rudimentary drivability issues. This baseline vehicle supervisory control strategy, developed as a result of this assessment, is implemented and tested on actual hardware in a controlled laboratory environment over a baseline test cycle. Engine cold start events are aggressively addressed in the development of this control system, which leads to enhanced pre-warming and energy-based engine warming algorithms that provide substantial <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in tailpipe <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over the baseline supervisory control strategy. The flexibility of the PHEV powertrain allows for decreased <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during any engine starting event through powertrain 'torque shaping' algorithms. The results of the research show that PHEVs do have the potential for substantial <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in fuel consumption</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023057','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023057"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuel Savings and <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25602406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25602406"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of methyl isothiocyanate atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span> after application of metam sodium by shank injection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ajwa, Husein A; Sullivan, David A; Holdsworth, Mark T; Sullivan, Ryan D; Nelson, Shad D</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Regulatory initiatives in the United States have created the impetus to reassess application methods for metam sodium (sodium -methyldithiocarbamate), a methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generator, to reduce flux to the atmosphere. This paper compares flux rates in the years 1990 through 2002 with flux rates based on four studies conducted during the period 2008 through 2010 in California, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Washington using current shank-injection/compaction methods. Up to a 100-fold <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in peak flux rates and total loss of MITC have been observed. A combination of the following factors led to these <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in flux: soil moisture goals set at 70% of the field water holding capacity; improved design of shank-injection systems to break up the voids after injection; effective shank compaction to further reduce volatilization; and the use of water sealing, where applicable. These refinements in the application methods for metam sodium provide a means to merge environmental and agricultural goals in the United States and in other countries that use metam sodium. This paper documents the reduced atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of MITC under commercial production conditions when applied using good agricultural practices. This research also shows that MITC flux can be effectively managed without the use of high barrier tarp material. PMID:25602406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060761"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and environmental quality improvement from implementation of aerobic waste treatment systems in swine farms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; Vives, C A</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> is an attractive approach to help producers implement cleaner treatment technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons. Our objectives were to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from implementation of aerobic technology in USA swine farms. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> were calculated using the approved United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) methodology in conjunction with monitoring information collected during full-scale demonstration of the new treatment system in a 4360-head swine operation in North Carolina (USA). <span class="hlt">Emission</span> sources for the project and baseline manure management system were methane (CH4) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the decomposition of manure under anaerobic conditions and nitrous oxide (N2O) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during storage and handling of manure in the manure management system. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> resulted from the difference between total project and baseline <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The project activity included an on-farm wastewater treatment system consisting of liquid-solid separation, treatment of the separated liquid using aerobic biological N removal, chemical disinfection and soluble P removal using lime. The project activity was completed with a centralized facility that used aerobic composting to process the separated solids. Replacement of the lagoon technology with the cleaner aerobic technology reduced GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> 96.9%, from 4972 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) to 153 tonnes CO2-eq/year. Total net <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> by the project activity in the 4360-head finishing operation were 4776.6 tonnes CO2-eq per year or 1.10 tonnes CO2-eq/head per year. The dollar value from implementation of this project in this swine farm was US$19,106/year using current Chicago Climate Exchange trading values of US$4/t CO2. This translates into a direct economic benefit to the producer of US$1.75 per finished pig. Thus, GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and credits can help compensate for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18939772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18939772"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of a zeolite-selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> system on comprehensive <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a heavy-duty diesel engine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Z Gerald; Berg, Devin R; Schauer, James J</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>The effects of a zeolite urea-selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SCR) aftertreatment system on a comprehensive spectrum of chemical species from diesel engine <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were investigated in this study. Representative samples were collected with a newly developed source dilution sampling system after an aging process designed to simulate atmospheric dilution and cooling conditions. Samples were analyzed with established procedures and compared between the measurements taken from a baseline heavy-duty diesel engine and also from the same engine equipped with the exhaust aftertreatment system. The results have shown significant <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organic carbon (OC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Additionally, less significant yet notable <span class="hlt">reductions</span> were observed for particulate matter mass and metals <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Furthermore, the production of new species was not observed with the addition of the zeolite urea-SCR system joined with a downstream oxidation catalyst. PMID:18939772</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10869V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....10869V"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of sulfur and nitrogen <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on PM concentration in various smog regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Dingenen, R.; Putaud, J.-P.; dell'Acqua, A.; Martins-Dos Santos, S.; Pozzoli, L.; Perrone, M. G.; Raes, F.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Exceedance of limit values of fine particulate matter (PM10) is still commonly occurring in large parts of Europe. The same particles that cause adverse health effects, often lead to acidification and may play a role in global climate change. Chemical mass closure experiments have shown that most of the PM10 mass is made of secondary aerosol components (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, carbonaceous matter). Efficient and cost-effective abatement strategies thus require an understanding of how much secondary aerosol is formed from emitted precursors. Nitrate, ammonium and probably many organic species occur in fact as semi-volatile compounds showing a complex gas-aerosol phase partitioning, depending on temperature, humidity and relative concentrations. Therefor, <span class="hlt">reduction</span> measures will not necessarily lead to a linear response in PM loadings. Here we explore the link between <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and ambient concentrations of the major ionic components of sub-micrometer particles for 3 real-world cases. We conducted 3 fields campaigns where both aerosol and gas phase of sulfate and semi-volatile nitrogen compounds (nitrate, ammonia) were measured simultaneously, with a high time resolution, and in an artifact-free set-up. The measurements were made in the following conditions: (urban background, winter, high nitrate/sulfate), (regional polluted, summer, high nitrate/sulfate) and (rural, summer, low nitrate/sulfate). The measured partitioning between aerosol and gas phase is reproduced by the aerosol thermodynamics equilibrium model ISORROPIA. The same model is then used to simulate the effect of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in total sulfate, nitrate and ammonia on PM. We find that the different smog regimes show very different responses to a given <span class="hlt">reduction</span> scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007791&hterms=chinese&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchinese','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007791&hterms=chinese&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchinese"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Large <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in Sulfur Dioxide <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of S0 2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were observed by OMI at the same time. These <span class="hlt">reductions</span> confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from large point sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017101','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017101"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Carbon <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that would preclude <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from conventional fossil fuels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3849278','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3849278"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Carbon <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that would preclude <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312568"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing "dangerous climate change": required <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to protect young people, future generations and nature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that would preclude <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300343','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300343"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>King, Megan F.; Gutberlet, Jutta</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27233044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27233044"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of CO2 diffuse <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the traditional ceramic industry by the addition of Si-Al raw material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González, I; Barba-Brioso, C; Campos, P; Romero, A; Galán, E</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>The fabrication of ceramics can produce the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of several gases, denominated exhaust gases, and also vapours resulting from firing processes, which usually contain metals and toxic substances affecting the environment and the health of workers. Especially harmful are the diffuse <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO2, fluorine, chlorine and sulphur from the ceramics industry, which, in highly industrialized areas, can suppose an important <span class="hlt">emission</span> focus of dangerous effects. Concerning CO2, factories that use carbonate-rich raw materials (>30% carbonates) can emit high concentrations of CO2 to the atmosphere. Thus, carbonate <span class="hlt">reduction</span> or substitution with other raw materials would reduce the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In this contribution, we propose the addition of Al-shales to the carbonated ceramic materials (marls) for CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>, also improving the quality of the products. The employed shales are inexpensive materials of large reserves in SW-Spain. The ceramic bodies prepared with the addition of selected Al-shale to marls in variable proportions resulted in a 40%-65% CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. In addition, this research underlines at the same time that the use of a low-price raw material can also contribute to obtaining products with higher added value. PMID:27233044</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881402','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881402"><span id="translatedtitle">Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG <span class="hlt">EmissionsReduction</span> in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Price, Lynn</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to meet specific <span class="hlt">reduction</span> targets, are an essential first step towards GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> trading programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.5647V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.5647V"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent decreases in observed atmospheric concentrations of SO 2 in the Netherlands in line with <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Velders, Guus J. M.; Snijder, André; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2) have been decreasing in the Netherlands since the beginning of the 1980s, as a result of national and international <span class="hlt">emission</span> control measures. Since 2007, concentrations observed at the Rotterdam port and industrial areas have shown a large decrease that is in line with recent <span class="hlt">emission</span> control measures. The average annual SO 2 concentration in 2010 was about 50% below 2000-2006 levels. This drop in concentration level corresponds with recent decreases in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of SO 2 from Dutch refineries and international sea shipping, on top of the gradual decreases in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from sources outside the Netherlands. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from refineries was initiated by a ceiling on the total amount of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from this sector, effective since 2010. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from sea shipping result from two types of regulations to reduce the sulphur content in marine fuel, by 2010; regulation by the International Maritime Organization for sea ships on the North Sea, and by the EU directive for ships at berth in ports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20847641','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20847641"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-observed US power plant NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.</p> <p>2006-11-29</p> <p>Nitrogen oxide (NOx) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233824&keyword=fleet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68602668&CFTOKEN=42675561','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233824&keyword=fleet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68602668&CFTOKEN=42675561"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Evaluation of Regional Air Quality Model's Response to <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in the Presence of Uncertain <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Inventories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A method is presented and applied for evaluating an air quality model’s changes in pollutant concentrations stemming from changes in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> while explicitly accounting for the uncertainties in the base <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory. Specifically, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182875','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/182875"><span id="translatedtitle">CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> using energy conservation measures: EPA Region IV`s experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berish, C.; Day, R.; Sibold, K.; Tiller, J.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>EPA Region 4 concluded in a recent comparative environmental risk evaluation that global climate change could substantially impact the Southeast. To address this risk, Region 4 developed an action plan to promote cost-effective pollution prevention and reduce greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, The regional plan contains programs that aye specific to Region 4 as well as geographic components of the national Climate Change Action Plan. Sources of carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were targeted for pollution prevention based on an energy model that allows the user to create energy efficiency scenarios in four sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Activities were selected using the modeled information on sector <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials and resource and cost-effectiveness criteria. Given the high level of uncertainty associated with climate change projections, the programs developed are all cost effective, prevent pollution and/or result in sound adaptation policies. Currently, policy makers at national, regional, and local levels are deciding on what types of energy efficiency programs to implement. The region`s action plan is composed of several programs and approaches. The authors have developed implemented, and/or participated in the following: energy scenario model. EARTHWALK (residential energy conservation); energy conservation in affordable homes (new residences); Cool Communities Program (strategic tree planting and light colored surfaces); EPA`s Green Lights Program; WAVE (water conservation), the Plant Protection Center; QUEST TO SAVE THE EARTH (outreach tools); energy and water use planning for the 1996 Olympic Games, and planning for sea-level rise. Reviewing the practices of the above programs will be the focus of this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971968','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971968"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy use and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of idling-<span class="hlt">reduction</span> options for heavy-duty diesel truacks a comparison.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gaines, L. L.; Hartman, C. J. B.; Solomon, M. J.; Energy Systems; James Madison Univ.; Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Pollution and energy analyses of different idling-<span class="hlt">reduction</span> (IR) technologies have been limited to localized vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and have neglected upstream energy use and regional <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In light of increasing regulation and government incentives for IR, this research analyzed the full fuel cycle effects of contemporary approaches. It compared <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, energy use, and proximity to urban populations for nine alternatives, including idling, electrified parking spaces, auxiliary power units, and several combinations of these. It also compared effects for the United States and seven states: California, Florida, Illinois, New York, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. U.S. average <span class="hlt">emissions</span> impacts from all onboard IR options were found to be lower than those from a 2007-compliant idling truck. Total particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from electrified parking spaces were found to be greater than those from a 2007 truck, but such <span class="hlt">emissions</span> generally occurred in areas with low population density. The lowest energy use, carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and nitrogen oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are seen with a direct-fired heater combined with electrified parking spaces for cooling, and the lowest particulate-matter <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were found with a direct-fired heater combined with an onboard device for cooling. As expected, state-to-state variations in the climate and grid fuel mix influence the impacts of the full fuel cycle from IR technologies, and the most effective choice for one location may be less effective elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/751775','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/751775"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> opportunities in the U.S. cement industry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn</p> <p>1999-08-01</p> <p>This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> would be reduced by 16%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=115156&keyword=Doctor&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64759933&CFTOKEN=44180156','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=115156&keyword=Doctor&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64759933&CFTOKEN=44180156"><span id="translatedtitle">FUGITIVE <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span> DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app4.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Continuous Compliance Demonstration Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements 4 Table 4 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate continuous...) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less Using one of the following monitoring methods:a....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app2.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Initial Compliance Demonstration Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements 2 Table 2 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate initial... (98 percent for new sources) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less. a. Perform a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app4.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Continuous Compliance Demonstration Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements 4 Table 4 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate continuous...) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less Using one of the following monitoring methods:a....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app4.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Continuous Compliance Demonstration Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements 4 Table 4 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate continuous...) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less Using one of the following monitoring methods:a....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app4.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Continuous Compliance Demonstration Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements 4 Table 4 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate continuous...) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less Using one of the following monitoring methods:a....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app2.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Initial Compliance Demonstration Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements 2 Table 2 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate initial... (98 percent for new sources) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less. a. Perform a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app4.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Continuous Compliance Demonstration Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... Methods With the <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements 4 Table 4 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate continuous...) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less Using one of the following monitoring methods:a....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200576&keyword=modified+AND+sulfur&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77065105&CFTOKEN=79262617','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=200576&keyword=modified+AND+sulfur&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77065105&CFTOKEN=79262617"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span> AIMED AT IMPROVING AIR QUALITY: UNINTENDED CLIMATIC CONSEQUENCES AND THE EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THEIR SUCCESS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><p>This work will provide improved understanding of the role of climate change, both in the recent past and future, on the success of pollutant control strategies, allowing for better planning and accountability of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. This work will also provide a quantitative a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/351037','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/351037"><span id="translatedtitle">Early stages of recovery of the damaged ecosystems near Sudbury following <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gunn, J.M.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>Nearly a 90% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of SO{sub 2} and metal particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Sudbury smelters has been achieved through industrial control programs during the past 25 years. Reappearance of epiphytic lichens provided some of the earliest evidence of biological recovery of severely damaged ecosystems in this area. Acid- and metal-contamination of soil, severe microclimate conditions, and the damaging effects of insect pests appear to delay recovery of vascular plants, which have been relatively slow to recover. Metal-tolerant grasses were the first species to invade the barren area. Between 1970 and 1989 conifers recolonized approximately 22% of the semi-barren area, an area that until recently consisted of a near-monoculture of stunted white birch. Significant improvements in water quality have occurred in many of the estimated 7,000 acid-damaged lakes, however, most affected lakes still have a pH below 6.0, and the lakes closest to the smelters have high concentrations of Cu and Ni. Many species of acid-sensitive phytoplankton, zooplankton and insects have invaded lakes where improvements have occurred. Recovery rates of aquatic ecosystems are also affected by various physical, chemical and biotic interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21592654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21592654"><span id="translatedtitle">Can a breathing biocover system enhance methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> from landfill?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Wen-Jing; Chi, Zi-Fang; Mou, Zi-Shen; Long, Yu-Yang; Wang, Hong-Tao; Zhu, Yong</p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>Based on the aerothermodynamic principles, a kind of breathing biocover system was designed to enhance O(2) supply efficiency and methane (CH(4)) oxidation capacity. The research showed that O(2) concentration (v/v) considerably increased throughout whole profiles of the microcosm (1m) equipped with passive air venting system (MPAVS). When the simulated landfill gas SLFG flow was 771 g m(-3) d(-1) and 1028 g m(-3) d(-1), the O(2) concentration in MPAVS increased gradually and tended to be stable at the atmospheric level after 10 days. The CH(4) oxidation rate was 100% when the SLFG flow rate was no more than 1285 g m(-3) d(-1), which also was confirmed by the mass balance calculations. The breathing biocover system with in situ self-oxygen supply can address the problem of O(2) insufficient in conventional landfill covers and/or biocovers. The proposed system presents high potential for improving CH(4) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in landfills. PMID:21592654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/617958','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/617958"><span id="translatedtitle">Source <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of VOC and hazardous organic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from wood furniture coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Huang, E.W.; McCrillis, R.C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Under US EPA sponsorship, AeroVironment, Inc. and Adhesives Coating Co. are teaming up to develop and demonstrate a wood furniture coating system containing no volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and no hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), making it less hazardous to use, and emitting no detectable VOCs and HAPs during curing, therefore contributing significantly to <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. Earlier work on a new topcoat showed excellent performance characteristics in terms of adhesion, gloss value, dry time, hardness, organic solvents content, and chemical/stain resistance. The VOC contents of both the clear topcoat and the white pigmented topcoat were less than 10 g/L, the detection list of the test method (EPA Method 24). This coating`s performance and properties compared favorably with those of other low-VOC waterborne coatings. Currently, low-/no-VOC stain and sealer wood coatings are being developed so that a complete low-/no-VOC wood coating system will be available for public use. The compatibility of coating components (a stain and sealer) to go with the topcoat is currently being evaluated. The complete system will be demonstrated at several furniture plants. A marketing plan of the developed products is part of this demonstration project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21044879','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21044879"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of soot <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by iron pentacarbonyl in isooctane diffusion flames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, K.B.; Masiello, K.A.; Hahn, D.W.</p> <p>2008-07-15</p> <p>Light-scattering measurements, in situ laser-induced fluorescence, and thermophoretic sampling with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, were performed in laboratory isooctane diffusion flames seeded with 4000 ppm iron pentacarbonyl. These measurements allowed the determination of the evolution of the size, number density, and volume fraction of soot particles through the flame. Comparison to unseeded flame data provided a detailed assessment of the effects of iron addition on soot particle inception, growth, and oxidation processes. Iron was found to produce a minor soot-enhancing effect at early residence times, while subsequent soot particle growth was largely unaffected. It is concluded that primarily elemental iron is incorporated within the soot particles during particle inception and growth. However, iron addition was found to enhance the rate of soot oxidation during the soot burnout regime, yielding a two-thirds <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in overall soot <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In situ spectroscopic measurements probed the transient nature of elemental iron throughout the flame, revealing significant loss of elemental iron, presumably to iron oxides, with increasing flame residence, suggesting catalysis of soot oxidation via iron oxide species. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479985','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479985"><span id="translatedtitle">Lifetime <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and Enhanced <span class="hlt">Emission</span> of Single Photon Color Centers in Nanodiamond via Surrounding Refractive Index Modification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khalid, Asma; Chung, Kelvin; Rajasekharan, Ranjith; Lau, Desmond W.M.; Karle, Timothy J.; Gibson, Brant C.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The negatively-charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is of great interest for quantum information processing and quantum key distribution applications due to its highly desirable long coherence times at room temperature. One of the challenges for their use in these applications involves the requirement to further optimize the lifetime and <span class="hlt">emission</span> properties of the centers. Our results demonstrate the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the lifetime of NV− centers, and hence an increase in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate, achieved by modifying the refractive index of the environment surrounding the nanodiamond (ND). By coating the NDs in a polymer film, experimental results and numerical calculations show an average of 63% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in the lifetime and an average enhancement in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate by a factor of 1.6. This strategy is also applicable for emitters other than diamond color centers where the particle refractive index is greater than the refractive index of the surrounding media. PMID:26109500</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511179K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...511179K"><span id="translatedtitle">Lifetime <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and Enhanced <span class="hlt">Emission</span> of Single Photon Color Centers in Nanodiamond via Surrounding Refractive Index Modification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khalid, Asma; Chung, Kelvin; Rajasekharan, Ranjith; Lau, Desmond W. M.; Karle, Timothy J.; Gibson, Brant C.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The negatively-charged nitrogen vacancy (NV-) center in diamond is of great interest for quantum information processing and quantum key distribution applications due to its highly desirable long coherence times at room temperature. One of the challenges for their use in these applications involves the requirement to further optimize the lifetime and <span class="hlt">emission</span> properties of the centers. Our results demonstrate the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the lifetime of NV- centers, and hence an increase in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate, achieved by modifying the refractive index of the environment surrounding the nanodiamond (ND). By coating the NDs in a polymer film, experimental results and numerical calculations show an average of 63% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in the lifetime and an average enhancement in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate by a factor of 1.6. This strategy is also applicable for emitters other than diamond color centers where the particle refractive index is greater than the refractive index of the surrounding media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ACP....16..215B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ACP....16..215B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on organic aerosol in the southeastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blanchard, C. L.; Hidy, G. M.; Shaw, S.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Long-term (1999 to 2013) data from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network are used to show that anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> led to important decreases in fine-particle organic aerosol (OA) concentrations in the southeastern US On average, 45 % (range 25 to 63 %) of the 1999 to 2013 mean organic carbon (OC) concentrations are attributed to combustion processes, including fossil fuel use and biomass burning, through associations of measured OC with combustion products such as elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The 2013 mean combustion-derived OC concentrations were 0.5 to 1.4 µg m-3 at the five sites operating in that year. Mean annual combustion-derived OC concentrations declined from 3.8 ± 0.2 µg m-3 (68 % of total OC) to 1.4 ± 0.1 µg m-3 (60 % of total OC) between 1999 and 2013 at the urban Atlanta, Georgia, site (JST) and from 2.9 ± 0.4 µg m-3 (39 % of total OC) to 0.7 ± 0.1 µg m-3 (30 % of total OC) between 2001 and 2013 at the urban Birmingham, Alabama (BHM), site. The urban OC declines coincide with <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of motor vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> between 2006 and 2010, which may have decreased mean OC concentrations at the urban SEARCH sites by > 2 µg m-3. BHM additionally exhibits a decline in OC associated with SO2 from 0.4 ± 0.04 µg m-3 in 2001 to 0.2 ± 0.03 µg m-3 in 2013, interpreted as the result of reduced <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from industrial sources within the city. Analyses using non-soil potassium as a biomass burning tracer indicate that biomass burning OC occurs throughout the year at all sites. All eight SEARCH sites show an association of OC with sulfate (SO4) ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 µg m-3 on average, representing ˜ 25 % of the 1999 to 2013 mean OC concentrations. Because the mass of OC identified with SO4 averages 20 to 30 % of the SO4 concentrations, the mean SO4-associated OC declined by ˜ 0.5 to 1 µg m-3 as SO4 concentrations decreased throughout the SEARCH region. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2750D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2750D"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>In this study we consider the implications of our current understanding of aviation climate impacts as it relates to the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 effects from aviation. We take as inputs recent estimates from the literature of the magnitude of the component aviation impacts and associated uncertainties. We then employ a simplified probabilistic impulse response function model for the climate and a range of damage functions to estimate the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation for a range of different metrics, scientific assumptions, future background <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenarios, economic growth scenarios, and discount rates. We take cost-benefit analysis as our primary context and thus focus on integral metrics that can be related to damages: the global warming potential, the time-integrated change in surface temperature, and the net present value of damages. We also present results based on an endpoint metric, the global temperature change potential. These latter results would be more appropriate for use in a cost-effectiveness framework (e.g., with a well-defined policy target for the anthropogenic change in surface temperature at a specified time in the future). We find that the parameter that most influences the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation is the discount rate, or analogously the time window used for physical metrics; both are expressions of the relative importance of long-lived versus short-lived impacts. Second to this is the influence of the radiative forcing values that are assumed for aviation-induced cloudiness effects. Given the large uncertainties in short-lived effects from aviation, and the dominating influence of discounting or time-windowing, we find that the choice of metric is relatively less influential. We express the ratios of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts on a per unit fuel burn basis so that they can be multiplied by a social cost of carbon to estimate the additional benefits of fuel burn <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from aviation beyond those</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23355020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23355020"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of power plant <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on a nearby wilderness area: a case study in northwestern Colorado.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mast, M Alisa; Ely, Daniel</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the effect of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> at two coal-fired power plants in northwestern Colorado on a nearby wilderness area. Control equipment was installed at both plants during 1999-2004 to reduce SO2 and NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. One challenge was separating the effects of local from regional <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which also declined during the study period. The long-term datasets examined confirm that <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> had a beneficial effect on air and water quality in the wilderness. Despite a 75 % <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, sulfate aerosols measured in the wilderness decreased by only 20 %. Because the site is relatively close to the power plants (<75 km), the slow rate of conversion of SO2 to sulfate, particularly under conditions of low relative humidity, might account for this less than one-to-one response. On the clearest days, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> controls appeared to improve visibility by about 1 deciview, which is a small but perceptible improvement. On the haziest days, however, there was little improvement perhaps reflecting the dominance of regional haze and other components of visibility degradation particularly organic carbon and dust. Sulfate and acidity in atmospheric deposition decreased by 50 % near the southern end of the wilderness of which 60 % was attributed to power plant controls and the remainder to <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in regional sources. Lake water sulfate responded rapidly to trends in deposition declining at 28 lakes monitored in and near the wilderness. Although no change in the acid-base status was observed, few of the lakes appear to be at risk from chronic or episodic acidification. PMID:23355020</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ERL....10f4008M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ERL....10f4008M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in six major economies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower <span class="hlt">emissions</span> vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AtmEn.120..227L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AtmEn.120..227L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SCR) on fine particle <span class="hlt">emission</span> from two coal-fired power plants in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Nitrogen oxides (NOx) <span class="hlt">emission</span> abatement of coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) requires large-scaled installation of selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SCR), which would reduce secondary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (by reducing nitrate aerosol) in the atmosphere. However, our field measurement of two CFPPs equipped with SCR indicates a significant increase of SO42- and NH4+ <span class="hlt">emission</span> in primary PM2.5, due to catalytic enhancement of SO2 oxidation to SO3 and introducing of NH3 as reducing agent. The subsequent formation of (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4 aerosol is commonly concentrated in sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) with a bimodal pattern. The measurement at the inlet of stack also showed doubled primary PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emission</span> by SCR operation. This effect should therefore be considered when updating <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory of CFPPs. By rough estimation, the enhanced primary PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from CFPPs by SCR operation would offset 12% of the ambient PM2.5 concentration <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in cities as the benefit of national NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> abatement, which should draw attention of policy-makers for air pollution control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19764263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19764263"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of idle <span class="hlt">reduction</span> technologies on real world fuel use and exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of idling long-haul trucks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao; Villa, Charles</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Idling long-haul freight tucks may consume nearly one billion gallons of diesel fuel per year in the U.S. There is a need for real-world data by which to quantify avoided fuel use and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> attributable to idle <span class="hlt">reduction</span> techniques of auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Field data were obtained from 20 APU-equipped and SP-compatible trucks observed during 2.8 million miles of travel in 42 states. Base engine fuel use and <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates varied depending on ambient temperature. APU and SP energy use and <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates varied depending on electrical load. APUs reduced idling fuel use and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for single and team drivers by 22 and 5% annually, respectively. SP offers greater <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in energy use of 48% for single drivers, as well as in <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, except for SO2. APUs were cost-effective for single drivers with a large number of APU usage hours per year, but not for team drivers or for single drivers with low APU utilization rates. The findings support more accurate assessments of avoided fuel use and <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and recommendations to encourage greater APU utilization by single drivers and to further develop infrastructure for SP. PMID:19764263</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607824','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607824"><span id="translatedtitle">The impacts of electricity dispatch protocols on the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> due to wind power and carbon tax.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Yang; Rajagopal, Ram</p> <p>2015-02-17</p> <p>Two dispatch protocols have been adopted by electricity markets to deal with the uncertainty of wind power but the effects of the selection between the dispatch protocols have not been comprehensively analyzed. We establish a framework to compare the impacts of adopting different dispatch protocols on the efficacy of using wind power and implementing a carbon tax to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. We suggest that a market has high potential to achieve greater <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by adopting the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the static protocol when the wind energy in the market is highly uncertain or the market has enough adjustable generators, such as gas-fired combustion generators. Furthermore, the carbon-tax policy is more cost-efficient for reducing CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> when the market operates according to the stochastic protocol rather than the static protocol. An empirical study, which is calibrated according to the data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market, confirms that using wind energy in the Texas market results in a 12% CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> when the market uses the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the 8% <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> associated with the static protocol. In addition, if a 6$/ton carbon tax is implemented in the Texas market operated according to the stochastic protocol, the CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> is similar to the <span class="hlt">emission</span> level from the same market with a 16$/ton carbon tax operated according to the static protocol. Correspondingly, the 16$/ton carbon tax associated with the static protocol costs 42.6% more than the 6$/ton carbon tax associated with the stochastic protocol. PMID:25607824</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25338403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25338403"><span id="translatedtitle">[Discussion on <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential of CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity for early off-take practice of grazing yak].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shi-Ping; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Ya-Yun; Bai, Ling</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The case study preliminarily compared the CH4 <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential and CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity of 7 year-old and 4 year-old grazing yak after early off-take practice based on the 2006 IPCC GHG inventory guidelines and under the premise of equal herbage consumption. Our results showed that the total CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> was greater by about 86.3 kg for 2.1 4-year yaks compared with 7 years old yak during their life assuming that their total herbage consumption was the same, because total herbage consumption for a 7-year yak was equal to that of 2.1 4-year yaks. However, CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> per unit body weight (1.374 kg x kg(-1)) for a 7-year yak (i. e. <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity) was higher than that of 2.1 4-year yaks (0.973 kg x kg(-1)) because total body weight of 2.1 4-year yaks was higher by 192 kg than that of a 7-year yak. According to CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity, change of the early off-take practice from 7-year to 4-year yak could reduce 77 kg CH4 if producing 192 kg body weight through 2.1 4-year yaks compared with a 7-year yak, i. e. <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential was about 1 600 kg CO2 equivalent under the same consuming forage. Therefore, for grassland-based animal husbandry, early off-take practice for grazing animals had a great <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential in the intensity of greenhouse gases (GHGs) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per unit output rather than total <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of GHGs. PMID:25338403</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> biological needs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLeod, Stephen</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended <span class="hlt">absolute</span> needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are <span class="hlt">absolute</span> biological needs. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38.3949O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38.3949O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of CO2 and orbital debris: can CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> trading principles be applied to debris <span class="hlt">reduction</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orlando, Giovanni; Kinnersley, Mark; Starke, Juergen; Hugel, Sebastian; Hartner, Gloria; Singh, Sanjay; Loubiere, Vincent; Staebler, Dominik-Markus; O'Brien-Organ, Christopher; Schwindt, Stefan; Serreau, Francois; Sharma, Mohit</p> <p></p> <p>In the past years global pollution and the specific situation of global warming changes have been strongly influencing public opinion and thus obliged politicians to initiate/ negotiate in-ternational agreements to control, avoid or at least reduce the impact of CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> e.g. The Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the International Copenhagen conference on Climate Change (2009). In the orbital debris area the collision between the Iridium33 and Cosmos 2251 satel-lites in 2009 has again pushed to the forefront the discussion of the space pollution by space debris and the increasing risk of critical and catastrophic events during the nominal life time of space objects. It is shown by simulations that for Low Earth Orbits the critical debris situation is already achieved and the existing space objects will probably produce sufficient space debris elements -big enough -to support the cascade effect (Kessler Syndrome). In anal-ogy with CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, potential recommendations / regulations to reduce the production of Space Debris or its permanence in orbit, are likely to open new markets involving Miti-gation and Removal of Space Debris. The principle approach for the CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> trading model will be investigated and the applicability for the global space debris handling will be analysed. The major differences of the two markets will be derived and the consequences in-dicated. Potential alternative solutions will be proposed and discussed. For the example of the CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> trading principles within EU and worldwide legal conditions for space debris (national / international laws and recommendations) will be considered as well as the commer-cial approach from the controlled situation of dedicated orders to a free / competitive market in steps. It is of interest to consider forms of potential industrial organisations and interna-tional co-operations to react on a similar architecture for the debris removal trading including incentives and penalties for the different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/577043','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/577043"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of ruminant methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> - a win-win-win opportunity for business, development, and the environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Livingston, R.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>This paper describes research efforts of The Global Livestock Producers Program (GLPP) in establishing self-sustaining enterprises for cost-effective technologies (i.e., animal nutrition and genetic improvement) and global methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in developing world nations. The US Environmental Protection Agency has funded several studies to examine the possibilities of reducing ruminant methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in India, Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Brazil. The results of the studies showed that: (1) many developing countries` production systems are inefficient, and (2) great potential exists for decreasing global methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> through increasing animal productivity. From this effort, the GLPP established livestock development projects in India, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania, and is developing projects for Bangladesh, Nepal, and Brazil. The GLPP has developed a proven methodology for assessing ruminant methane and incorporating methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> monitoring into viable projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ITEIS.129..755K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ITEIS.129..755K"><span id="translatedtitle">A Consideration on Service Business Model for Saving Energy and <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of CO2 <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Using Inverters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kosaka, Michitaka; Yabutani, Takashi</p> <p></p> <p>This paper considers the effectiveness of service business approach for reducing CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. “HDRIVE” is a service business using inverters to reduce energy consumption of motor drive. The business model of this service is changed for finding new opportunities of CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by combining various factors such as financial service or long-term service contract. Risk analysis of this business model is very important for giving stable services to users for long term. HDRIVE business model is found to be suitable for this objective. This service can be applied to the industries such as chemical or steel industry effectively, where CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> is very large, and has the possibility of creating new business considering CDM or trading CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> right. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through several examples in real business.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A32C..07A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A32C..07A"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of Surface Air Quality and Global Mortality to Global, Regional, and Sectoral Black Carbon <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anenberg, S.; Talgo, K.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; Arunachalam, S.; West, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) released during incomplete combustion, is associated with atmospheric warming and deleterious health impacts, including premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. A growing body of literature suggests that controlling <span class="hlt">emissions</span> may therefore have dual benefits for climate and health. Several studies have focused on quantifying the potential impacts of reducing BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from various world regions and economic sectors on radiative forcing. However, the impacts of these <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on human health have been less well studied. Here, we use a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4) and a health impact function to quantify the surface air quality and human health benefits of controlling BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. We simulate a base case and several <span class="hlt">emission</span> control scenarios, where anthropogenic BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are reduced by half globally, individually in each of eight world regions, and individually from the residential, industrial, and transportation sectors. We also simulate a global 50% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of both BC and organic carbon (OC) together, since they are co-emitted and both are likely to be impacted by actual control measures. Meteorology and biomass burning <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are for the year 2002 with anthropogenic BC and OC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for 2000 from the IPCC AR5 inventory. Model performance is evaluated by comparing to global surface measurements of PM2.5 components. Avoided premature mortalities are calculated using the change in PM2.5 concentration between the base case and <span class="hlt">emission</span> control scenarios and a concentration-response factor for chronic mortality from the epidemiology literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007AGUFM.A21A0013G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007AGUFM.A21A0013G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> on NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The largest amount of NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the unitary vehicles <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24011434','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24011434"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>: a case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>King, Megan F; Gutberlet, Jutta</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. PMID:24011434</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634131"><span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> systems on reducing gaseous <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an engine using diesel and biodiesel blends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borillo, Guilherme C; Tadano, Yara S; Godoi, Ana F L; Santana, Simone S M; Weronka, Fernando M; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Potgieter, Johannes H; Godoi, Ricardo H M</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this investigation was to quantify organic and inorganic gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a four-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a urea selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SCR) system. Using a bench dynamometer, the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the following mixtures were evaluated using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer: low-sulfur diesel (LSD), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20). For all studied fuels, the use of the SCR system yielded statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In the case of the LSD and ULSD fuels, the SCR system also significantly reduced <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of compounds with high photochemical ozone creation potential, such as formaldehyde. However, for all tested fuels, the SCR system produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of N2O. In the case of LSD, the NH3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were elevated, and in the case of ULSD and B20 fuels, the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and total hydrocarbon of diesel (HCD) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were significantly higher. PMID:25634131</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236781','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1236781"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant <span class="hlt">Emissions-Reduction</span> Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ma, Ding; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Chen, Wenying</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) and air-pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These <span class="hlt">reductions</span> could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO<sub>2</sub> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20000546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20000546"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of black and organic carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for household coal combustion in China: implication for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yingjun; Zhi, Guorui; Feng, Yanli; Liu, Dongyan; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo</p> <p>2009-12-15</p> <p>Household coal combustion is considered as the greatest <span class="hlt">emission</span> source for black carbon (BC) and an important source for organic carbon (OC) in China. However, measurements on BC and OC <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors (EF(BC) and EF(OC)) are still scarce, which result in large uncertainties in <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates. In this study, a detailed data set of EF(BC) and EF(OC) for household coal burning was presented on the basis of 38 coal/stove combination experiments. These experiments included 13 coals with a wide coverage of geological maturity which were tested in honeycomb-coal-briquette and raw-coal-chunk forms in three typical coal stoves. Averaged values of EF(BC) are 0.004 and 0.007 g/kg for anthracite in briquette and chunk forms and 0.09 and 3.05 g/kg for bituminous coal, respectively; EF(OC) are 0.06 and 0.10 g/kg for anthracite and 3.74 and 5.50 g/kg for bituminous coal in both forms, respectively. Coal maturity was found to be the most important influencing factor relative to coal's burning forms and the stove's burning efficiency, and when medium-volatile bituminous coals (MVB) are excluded from use, averaged EF(BC) and EF(OC) for bituminous coal decrease by 50% and 30%, respectively. According to these EFs, China's BC and OC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the household sector in 2000 were 94 and 244 gigagrams (Gg), respectively. Compared with previous BC <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates for this sector (e.g., 465 Gg by Ohara et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2007, 7, 4419-4444), a dramatic decrease was observed and was mainly attributed to the update of EFs. As suggested by this study, if MVB is prohibited as household fuel together with further promotion of briquettes, BC and OC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in this sector will be reduced by 80% and 34%, respectively, and then carbonaceous <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can be controlled to a large extent in China. PMID:20000546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.112..178P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.112..178P"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods for reducing biases and errors in regional photochemical model outputs for use in <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and exposure assessments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porter, P. Steven; Rao, S. Trivikrama; Hogrefe, Christian; Gego, Edith; Mathur, Rohit</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In the United States, regional-scale photochemical models are being used to design <span class="hlt">emission</span> control strategies needed to meet the relevant National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) within the framework of the attainment demonstration process. Previous studies have shown that the current generation of regional photochemical models can have large biases and errors in simulating <span class="hlt">absolute</span> levels of pollutant concentrations. Studies have also revealed that regional air quality models were not always accurately reproducing even the relative changes in ozone air quality stemming from changes in <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This paper introduces four approaches to adjust for model bias and errors in order to provide greater confidence for their use in estimating future concentrations as well as using modeled pollutant concentrations in exposure assessments. The four methods considered here are a mean and variance (MV) adjustment, temporal component decomposition (TC) adjustment of modeled concentrations, and two variants of cumulative distribution function (CDF) mapping. These methods were compared against each other as well as against unadjusted model concentrations and a version of the relative response approach based on unadjusted model predictions. The analysis uses ozone concentrations simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for the northeastern United States domain for the years 1996-2005. Ensuring that base case conditions are adequately represented through the combined use of observations and model simulations is shown to result in improved estimates of future air quality under changing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and meteorological conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0083M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0083M"><span id="translatedtitle">U.S. onroad transportation CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> analysis comparing highly resolved CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and a national average approach : mitigation options and uncertainty <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> significantly from the national average. We calculate the state-specific uncertainty of the Vulcan onroad <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as a fraction of the state total <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for each of the three sources; VMT, Age Distribution, and Fuel Efficiency. Uncertainty is largest for LD vehicles and urban roads that display more irregular and fuel-consuming start-and-go driving patterns. Therefore, states with greater urbanization levels (eg. New Jersey) and a larger proportion of LD vehicles (eg. California) generally display the largest levels of combined uncertainty. The disparity between expected and real <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, were policy to neglect spatial differences, highlights the importance of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> mitigation strategies that incorporate the unique characteristics of geography in order to achieve consistently effective mitigation. In order to have measurable impact, mitigation must also ensure that potential <span class="hlt">reductions</span> exceed the uncertainty associated with quantifying <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Thus climate agreements that fully account for uncertainties in <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates as well as regional differences will be best suited to enact the most effective policy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moody, A.</p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/50759','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/50759"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal-fired power plant and its <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kuntjoro, D.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Power generation availability is one important key to the rapid growth of Indonesia`s industrial sector. To secure future national energy needs, coal-fired power generation has been set up as a primary energy source. There are environmental concerns related to the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of gases, particulates, and ash resulting from coal combustion. This paper discusses <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls from burning high calorie, low sulfur coal and the national strategy to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20813113','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20813113"><span id="translatedtitle">Power plant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schneider, C.</p> <p>2004-06-15</p> <p>This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory estimates, and the changes in the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930035350&hterms=asme&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dasme','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930035350&hterms=asme&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dasme"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> by varying the swirler airflow split in advanced gas turbine combustors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Micklow, Gerald J.; Roychoudhury, Subir; Nguyen, H. L.; Cline, Michael C.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A rich burn/quick mix/lean burn (RQL) combustor concept for reducing pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is currently under investigation at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The current study investigates the effect of varying the mass flow rate split between the swirler passages for an equivalance ratio of 2.0 on fuel distribution, temperature distribution, and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for the fuel nozzle/rich burn section of an RQL combustor. It is seen that optimizing these parameters can substantially improve combustor performance and reduce combustor <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The optimal mass flow rate split for reducing NO(x) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on the numerical study was the same as found by experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..552..770P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AIPC..552..770P"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of 238Plutonium oxide by nitrate anion exchange processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pansoy-Hjelvik, M. E.; Brock, J.; Nixon, J. Z.; Moniz, P.; Silver, G.; Ramsey, K. B.</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>The use of ion exchange during the aqueous purification of 238Pu oxide results in low levels of uranium, thorium, and americium in the product oxide. Neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates are also reduced in the product oxide. Fluorine introduced during the dissolution of impure fuel increases the neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate of the product oxide due to the 238Pu-19F alpha/n reaction. Treating the 238Pu solution with aluminum nitrate prior to ion exchange reduces the neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate in the product oxide. Data are presented to show that neutron <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates and concentrations of uranium, thorium, and americium are reduced by ion exchange processing. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A14C..02L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A14C..02L"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of multipollutants over 2005-2030 on regional air quality and climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liao, H.; Yang, Y.; Chang, W.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Many societal activities lead to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to the atmosphere that affect both air quality and climate. We examine how particular policies may be able to provide benefits in both these areas using three coupled global chemistry-climate models (CACTUS, GISS-PUCCINI, and NCAR-CESM). The anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for years 2005 and 2030 are taken from the datasets generated by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) GAINS (Greenhouse gas-Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. The 2030 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenarios include (1) a reference scenario, (2) a low GWP scenario, and (3) the lowest <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenario. The reference scenario assumes that all agreed air pollution policies are being implemented, and the other two scenarios have additional <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on a selected set of measures. We firstly evaluate the model predictions for 2005, and then investigate the simulated year 2030 concentrations of ozone, sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon, aerosol optical depth, as well as year 2030 radiative forcing relative to 2005. Both direct and indirect radiative forcings of aerosols are considered. Our model results suggest that taking measures to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in China can reduce year 2030 PM2.5 concentrations in China by 20-60% and help to mitigate near-term regional climate change.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10111728','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10111728"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost-effectiveness of controlling <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, M.Q.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">Emission</span>-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, and baseline gasoline vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton <span class="hlt">emission</span> values and estimated AFV <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, the per-vehicle monetary value of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton <span class="hlt">emission</span> values, and baseline gasoline vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40..904S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40..904S"><span id="translatedtitle">Costs and benefits of an enhanced <span class="hlt">reduction</span> policy of particulate matter exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from road traffic in Flanders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schrooten, Liesbeth; De Vlieger, Ina; Lefebre, Filip; Torfs, Rudi</p> <p></p> <p>We demonstrate that accelerated policies beyond the steady improvement of technologies and the fleet turnover are not always justified by assumptions about health benefits. Between the years 2000 and 2010, particulate matter (PM) exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from traffic in Flanders, a region of Belgium, will be reduced by about 44% without taking any extra <span class="hlt">reduction</span> measures (baseline scenario). The PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from road traffic were calculated using the MIMOSA model. Furthermore, we explored a range of options to increase attempts to reduce PM exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> from traffic in 2010. When installing particle filters on heavy-duty trucks and buses, introducing biodiesel and diesel/hybrid cars, as well as slowing down the increase of private diesel cars, only an extra <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of about 8% PM can be achieved in Flanders. The costs to achieve this small <span class="hlt">reduction</span> are very high. To justify these costs, benefits for public health have been calculated and expressed in external costs. We demonstrate that only an enhanced effort to retrofit trucks and buses with particle filters has a net benefit. We have used Monte Carlo techniques to test the validity of this conclusion. It is concluded that a local or national policy that goes beyond European policies is not always beneficial and that additional measures should be assessed carefully.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24152067','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24152067"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in NO(x) <span class="hlt">emission</span> trends over China: regional and seasonal variations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Liu, Zhen</p> <p>2013-11-19</p> <p>We analyzed satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over China from 2005 to 2010 in order to estimate the top-down anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) <span class="hlt">emission</span> trends. Since NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were affected by the economic slowdown in 2009, we removed one year of abnormal data in the analysis. The estimated average <span class="hlt">emission</span> trend is 4.01 ± 1.39% yr(-1), which is slower than the trend of 5.8-10.8% yr(-1) reported for previous years. We find large regional, seasonal, and urban-rural variations in <span class="hlt">emission</span> trends. The average NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> trend of 3.47 ± 1.07% yr(-1) in warm season (June-September) is less than the trend of 5.03 ± 1.92% yr(-1) in cool season (October-May). The regional annual <span class="hlt">emission</span> trends decrease from 4.76 ± 1.61% yr(-1) in North China Plain to 3.11 ± 0.98% yr(-1) in Yangtze River Delta and further down to -4.39 ± 1.81% yr(-1) in Pearl River Delta. The annual <span class="hlt">emission</span> trends of the four largest megacities, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen are -0.76 ± 0.29%, 0.69 ± 0.27%, -4.46 ± 1.22%, and -7.18 ± 2.88% yr(-1), considerably lower than the regional averages or surrounding rural regions. These results appear to suggest that a number of factors, including <span class="hlt">emission</span> control measures of thermal power plants, increased hydro-power usage, vehicle <span class="hlt">emission</span> regulations, and closure or migration of high-<span class="hlt">emission</span> industries, have significantly reduced or even reversed the increasing trend of NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in more economically developed megacities and southern coastal regions, but their effects are not as significant in other major cities or less economically developed regions. PMID:24152067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25704338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25704338"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental effect of antioxidant additives on exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in compression ignition engine fuelled with Annona methyl ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Senthil, R; Silambarasan, R</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of antioxidant l-ascorbic acid on engine performance and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of a diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of Annona oil (MEAO). The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (100-400 mg) with MEAO. Result shows that the antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+LA200) is effective in control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) <span class="hlt">emission</span> of MEAO-fuelled engine without doing any engine modification. In this study by using MEAO, the NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> is reduced by about 23.38% at full load while compared with neat diesel fuel. Likewise there is a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in carbon monoxide, smoke, and HC by about 48%, 28.57% and 29.71% at full load condition compared with neat diesel fuel. PMID:25704338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=200530','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=200530"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of water seals on <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can minimize the detrimental impact of soil fumigation while maintaining the benefits of fumigants to agricultural productions. As a costly effective and environmentally friendly method, water seal (applying water to soil surface) has the potential to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This study ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=233068','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=233068"><span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Assessment of <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Strategies for the Agricultural Fumigants 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>With the increased use of the agricultural fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP), it is important that strategies to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of these fumigant from soil to the air are assessed to protect air quality. Using an established soil column approach, the following <span class="hlt">emission</span> re...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26440379"><span id="translatedtitle">Inventory of PCBs in Chicago and Opportunities for <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in Airborne <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> and Human Exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shanahan, Caitlin E; Spak, Scott N; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Urban areas are important regional sources of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and population-scale airborne exposure, yet a comprehensive bottom-up source inventory of PCB <span class="hlt">emissions</span> has never been quantified at urban scales in the United States. Here we report a comprehensive parcel level inventory of PCB stocks and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for Chicago, Illinois, developed with a transferable method from publicly available data. Chicago's legacy stocks hold 276 ± 147 tonnes ∑PCBs, with 0.2 tonnes added annually. Transformers and building sealants represent the largest legacy categories at 250 and 20 tonnes, respectively. From these stocks, annual <span class="hlt">emissions</span> rates of 203 kg for ∑PCBs and 3 kg for PCB 11 explain observed concentrations in Chicago air. Sewage sludge drying contributes 25% to <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, soils 31%, and transformers 21%. Known contaminated sites account for <1% of stocks and 17% of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to air. Paint is responsible for 0.00001% of stocks but up to 7% of ∑PCBs <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Stocks and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are highly concentrated and not correlated with population density or demographics at the neighborhood scale. Results suggest that strategies to further reduce exposure and ecosystem deposition must focus on the largest <span class="hlt">emissions</span> sources rather than the most contaminated sites or the largest closed source legacy stocks. PMID:26440379</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=229329','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=229329"><span id="translatedtitle">SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> STRATEGIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Farming practices can have a large impact on the soil carbon cycle and the resulting net <span class="hlt">emission</span> of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO**2), methane and nitrous oxide. Primary sources of CO**2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> on dairy farms are soil, plant, and animal respiration with smaller contributions from ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... consideration at any time. (d) EIA database and summary reports. The Administrator of EIA will establish a publicly accessible database composed of all reports that meet the definitional, measurement, calculation... <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, indirect <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and carbon fluxes. A portion of the database will provide summary...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title10-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title10-vol3-sec300-12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... consideration at any time. (d) EIA database and summary reports. The Administrator of EIA will establish a publicly accessible database composed of all reports that meet the definitional, measurement, calculation... <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, indirect <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and carbon fluxes. A portion of the database will provide summary...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=229332','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=229332"><span id="translatedtitle">SIMULATION OF METHANE <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> STRATEGIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As a sector, agriculture is reported to be the third greatest contributor to atmospheric methane (CH**4) in the U.S., emitting one-quarter of total <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Primary sources of CH**4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> on dairy farms are the animals and manure storage, with smaller contributions from field-applied manure, fe...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770010150','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770010150"><span id="translatedtitle">Avco Lycoming/NASA contract status. [on <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from aircraft piston engines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duke, L. C.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were the basis in a study of ways to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from aircraft piston engines. A variable valve timing system, ultrasonic fuel atomization, and ignition system changes were postulated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15666445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15666445"><span id="translatedtitle">The contribution of waste management to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with applications in the city of Bucharest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sandulescu, Elena</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Waste management is a key process to protect the environment and conserve resources. The contribution of appropriate waste management measures to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the city of Bucharest was studied. An analysis of the distribution of waste flows into various treatment options was conducted using the material flows and stocks analysis (MFSA). An optimum scenario (i.e. municipal solid waste stream managed as: recycling of recoverable materials, 8%; incineration of combustibles, 60%; landfilling of non-combustibles, 32%) was modelled to represent the future waste management in Bucharest with regard to its relevance towards the potential for GHG <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. The results indicate that it can contribute by 5.5% to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the total amount of GHGs emitted from Bucharest. PMID:15666445</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3884861','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3884861"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of the Livestock Ammonia <span class="hlt">Emission</span> under the Changing Temperature during the Initial Manure Nitrogen Biomineralization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bagdonienė, Indrė; Baležentienė, Ligita</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Experimental data were applied for the modelling optimal cowshed temperature environment in laboratory test bench by a mass-flow method. The principal factor affecting exponent growth of ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> was increasing air and manure surface temperature. With the manure temperature increasing from 4°C to 30°C, growth in the ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> grew fourfold, that is, from 102 to 430 mg m−2h−1. Especial risk emerges when temperature exceeds 20°C: an increase in temperature of 1°C contributes to the intensity of ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> by 17 mg m−2h−1. The temperatures of air and manure surface as well as those of its layers are important when analysing <span class="hlt">emission</span> processes from manure. Indeed, it affects the processes occurring on the manure surface, namely, dehydration and crust formation. To reduce ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> from cowshed, it is important to optimize the inner temperature control and to manage air circulation, especially at higher temperatures, preventing the warm ambient air from blowing direct to manure. Decrease in mean annual temperature of 1°C would reduce the annual ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> by some 5.0%. The air temperature range varied between −15°C and 30°C in barns. The highest mean annual temperature (14.6°C) and ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> (218 mg m−2h−1) were observed in the semideep cowshed. PMID:24453912</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26386431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26386431"><span id="translatedtitle">Insights into the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling <span class="hlt">emission</span> of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry. PMID:26386431</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol15-sec63-11588-app1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol14/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol14-sec63-11588-app1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-19/pdf/2012-962.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-19/pdf/2012-962.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 2677 - National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Plants...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-19</p> <p>... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Plants'' is being extended for 12 days. DATES: Comments. The public comment period for the proposed rule published December 6, 2011, (76 FR... Aluminum <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Plants; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/351067','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/351067"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of perfluorocarbon (PFC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at Alcan`s primary aluminum smelters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barber, M.A.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>Recent studies have indicated that perfluorocarbon (PFC) compounds are powerful greenhouse gases. The principal anthropogenic source of these compounds is believed to be primary aluminum smelters. As a result, most major aluminum producers have initiated programs to reduce PFC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This paper outlines the actions Alcan has taken over the past 6 years to reduce PFC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, along with results obtained to date and projections for the future. An explanation of the mechanism of PFC formation is given. In addition, actual measured <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels are compared to those predicted by models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983798','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/983798"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad</p> <p>2010-05-21</p> <p>The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG <span class="hlt">reduction</span> or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.9781T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.9781T"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in primary <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40 % in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85 %) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass, and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1513211T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1513211T"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from EGUs and other primary sources in the region but <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in primary <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40% in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85%) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827733','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/827733"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined Catalyzed Soot Filter and SCR Catalyst System for Diesel Engine <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kakwani, R.M.</p> <p>2000-08-20</p> <p>Substantially reduces particulate <span class="hlt">emission</span> for diesel vehicles Up to 90% effective against carbonaceous particulate matter Significantly reduces CO and HC Filter regenerates at normal diesel operation temperatures Removable design for easy cleaning and maintenance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770004255','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770004255"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of gaseous pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from gas turbine combustors using hydrogen-enriched jet fuel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clayton, R. M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Recent progress in an evaluation of the applicability of the hydrogen enrichment concept to achieve ultralow gaseous pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> from gas turbine combustion systems is described. The target <span class="hlt">emission</span> indexes for the program are 1.0 for oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide, and 0.5 for unburned hydrocarbons. The basic concept utilizes premixed molecular hydrogen, conventional jet fuel, and air to depress the lean flammability limit of the mixed fuel. This is shown to permit very lean combustion with its low NOx production while simulataneously providing an increased flame stability margin with which to maintain low CO and HC <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Experimental <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics and selected analytical results are presented for a cylindrical research combustor designed for operation with inlet-air state conditions typical for a 30:1 compression ratio, high bypass ratio, turbofan commercial engine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1367...29A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1367...29A"><span id="translatedtitle">Precise Measurement of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Fluorescence Yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>We present preliminary results of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> yield of fluorescence <span class="hlt">emission</span> in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321246','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321246"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation from Indonesia’s moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G.; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V.; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C.; Baccini, Alessandro</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To reduce greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas (“concessions”) for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17–127%, 44–129%, or 3.1–11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia’s moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation over that decade would have been 241–615 MtCO2e (2.8–7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213–545 MtCO2e (2.5–6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30–7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95–19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of <span class="hlt">emissions</span>) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of <span class="hlt">emissions</span>). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed. PMID:25605880</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626080','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626080"><span id="translatedtitle">Planning for future uncertainties in electric power generation; An analysis of transitional strategies for <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of carbon and sulfur <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tabors, R.D.; Monroe, B.L. III . Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems)</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to identify strategies for the U.S. electric utility industry for <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of both acid rain producing and global warming gasses. The research used the EPRI Electric Generation Expansion Analysis System (EGEAS) utility optimization/simulation modeling structure and the EPRI developed regional utilities. It focuses on the North East and East Central region of the U.S. Strategies identified were fuel switching -- predominantly between coal and natural gas, mandated <span class="hlt">emission</span> limits, and a carbon tax. The overall conclusions of the study are that using less (conservation) will always benefit Carbon <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> but may or may not benefit Acid Rain <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by the off setting forces of improved performance of new plant as opposed to reduced overall consumption of final product. Results of the study are highly utility and regional demand specific. The study showed, however, that significant <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in both acid rain and global warming gas production could be achieved with relatively small increases in the overall cost of production of electricity and that the current dispatch logics available to the utility control rooms were adequate to reschedule dispatch to meet these objectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464331"><span id="translatedtitle">An analytical model for estimating the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> through landfill cover soils by methane oxidation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yao, Yijun; Su, Yao; Wu, Yun; Liu, Weiping; He, Ruo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Landfill is an important source of atmospheric methane (CH4). In this study, the development and partial validation are presented for an analytical model for predicting the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> in landfill cover soils by CH4 oxidation. The model combines an analytic solution of a coupled oxygen (O2) and CH4 soil gas transport in landfill covers with a piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation, including the influences of environmental factors such as cover soil thickness, CH4 oxidation and CH4 production rate. Comparison of soil gas concentration profiles with a soil column experiment is provided for a partial validation, and then this model is applied to predict the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> through landfill covers in several other cases. A discussion is provided to illustrate the roles of soil layer thickness, reaction rate constant for CH4 oxidation and CH4 production rate in determining CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The results suggest that the increase of cover soil thickness cannot always increase CH4 oxidation rates or removal efficiency, which becomes constant if the thickness of landfill cover soil is larger than a limit. PMID:25464331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1017066','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1017066"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25603251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25603251"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of 1,3-dichloropropene by soil amendment with biochar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Qiuxia; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Yan, Dongdong; Ma, Taotao; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Chenglei; Wang, Ruoqi; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Soil fumigation is an important treatment in the production chain of fruit and vegetable crops, but fumigant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> contribute to air pollution. Biochar as a soil amendment has shown the potential to reduce organic pollutants, including pesticides, in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. A laboratory column study was performed to determine the effects of soil applications of biochar for reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). The experimental treatments comprised of unamended and amended with biochar at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% (w/w) in the top 5 cm soil layer. The unamended treatment resulted in the highest <span class="hlt">emission</span> peak flux at 48 to 66 μg m s. Among the biochar amendment treatments, the highest peak flux (0.83 μg m s) was found in the biochar 0.5% treatment. The total <span class="hlt">emission</span> loss was 35.7 to 40.2% of applied for the unamended treatment and <0.1 to 2.9% for the biochar-amendment treatments. A germination bioassay with cucumber seeds showed that ≥7 d of aeration would be needed to avoid phytotoxicity before replanting in biochar-containing fumigated soil. The results indicate that treatments with 0.5% or more biochar amendment reduced <span class="hlt">emission</span> peak flux by >99.8% and showed total 1,3-D <span class="hlt">emission</span> loss by >92% compared with that without biochar. The amendment of surface soil with biochar shows a great potential for reducing fumigant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. PMID:25603251</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSCER..67II243F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSCER..67II243F"><span id="translatedtitle">50% <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> IN GLOBAL GHG <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> BY 2050 AND ITS IMPLICATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru</p> <p></p> <p>To prevent the global temperature increase by two degrees, global greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> in 2050 should be cut by half relative to its 1990 level. This study shows following three things by using multi regions and sectors recursive dynamic type computable general equilibrium model. One is the feasibility of that global <span class="hlt">emission</span> target. The others are the counter measures and the impact on the macro economy, if that target were feasible. In addition, the scenarios with and without international <span class="hlt">emission</span> trading are implemented and the effect of the trading is analyzed. As a result, that target can be achieved. The marginal abatement cost is 750/tCO2-eq in 2050. Energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy and carbon capture and storage technologies are the main players as counter measures. If the <span class="hlt">emission</span> trading is available freely, GDP loss is 4.5% globally in 2050. Otherwise, the loss is increased to 6.1%. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> trading mechanism is also one of the important measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53L3363H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53L3363H"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane mitigation in cities: how new measurements and partnerships can contribute to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hopkins, F. M.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Wiggins, E. B.; Miu, J. C. L.; Carranza, V.; Randerson, J. T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Cities generate a large fraction of anthropogenic methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that are increasing with urbanization and greater reliance on natural gas as fuel. New measurements of methane in cities suggest an as-yet unrealized potential for city-scale methane mitigation. We present high-resolution methane observations from four cities in North America to demonstrate the utility of methane surveys for identifying urban methane sources. We used portable, continuous on-road measurements to determine the spatial distribution of methane in Fairbanks, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, and San Diego. Across cities, methane tended to be highly concentrated in space, suggesting discrete, point <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources. Elevated methane levels were found near known <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources, such as landfills, wastewater treatment facilities, and natural gas-fueled power plants, and revealed the location of fugitive leaks in natural gas infrastructure. The mix of sources and sizes of methane leaks varied among cities, highlighting a need for locally adaptive <span class="hlt">emissions</span> regulation. Urban methane observations can inform anthropogenic processes in development of methane mitigation strategies. We discuss specific examples of how continuous atmospheric measurements can enhance the design of mitigation strategies in these cities, and potential contributions of these approaches to cross-sectoral efforts to reduce methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at the city level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000091029','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000091029"><span id="translatedtitle">Apparatus For Linewidth <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in Distributed Feedback or Distributed Bragg Reflector Semiconductor Lasers Using Vertical <span class="hlt">Emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cook, Anthony L. (Inventor); Hendricks, Herbert D. (Inventor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The linewidth of a distributed feedback semiconductor laser or a distributed Bragg reflector laser having one or more second order gratings is reduced by using an external cavity to couple the vertical <span class="hlt">emission</span> back into the laser. This method and device prevent disturbance of the main laser beam, provide unobstructed access to laser <span class="hlt">emission</span> for the formation of the external cavity, and do not require a very narrow heat sink. Any distributed Bragg reflector semiconductor laser or distributed feedback semiconductor laser that can produce a vertical <span class="hlt">emission</span> through the epitaxial material and through a window in the top metallization can be used. The external cavity can be formed with an optical fiber or with a lens and a mirror or grating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21418130','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21418130"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Couth, R.; Trois, C.</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/625634','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/625634"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from aeration basins using mobil hoods and circulating aeration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhu, Hongwei; Keener, T.C.; Bishop, P.L.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>As regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) with large treatment capacities will be required to reduce their <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of volatile organic hazardous air pollutants, primarily from the aeration basins. Previous studies indicate that circulating aeration may significantly reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, most of which are from the upstream portion of the aeration basin. Based on these findings, circulating aeration facilitated by partial tank covering using mobile hoods is proposed as an effective <span class="hlt">emission</span> control strategy. Using this technology, less VOCs will be stripped into and concentrated in reduced amount of off-gases which can be efficiently treated by conventional control technologies. Compared with fixed rigid covers of aeration basins, mobile hoods are inexpensive to construct and easy to operate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6063303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6063303"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration in vivo measurement systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6381426','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6381426"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of NO[sub x] <span class="hlt">emissions</span> coke oven gas combustion process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Terza, R.R. ); Sardesai, U.V. )</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S <span class="hlt">emission</span> being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] <span class="hlt">emission</span> being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215416','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050215416"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA Glenn's Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Supported the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Project's <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Beltran, Luis R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Advanced Subsonic Combustor Rig (ASCR) is NASA Glenn Research Center's unique high-pressure, high-temperature combustor facility supporting the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> element of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The facility can simulate combustor inlet test conditions up to a pressure of 900 psig and a temperature of 1200 F (non-vitiated). ASCR completed three sector tests in fiscal year 2003 for General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce North America. This will provide NASA and U.S. engine manufacturers the information necessary to develop future low-<span class="hlt">emission</span> combustors and will help them to better understand durability and operability at these high pressures and temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhDT........83R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhDT........83R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Positron Range Effects by the Application of a Magnetic Field: for Use with Positron <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raylman, Raymond Robert</p> <p></p> <p>The process of positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography has become a valuable medical research tool. This procedure involves the administration of a radiopharmaceutical labelled with a positron-emitting isotope to a living organism. Upon the <span class="hlt">emission</span> and subsequent annihilation of a positron, the gamma rays produced are detected to create an image of metabolic activity within the subject. Many factors such as Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption of the gamma rays tend to limit the quality of these images. Another important limitation is the non-negligible distance the positron travels prior to annihilation. This phenomenon leads to the misplacement of data in the final image. A method for reducing this effect utilizing a magnetic field has been tested and evaluated. The application of a magnetic field constrains the positrons to travel in helical paths instead of their relatively straight courses. Thus, the effective distance the positrons travel from their point of <span class="hlt">emission</span> is reduced. Results indicate that this technique is successful in reducing the blurring caused in PET images by positron range. The results also indicate that the amount of resolution improvement depends upon the choice of positron emitter and scanner resolution. <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of this blurring helps to produce clearer PET images which can allow for more precise localization of tumors, in addition to better measurement of metabolic rate constants. The use of a magnetic field to reduce the range of positrons will lead to more useful images produced by positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004199','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004199"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of ozone response to various combinations of NO(x) and VOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in the eastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roselle, Shawn J.; Schere, Kenneth L.; Chu, Shao-Hang</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>There is increasing recognition that controls on NO(x) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> may be necessary, in addition to existing and future Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) controls, for the abatement of ozone (O3) over portions of the United States. This study compares various combinations of anthropogenic NO(x) and VOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> through a series of model simulations. A total of 6 simulations were performed with the Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) for a 9-day period in July 1988. Each simulation reduced anthropogenic NO(x) and VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> across-the-board by different amounts. Maximum O3 concentrations for the period were compared between the simulations. Comparison of the simulations suggests that: (1) NO(x) controls may be more effective than VOC controls in reducing peak O3 over most of the eastern United States; (2) VOC controls are most effective in urban areas having large sources of <span class="hlt">emissions</span>; (3) NO(x) controls may increase O3 near large point sources; and (4) the benefit gained from increasing the amount of VOC controls may lessen as the amount of NO(x) control is increased. This paper has been reviewed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's peer and administrative review policies and approved for presentation and publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/22110338','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/22110338"><span id="translatedtitle">A fair compromise to break the climate impasse. A major economies forum approach to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> budgeting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grasso, Marco; J. Roberts, Timmons</p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>Key messages of the study are: Given the stalemate in U.N. climate negotiations, the best arena to strike a workable deal is among the members the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF); The 13 MEF members—including the EU-27 (but not double-counting the four EU countries that are also individual members of the MEF)—account for 81.3 percent of all global <span class="hlt">emissions</span>; This proposal devises a fair compromise to break the impasse to develop a science-based approach for fairly sharing the carbon budget in order to have a 75 percent chance of avoiding dangerous climate change; To increase the likelihood of a future climate agreement, carbon accounting must shift from production-based inventories to consumption-based ones; The shares of a carbon budget to stay below 2 deg C through 2050 are calculated by cumulative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> since 1990, i.e. according to a short-horizon polluter pays principle, and national capability (income), and allocated to MEF members through <span class="hlt">emission</span> rights. This proposed fair compromise addresses key concerns of major emitters; According to this accounting, no countries have negative carbon budgets, there is substantial time for greening major developing economies, and some developed countries need to institute very rapid <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span>; and, To provide a 'green ladder' to developing countries and to ensure a fair global deal, it will be crucial to agree how to extend sufficient and predictable financial support and the rapid transfer of technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001884"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in these industries. They find that most of the carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212091','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212091"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO<sub>2</sub> <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Potentials in the Cement Industry in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang</p> <p>2012-06-15</p> <p>China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO<sub>2</sub> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO<sub>2</sub> and the CO<sub>2</sub> <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO<sub>2</sub>. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO<sub>2</sub> <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of 406 Mt CO<sub>2</sub>. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SJRUE..15....4K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015SJRUE..15....4K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kittipongvises, Suthirat</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e) per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding) generated the highest GHGs <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. By scope, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> from purchased electricity (scope 2) is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), vertical roller mills (VRM), gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies) that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and practice were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22262716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22262716"><span id="translatedtitle">A study of cooling time <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> coating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S.</p> <p>2014-01-29</p> <p>In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-<span class="hlt">emissivity</span> coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the cooling time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6934793','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6934793"><span id="translatedtitle">Uncle Sam goes to market: Federal agency disposal of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> credits under the Federal property management regulations. Master's thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rafferty, V.J.</p> <p>1994-01-30</p> <p>With the realignment and closure of Federal facilities, especially Department of Defense installations, Federal agencies have been presented with a unique opportunity: the chance to create and dispose of air <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> credits (ERCs). This situation and current commitments by the Congress and EPA to expand the use of market based pollution control programs have generated interest in certain circles as to whether and how Federal agencies can dispose of ERCs and similar pollution rights and allowances. This paper will discuss ERCs, why the disposal of ERCs by Federal agencies is a pressing issue, and how Federal agencies can dispose of ERCs under existing Federal property laws and regulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/249758','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/249758"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustion efficiency: Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from the power generation sector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kane, R.; South, D.W.; Fish, A.L.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Concern for the possibility of an enhanced greenhouse effect and global climate change (GCC) has often been associated with energy use in general, and fossil fuel combustion in particular, because of associated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases (GHG). Therefore, energy policies play a significant role in determining greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The generation of electricity and power from more efficient fossil energy technologies provides an opportunity to significantly lower GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, together with other pollutants. The U.S. government oversees a broad-based program to facilitate the development, demonstration, and deployment of these technologies. Advanced fossil technologies offer other benefits as well, in that they permit continued use of widely available fuels such as coal. An international perspective is critical for assessing the role of these fuels, since countries differ in terms of their ability to maximize these benefits. Often, new technologies are considered the domain of industrialized countries. Yet more efficient technologies may have their greatest potential - to concurrently permit the utilization of indigenous fuels and to lower global GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in developing countries, especially those in the Asia-Pacific region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=176387&keyword=reactive+AND+strategies&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65022018&CFTOKEN=13178836','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=176387&keyword=reactive+AND+strategies&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65022018&CFTOKEN=13178836"><span id="translatedtitle">CO-DEPENDENCIES OF REACTIVE AIR TOXIC AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS ON <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>It is important to understand the effect of <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls on the concentrations of ozone, PM<SUB>2.5</SUB>, and hazardous air pollutants simultaneously, in order to evaluate the full range of both health related and economic effects. Until recently, the capability of simultan...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=trade+AND+policy&id=EJ958454','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=trade+AND+policy&id=EJ958454"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy Attribute Framing: A Comparison between Three Policy Instruments for Personal <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parag, Yael; Capstick, Stuart; Poortinga, Wouter</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A comparative experiment in the UK examined people's willingness to change energy consumption behavior under three different policy framings: energy tax, carbon tax, and personal carbon allowances (PCA). PCA is a downstream cap-and-trade policy proposed in the UK, in which <span class="hlt">emission</span> rights are allocated to individuals. We hypothesized that due to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=66320&keyword=missing+AND+mass&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76375888&CFTOKEN=18400381','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=66320&keyword=missing+AND+mass&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76375888&CFTOKEN=18400381"><span id="translatedtitle">AN INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTIVENESS OF MERCURY <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> STRATEGIES IN THE GREAT LAKES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Using atmospheric transport and fate models, it has been possible to link the changes in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to to the change in atmospheric deposition for the last thirty years for the criteria air pollutants, but it has only been in the last decade that advances have been made to allow t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=40153&keyword=bauxite&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64051553&CFTOKEN=35121337','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=40153&keyword=bauxite&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=64051553&CFTOKEN=35121337"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF COAL-BASED METAL <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> BY FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The paper gives results of research of the ability of sorbent injection technology to reduce the potential for trace metal <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal combustion. ilot-scale tests of high-temperature furnace sorbent injection were accompanied by stack sampling for coal-based, metallic ai...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=235489','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=235489"><span id="translatedtitle">WHAT TO CONSIDER WHEN <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> IS REQUIRED FROM SOIL FUMIGATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Emission</span> is one of the key factors affecting fumigant use in California due to regulations. Many commodities depend on pre-plant soil fumigation to achieve profitable yield and healthy crops. The phase-out of methyl bromide as a broad-spectrum soil fumigant in pest control has placed formidable chal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299016','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299016"><span id="translatedtitle">Fumigation efficacy and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> using low-permeability film in orchard soil fumigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>BACKGROUND: Many orchards in California, USA, apply fumigants to soil before replanting to reduce the impact of pest pressure or replanting disease on new tree establishment. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> control of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide is mandatory in air quality (ozone) non-attainment areas. This s...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=229333','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=229333"><span id="translatedtitle">SIMULATION OF NITROUS OXIDE <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> STRATEGIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Farming practices can have a large impact on the net <span class="hlt">emission</span> of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide (N**2O). The primary sources of N**2O from dairy farms are nitrification and denitrification processes in soil, with smaller contributions from manure storage and ba...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=129878&keyword=calcite+OR+montmorillonite+OR+kaolinite+OR+gibbsite&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77934803&CFTOKEN=93538133','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=129878&keyword=calcite+OR+montmorillonite+OR+kaolinite+OR+gibbsite&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77934803&CFTOKEN=93538133"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF COAL-BASED METAL <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> BY FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The ability of sorbent injection technology to reduce the potential for trace metal <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal combustion was researched. Pilot scale tests of high-temperature furnace sorbent injection were accompanied by stack sampling for coal-based, metallic air toxics. Tested sorben...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013051','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110013051"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Cartesian Autocollimator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leviton, Douglas B.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>An electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term <span class="hlt">absolute</span> in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1854H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1854H"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the impact of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on air quality over North China Plain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The production rate of secondary pollutants was highly non-linear with the <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity of their precursors. In this study, the air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ with zero-out sensitivity test was applied to conduct source sensitivity approaches of PM2.5 for four source categories (industry, power plants, transport, and residential) over the North China Plain (NCP) in January and July of 2013. The results show that the residential and industry <span class="hlt">emission</span> sector were the greatest contributors to domain-wide PM2.5 in January and July, respectively. The largest variation could exceed 200 μg m-3 attributed to the residential sector in January when a heavy pollution period appeared, and could reach 40-60 μg m-3 attributed to the industry sector in July in the heavy pollution area, respectively. The nonlinear relationship between the secondary pollutant formation and its precursors was reflected by this source sensitivity approaches, as the summation of the secondary pollutant variations attributed to the four sources was obviously different from the simulated baseline concentration and the mass burden of nitrate would increase upon removal of the power plants or transport <span class="hlt">emission</span> sector in the heavy pollution regions in January. Further analysis indicated that the improvement of atmospheric oxidation capacity due to <span class="hlt">emission</span> sector removal coupled with the sufficient precursor nitrogen oxide under severe pollution background should be the main reason of the negative variation of nitrate appeared in the sensitivity test. This feature indicates that the atmospheric oxidation capacity is an important impact factor in determining the production rate of nitrate formation, and could further influence the variation feature of PM2.5 mass burden during the pollution episode. Thus, it is suggested that the comprehensive pollution control strategies should be implemented based on the specific pollution condition. Additionally, the nonlinearity of secondary pollutants</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921934"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.</p> <p>2007-09-10</p> <p>Precise and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35485','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/35485"><span id="translatedtitle">Part I - burner and ESP improvements for <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of particulate and NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pickles, R.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>The Coleson Cove Generating Station is a 3 x 350 MW plant located on the Bay of Fundy in Southern New Brunswick, Canada. The plant was designed to burn a range of fuel oils including distillates, crudes, and residual oil. The original fuel was a light high sulphur residual. The fuel supply changed to Venezuelan high vanadium residual as a result of economics. Typical Venezuelan analysis is shown, together with the design fuel analysis. A result of this change was a significant increase in <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The plant was designed with electrostatic precipitators by Joy Technologies with 90% collection efficiency. Based on the design criteria problems with the ash handling system, the precipitators were not operated consistently for a significant period. As a result of the above conditions and because of high <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, a program of combustion improvements was initiated followed by upgrading of the precipitator and ash handling system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20770215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20770215"><span id="translatedtitle">Pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo</p> <p>2006-07-15</p> <p>This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH51A3841J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH51A3841J"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Persistent Volcanic <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Volcanic and geothermal <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/915099','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/915099"><span id="translatedtitle">Off-Highway Heavy Vehicle Diesel Efficiency Improvement and <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jennifer Rumsey</p> <p>2005-12-31</p> <p>Cummins Inc. is a world leader in the development and production of diesel engines for on-highway vehicles, off-highway industrial machines, and power generation units. Cummins Inc. diesel products cover a 50-3000 HP range. The power range for this project includes 174-750 HP to achieve EPA's Tier 3 <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels of 4.0 NOx+NMHC gm/kW-hr and 0.2 PM gm/kWhr and Tier 4 Interim <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels of 2.0 gm/kW-hr NOx and 0.02 gm/kW-hr PM. Cummins' anticipated product offerings for Tier 4 in this range include the following: QSB6.7, QSC8.3, QSL9, QSM11, QSX15, QSK19. (For reference, numerical values indicate engine displacement in liters, the letter designation ns indicate the product model). A summary of the EPA's mobile off-highway <span class="hlt">emissions</span> requirements is given in Figure 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21608491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21608491"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of dioxin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the processes of heat and power generation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wielgosiński, Grzegorz</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The first reports that it is possible to emit dioxins from the heat and power generation sector are from the beginning of the 1980s. Detailed research proved that the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of dioxins might occur during combustion of hard coal, brown coal, and furnace oil as well as coke-oven gas. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> of dioxins occurs in wood incineration; wood that is clean and understood as biomass; or, in particular, wood waste (polluted). This paper thoroughly discusses the mechanism of dioxin formation in thermal processes, first and foremost in combustion processes. The parameters influencing the quantity of dioxins formed and the dependence of their quantity on the conditions of combustion are highlighted. Furthermore, the methods of reducing dioxin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from combustion processes (primary and secondary) are discussed. The most efficacious methods that may find application in the heat and power generation sector are proposed; this is relevant from the point of view of the implementation of the Stockholm Convention resolutions in Poland with regard to persistent organic pollutants. PMID:21608491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012888','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012888"><span id="translatedtitle">Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> and Maintenance <span class="hlt">Reductions</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/898346','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/898346"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Aerodynamic Technologies for Ground Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement and <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ricahrd Wood</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>SOLUS-Solutions and Technologies LLC utilized the opportunity presented by the Department of Energy (DOE) Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully develop, market, and license two of the original three fuel and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> saving aerodynamic trailer attachments for the trucking industry. Working independent of the grant and with SOLUS funding SOLUS also developed, marketed and licensed three additional fuel and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> saving aerodynamic trailer attachments for the trucking industry. The five inventions include four inventions that are applicable to all heavy truck trailers and one invention specifically designed for van trailers with swing doors. The SOLUS inventions have been developed for use on all trailer types as well as light and medium trucks. SOLUS-Solutions and Technologies LLC has licensed the five inventions to Silver Eagle Manufacturing Company of Portland Oregon. Each trailer outfitted with the SOLUS inventions saves approximately 2,000 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 20 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save more than 4.0 billion gallons of diesel fuel, reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 40 million tons and save 10.0 billion dollars annually.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SJRUE..10...16I&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SJRUE..10...16I&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy Saving and GHG <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in a Micro-CCHP System by Use of Solar Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ion, Ion V.; Ciocea, Gheorghe; Popescu, Florin</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In this work, the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span>, and the energy saving by integrating solar collectors and photovoltaic panels in a Stirling engine based microcombined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) system are studied. The mCCHP system consists of a natural gas Stirling CHP and an adsorber chiller. When the thermal outputs of the Stirling CHP and solar collectors are not sufficient to cover the heat demand for domestic hot water (DHW), heating/cooling, an auxiliary heating boiler starts to operate. The energy saving by using solar energy varies from 13.35% in December to 59.62% in April, in the case of solar collectors usage and from 7.47% in December to 28.27% in July, in the case of photovoltaic panels usage. By using solar energy the annual GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> decreases by 31.98% and the fuel cost <span class="hlt">reduction</span> varies from 12.73% in December to 49.78% in June.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770321','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770321"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and resource utilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively. PMID:26923104</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/541045','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/541045"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> components from diesel engines running with rapeseedmethylester using oxidation catalyst technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>May, H.; Huettenberger, P.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Up to now all engine research was based on engines, which are adapted to Diesel fuel but not to vegetableoilmethylester (VME). Caused by the special climate conditions in Europe rapeseed and sunflowers, in the US soya-beans and in the tropical countries palm trees are the favorable plants for vegetable oil production. The physical and chemical properties of Diesel fuel and VME are quite different. Therefore an engine adaption and redesign to VME is a suitable way of further <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of noxious and climate-influencing <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. To prove the effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> the European test-cycle ECE/EUDC, the US-FTP 75 test for passenger cars and the European 13-stage-test-cycle for heavy duty-truck-engines has been used with and without an oxidation catalyst in each case. The results of the exhaust gas measurement both concerning regulated and unregulated components are shown. A comparison between engines fueled with fossil diesel fuel and rapeseedmethylester (RME) is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...622323S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...622323S"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and resource utilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26923104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26923104"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and resource utilization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively. PMID:26923104</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/985202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/985202"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina</p> <p>2010-06-07</p> <p>China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......381S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......381S"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined heat and power systems for commercial buildings: investigating cost, <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and primary energy <span class="hlt">reduction</span> based on system components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Amanda D.</p> <p></p> <p>Combined heat and power (CHP) systems produce electricity and useful heat from fuel. When power is produced near a building which consumes power, transmission losses are averted, and heat which is a byproduct of power production may be useful to the building. That thermal energy can be used for hot water or space heating, among other applications. This dissertation focuses on CHP systems using natural gas, a common fuel, and systems serving commercial buildings in the United States. First, the necessary price difference between purchased electricity and purchased fuel is analyzed in terms of the efficiencies of system components by comparing CHP with a conventional separate heat and power (SHP) configuration, where power is purchased from the electrical grid and heat is provided by a gas boiler. Similarly, the relationship between CDE due to electricity purchases and due to fuel purchases is analyzed as well as the relationship between primary energy conversion factors for electricity and fuel. The primary energy conversion factor indicates the quantity of source energy necessary to produce the energy purchased at the site. Next, greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are investigated for a variety of commercial buildings using CHP or SHP. The relationship between the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and the parameters of the CHP system is explored. The cost savings and <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in primary energy consumption are evaluated for the same buildings. Finally, a CHP system is analyzed with the addition of a thermal energy storage (TES) component, which can store excess thermal energy and deliver it later if necessary. The potential for CHP with TES to reduce cost, <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and primary energy consumption is investigated for a variety of buildings. A case study is developed for one building for which TES does provide additional benefits over a CHP system alone, and the requirements for a water tank TES device are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/351066','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/351066"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from metal dip coating applications -- Canam Steel Corporation Point of Rocks, MD case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Monfet, J.P.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from metal dip coating applications is not an environmental constraint, it is an economic opportunity. This case study shows how the industry can reap economic benefits from VOC <span class="hlt">reductions</span> while improving air quality. The Canam Steel Corporation plant located in Point of Rocks, MD operates dip tanks for primer application on fabricated steel joists and joist girders. This process is presently subject to a regulation that limits the paint VOC content to 3.5 pounds per gallon of coating less water. As a result of the high paint viscosity associated with that regulation, the paint thickness of the dipped steel is thicker than the customers` specifications. Most of the VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can therefore be associated with the excess of paint applied to the products rather than to the required thickness of the coating. The higher paint usage rate has more than environmental consequences, it increases the cost of the applied coating. The project is to reduce the paint usage by controlling the viscosity of the coating in the tank. Experimental results as well as actual mass balance calculations show that using a higher VOC content paint would reduce the overall VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The author explained the project to the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) Air and Radiation Management Administration. First, the MDE agreed to develop a new RACT determination for fabricated steel dipping operations. The new regulation would limit the amount of VOC than can be emitted to dip coat a ton of fabricated steel. Second, the MDE agreed to allow experimentation of the higher VOC content paint as a pilot project for the new regulation. This paper demonstrates the need for a RACT determination specific to fabricated steel dipping operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/401900','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/401900"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide <span class="hlt">reduction</span> options for low <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, P.V.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Coal fired, low <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B31G..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B31G..06S"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> from Forest Fuel Treatment Projects in Placer County, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saah, D. S.; Moritz, M.; Ganz, D. J.; Stine, P. A.; Moody, T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Years of successful fire suppression activities have left forests unnaturally dense, overstocked, and with high hazardous fuel loads. Wildfires, particularly those of high severity, may dramatically reduce carbon stocks and convert forested lands from carbon sinks to decades-long carbon sources . Forest resource managers are currently pursuing fuels <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and mitigation strategies to reduce wildfire risk and maintain carbon stocks. These projects include selective thinning and removal of trees and brush to return forest ecosystems to more natural stocking levels, resulting in a more fire-resilient forest that in theory would retain higher carry capacity for standing above ground carbon. Resource managers are exploring the possibility of supporting these local forest management projects by offering greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets to project developers that require GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> mitigation. Using robust field data, this research project modeled three types of carbon benefits that could be realized from forest management: 1. Fuels treatments in the study area were shown to reduce the GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from wildfires by decreasing the probability, extent, and severity of fires and the corresponding loss in forest carbon stocks; 2. Biomass utilization from fuel treatment was shown to reduce GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over the duration of the fuels treatment project compared to fossil fuel energy. 3. Management and thinning of forests in order to stimulate growth, resulting in more rapid uptake of atmospheric carbon and approaching a carbon carrying capacity stored in a forest ecosystem under prevailing environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16463910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16463910"><span id="translatedtitle">Implants as <span class="hlt">absolute</span> anchorage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "<span class="hlt">absolute</span> anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium Entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shebalin, John V.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The entropy associated with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PCE....21..451S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PCE....21..451S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling of ozone in Northrhine-Westphalia; effect of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> on ozone distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schoenemeyer, Th.; Emeis, S.; Wichmann-Fiebig, M.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>To study the efficiency of measures to reduce high ozone concentrations and to optimize abatement strategies, it is necessary to incorporate numerical photochemical model studies. For the simulation of an episode of four days with high concentrations (July 1994), meteorological fields were simulated by the nonhydrostatic mesoscale model METRAS. Chemistry, Transport and Deposition were calculated by RCDM using the RADM2-chemistry. For the simulations detailed <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories were provided by the State Environment Agency. Results show the inefficiency of speed limits and the weak effectiveness of regional measures against high ozon concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219932','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1219932"><span id="translatedtitle">Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in transportation energy use and GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Combined strategies result in <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit <span class="hlt">reduction</span>/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1069182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1069182"><span id="translatedtitle">Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in transportation energy use and GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Combined strategies result in <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit <span class="hlt">reduction</span>/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/351098','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/351098"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of combustion <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using hydrogen peroxide in a pilot scale combustion chamber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martinez, A.I.; Corredor, L.F.; Tamara, W.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>A hydrogen peroxide injection system was designed and installed in the stack of a 5,274 million J/hr industrial pilot plant scale combustion chamber using natural gas as fuel. The concentration of peroxide in the gas stream was precisely controlled by continuous injection using an electromagnetic dosage pump, the liquid 50% peroxide solution was finely dispersed into the gases by a water cooled custom designed delivery system with a spray nozzle at the tip. Residence times between 0.1 and 1.8 seconds and concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} between 280 ppm and 4,000 ppm were used during the test runs. CEMS for total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, as well as an ultrasonic gas flow monitor were used to measure the effect of hydrogen peroxide in reducing the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of these pollutants. Destruction removal efficiencies between 25% and 100% were observed for hydrocarbons, and concentrations of CO, as well as NO{sub x}. were reduced about 50%. The results indicate that this labscale proved technology yields similar results in reducing combustion <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in pilot applications, and also a reliable injection system has been developed and tested successfully.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmEn..44.3869L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmEn..44.3869L"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing <span class="hlt">emission</span> from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27423546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27423546"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from partial nitrification process by using innovative carbon source (mannitol).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wei, Dong; Lan, Wei; Hu, Zhen</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol as carbon source on nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) <span class="hlt">emission</span> during partial nitrification (PN) process. Laboratory-scale PN sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with mannitol and sodium acetate as carbon sources, respectively. Results showed that mannitol could remarkably reduce N2O-N <span class="hlt">emission</span> by 41.03%, without influencing the removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N. However, it has a significant influence on nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) and TN removal, which were 19.97% and 13.59% lower than that in PN with sodium acetate, respectively. Microbial analysis showed that the introduction of mannitol could increase the abundance of bacteria encoding nosZ genes. In addition, anti-oxidant enzymes (T-SOD, POD and CAT) activities were significantly reduced and the dehydrogenase activity had an obvious increase in mannitol system, indicating that mannitol could alleviate the inhibition of N2O reductase (N2OR) activities caused by high NO2(-)-N concentration. PMID:27423546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/148083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/148083"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of truncation artifacts in fan beam transmission by using parallel beam <span class="hlt">emission</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pan, T.S.; King, M.A.; Luo, D.S.; Case, J.A.; Penney, B.C.; Rajeevan, N.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Transmission imaging has been demonstrated to be a promising technique to provide a patient specific attenuation map for attenuation correction of SPECT cardiac perfusion images. The authors describe a method which uses the measurement of both photopeak and Compton scatter energy window images from a parallel beam collimation to augment the truncated attenuation map reconstruction in a fan beam transmission system. The method first estimates the body and lung outlines from the reconstructed <span class="hlt">emission</span> data and truncated attenuation map. Based on the outline information, an assigned attenuation map is created and reprojected to estimate the missed projection data, which are then combined with the truncated projection data for the set of complete data without truncation. Finally, a reconstruction using the combined complete data is performed to obtain the attenuation map with no truncation. The authors demonstrate that this method can significantly reduce the truncation artifacts in two phantom studies and one patient study. When some portion of the heart walls stays outside the densely sampled region (defined as the region of the object that has no truncation in any projection angle), the attenuation map estimated from this method can more effectively correct for the attenuation in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> data than the truncated attenuation map.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203777"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of endocrine disruptor <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the environment: the benefit of wastewater treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Janex-Habibi, Marie-Laure; Huyard, Alain; Esperanza, Mar; Bruchet, Auguste</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The occurrence and fate of four estrogens and five alkylphenolic compounds were studied in thirteen plants with various treatment processes, sizes and countries. Complete load mass balance, including water and sludge phases, has shown a high <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of the total load of hormones, around 90%. The removal of alkylphenols was more variable, due to the degradation of nonylphenol (NP) precursors - alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APnEO) - during the treatment, resulting in significant production of shorter and toxic alkylphenols (NP and short polyethoxylates) that concentrate in the sludges. Under anaerobic conditions, such as anaerobic digestion process, the load of NP was in most cases observed to increase. When considering the environmental impact, the high <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) concentrations between raw wastewater and effluent enables to satisfy the requirements of the Water Framework Directive for NP except in very critical situations where the dilution factor of the effluent in the river would be lower than 7. For sludges, the pending European Directive on spreading of sludge on land would be complied with in all cases. PMID:19203777</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3947793','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3947793"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs <span class="hlt">emission</span>. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/290809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/290809"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in coal-fired home heating stoves through the use of briquettes. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-06-19</p> <p>The purpose of Phase 1 was to optimize the clean burning coal briquette (Clean Fuel) formulation for Polish raw materials and to demonstrate the claimed pollution reducing benefits of its use in residential heating. Subsidiary goals were to test this fuel in larger scale facilities and to support the commercial tasks by producing Clean Fuel for use in the by-product market test. These goals were accomplished. Use of Clean Fuel in residential heating reduced particulate matter and total hydrocarbons <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from ceramic home heating stoves compared to the combustion of premium chunk coal by 56 and 39%, respectively. It also results in higher thermal efficiency. An optimum formulation using Polish raw materials was determined and used in the production of Clean Fuel for the by-product market test. This fuel was also tested in a hand-stoked fixed grate boiler and 3 travelling grate boilers of varying size.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011MS%26E...19a2004B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011MS%26E...19a2004B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Air plasma gasification of RDF as a prospective method for <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bratsev, A. N.; Kumkova, I. I.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Popov, V. E.; Shtengel', S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Waste disposal dumps are one of sources of carbonic gas penetration in the atmosphere. The waste is treated into RDF (refuse-derived fuel) and used in boilers for electric power or heat generation for decrease in carbonic gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the atmosphere. In industry power stations on the basis of the combined cycle have the highest efficiency of burning. The paper deals with the application of an air-plasma gasifier using the down draft scheme of RDF transformation into synthesis gas, which afterwards can be used in the combined cycle. Results of calculations of the process characteristics for various RDF compositions are presented. The advantage of the plasma method in comparison with autothermal one is shown. Experimental data are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014LatJP..51...26B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014LatJP..51...26B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Due to Improvement of Biodegradable Waste Management System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bendere, R.; Teibe, I.; Arina, D.; Lapsa, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>To reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of greenhouse gas (GHG) from landfills, the European Union (EU) Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC requires that there be a progressive decrease in the municipal biodegradable waste disposal. The main problem of waste management (WM) in Latvia is its heavy dependence on the waste disposal at landfills. The poorly developed system for the sorted municipal waste collection and the promotion of landfilling as a major treatment option led to the disposal of 84% of the total collected municipal waste in 2012, with a high biodegradable fraction. In Latvia, the volume of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to activities of the WM branch was 5.23% (632.6 CO2 eq.) of the total GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> produced in the National economy in 2010 (12 097 Gg CO2 eq., except the land use, land-use change and forestry). Having revised the current situation in the management of biodegradable waste in Latvia, the authors propose improvements in this area. In the work, analysis of environmental impact was carried out using Waste Management Planning System (WAMPS) software in the WM modelling scenarios. The software computes the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, energy and turnover of waste streams for the processes within the WM system such as waste collection and transportation, composting, anaerobic digestion, and the final disposal (landfilling or incineration). The results of WAMPS modelling are presented in four categories associated with the environmental impact: acidification, global warming, eutrophication and photo-oxidant formation, each characterised by a particular <span class="hlt">emission</span>. These categories cover an integrated WM system, starting with the point when products turn to waste which is then thrown into the bin for waste at its generation source, and ending with the point where the waste transforms either into useful material (recycled material, biogas or compost) or contributes to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> into environment after the final disposal at a landfill or an incineration plant Rakstā veikts pašvaldības bioloģiski no</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1382...49W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1382...49W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolf, Joachim</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611867','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611867"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wolf, Joachim</p> <p>2011-10-06</p> <p>The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814516','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814516"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating Energy and Cost Savings and <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> for the State Energy Program Based on Enumeration Indicators Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schweitzer, M.</p> <p>2003-02-06</p> <p>As part of an effort to produce metrics for quantifying the effects of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) State Energy Program (SEP), staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a classification scheme for describing the various state activities supported by SEP funds. This involved identifying a number of distinct program areas into which all of the various state SEP activities could be placed. Then, a set of ''enumeration indicators'' was developed to describe key activities within each of those areas. Although originally developed to count program activities, the enumeration indicators are used here as a basis for estimating the savings and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> achieved by the SEP. While there are additional benefits associated with the SEP, such as increased energy security and economic well-being, they are not addressed in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160672"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors controlling peat chemistry and vegetation composition in Sudbury peatlands after 30 years of pollution <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barrett, Sophie E; Watmough, Shaun A</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this research was to assess factors controlling peat and plant chemistry, and vegetation composition in 18 peatlands surrounding Sudbury after more than 30 years of large (>95%) pollution <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. Sites closer to the main Copper Cliff smelter had more humified peat and the surface horizons were greatly enriched in copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper and Ni concentrations in peat were significantly correlated with that in the plant tissue of Chamaedaphne calyculata. The pH of peat was the strongest determining factor for species richness, diversity, and community composition, although percent vascular plant cover was strongly negatively correlated with surface Cu and Ni concentrations in peat. Sphagnum frequency was also negatively related to peat Cu and Ni concentrations indicating sites close to Copper Cliff smelter remain adversely impacted by industrial activities. PMID:26160672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810036337&hterms=pollution+Marina&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpollution%2BMarina','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810036337&hterms=pollution+Marina&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpollution%2BMarina"><span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft NO/x/ <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and stratospheric ozone <span class="hlt">reductions</span> - Another look</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turco, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.; Toon, O. B.; Inn, E. C. Y.; Hamill, P.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>New estimates for stratospheric ozone perturbations attributable to supersonic transport (SST) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are presented. First, a review is given of recent data pointing to lower OH concentrations below 30 km, as compared to the values predicted by photochemical models. The evidence for lower OH comes from a wide range of laboratory and atmospheric studies. The sensitivity of theoretical estimates of ozone change to OH abundances, and the coupling mechanisms between the O(x)-NO(x)-HO(x)-Cl(x) families which are responsible for the sensitivity, are discussed. Updated calculations for SST-induced ozone alterations are compared with older predictions. For example, assuming continuous aircraft injection of NO2 at 20 km at a rate of 1 x 10 to the 9th kg per year (globally), a 4% ozone decrease, is now calculated where earlier a 3% ozone increase was found. This large variance from previous forecasts suggests that new assessments of certain other polluting agents, particularly nitrogen fertilizers, are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatCC...6..520C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatCC...6..520C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk of multiple interacting tipping points should encourage rapid CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cai, Yongyang; Lenton, Timothy M.; Lontzek, Thomas S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Evidence suggests that several elements of the climate system could be tipped into a different state by global warming, causing irreversible economic damages. To address their policy implications, we incorporated five interacting climate tipping points into a stochastic-dynamic integrated assessment model, calibrating their likelihoods and interactions on results from an existing expert elicitation. Here we show that combining realistic assumptions about policymakers’ preferences under uncertainty, with the prospect of multiple future interacting climate tipping points, increases the present social cost of carbon in the model nearly eightfold from US$15 per tCO2 to US$116 per tCO2. Furthermore, passing some tipping points increases the likelihood of other tipping points occurring to such an extent that it abruptly increases the social cost of carbon. The corresponding optimal policy involves an immediate, massive effort to control CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which are stopped by mid-century, leading to climate stabilization at <1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.3671W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.3671W"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of black carbon and co-emitted species will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Z. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. Y.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Black carbon (BC), a distinct type of carbonaceous material formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass based fuels under certain conditions, can interact with solar radiation and clouds through its strong light-absorption ability, thereby warming the Earth's climate system. Some studies have even suggested that global warming could be slowed down in the short term by eliminating BC <span class="hlt">emission</span> due to its short lifetime. In this study, we estimate the influence of removing some sources of BC and other co-emitted species on the aerosol radiative effect by using an aerosol-climate atmosphere-only model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero with prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice cover, in combination with the aerosol <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. We find that the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) will be enhanced by 0.12 W m-2 compared with recent past year 2000 levels if the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of only BC are reduced to the level projected for 2100 based on the RCP2.6 scenario. This will be beneficial~for the mitigation of global warming. However, both aerosol negative direct and indirect radiative effects are weakened when BC and its co-emitted species (sulfur dioxide and organic carbon) are simultaneously reduced. Relative to year 2000 levels, the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the TOA will be weakened by 1.7-2.0 W m-2 if the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of all these aerosols are decreased to the levels projected for 2100 in different ways based on the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. Because there are no effective ways to remove the BC exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in BC <span class="hlt">emission</span> can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth's climate system in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/142498','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/142498"><span id="translatedtitle">The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in the transportation sector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji; Borgwardt, R.H.</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emission</span> control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">reduction</span> is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3673232','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3673232"><span id="translatedtitle">Health Cobenefits and Transportation-Related <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> in the San Francisco Bay Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Woodcock, James; Co, Sean; Ostro, Bart; Fanai, Amir; Fairley, David</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (GHGE). Methods. Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-<span class="hlt">emission</span> automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose–response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. Results: Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32 466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. Conclusions: Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE <span class="hlt">reductions</span> sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates. PMID:23409903</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20079621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20079621"><span id="translatedtitle">Water washing effects on metals <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> during municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash melting process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Hu, Yu-Hsin</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>This study investigated that water washing effects on the metals <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in melting of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash. Experimental conditions were conducted at liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio 10, 20, and 100 for water-washing process and its subsequent melting treatment at 1450 degrees C for 2h. The simple water-washing process as a pre-treatment for MSWI fly ash can remove most of the chlorides, leachable salts, and amphoteric heavy metals from the MSWI fly ash, resulting in the washed ash having lowered chlorine content. MSWI fly ashes washed by L/S ratio 10 and above that were melted at 1450 degrees C produced slag containing relatively high vitrificaton ratio of Cu and Pb. Besides, the vitrification ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg in washed MSWI fly ash were also higher than that of MSWI fly ash. The results indicated that washed MSWI fly ash can reduce the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of metallic chlorides during its subsequent melting treatment. PMID:20079621</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21922829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21922829"><span id="translatedtitle">[Nutrients conservation of N & P and greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> during swine manure composting].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Jia-Xi; Wei, Yuan-Song; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Zeng, Xiao-Lan; Han, Sheng-Hui; Fang, Yun</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas (N2O) <span class="hlt">emission</span> occur during animal manure composting, as well as phosphorus loss caused by runoff during land application of animal manure compost. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to simultaneously conserve nutrients of nitrogen & phosphorus and reduce N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> during animal manure composting using modified salts which are made from industrial solid waste. Experiments of in-vessel swine manure composting at lab-scale were carried out to investigate and compare effects of modified red-mud (MR) and modified forsterite (MF) as additives on nutrients conservation and greenhouse gas (N2O) <span class="hlt">reduction</span>. As far as the nitrogen loss calculated on the basis of ammonia and nitrous oxide is concerned, the least nitrogen loss at only 6.38% of TKN occurred in the swine manure composting with MF addition at pH 7.0 +/- 0.2, compared with those of MR addition at pH 5.0 +/- 0.2 at 11.07% of TKN and the control at 14.68% of TKN, respectively. The best results of ammonia and nitrous oxide mitigation during swine manure composting were the treatments with MR addition and MF addition, which nitrogen losses were at 2.13% of TKN as NH3 and 0.65% of TKN, respectively. These results clearly showed that the modified salt additives from red-mud and forsterite were useful for saving nitrogen and reducing N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Moreover, the contents of soluble orthophosphate in swine manure compost with the addition of both modified salts were less than that of the control, which is helpful to reduce P loss during land application of swine manure compost. PMID:21922829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26731308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26731308"><span id="translatedtitle">The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low <span class="hlt">emission</span> of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products. PMID:26731308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6749380','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6749380"><span id="translatedtitle">Hyperventilation-induced <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in cerebral blood flow: Assessment by positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bednarczyk, E.M.; Rutherford, W.F.; Leisure, G.P.; Munger, M.A.; Panacek, E.A.; Miraldi, F.D.; Green, J.A. )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>The use of positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (PET) has been well documented as a relatively noninvasive method of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF), both globally and regionally. The utility of readily detecting alterations in CBF is apparent, particularly when applied to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions thought to influence CBF. We report the effects of hypocapnia, an experimental condition of known cerebral vasoconstriction, in ten normal volunteers. Subjects had brain blood flow evaluated utilizing H215O as the positron emitter before and after approximately five minutes of hyperventilation. Baseline CBF was measured as a mean +/- SD of 61.2 +/- 16.3 mL/min/100 g of tissue. Mean baseline arterial blood gas values were PaO2 107.4 +/- 14 mm Hg, PaCO2 37.7 +/- 0.89 mm Hg, and pH 7.39 (calculated from mean (H+)). Post hyperventilation, global CBF was measured as 31.1 +/- 10.8 mL/min/100 g. Mean arterial blood gas values were PaO2 141.7 +/- 21 mm Hg, PaCO2 19.7 +/- 5 mm Hg, and pH 7.63 (calculated from mean (H+)). CBF decreased by a mean of 49.5 +/- 11 percent. Data analysis using the Student's t-test showed a significant change over baseline in PaCO2 (p less than 0.001) and CBF (p less than 0.001), in the hyperventilated state. Correlations were noted between the decrease in CBF and change in PaCO2 (r = 0.81) as well as between hyperventilation PaCO2 and the change in CBF (r = 0.97). We conclude that, as measured by PET, CBF decreases significantly during a state of artificial hyperventilation to a degree consistent with results seen using other methods. PET appears to be a valuable tool in the assessment of interventions that could influence CBF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC11E0597K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC11E0597K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating rigorous pathways to monetize methane and nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> at small scale rice farms in three states of semi-arid peninsular India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kritee, K.; Tiwari, R.; Nair, D.; Adhya, T. K.; Rudek, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>As a part of a joint undertaking by Environmental Defense Fund and the Fair Climate Network, we have measured <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in methane and nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to alternate "low carbon" rice cultivation practices for three ago-ecological zones in India for the past two years. Sampling for nitrous oxide and methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was done on approximately 60-80% of the total number of days in a growing season and was based on modified GRACEnet protocol. In recognition of farmer's economic interest and global food security demands, we also measured the effect of rice cultivation practices on farm economics and yields. Our data from three agro-ecological zones for 2012-2014 suggest that, for semi-arid peninsular India, low-carbon rice cultivation practices offer large range of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential (0.5-5 metric tons CO2e/acre/year). The regions with sandy soils (Alfisols) had high rates of nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> even under baseline "flooded" rice cultivation regimes and, thus, the Tier 1 IPCC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> factors grossly underestimate both the amount of nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> from conventional rice cultivation practices, and the extent to which it can be reduced through better fertilizer management. Also, the IPCC factors overestimate the methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> possible due to water management for rice paddies. Therefore, it is crucial to customize N and water management to each region such that yields and net GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> are maximized. These practices also have the potential to decrease water use by 10-30% and improve long term soil health by optimizing organic matter and increasing water-holding capacity. In addition, through GPS based demarcation of farmer plots, recording baseline practices through extensive surveys, documenting the parameters required to aggregate and prove implementation of low carbon rice farming practices, and to model the GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> over large scales, we have put forward a path for better monetization of GHG</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......166G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......166G"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilau, Asmerom M.</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810676Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810676Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate-driven increase of natural wetland methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> offset by human-induced wetland <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in China over the past three decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Jiang, Hong; Gong, Peng</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Both anthropogenic activities and climate change can affect the biogeochemical processes of natural wetland methanogenesis. Chinese natural wetlands vanished considerably during recent decades mainly due to human activities. Quantifying possible impacts of changing climate and wetland area on wetland methane (CH4) <span class="hlt">emission</span> in China is important for improving our knowledge on CH4 budgets locally and globally. However, their respective and combined effects are uncertain. We incorporated changes in wetland area derived from remote sensing into a dynamic CH4 model to quantify the human and climate change induced contributions to natural wetland CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> in China over the past three decades. Here we found that human-induced wetland loss contributed 34.3% to the CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (0.92 TgCH4), and climate change contributed 20.4% to the CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> increase (0.31 TgCH4), suggesting that decreasing CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> due to human-induced wetland <span class="hlt">reductions</span> has offset the increasing climate-driven CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. With climate change only, temperature was a dominant controlling factor for wetland CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the northeast (high latitude) and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (high altitude) regions, whereas precipitation had a considerable influence in relative arid north China. Overall, ignoring human-induced wetlands dynamics may result in great uncertainties in quantifying global wetland CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1050068','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1050068"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of Non-CO2 Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F</p> <p>2012-09-06</p> <p>The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218280','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218280"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and relative dosimetry for ELIMED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.</p> <p>2013-07-26</p> <p>The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184773','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184773"><span id="translatedtitle">Renewable energy and its potential for carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Corbus, D; Martinez, M; Rodriguez, L; Mark, J</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect+AND+assimilation&pg=7&id=EJ735377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect+AND+assimilation&pg=7&id=EJ735377"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification by Relative Judgment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In unidimensional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743"><span id="translatedtitle">Be Resolute about <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kidd, Margaret L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article explores how conceptualization of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/484389','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/484389"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating energy intensity and CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials in the manufacturing sectors in Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wangskarn, P.; Khummongkol, P.; Schrattenholzer, L.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The final energy consumption in Thailand increased at about ten percent annually within the last 10 years. To slow the energy demand growth rate while maintaining the country`s economic advance and environmental sustainability, the Energy Conservation Promotion Act (ECPA) was adopted in 1992. With this Act, a comprehensive Energy Conservation Program (ENCON) was initiated. ENCON commits the government to promoting energy conservation, to developing appropriate regulations, and to providing financial and organizational resources for program implementation. Due to this existing ENCON program a great benefit is expected not only to reducing energy consumption, but also to decreasing GHGs <span class="hlt">emissions</span> substantially. This study is a part of the ENCON research program which was supported by the German Federal Government under the program called Prompt-Start Measures to Implement the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The basic activities carried out during the project included (1) An assessment of Thailand`s total and specific energy consumption in the industrial sectors and commercial buildings; (2) Identification of existing and candidate technologies for GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and energy efficiency improvements in specific factories and commercial buildings; and (3) Identification of individual factories and commercial buildings as candidates for detailed further study. Although the energy assessment had been carried out for the commercial buildings also, this paper will cover only the work on the manufacturing sector. On the basis of these steps, 14 factories were visited by the project team and preliminary energy audits were performed. As a result, concrete measures and investments were proposed and classified into two groups according to their economic characteristics. Those investments with a payback time of less than four years were considered together in a Moderate scenario, and those with longer payback times in an Intensive scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/821843','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/821843"><span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT <span class="hlt">REDUCTION</span> OF NOx <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p> the Gordon Conference on Modern Development in Thermodynamics. The results obtained are very encouraging for the development of the RCSC as a commercial burner for significant <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and highly warrants further study and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..457W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp..457W"><span id="translatedtitle">Projected response of East Asian summer monsoon system to future <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Xiaoye</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system to <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors at the end of the twenty-first century projected by Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 is studied using an aerosol-climate model with aerosol direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects included. Our results show that the global annual mean aerosol effective radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is +1.45 W m-2 from 2000 to 2100. The summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over the East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the TOA and surface increased by +3.9 and +4.0 W m-2, respectively, due to the <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of aerosols in 2100 relative to 2000. Changes in radiations affect local thermodynamic and dynamic processes and the hydrological cycle. The summer mean surface temperature and pressure averaged over the EAMR are shown to increase by 1.7 K and decreased by 0.3 hPa, respectively, due to the reduced aerosols. The magnitudes of these changes are larger over land than ocean, causing a marked increase in the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure in the EAMR, thus strengthening the EASM. The summer mean southwest and south winds at 850 hPa are enhanced over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans, and the East Asian subtropical jet shifted northward due to the decreases of aerosols. These factors also indicate enhanced EASM circulation, which in turn causes a 10 % increase in summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A44A..03D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A44A..03D"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased Use of Natural Gas for Power Generation in the U.S. and the Resulting <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> in <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of CO2, NOx and SO2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Gouw, J. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Over the past decades, natural gas has increasingly replaced coal as a fuel for electrical power generation in the U.S. As a result, there have been significant <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Power plant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are continuously measured at the stack using continuous <span class="hlt">emissions</span> monitoring systems (CEMS) required by the EPA. Previous studies using airborne measurements have shown these CEMS measurements to be accurate. Here, we use annual <span class="hlt">emissions</span> since 1995 from all point sources included in the CEMS database to quantify the changes in CO2, NOx and SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that have resulted from the changing use of fuels and technologies for power generation. In 1997, 83% of electrical power in the CEMS database was generated from coal-fired power plants. In 2012, the contribution from coal had decreased to 59%, and natural gas contributed 34% of the electrical power. Natural gas-fired power plants, in particular those equipped with combined cycle technology, emit less than 50% of CO2 per kWh produced compared to coal-fired plants. As a result of the increased use of natural gas, total CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from U.S. power plants have decreased since 2008. In addition, natural gas-fired power plants emit less NOx and far less SO2 per kWh produced than coal-fired power plants. The increased use of natural gas has therefore led to significant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> of NOx and SO2 in addition to those obtained from the implementation of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> control systems on coal-fired power plants. The increased use of natural gas for power generation has led to significant <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as well as improvements in U.S. air quality. We will illustrate these points with examples from airborne measurements made using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft in the Southeastern U.S. in 2013 as part of the NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study. The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from U.S. power plants due to the increased use of natural gas will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC11E0598A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC11E0598A"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> to all farmers in a given</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25692210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25692210"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated control of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, energy-saving, and cost-benefit using a multi-objective optimization technique in the pulp and paper industry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wen, Zongguo; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xueying</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of water pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and energy consumption is regarded as a key environmental objective for the pulp and paper industry. The paper develops a bottom-up model called the Industrial Water Pollutant Control and Technology Policy (IWPCTP) based on an industrial technology simulation system and multiconstraint technological optimization. Five policy scenarios covering the business as usual (BAU) scenario, the structural adjustment (SA) scenario, the cleaner technology promotion (CT) scenario, the end-treatment of pollutants (EOP) scenario, and the coupling measures (CM) scenario have been set to describe future policy measures related to the development of the pulp and paper industry from 2010-2020. The outcome of this study indicates that the energy saving amount under the CT scenario is the largest, while that under the SA scenario is the smallest. Under the CT scenario, savings by 2020 include 70 kt/year of chemical oxygen demand (COD) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> and savings of 7443 kt of standard coal, 539.7 ton/year of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, and savings of 7444 kt of standard coal. Taking <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>, energy savings, and cost-benefit into consideration, cleaner technologies like highly efficient pulp washing, dry and wet feedstock preparation, and horizontal continuous cooking, medium and high consistency pulping and wood dry feedstock preparation are recommended. PMID:25692210</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=159129&keyword=acid+AND+electricity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77126484&CFTOKEN=46568081','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=159129&keyword=acid+AND+electricity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77126484&CFTOKEN=46568081"><span id="translatedtitle">MODELING ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN OXIDES <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span> ON OZONE AIR QUALITY IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: OFFSETTING INCREASES IN ENERGY USE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The objective of this study is to examine changes in ambient ozone concentrations estimated by a photochemical air quality model in response to the NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> imposed on the utility sector. To accomplish this task, CMAQ air quality model simulations were performe...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3998..838B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.3998..838B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> dosimetry for extreme-ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berger, Kurt W.; Campiotti, Richard H.</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>The accurate measurement of an exposure dose reaching the wafer on an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic system has been a technical challenge directly applicable to the evaluation of candidate EUV resist materials and calculating lithography system throughputs. We have developed a dose monitoring sensor system that can directly measure EUV intensities at the wafer plane of a prototype EUV lithographic system. This sensor system, located on the wafer stage adjacent to the electrostatic chuck used to grip wafers, operates by translating the sensor into the aerial image, typically illuminating an 'open' (unpatterned) area on the reticle. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> signal strength can be related to energy density at the wafer, and thus used to determine resist sensitivity, and the signal as a function of position can be used to determine illumination uniformity at the wafer plane. Spectral filtering to enhance the detection of 13.4 nm radiation was incorporated into the sensor. Other critical design parameters include the packaging and amplification technologies required to place this device into the space and vacuum constraints of a EUV lithography environment. We describe two approaches used to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of this sensor. The first conventional approach requires separate characterization of each element of the sensor. A second novel approach uses x-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a mildly radioactive iron source to calibrate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> response of the entire sensor system (detector and electronics) in a single measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516591S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...516591S"><span id="translatedtitle">Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16401570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16401570"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalytic oxidation of mixed wastes containing high organic content--<span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and the effect of steam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Li-Yang; Than, Chit; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>To resolve mixed organic and radioactive waste disposal problems, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) initiated a treatability study using the catalytic chemical oxidation (CCO) system to oxidize a mixed-waste stream and to confine tritium as part of LBNL's pollution prevention program. LBNL has also adopted a legal approach by seeking an equivalent waste-treatment determination for the CCO process, and by petitioning the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to delist F-coded treatment residues. The results of this study demonstrate that (1) the CCO process can treat aqueous wastes containing a broad range of organic chemicals and achieve more than 99.999% destruction efficiency; (2) greater than 99.9% trapping efficiency for tritiated water can be achieved using an <span class="hlt">emission-reduction</span> system that also confines the vapor of hydrochloric acid or nitric acid to the liquid residue; and (3) neutralized treatment residues can be disposed of as low-level radioactive waste at a permitted facility after EPA has approved LBNL's petitions, or the tritium in the residues can be recycled. The high oxidation efficiency of the CCO process is mainly due to the optimized operating conditions of the CCO process and the combined effect of steam reforming in the oxidation cell and the catalytic oxidation of organic mixtures and CO in the Pt/Al2O3 catalyst bed. PMID:16401570</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/925612','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/925612"><span id="translatedtitle">International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Target-SettingPrograms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan</p> <p>2008-02-02</p> <p>Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4642314','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4642314"><span id="translatedtitle">Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26558350"><span id="translatedtitle">Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 (o)C) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15887889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15887889"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal fleetwide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for passenger ferries: an application of a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model for the New York-New Jersey Harbor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Wang, Chengfeng; Farrell, Alexander E; Woods, Pippa</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from passenger ferries operating in urban harbors may contribute significantly to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventories and commuter exposure to air pollution. In particular, ferries are problematic because of high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from primarily unregulated diesel engines. This paper explores technical solutions to reduce pollution from passenger ferries operating in the New York-New Jersey Harbor. The paper discusses and demonstrates a mixed-integer, non-linear programming model used to identify optimal control strategies for meeting NOx and PM <span class="hlt">reduction</span> targets for 45 privately owned commuter ferries in the harbor. Results from the model can be used by policy-makers to craft programs aimed at achieving least-cost <span class="hlt">reduction</span> targets. PMID:15887889</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055679','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055679"><span id="translatedtitle">China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing</p> <p>2011-09-30</p> <p>Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity <span class="hlt">reduction</span> target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10125181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10125181"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnitude and value of electric vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Q.; Santini, D.L.</p> <p>1992-12-31</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO{sub x,} SO{sub x} - are estimated. CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO{sub x}. NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are reduced in all four cities. An ``avoided cost`` value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA`s draft Mobile5 model for GV <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, high values by using California`s EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6830754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6830754"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnitude and value of electric vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Q. ); Santini, D.L. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO[sub x,] SO[sub x] - are estimated. CO[sub 2] <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO[sub 2] <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO[sub x]. NO[sub x] <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are reduced in all four cities. An avoided cost'' value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA's draft Mobile5 model for GV <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, high values by using California's EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22170839','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22170839"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of energy recovery and greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> from palm oil mill effluent treatment by an anaerobic granular-sludge process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Show, K Y; Ng, C A; Faiza, A R; Wong, L P; Wong, L Y</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conventional aerobic and low-rate anaerobic processes such as pond and open-tank systems have been widely used in wastewater treatment. In order to improve treatment efficacy and to avoid greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, conventional treatment can be upgraded to a high performance anaerobic granular-sludge system. The anaerobic granular-sludge systems are designed to capture the biogas produced, rendering a potential for claims of carbon credits under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of greenhouse gases. Certified <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> (CERs) would be issued, which can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market prices. As the advanced anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they render more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. In addition to efficient waste degradation, the carbon credits can be used to generate revenue and to finance the project. This paper presents a scenario on <span class="hlt">emission</span> avoidance based on a methane recovery and utilization project. An example analysis on <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> and an overview of the global <span class="hlt">emission</span> market are also outlined. PMID:22170839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26421657','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26421657"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of Reciprocal Effects between Mandatory Pollutant <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Policy and Structural Change within the Manufacturing Sector in a Chinese Coastal Area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Yang; Guo, Xianglin; Tian, Jinping; Chen, Lujun</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We develop a multicriteria decision-making model coupled with scenario analysis to quantitatively elucidate the reciprocal effect between a mandatory pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> policy and industrial structure change within the manufacturing sector on the basis of an in-depth study of a well-developed coastal area in East China, Ningbo City, toward 2020. First, 18 two-digit level industries (TDLIs) in the manufacturing sector are screened out due to intensive <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the four pollutants (COD, NH3-N, SO2, and NOx). Second, a model is established to identify the optimal solution for the industrial structure adjustment of the 18 TDLIs under two scenarios, the "business-as-usual" scenario and the "industrial structure adjustment" scenario. Both scenarios are expanded into three subscenarios. Quantitative constraint conditions and two criteria are formulated to screen out the optimal solutions. We propose a coefficient of industrial structure adjustment, Ki, which could clearly reflect the policy preference in terms of industrial development and reallocate the quota of the four-pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> among the 18 TDLIs with regards to the different expectations of economy development in 2020. The model will help local authorities make tailored policies to reduce pollution <span class="hlt">emissions</span> effectively through industrial structure change by delicately allocating the pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> quota and setting reasonable targets of <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity <span class="hlt">reduction</span> among TDLIs. PMID:26421657</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6470424','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6470424"><span id="translatedtitle">A preliminary analysis of US CO/sub 2/ <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potential from energy conservation and the substitution of natural gas for coal in the period to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Edmonds, J.A.; Ashton, W.B.; Cheng, H.C.; Steinberg, M.</p> <p>1989-02-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) is a product of burning fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) and fossil fuel burning is the dominant source of global CO/sub 2/ <span class="hlt">emissions</span> amounting to 5.2 petagrams of carbon per year (PgC) in 1985. The control of CO/sub 2/ <span class="hlt">emissions</span> would require control of energy production and use. US <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were 1.25 PgC in 1985. National Energy Policy Plan (NEPP) projections show total US <span class="hlt">emissions</span> rising 38% by 2010 to 1.7 PgC. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Dioxide Research Division (CDRD) has sponsored research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to do a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility and consequences of reducing US CO/sub 2/ <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 1985 levels by 10, 25 or 50 percent by either the year 1995 and 2010. In addition, DOE/CDRD sponsored a day-long roundtable attended by nine experts in the field to discuss this issue. Two methods of CO/sub 2/ <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> were considered: energy intensity <span class="hlt">reductions</span> (conservation), and substitution of natural gas for coal. The study did not address the contribution of other energy supply options or the feasibility of pre- or post-combustion CO/sub 2/ removal. Furthermore, the study made no attempt to explore specific policies that might be employed to achieve technically feasible CO/sub 2/ <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span>. This is not a policy document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011125','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011125"><span id="translatedtitle">A Multimodel Assessment of the Influence of Regional Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> on Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and the Role of Intercontinental Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; West, Jason; Atherton, Cynthia S.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Forberth, Gerd; Hess, Peter; Schulz, Michael; Shindell, Drew; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tan, Qian</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we assess changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and direct radiative forcing (DRF) in response to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in four major pollution regions in the Northern Hemisphere by using results from nine global models in the framework of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP). DRF at top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface is estimated based on AOD results from the HTAP models and AOD-normalized DRF (NDRF) from a chemical transport model. The multimodel results show that, on average, a 20% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia lowers the global mean AOD (all-sky TOA DRF) by 9.2% (9.0%), 3.5% (3.0%), and 9.4% (10.0%) for sulfate, particulate organic matter (POM), and black carbon (BC), respectively. Global annual average TOA all-sky forcing efficiency relative to particle or gaseous precursor <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the four regions (expressed as multimodel mean +/- one standard deviation) is -3.5 +/-0.8, -4.0 +/- 1.7, and 29.5+/-18.1mW / sq m per Tg for sulfate (relative to SO2), POM, and BC, respectively. The impacts of the regional <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on AOD and DRF extend well beyond the source regions because of intercontinental transport (ICT). On an annual basis, ICT accounts for 11 +/- 5% to 31 +/- 9% of AOD and DRF in a receptor region at continental or subcontinental scale, with domestic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> accounting for the remainder, depending on regions and species. For sulfate AOD, the largest ICT contribution of 31 +/- 9% occurs in South Asia, which is dominated by the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Europe. For BC AOD, the largest ICT contribution of 28 +/- 18% occurs in North America, which is dominated by the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from East Asia. The large spreads among models highlight the need to improve aerosol processes in models, and evaluate and constrain models with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51F0627G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51F0627G"><span id="translatedtitle">Taking advantage of data on N leaching to improve estimates of N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> from agriculture in response to management changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gurwick, N. P.; Tonitto, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Estimates of <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from agricultural soils associated with different crop management practices often focus on in-field <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This is particularly true in the context of policy development for carbon offsets which are highly relevant in California, given the state's global warming protection law (AB 32). However, data sets often do not cover an entire year, missing key times such as spring thaw, and only rarely do they span multiple years even though inter-annual variation can be large. In the most productive grain systems on tile-drained Mollisols in the U.S. there are no long-term data sets of N2O flux, although these agroecosystems have the highest application rates of N fertilizer in grain systems and are prime candidates for large <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In contrast, estimates of the influence of management practices like cover crops are much stronger because more data are available, and downstream N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> should shift proportionally. Nevertheless, these changes in downstream <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are frequently not included in estimates of N2O flux change. As an example, cereal cover crops reduce N leakage by 70%, and leguminous cover crops reduce N leakage by 40%. These data should inform estimates of downstream N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from agricultural fields, particularly in the context of protocol development, where project developers or aggregators will have information about basic management of individual crop fields. Even the IPCC default guidelines for simple (Tier 1) <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors could take this information into account. Despite the complexity of estimating downstream N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the absence of site-specific hydrology data, the IPCC estimates that 30% of applied N is lost and that between 0.75% and 1.0 % of lost N is converted to N2O. That single estimate should be refined based on data showing that leaching varies with management practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017002','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017002"><span id="translatedtitle">A HTAP Multi-Model Assessment of the Influence of Regional Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reductions</span> on Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and the Role of Intercontinental Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; West, J. Jason; Atherton, Cynthia S.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Forberth, Gerd; Hess, Peter; Schulz, Michael; Shindell, Drew; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tan, Qian</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we assess changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and direct radiative forcing (DRF) in response to the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in four major pollution regions in the northern hemisphere by using results from 10 global chemical transport models in the framework of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP). The multi-model results show that on average, a 20% <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in North America, Europe, East Asia and South Asia lowers the global mean AOD and DRF by about 9%, 4%, and 10% for sulfate, organic matter, and black carbon aerosol, respectively. The impacts of the regional <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reductions</span> on AOD and DRF extend well beyond the source regions because of intercontinental transport. On an annual basis, intercontinental transport accounts for 10-30% of the overall AOD and DRF in a receptor region, with domestic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> accounting for the remainder, depending on regions and species. While South Asia is most influenced by import of sulfate aerosol from Europe, North America is most influenced by import of black carbon from East Asia. Results show a large spread among models, highlighting the need to improve aerosol processes in models and evaluate and constrain models with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19320274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19320274"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse gas and air pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>To achieve higher energy security and lower <span class="hlt">emission</span> of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. PMID:19320274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26083075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26083075"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> on Heavy-Duty Diesel Drayage Truck <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> at the Port of Oakland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Preble, Chelsea V; Dallmann, Timothy R; Kreisberg, Nathan M; Hering, Susanne V; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W</p> <p>2015-07-21</p> <p>Effects of fleet modernization and use of diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (SCR) on heavy-duty diesel truck <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were studied at the Port of Oakland in California. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon (BC), particle number (PN), and size distributions were measured in the exhaust plumes of ∼1400 drayage trucks. Average NOx, BC, and PN <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for newer engines (2010-2013 model years) equipped with both DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32%, and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than 2004-2006 engines without these technologies. Intentional oxidation of NO to NO2 for DPF regeneration increased tailpipe NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, especially from older (1994-2006) engines with retrofit DPFs. Increased deployment of advanced controls has further skewed <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor distributions; a small number of trucks emit a disproportionately large fraction of total BC and NOx. The fraction of DPF-equipped drayage trucks increased from 2 to 99% and the median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years between 2009 and 2013. Over this period, fleet-average BC and NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> changes occurred rapidly compared to what would have been observed due to natural (i.e., unforced) turnover of the Port truck fleet. These results provide a preview of more widespread <span class="hlt">emission</span> changes expected statewide and nationally in the coming years. PMID:26083075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20002756','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20002756"><span id="translatedtitle">3-D simulation of urban warming in Tokyo and effect of <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saitoh, T.S.; Yamada, N.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>In most cities, it is becoming evident that the increase in energy consumption is causing environmental problems, including temperature rise in the urban atmosphere (urban warming or urban heat island), and air pollution. The present paper reports on the results of 3-D computer simulation of the urban heat island in the Tokyo metropolitan area, as well as moisture migration. The 3-D governing equations for the urban atmospheric boundary layer were formulated by virtue of the vorticity-velocity vector potential method. Particular attention was focused on the representation of a buoyancy term in the equation of motion in the vertical direction, thereby describing the cross-over effect and stratified inversion layer near the ground surface. Also incorporated in the present simulation is the effect of urban canopy layer in which various building structures and its surface material are included. In the present simulation, the degree of resolution is very much improved by using the data of geographic information systems for the Tokyo metro area, which provides the finer and detailed map of the land use and the buildings structures. Finally, the effect of <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on urban warming will be discussed in detail by employing the newly developed 3-D simulation code in which the turbulence model in the inversion layer of the planetary boundary layer is improved. Recent computer projection of the urban warming in Tokyo metro area around the year 2030 showed that the urban temperature near Otemachi, heart of Tokyo, will exceed 43 C (110 F) at 6 p.m. in the summer. Therefore, it is very important to reduce the fuel consumption rate in the urban area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21518924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21518924"><span id="translatedtitle">SUVmax <span class="hlt">reduction</span> improves early prognosis value of interim positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography scans in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casasnovas, René-Olivier; Meignan, Michel; Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Bardet, Stéphane; Julian, Anne; Thieblemont, Catherine; Vera, Pierre; Bologna, Serge; Brière, Josette; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Haioun, Corinne; Coiffier, Bertrand; Morschhauser, Franck</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The prognostic value of interim positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (PET) interpreted according to visual criteria is a matter of debate in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Maximal standardized uptake value <span class="hlt">reduction</span> (ΔSUVmax) may better predict outcome. To compare the prognostic value of both methods, we analyzed PET done at baseline (PET0) and after 2 (PET2) and 4 (PET4) cycles in 85 patients with high-risk DLBCL enrolled on a prospective multicenter trial. All images were centrally reviewed and interpreted visually according to the International Harmonization Project criteria and by computing ΔSUVmax between PET0 and PET2 (ΔSUVmaxPET0-2) or PET4 (ΔSUVmaxPET0-4). Optimal cutoff to predict progression or death was 66% for ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 and 70% for ΔSUVmaxPET0-4. Outcomes did not differ significantly whether PET2 and PET4 were visually positive or negative. Inversely, ΔSUVmaxPET0-2 analysis (> 66% vs ≤ 66%) identified patients with significantly different 2-year progression-free survival (77% vs 57%; P = .0282) and overall survival (93% vs 60%; P < .0001). ΔSUVmaxPET0-4 analysis (> 70% vs ≤ 70%) seemed even more predictive for 2-year progression-free survival (83 vs 40%; P < .0001) and overall survival (94% vs 50%; P < .0001). ΔSUVmax analysis of sequential interim PET is feasible for high-risk DLBCL and better predicts outcome than visual analysis. The trial was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00498043. PMID:21518924</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005A%26A...436..967W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005A%26A...436..967W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> spectrophotometry of northern compact planetary nebulae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wright, S. A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Perinotto, M.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total <span class="hlt">absolute</span> fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines. High signal-to-noise <span class="hlt">emission</span> line fluxes of Hα, Hβ, [Oiii], [Nii], and HeI may serve as <span class="hlt">emission</span> line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available <span class="hlt">emission</span> line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an Hβ flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3× 10-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156262','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156262"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in the intensity of solar X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range and heating of the solar corona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mirzoeva, I. K.</p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>The time profiles of the energy spectra of low-intensity flares and the structure of the thermal background of the soft X-ray component of solar corona <span class="hlt">emission</span> over the period of January-February, 2003, are investigated using the data of the RHESSI project. A <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in the intensity of X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> of the solar flares and the corona thermal background in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range is revealed. The RHESSI data are compared with the data from the Interball-Geotail project. A new mechanism of solar corona heating is proposed on the basis of the results obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/106649','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/106649"><span id="translatedtitle">500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of nitrogen oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal-fired boilers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sorge, J.N.; Menzies, B.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of nitrogen oxide NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx <span class="hlt">reduction</span> performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control/optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.A52B..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.A52B..03M"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing global radiative forcing due to regional <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of tropospheric ozone precursors: a step towards climate credit for ozone <span class="hlt">reductions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mauzerall, D. L.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Schwarzkopf, D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Oppenheimer, M.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Currently, only national annual data for anthropogenic carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The annual total <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24828081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24828081"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the impact of low <span class="hlt">emission</span> zone and heavy traffic ban in Munich (Germany) on the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of PM₁₀ in ambient air.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fensterer, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Breitner, Susanne; Peters, Annette; Gu, Jianwei; Cyrys, Josef</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Concentrations of ambient fine particles (PM10: particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm) are still exceeding current air quality standards in many European cities. In Munich (Germany), low <span class="hlt">emission</span> zone and transit bans for heavy-duty vehicles were introduced in 2008 aiming at <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of traffic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> contribution to PM10. The effects of those measures on PM10 mass concentrations in Munich were investigated with a semiparametric regression model for modeling PM10 levels adjusted for time, background pollution, public holidays and wind direction. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of PM10 concentration after the introduction of the measures was larger at a traffic monitoring site (13.0 %, 19.6 % in summer, and 6.8 % in winter) and smaller in urban background (4.5 %, 5.7 % in summer, and 3.2 % in winter). The effect was most pronounced on Fridays and on the weekends in summer. PMID:24828081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4053866','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4053866"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Impact of Low <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Zone and Heavy Traffic Ban in Munich (Germany) on the <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> of PM10 in Ambient Air</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fensterer, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Breitner, Susanne; Peters, Annette; Gu, Jianwei; Cyrys, Josef</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Concentrations of ambient fine particles (PM10: particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm) are still exceeding current air quality standards in many European cities. In Munich (Germany), low <span class="hlt">emission</span> zone and transit bans for heavy-duty vehicles were introduced in 2008 aiming at <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of traffic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> contribution to PM10. The effects of those measures on PM10 mass concentrations in Munich were investigated with a semiparametric regression model for modeling PM10 levels adjusted for time, background pollution, public holidays and wind direction. The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of PM10 concentration after the introduction of the measures was larger at a traffic monitoring site (13.0 %, 19.6 % in summer, and 6.8 % in winter) and smaller in urban background (4.5 %, 5.7 % in summer, and 3.2 % in winter). The effect was most pronounced on Fridays and on the weekends in summer. PMID:24828081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/837336','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/837336"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Assessment for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> Technology, Finney County, Kansas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>n /a</p> <p>2003-03-11</p> <p>The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Sunflower Electric Power Corporation (Sunflower), to demonstrate the commercial application of Low-NO{sub x} Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> to the level of 0.15 to 0.22 pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MM Btu). The proposed project station is Sunflower's 360 MW coal-fired generation station, Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station). The station, fueled by coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, is located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The period of performance is expected to last approximately 2 years. The Holcomb Station, Sunflower LNB/SOFA integrated system would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO{sub x} control technologies. Once modified, the station would demonstrate that a unit equipped with an existing low-NO{sub x} burner system can be retrofitted with a new separated over-fire air (SOFA) system, coal flow measurement and control, and enhanced combustion monitoring to achieve about 45 percent <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology alternative to Selective Catalytic <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> (SCR) systems. While SCR does generally achieve high <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (from about 0.8 lb/MM to 0.12 lb/MM Btu), it does so at higher capital and operating cost, requires the extensive use of critical construction labor, requires longer periods of unit outage for deployment, and generally requires longer periods of time to complete shakedown and full-scale operation. Cost of the proposed project technology would be on the order of 15-25 percent of that for SCR, with consequential benefits derived from <span class="hlt">reductions</span> in construction manpower requirements and periods of power outages. This proposed technology demonstration would generally be applicable to boilers using opposed-wall burners</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=isolated+neutral&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Disolated%2Bneutral','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=isolated+neutral&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Disolated%2Bneutral"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> transition probabilities of phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960125"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying sensitive sources and key control handles for the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from wastewater treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This research investigates the effects of adjusting control handle values on greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from wastewater treatment, and reveals critical control handles and sensitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources for control through the combined use of local and global sensitivity analysis methods. The direction of change in <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, effluent quality and operational cost resulting from variation of control handles individually is determined using one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, and corresponding trade-offs are identified. The contribution of each control handle to variance in model outputs, taking into account the effects of interactions, is then explored using a variance-based sensitivity analysis method, i.e., Sobol's method, and significant second order interactions are discovered. This knowledge will assist future control strategy development and aid an efficient design and optimisation process, as it provides a better understanding of the effects of control handles on key performance indicators and identifies those for which dynamic control has the greatest potential benefits. Sources with the greatest variance in <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and therefore the greatest need to monitor, are also identified. It is found that variance in total <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is predominantly due to changes in direct N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and selection of suitable values for wastage flow rate and aeration intensity in the final activated sludge reactor is of key importance. To improve effluent quality, costs and/or <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, it is necessary to consider the effects of adjusting multiple control handles simultaneously and determine the optimum trade-off. PMID:24960125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8071B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8071B"><span id="translatedtitle">A comprehensive study over the recent important <span class="hlt">reduction</span> in SO2 and NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the power plants located in S-E Europe using space observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bocǎnealǎ, Corina; Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Theys, Nicolas; Merlaud, Alexis; Van Roozendael, Michel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the recent important <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of atmospheric SO2 and NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from several power plants located in S-E Europe during 2005-2014 using space observations. The study is focused over three large power plants which are located in Romania and Bulgaria: Turceni (44.66°N, 23.38°E), Rovinari (44.9°N, 23.15°E) and Stara Zagora (42.43°N, 25.65°E). The space observations used in this work are based on OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Measurements) measurements. The results obtained using data from satellites are compared with in-situ observations and calculated <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The OMI and GOME-2 observed SO2 and NO2 content is well correlated with the in-situ data and calculated SO2 and NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This study investigates the potential of using satellite observations as an instrument to check quality air as a standard procedure by governmental and non-governmental institutions. To this aim, we compared the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> calculated from ground and space with the European Directive 2001/80/EC which refers to the limitation of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of certain pollutants by large combustion plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20362392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20362392"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of formaldehyde and VOCs <span class="hlt">emission</span> from wood-based flooring by green adhesive using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Sumin</p> <p>2010-10-15</p> <p>To discuss the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from engineered flooring, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)-formaldehyde (CF) resin and CF/PVAc resin were applied for the maple face of the veneer bonding on plywood. The CF resin was used to replace urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin in the formaldehyde-based resin system in order to reduce formaldehyde and VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the adhesives used between the plywoods and fancy veneers. For the CF/PVAc resins, 5, 10, 20 or 30% of PVAc was added to the CF resin. The CF/PVAc resins showed better bonding than the commercial natural tannin adhesive with a higher level of wood penetration. The standard formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emission</span> test and a VOC analyzer were used to determine the formaldehyde and VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, respectively, from the engineered floorings. The CF resin and CF/PVAc resin systems with UV coating satisfied the E(1) and E(0) grades of the Korean Standard. TVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> was slightly increased by the PVAc addition. PMID:20362392</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27355197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27355197"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> during the Beijing Olympic Games.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the <span class="hlt">emission</span> control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% <span class="hlt">reduction</span>). However, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% <span class="hlt">reduction</span>). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% <span class="hlt">reduction</span>). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region. PMID:27355197</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21176928','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21176928"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse gas and air pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>To achieve higher energy security and lower <span class="hlt">emission</span> of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">reduction</span> potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic <span class="hlt">reduction</span> of carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..94a3808D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..94a3808D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Optomechanics for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davuluri, Sankar</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kogut, A. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical flats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sommargren, Gary E.</p> <p>2005-04-05</p> <p>The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase error of the optical flat is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006738','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006738"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an industrial sewage sludge incineration plant by employing primary measures in a fluidized bed furnace</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ludwig, P.; Stamer, F.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>The results of an inquiry in 1997 show that the percentage of sewage sludge disposed of by incineration in Germany is 19%. Legal developments in Germany clearly show that this percentage amount is expected to increase in the next few years. According to legislation, the treatment of the sewage sludge will have to achieve a result of {le}5% combustible (according to TA-Siedlungsabfall, i.e., Technical guideline for handling and disposal of urban waste). Sewage sludge incineration will therefore become a preferred treatment process. Fluidized bed combustion is especially suitable in relation to the burn-up results. Around 19 sewage sludge incineration plants are operating in Germany, 17 of which have stationary fluidized bed furnaces, the others are multiple hearth roasters. The German statutory law affecting <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from sewage sludge incineration plants is 17.BlmSchV (i.e., Paragraph 17 of the Federal <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Control Regulations). These regulations stipulate mandatory compliance with limit values as a daily average value figured in standard conditions. The intention is to build up an overview of the various possibilities to reduce the NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from one problematic industrial sludge by using primary measures, and if possible, to avoid expensive secondary measures, like the SNCR (selective non catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span>) or SCR (selective catalytic <span class="hlt">reduction</span>) processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001056','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001056"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regional Temperature Potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shindell, D. T.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on the forcing in those bands caused by the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=185063&keyword=Neutralization&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65334969&CFTOKEN=91077651','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=185063&keyword=Neutralization&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65334969&CFTOKEN=91077651"><span id="translatedtitle">OBSERVABLE INDICATORS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF PM 2.5 NITRATE TO <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span>, PART II: SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE OF THE CMAQ-PREDICTED NONLINEAR EFFECT OF SO 2 <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> <span class="hlt">REDUCTIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The inorganic aerosol system of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium can respond nonlinearly to changes in precursor sulfur dioxide (SO<SUB>2</SUB>) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The potential increase in nitrate, when sulfate is reduced and the associated ammonia is released, can negate the sulfate mass...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008487','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008487"><span id="translatedtitle">Method and Apparatus for Linewidth <span class="hlt">Reduction</span> in Distributed Feedback or Distributed Bragg Reflector Semiconductor Lasers using Vertical <span class="hlt">Emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cook, Anthony L. (Inventor); Hendricks, Herbert D. (Inventor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The linewidth of a distributed feedback semiconductor laser or a distributed Bragg reflector laser having one or more second order gratings is reduced by using an external cavity to couple the vertical <span class="hlt">emission</span> back into the laser. This method and device prevent disturbance of the main laser beam. provide unobstructed access to laser <span class="hlt">emission</span> for the formation of the external cavity. and do not require a very narrow heat sink. Any distributed Bragg reflector semiconductor laser or distributed feedback semiconductor laser that can produce a vertical <span class="hlt">emission</span> through the epitaxial material and through a window in the top metallization can be used. The external cavity can be formed with an optical fiber or with a lens and a mirror of grating.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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