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Sample records for absolute eosinophil count

  1. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Associations between peripheral blood eosinophil counts in patients with systemic sclerosis and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Nakashita, Tamao; Kaneko, Norihiro; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Motojima, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of serum pro-fibrotic cytokines have been reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Some of these cytokines also play an important role in the differentiation and migration of eosinophils. The aim of this study was to determine whether eosinophilic inflammation is caused in SSc. We retrospectively reviewed the peripheral blood eosinophil counts in 70 untreated patients with SSc and compared them with those in patients with other major collagen diseases. We additionally evaluated a possible association with disease severity. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher levels in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases, whereas total leukocyte counts were not. Eosinophil counts correlated positively with both severe interstitial lung disease (ILD; r = 0.255, p = 0.033) and modified Rodnan total skin thickness score (m-Rodnan TSS) in SSc (r = 0.347, p = 0.003), but did not correlate with ILD severity in other collagen diseases. In conclusion, peripheral eosinophil counts were higher in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases and were correlated with increased disease severity. Our data suggest that eosinophilic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of SSc. PMID:27610320

  5. Flow rate calibration for absolute cell counting rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Walker, Clare; Barnett, David

    2006-05-01

    There is a need for absolute leukocyte enumeration in the clinical setting, and accurate, reliable (and affordable) technology to determine absolute leukocyte counts has been developed. Such technology includes single platform and dual platform approaches. Derivations of these counts commonly incorporate the addition of a known number of latex microsphere beads to a blood sample, although it has been suggested that the addition of beads to a sample may only be required to act as an internal quality control procedure for assessing the pipetting error. This unit provides the technical details for undertaking flow rate calibration that obviates the need to add reference beads to each sample. It is envisaged that this report will provide the basis for subsequent clinical evaluations of this novel approach. PMID:18770842

  6. Enumeration of absolute cell counts using immunophenotypic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mandy, F; Brando, B

    2001-05-01

    Absolute counting of cells or cell subsets has a number of significant clinical applications: monitoring the disease status of HIV-infected patients, enumerating residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products, and assessing immunodeficiency in a variety of situations. The single-platform method (flow cytometry alone) has emerged as the method of choice for absolute cell enumeration. This technology counts only the cells of interest in a precisely determined blood volume. Exact cell identification is accomplished by a logical electronic gating algorithm capable of identifying lineage-specific immunofluorescent markers. Exclusion of unwanted cells is automatic. This extensive and detailed unit presents protocols for both volumetric and flow-rate determination of residual white blood cells and of leukocyte subsets. PMID:18770719

  7. Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Denaxas, Spiros; Nicholas, Owen; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hemingway, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Background Eosinophil and lymphocyte counts are commonly performed in clinical practice. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence of association with cardiovascular diseases. Methods We used linked primary care, hospitalisation, disease registry and mortality data in England (the CALIBER (CArdiovascular disease research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records) programme). We included people aged 30 or older without cardiovascular disease at baseline, and used Cox models to estimate cause-specific HRs for the association of eosinophil or lymphocyte counts with the first occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Results The cohort comprised 775 231 individuals, of whom 55 004 presented with cardiovascular disease over median follow-up 3.8 years. Over the first 6 months, there was a strong association of low eosinophil counts (<0.05 compared with 0.15–0.25×109/L) with heart failure (adjusted HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.72 to 2.43), unheralded coronary death (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.69), ventricular arrhythmia/sudden cardiac death and subarachnoid haemorrhage, but not angina, non-fatal myocardial infarction, transient ischaemic attack, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Low eosinophil count was inversely associated with peripheral arterial disease (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.89). There were similar associations with low lymphocyte counts (<1.45 vs 1.85–2.15×109/L); adjusted HR over the first 6 months for heart failure was 2.25 (95% CI 1.90 to 2.67). Associations beyond the first 6 months were weaker. Conclusions Low eosinophil counts and low lymphocyte counts in the general population are associated with increased short-term incidence of heart failure and coronary death. Trial registration number NCT02014610; results. PMID:27621833

  8. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. PMID:26917244

  9. Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate Marker of CD4 Count in Monitoring HIV Infected Individuals: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Sharda Raju; Jadhav, Meenal Vitthal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction CD4 cell count has been proposed to be substituted by Absolute lymphocyte count in monitoring HIV infected individuals as methods of CD4 cell count and plasma viral estimation require expensive, specialized equipments and highly trained personnel. Aim To assess the clinical utility of the Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) to serve as a surrogate marker for predicting a CD4 count < 200 cells/μl in patients with HIV infection in resource poor countries. Materials and Methods A prospective study of 61 patients with HIV/AIDS was conducted. Sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of various ALC cut-offs were computed for CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μl for age < 30 or age ≥ 30 years. Pearson correlation, Linear regression and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC), were used. Results For patients aged ≥ 30 years, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ALC <1200 cells/μl to predict CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μl were 34.48%, 67.5%, 43.48%, 58.69% respectively. For subjects aged < 30 years, these values were 27.27%, 67.5%, 18.75%, 77.14%, respectively. A ALC < 1643 was found to have maximal sensitivity for predicting a CD4 cell count <200/ μl. Conclusion Our data revealed good correlation between ALC and CD4 cell counts but ALC cut-off of 1200 was not a surrogate marker for CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μl. As we increase the cut-off to <1643/ μl it could be the cost-effective surrogate marker for CD4 cell counts < 200 cells/μl in resource limited settings. PMID:27437225

  10. Predicting frequent asthma exacerbations using blood eosinophil count and other patient data routinely available in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Wilson, Andrew M; Chisholm, Alison; Rigazio, Anna; Burden, Anne; Thomas, Michael; King, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute, severe asthma exacerbations can be difficult to predict and thus prevent. Patients who have frequent exacerbations are of particular concern. Practical exacerbation predictors are needed for these patients in the primary-care setting. Patients and methods Medical records of 130,547 asthma patients aged 12–80 years from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1990–2013, were examined for 1 year before (baseline) and 1 year after (outcome) their most recent blood eosinophil count. Baseline variables predictive (P<0.05) of exacerbation in the outcome year were compared between patients who had two or more exacerbations and those who had no exacerbation or only one exacerbation, using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Exacerbation was defined as asthma-related hospital attendance/admission (emergency or inpatient) or acute oral corticosteroid (OCS) course. Results Blood eosinophil count >400/µL (versus ≤400/µL) increased the likelihood of two or more exacerbations >1.4-fold (odds ratio [OR]: 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39, 1.58); P<0.001). Variables that significantly increased the odds by up to 1.4-fold included increasing age (per year), female gender (versus male), being overweight or obese (versus normal body mass index), being a smoker (versus nonsmoker), having anxiety/depression, diabetes, eczema, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or rhinitis, and prescription for acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Compared with treatment at British Thoracic Society step 2 (daily controller ± reliever), treatment at step 0 (none) or 1 (as-needed reliever) increased the odds by 1.2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, and treatment at step 3, 4, or 5 increased the odds by 1.3-, 1.9-, or 3.1-fold, respectively (all P<0.05). Acute OCS use was the single best predictor of two or more exacerbations. Even one course increased the odds by more than threefold (OR: 3.75 [95% CI: 3

  11. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) vs eosinophil count in induced sputum (IS) in parenchymal vs airways lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Shtark, Moshe; Priel, Israel E; Shiner, Robert; Mor, Ram; Kivity, Shmuel; Fireman, Zvi

    2007-04-01

    We compared exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and induced sputum (IS) for assessing inflammation in pulmonary diseases in patients with obstructive lung disease (n = 20), persistent cough >6 months (n = 20), interstitial lung disease (n = 25) and controls (n = 10). EBC was collected by suspending a Teflon perfluoroalkoxy tube installed in an ice-filled container and connected to a polypropylene test tube. IS was recovered after 20' inhalation of 3% saline with an ultrasonic nebulizer, and 300 cells were differentially counted in cytospin Giemsa-stained slides. H(2)0(2) was measured by a method based on oxidation of phenolsulfonphthalein (phenol red) mediated by horseradish peroxidases and H(2)0(2). Pulmonary function tests were performed by conventional methods. H(2)0(2) levels in EBC and % eosinophils in IS were significantly different between groups. A positive and significant correlation was found between % eosinophils in IS and the levels of H(2)0(2) in EBC for each group and for all patients combined. PMID:17372840

  12. Predicting AIDS-related events using CD4 percentage or CD4 absolute counts

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Yasmin; Khuder, Sadik; Donabedian, Haig

    2006-01-01

    Background The extent of immunosuppression and the probability of developing an AIDS-related complication in HIV-infected people is usually measured by the absolute number of CD4 positive T-cells. The percentage of CD4 positive cells is a more easily measured and less variable number. We analyzed sequential CD4 and CD8 numbers, percentages and ratios in 218 of our HIV infected patients to determine the most reliable predictor of an AIDS-related event. Results The CD4 percentage was an unsurpassed predictor of the occurrence of AIDS-related events when all subsets of patients are considered. The CD4 absolute count was the next most reliable, followed by the ratio of CD4/CD8 percentages. The value of CD4 percentage over the CD4 absolute count was seen even after the introduction of highly effective HIV therapy. Conclusion The CD4 percentage is unsurpassed as a parameter for predicting the onset of HIV-related diseases. The extra time and expense of measuring the CD4 absolute count may be unnecessary. PMID:16916461

  13. Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Lymphocyte/Monocyte Ratio, and Absolute Lymphocyte Count/Absolute Monocyte Count Prognostic Score in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ching-Liang; Lu, Chieh-Sheng; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chen, Yu-Guang; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), and absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score (ALC/AMC PS) have been described as the most useful prognostic tools for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We retrospectively analyzed 148 Taiwanese patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma under rituximab (R)-CHOP-like regimens from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Tri-Service General Hospital and investigated the utility of these inexpensive tools in our patients. In a univariate analysis, the NLR, LMR, and ALC/AMC PS had significant prognostic value in our DLBCL patients (NLR: 5-year progression-free survival [PFS], P = 0.001; 5-year overall survival [OS], P = 0.007. LMR: PFS, P = 0.003; OS, P = 0.05. ALC/AMC PS: PFS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001). In a separate multivariate analysis, the ALC/AMC PS appeared to interact less with the other clinical factors but retained statistical significance in the survival analysis (PFS, P = 0.023; OS, P = 0.017). The akaike information criterion (AIC) analysis produced scores of 388.773 in the NLR, 387.625 in the LMR, and 372.574 in the ALC/AMC PS. The results suggested that the ALC/AMC PS appears to be more reliable than the NLR and LMR and may provide additional prognostic information when used in conjunction with the International Prognostic Index.

  14. Eosinophilic colitis.

    PubMed

    Dionísio de Sousa, Isabel José; Bonito, Nuno; Pais, Ana; Gervásio, Helena

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old man, diagnosed with colon cancer stage III in July/2010, underwent surgery and received adjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFOX 4 (5-fluorouracil; calcium folinate and oxaliplatin), which ended in March/2011 after 12-cycles. It was then decided to maintain periodical surveillance. About 1 year later, the patient developed several episodes of diarrhoea, mainly during the night, and presented persistent peripheral eosinophilia in the blood count (range 585-1300 eosinophils/µL). Colonoscopy was performed, with the histological result showing eosinophilic infiltration of the colon, compatible with eosinophilic colitis. The patient was treated with a short course of budesonide, achieving resolution of symptoms, and has remained asymptomatic. PMID:26957036

  15. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm(3), bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  16. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm3, bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  17. Characterizing absolute lymphocyte count profiles in dimethyl fumarate–treated patients with MS

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew; Gold, Ralf; Phillips, J. Theodore; Selmaj, Krzysztof; Chang, Ih; Novas, Mark; Rana, Jitesh; Marantz, Jing L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF), indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), is a disease-modifying therapy with potential immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. In clinical trials, DMF was associated with reduced white blood cell and absolute lymphocyte counts. Current US prescribing information recommends obtaining a complete blood count, including absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), before initiating and during DMF treatment. Methods: We conducted an integrated analysis of phase 2b/3/long-term extension studies of DMF in MS (N = 2,470) to characterize ALC profiles. Results: Mean ALCs decreased by 30% during the first year and then plateaued, remaining above the lower limit of normal (LLN). Among patients treated ≥6 months (N = 2,099), 2.2% experienced ALCs <500 mm3 persisting ≥6 months. ALCs remained ≥LLN in 84% and 76% of patients during the first 6 and 12 months, respectively; of these, 0.1% and 0%, respectively, developed ALCs <500 mm3 persisting ≥6 months at any time. Evidence of ALC improvement following DMF discontinuation was observed. DMF efficacy was not substantially different in patients with and without lymphopenia. Conclusion: Lymphocyte monitoring provides effective means for early identification of patients at risk for developing severe, prolonged lymphopenia. PMID:27347439

  18. Eosinophilic granuloma of the ileum

    PubMed Central

    Myers, A.; Humphreys, Daphne M.; Williamson, R. C. N.

    1975-01-01

    A case of eosinophilic granuloma of the ileum is described in association with a high (50%) eosinophil count. A review of published suggested classifications, aetiology and therapy is made. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:1114154

  19. Association Between Absolute Neutrophil Count and Variation at TCIRG1: The NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Makaryan, Vahagn; Burt, Amber A; Crosslin, David R; Kim, Daniel Seung; Smith, Joshua D; Nickerson, Deborah A; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Jackson, Rebecca D; Ganesh, Santhi K; Polfus, Linda M; Qi, Lihong; Dale, David C; Jarvik, Gail P

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils are a key component of innate immunity. Individuals with low neutrophil count are susceptible to frequent infections. Linkage and association between congenital neutropenia and a single rare missense variant in TCIRG1 have been reported in a single family. Here, we report on nine rare missense variants at evolutionarily conserved sites in TCIRG1 that are associated with lower absolute neutrophil count (ANC; p = 0.005) in 1,058 participants from three cohorts: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA), and Jackson Heart Study (JHS) of the NHLBI Grand Opportunity Exome Sequencing Project (GO ESP). These results validate the effects of TCIRG1 coding variation on ANC and suggest that this gene may be associated with a spectrum of mild to severe effects on ANC. PMID:27229898

  20. Genetic loci on chromosome 5 are associated with circulating levels of interleukin-5 and eosinophil count in a European population with high risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Olga; Silveira, Angela; Valdes-Marquez, Elsa; Björkbacka, Harry; Almgren, Peter; Gertow, Karl; Gådin, Jesper R.; Bäcklund, Alexandra; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Nilsson, Jan; Melander, Olle; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Clarke, Robert; Björck, Hanna M.; Hamsten, Anders; Öhrvik, John; Strawbridge, Rona J.

    2016-01-01

    IL-5 is a Th2 cytokine which activates eosinophils and is suggested to have an atheroprotective role. Genetic variants in the IL5 locus have been associated with increased risk of CAD and ischemic stroke. In this study we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with IL-5 concentrations and apply a Mendelian randomisation approach to assess IL-5 levels for causal effect on intima-media thickness in a European population at high risk of coronary artery disease. We analysed SNPs within robustly associated candidate loci for immune, inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identified 2 genetic loci for IL-5 levels (chromosome 5, rs56183820, BETA = 0.11, P = 6.73E−5 and chromosome 14, rs4902762, BETA = 0.12, P = 5.76E−6) and one for eosinophil count (rs72797327, BETA = −0.10, P = 1.41E−6). Both chromosome 5 loci were in the vicinity of the IL5 gene, however the association with IL-5 levels failed to replicate in a meta-analysis of 2 independent cohorts (rs56183820, BETA = 0.04, P = 0.2763, I2 = 24, I2 − P = 0.2516). No significant associations were observed between SNPs associated with IL-5 levels or eosinophil count and IMT measures. Expression quantitative trait analyses indicate effects of the IL-5 and eosinophil-associated SNPs on RAD50 mRNA expression levels (rs12652920 (r2 = 0.93 with rs56183820) BETA = −0.10, P = 8.64E−6 and rs11739623 (r2 = 0.96 with rs72797327) BETA = −0.23, P = 1.74E−29, respectively). Our data do not support a role for IL-5 levels and eosinophil count in intima-media thickness, however SNPs associated with IL-5 and eosinophils might influence stability of the atherosclerotic plaque via modulation of RAD50 levels. PMID:26821299

  1. [Angiostrongylosis or eosinophilic meningitis].

    PubMed

    Bourée, Patrice; Dumazedier, Déborah; Dahane, Naïma

    2010-04-20

    Eosinophilic meningitis, or angiostrongyliasis, is a common disease in Asia, in the Caribbean and in the Pacific islands. It is caused by a rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Infection occurs by consumption of raw or undercooked snails. Diagnosis is based on epidemiological criteria, clinical manifestations, elevated count of eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid and serological tests. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. PMID:20465114

  2. Absolute calibration of an EMCCD camera by quantum correlation, linking photon counting to the analog regime.

    PubMed

    Avella, A; Ruo-Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Brida, G; Genovese, M

    2016-04-15

    We show how the same setup and procedure, exploiting spatially multimode quantum correlations, allows the absolute calibration of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled (EMCCD) camera from the analog regime down to the single-photon-counting level, just by adjusting the brightness of the quantum source. At the single-photon level, an EMCCD can be operated as an on-off detector, where quantum efficiency depends on the discriminating threshold. We develop a simple model to explain the connection of the two different regimes demonstrating that the efficiency estimated in the analog (bright) regime allows us to accurately predict the detector behavior in the photocounting regime and vice versa. This work establishes a bridge between two regions of the optical measurements that up to now have been based on completely different standards, detectors, and measurement techniques. PMID:27082359

  3. Development of a suspension array assay in multiplex for simultaneous measurement of serum levels of four eosinophil granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Makiya, Michelle A.; Herrick, Jesica A.; Khoury, Paneez; Prussin, Calman P.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Klion, Amy D.

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) have been associated with eosinophilic disease severity. Whereas a variety of techniques have been used to measure individual eosinophil granule protein concentration, none of these methods efficiently measures MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO simultaneously. A multiplex suspension array system was developed to simultaneously measure the concentration of MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO in serum. The assay showed excellent inter- and intra-assay reliability, and serum levels of MBP, ECP and EDN from eosinophilic subjects analyzed by ELISA and multiplex were highly correlated (r = 0.8579; P < 0.0001, r = 0.6356; P = 0.0006 and r = 0.8600; P < 0.0001, respectively, Spearman rank correlation). Moreover, the multiplex assay required 500-fold less serum than a single ELISA to achieve comparable sensitivity. Absolute eosinophil count and eosinophil surface expression of the activation marker, CD69, were significantly correlated with concentrations of MBP, EDN and EPO, but not ECP, in serum from eosinophilic subjects. Furthermore, subjects with eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder and normal peripheral absolute eosinophil counts (< 0.5 × 109/L) had significantly increased concentrations of MBP (P < 0.0001), ECP (P < 0.0001), EDN (P = 0.0001) and EPO (P < 0.0001) compared to normal donors. In summary, the eosinophil granule protein multiplex assay provides a rapid and reliable way to measure eosinophil granule protein levels and should prove useful in assessing patterns of degranulation in patients with eosinophilic disorders. PMID:24914990

  4. Value of commonly measured laboratory tests as biomarkers of disease activity and predictors of relapse in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Peter C.; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Cuthbertson, David; Carette, Simon; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; Maksimowicz-McKinnon, Kathleen; Seo, Philip; Specks, Ulrich; Ytterberg, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of absolute eosinophil count, serum IgE, ESR and CRP as longitudinal biomarkers of disease activity and predictors of relapse in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss, EGPA). Methods. Patients were selected from an observational EGPA cohort. Absolute eosinophil count, IgE, ESR and CRP were measured quarterly. Disease activity was defined by validated assessment tools. The association of tests with disease activity was assessed via regression models, adjusting for repeated measures and treatment status. Survival analysis was used to determine if laboratory tests were predictive of the 3 month future flare risk. Results. Seventy-four per cent of 892 study visits in 141 patients occurred while patients were on treatment, mostly during remission or mild disease activity, defined as a BVAS for Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG) of 1 or 2. Correlations between absolute eosinophil count, IgE, ESR and CRP were mostly low or non-significant (r = −0.08 to 0.44). There were few weak associations with disease activity [absolute eosinophil count: OR) 1.01/100 U (95% CI 1.01, 1.02); ESR: OR 1.15/10 mg/l increase (95% CI 1.04, 1.27)]. When BVAS/WG ≥1 defined active disease, the absolute eosinophil count [hazard ratio (HR) 1.01/100 U (95% CI 1.01, 1.02)] was weakly predictive of flare. When BVAS/WG ≥3 defined active disease, ESR was weakly predictive of flare [HR 1.52/10 mm/h increase (95% CI 1.17, 1.67)]. Conclusion. The absolute eosinophil count, IgE, ESR and CRP have limitations as longitudinal biomarkers of disease activity or predictors of flare in EGPA. These findings suggest that novel biomarkers of disease activity for EGPA are needed. PMID:25406357

  5. Counting numbers of synaptic proteins: absolute quantification and single molecule imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Patrizio, Angela; Specht, Christian G

    2016-10-01

    The ability to count molecules is essential to elucidating cellular mechanisms, as these often depend on the absolute numbers and concentrations of molecules within specific compartments. Such is the case at chemical synapses, where the transmission of information from presynaptic to postsynaptic terminals requires complex interactions between small sets of molecules. Be it the subunit stoichiometry specifying neurotransmitter receptor properties, the copy numbers of scaffold proteins setting the limit of receptor accumulation at synapses, or protein packing densities shaping the molecular organization and plasticity of the postsynaptic density, all of these depend on exact quantities of components. A variety of proteomic, electrophysiological, and quantitative imaging techniques have yielded insights into the molecular composition of synaptic complexes. In this review, we compare the different quantitative approaches and consider the potential of single molecule imaging techniques for the quantification of synaptic components. We also discuss specific neurobiological data to contextualize the obtained numbers and to explain how they aid our understanding of synaptic structure and function. PMID:27335891

  6. Elevated absolute monocyte count predicts unfavorable outcomes in patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Qiong; Liang, Jin-Hua; Wu, Jia-Zhu; Wang, Li; Qu, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Huang, Dong-Ping; Fan, Lei; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the prognostic significance of the absolute monocyte count (AMC) in peripheral blood in patients with newly diagnosed angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL). AMC was performed in 73 therapy-naive patients with AITL in 2 institutions during 2008-2015, and higher AMC was observed in those with extranodal sites >1, bone marrow involvement, high lactate dehydrogenase level, the EBV infection, no response to treatment and high IPI, PIT, PIAI score group. The best AMC cut-off level at diagnosis was 0.8×10(9)/L and the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 64% for patients with low AMC group (≤0.8×10(9)/L) compared to 10% in high AMC group (>0.8×10(9)/L) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that elevated AMC remained an adverse prognostic parameter. Our results suggest that AMC is an independent prognostic parameter for OS in patients with AITL, and AMC >0.8×10(9)/L can routinely be used to identify high-risk patients with unfavorable survival. PMID:26764222

  7. Initial Characterization of Unequal-Length, Low-Background Proportional Counters for Absolute Gas-Counting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily K.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen; Williams, Richard M.

    2013-08-31

    Abstract. Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., 37Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counters (ULBPC) designs and now operate in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of OFHC copper components for use in an above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates, gas gain, energy resolution, and shielding considerations. These results will be presented along with uncertainty estimates of future absolute gas counting measurements.

  8. Using peripheral smear review, age and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors of abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytoses diagnosed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jared M; Cruser, Dan L; Myers, Jerome B; Fernelius, Colby A; Holm, Mitchel T; Waldner, Dale L

    2008-09-01

    Absolute lymphocytosis in the elderly raises the possibility of malignancy and generally warrants further investigation. To better correlate clinical variables with the frequency of neoplastic lymphoid processes in this population, we retrospectively reviewed archived flow cytometric analyses from peripheral blood specimens on patients of 50 years of age and older that had been deemed suspicious for a lymphoproliferative process after peripheral smear review. Age, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), white blood cell count and relative lymphocyte count were correlated with the results of flow cytometry. Of 71 total cases, 42 (59%) had an abnormal immunophenotype. Independent variables that showed significant differences between normal and abnormal immunophenotype were mean age (p = 0.001) and ALC (p = 0.0032). We combined age and absolute lymphocyte count variables to look for the best possible cutoff values to predict the likelihood of an abnormal immunophenotype. ALC cutoff values of >or=4 x 10(9) cells/L for patients over 67 years of age, and >6.7 x 10(9) cells/L for patients between 50 and 67 years of age, had a high sensitivity for detecting an abnormal immunophenotype. PMID:18798107

  9. Peripheral blood eosinophils: a surrogate marker for airway eosinophilia in stable COPD

    PubMed Central

    Negewo, Netsanet A; McDonald, Vanessa M; Baines, Katherine J; Wark, Peter AB; Simpson, Jodie L; Jones, Paul W; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sputum eosinophilia occurs in approximately one-third of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and can predict exacerbation risk and response to corticosteroid treatments. Sputum induction, however, requires expertise, may not always be successful, and does not provide point-of-care results. Easily applicable diagnostic markers that can predict sputum eosinophilia in stable COPD patients have the potential to progress COPD management. This study investigated the correlation and predictive relationship between peripheral blood and sputum eosinophils. It also examined the repeatability of blood eosinophil counts. Methods Stable COPD patients (n=141) were classified as eosinophilic or noneosinophilic based on their sputum cell counts (≥3%), and a cross-sectional analysis was conducted comparing their demographics, clinical characteristics, and blood cell counts. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the predictive ability of blood eosinophils for sputum eosinophilia. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine the repeatability of blood eosinophil counts. Results Blood eosinophil counts were significantly higher in patients with sputum eosinophilia (n=45) compared to those without (0.3×109/L vs 0.15×109/L; P<0.0001). Blood eosinophils correlated with both the percentage (ρ=0.535; P<0.0001) and number of sputum eosinophils (ρ=0.473; P<0.0001). Absolute blood eosinophil count was predictive of sputum eosinophilia (area under the curve =0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.67–0.84; P<0.0001). At a threshold of ≥0.3×109/L (specificity =76%, sensitivity =60%, and positive likelihood ratio =2.5), peripheral blood eosinophil counts enabled identification of the presence or absence of sputum eosinophilia in 71% of the cases. A threshold of ≥0.4×109/L had similar classifying ability but better specificity (91.7%) and higher positive likelihood ratio (3.7). In contrast, ≥0.2×109/L

  10. Leukemia -- Eosinophilic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... Platelets that help the blood to clot About leukemia Types of leukemia are named after the specific ...

  11. Initial characterization of unequal-length, low-background proportional counters for absolute gas-counting applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Overman, C. T.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-08-08

    Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., {sup 37}Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counter designs and now operate in PNNL's shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity copper components for use in a shielded above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates, gas gain, and energy resolution. These results will be presented along with a shielding study for the above-ground cave.

  12. Prognostic Implication of the Absolute Lymphocyte to Absolute Monocyte Count Ratio in Patients With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine or Equivalent Regimens.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P; Dimopoulou, Maria N; Angelopoulou, Maria K; Petevi, Kyriaki; Pangalis, Gerassimos A; Moschogiannis, Maria; Dimou, Maria; Boutsikas, George; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros; Gainaru, Gabriella; Plata, Eleni; Flevari, Pagona; Koutsi, Katerina; Papageorgiou, Loula; Telonis, Vassilios; Tsaftaridis, Panayiotis; Sachanas, Sotirios; Yiakoumis, Xanthoula; Tsirkinidis, Pantelis; Viniou, Nora-Athina; Siakantaris, Marina P; Variami, Eleni; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Meletis, John; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Konstantopoulos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Low absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) to absolute monocyte count (AMC) ratio (ALC/AMC) is an independent prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but different cutoffs (1.1, 1.5, and 2.9) have been applied. We aimed to validate the prognostic significance of ALC/AMC in 537 homogenously treated (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine or equivalents ± radiotherapy) classical HL patients at various cutoffs. The median ALC/AMC was 2.24 (0.44-20.50). The median AMC was 0.653 × 10(9)/L (0.050-2.070). Lower ALC/AMC was associated with established markers of adverse prognosis. In total, 477 (89%), 418 (78%), and 189 (35%) patients had an ALC/AMC ratio of ≥1.1, ≥1.5, and ≥2.9; respectively; 20% had monocytosis (≥0.9 × 10(9)/L). Ten-year time to progression (TTP) was 77% versus 55% for patients with ALC/AMC ≥1.1 and <1.1 (p = .0002), 76% versus 68% for ALC/AMC ≥1.5 and <1.5 (p = .049), 77% versus 73% for ALC/AMC ≥2.9 and <2.9 (p = .35), and 79% versus 70% for ALC/AMC ≥2.24 and <2.24 (p = .08), respectively. In stages ΙΑ/ΙΙΑ and in patients ≥60 years old, ALC/AMC had no significant effect on TTP. In advanced stages, ALC/AMC was significant only at the cutoff of 1.1 (10-year TTP 67% vs. 48%; p = .016). In younger, advanced-stage patients, the differences were more pronounced. In multivariate analysis of TTP, ALC/AMC < 1.1 (p = .007) and stage IV (p < .001) were independent prognostic factors; ALC/AMC was independent of International Prognostic Score in another model. ALC/AMC was more predictive of overall survival than TTP. At the cutoff of 1.1, ALC/AMC had independent prognostic value in multivariate analysis. However, the prognostically inferior group comprised only 11% of patients. Further research is needed prior to the widespread use of this promising marker. PMID:26921291

  13. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  14. An improved method to visualize eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Rubio, C A; Glaessgen, A

    2006-01-01

    We previously found in Giemsa-stained colorectal sections from IBD patients that eosinophilic granulocytes turned fluorescent when excited with indirect fluorescent light, while other inflammatory cells were non-fluorescent. We now studied with that method, the frequency of eosinophilic granulocytes in sections from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE). Cell counting was done in consecutive sections stained with Giemsa stain using indirect fluorescence light (G-IFL setting) and with hematoxylin-eosin using transmitted light (HE-TL setting) in 5 cases of EE and in 10 consecutive cases of reflux esophagitis (RE) grade 2. In EE 45.0 eosinophils/case (range 39-51) were recorded with the G-IFL setting but only 33.4 eosinophils/case (range 28-39) with the HE-TL setting (p < 0.05). In RE cases, 3 eosinophils/case (range 2-4) were found with the G-IFL setting and 2 eosinophil/case (range 1-3) with the HE-TL setting. The G-IFL method is not only more sensitive in detecting eosinophils than the conventional HE-TL method but also quicker, since a differential cell counting is not necessary. PMID:17091778

  15. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... EGIDs Eosinophilic Fasciitis Eosinophilic Pneumonia Eosinophilic Cystitis Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome Resources For Patients ...

  16. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur) and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001); correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001); negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001), reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive

  17. Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Possa, Samantha S.; Leick, Edna A.; Prado, Carla M.; Martins, Mílton A.; Tibério, Iolanda F. L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils are circulating granulocytes involved in pathogenesis of asthma. A cascade of processes directed by Th2 cytokine producing T-cells influence the recruitment of eosinophils into the lungs. Furthermore, multiple elements including interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, chemoattractants such as eotaxin, Clara cells, and CC chemokine receptor (CCR)3 are already directly involved in recruiting eosinophils to the lung during allergic inflammation. Once recruited, eosinophils participate in the modulation of immune response, induction of airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, characteristic features of asthma. Various types of promising treatments for reducing asthmatic response are related to reduction in eosinophil counts both in human and experimental models of pulmonary allergic inflammation, showing that the recruitment of these cells really plays an important role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such asthma. PMID:23616768

  18. Eosinophilic Gastritis Presenting as Tissue Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yong Min; Jang, Jin Seok; Han, Seung Hee; Kang, Sang Hyun; Kim, Woo Jae; Jeong, Jin Sook

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is very rare disorder that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of any definite causes of eosinophilia. It is associated with various clinical gastrointestinal manifestations, and depends on the involved layer and site. We report a case of eosinophilic gastritis presenting with severe necrosis. The symptoms disappeared immediately after beginning steroid treatment, and the eosinophil count decreased to the reference range. The patient showed eosinophilic gastritis characterized by necrotic change such as necrotizing gastritis. It is a unique presentation of eosinophilic gastritis. To the best of our knowledge, no case of eosinophilic gastritis characterized by necrotic change such as necrotizing gastritis has been previously reported in Korea. PMID:26668805

  19. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Anand R; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized in adults. The diagnosis is based on the presence of both typical symptoms and pathologic findings on esophageal biopsy. Patients usually present with dysphagia, food impaction and/or reflux-like symptoms, and biopsy of the esophagus shows more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. In addition, it is essential to exclude the presence of known causes of tissue eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, infections, malignancy, collagen vascular diseases, hypersensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. There are no standardized protocols for the therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis. A variety of therapeutic approaches including acid suppression, dietary modifications, topical corticosteroids and endoscopic dilation can be used alone or in combination. PMID:19115464

  20. Using BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes for Absolute Cluster of Differentiation Type 4 Cell Count Measurement on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow Cytometers: A Method Comparison Study from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Florian; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Bernasconi, Andrea; Moyo, Buhlebenkosi; Havazvidi, Liberty; Bastard, Mathieu; Flevaud, Laurence; Taziwa, Fabian; Makondo, Eliphas; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood collected in conventional EDTA tubes requires laboratory analysis within 48 hours to provide valid CD4 cell count results. This restricts access to HIV care for patients from rural areas in resource-constraint settings due to sample transportation problems. Stabilization Tubes with extended storage duration have been developed but not yet evaluated comprehensively. Objective To investigate stability of absolute CD4 cell count measurement of samples in BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes over the course of 30 days. Methods This was a laboratory-based method comparison study conducted at a rural district hospital in Beitbridge, Zimbabwe. Whole peripheral blood from 88 HIV positive adults was drawn into BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes and re-tested 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 30 days after collection on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow cytometers in parallel. Absolute CD4 cell levels were compared to results from paired samples in EDTA tubes analysed on BD FacsCount at the day of sample collection (references methodology). Bland-Altman analysis based on ratios of the median CD4 counts was used, with acceptable variation ranges for Limits of Agreements of +/-20%. Results Differences in ratios of the medians remained below 10% until day 21 on BD FacsCount and until day 5 on Partec Cyflow. Variations of Limits of Agreement were beyond 20% after day 1 on both cytometers. Specimen quality decreased steadily after day 5, with only 68% and 40% of samples yielding results on BD FacsCount and Partec Cyflow at day 21, respectively. Conclusions We do not recommend the use of BD Vacutainer CD4 Stabilization Tubes for absolute CD4 cell count measurement on BD FacsCount or Partec Cyflow due to large variation of results and decay of specimen quality. Alternative technologies for enhanced CD4 testing in settings with limited laboratory and sample transportation capacity still need to be developed. PMID:26295802

  1. Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Glenn T.; Katzka, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Once considered a rare condition, eosinophilic esophagitis is now one of the most common conditions diagnosed during the assessment of feeding problems in children and during the evaluation of dysphagia and food impaction in adults.1 The entity exists worldwide but has been most extensively studied in Western countries, where its prevalence has been estimated to be 0.4% among all children and adults.2 Whether eosinophilic esophagitis is truly a new disease or simply a recently recognized one is uncertain.3 In this review, we consider the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiological and clinical features, and treatment of this increasingly prevalent disease. PMID:26488694

  2. Gallium-67 pulmonary uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Morais, J.; Carrier, L.; Gariepy, G.; Le Bel, L.; Chartrand, R.; Picard, D.

    1988-01-01

    Eosinophilic pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on the findings on chest x-ray, white blood count, and transbronchial biopsy. After reporting a case of Ga-67 lung uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia, its histopathology is discussed and the mechanisms of Ga-67 uptake by inflammatory lesions are reviewed.

  3. Absolute Reticulocyte Count Acts as a Surrogate for Fetal Hemoglobin in Infants and Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Emily Riehm; Byrnes, Colleen; Weissman, Maxine; Lee, Y. Terry; Miller, Jeffery L.

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin switching is largely complete in humans by six months of age. Among infants with sickle cell anemia (HbSS, SCA), reticulocytosis begins early in life as fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is replaced by sickle hemoglobin (HbS). The objective of this study was to determine if absolute reticulocyte count (ARC) is related to HbF levels in a cohort of pediatric SCA patients. A convenience sample of 106 children with SCA between the ages of 1 month and 20 years who were not receiving hydroxyurea or monthly blood transfusions were enrolled in this observational study. Hematologic data, including ARC and HbF levels, were measured at steady state. F-cells were enumerated by flow cytometry. Initial studies compared infants with ARC greater than or equal to 200 K/μL (ARC ≥ 200) based upon the previously reported utility of this threshold as a predictive marker for SCA severity. Mean HbF and F-cell levels were significantly lower in the ARC ≥ 200 group when compared to the ARC < 200 group. Both HbF and F-cell percentages were negatively correlated to ARC in infants and in children between the ages of 1 and 9 years. However, the inverse relationship was lost after the age of 10 years. Overall, decreased expression and distribution of HbF during childhood SCA is well-correlated with increased reticulocyte production and release into the peripheral blood. As such, these data further support the clinical use of reticulocyte enumeration as a disease severity biomarker for childhood sickle cell anemia. PMID:26366562

  4. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: a rare cause of dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Billot, D; Pernin, M; Pillot, C; Bredin, C; Hoeffler, P; Graffin, B; Rey, P

    2010-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is an unrecognized and emerging entity. Its incidence increases with allergic disorders. A 29-year-old man presented with a 4-year history of intermittent and paroxysmal dysphagia. The triad including allergy, young age, and impaction of foreign bodies, combined with a chronic dysphagia is almost pathognomonic of eosinophilic esophagitis. Endoscopic esophageal features can be diverse, so systematic esophageal biopsies are required. Diagnosis is established with the demonstration of an eosinophilic infiltrate with a cell count exceeding 15 eosinophils per high power field (×400). First line therapy includes swallowed topical corticosteroids and removal of an allergic cause, when it could be identified. PMID:20605659

  5. Novel Targeted Therapies for Eosinophil-Associated Diseases and Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Radonjic-Hoesli, Susanne; Valent, Peter; Klion, Amy D.; Wechsler, Michael E.; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophil-associated diseases often present with life-threatening manifestations and/or chronic organ damage. Currently available therapeutic options are limited to a few drugs that often have to be prescribed on a life-long basis to keep eosinophil counts under control. In the last 10 years, treatment options and outcomes in patients with clonal eosinophilic and other eosinophilic disorders have improved substantially. Several new targeted therapies have emerged, addressing different aspects of eosinophil expansion and inflammation. In this review, we discuss available and currently tested agents, as well as new strategies and drug targets relevant to both primary and secondary eosinophilic diseases, including allergic disorders. PMID:25340931

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Merves, Jamie; Muir, Amanda; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna Modayur; Cianferoni, Antonella; Wang, Mei-Lun; Spergel, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the understanding of the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and the role of the immune system in the disease process. Data Sources Peer-reviewed articles on EoE from PubMed searching for “Eosinophilic Esophagitis and fibrosis” in the period of 1995 to 2013. Study Selection Studies on the clinical and immunologic features, pathogenesis, and management of EoE. Results Recent work has revealed that thymic stromal lymphopoietin and basophil have an increased role in the pathogenesis of disease. Additional understanding on the role of fibrosis in EoE is emerging. Conclusion The incidence of EoE is increasing like most atopic disease. Similar to other allergic diseases, EoE is treated with topical steroids and/or allergen avoidance. PMID:24566295

  7. High post-treatment absolute monocyte count predicted hepatocellular carcinoma risk in HCV patients who failed peginterferon/ribavirin therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Ming; Lin, Chun-Che; Huang, Pi-Teh; Wen, Chen-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Salient studies have investigated the association between host inflammatory response and cancer. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that peripheral absolute monocyte counts (AMC) could impart an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients after a failed peginterferon/ribavirin (PR) combination therapy. A total of 723 chronic HCV-infected patients were treated with PR, of which 183 (25.3 %) patients did not achieve a sustained virological response (non-SVR). Post-treatment AMC values were measured at 6 months after end of PR treatment. Fifteen (2.8 %) of 540 patients with an SVR developed HCC during a median follow-up period of 41.4 months, and 14 (7.7 %) of 183 non-SVR patients developed HCC during a median follow-up of 36.8 months (log rank test for SVR vs. non-SVR, P = 0.002). Cox regression analysis revealed that post-treatment AFP level (HR 1.070; 95 % CI = 1.024-1.119, P = 0.003) and post-treatment aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) ≥0.5 (HR 4.401; 95 % CI = 1.463-13.233, P = 0.008) were independent variables associated with HCC development for SVR patients. For non-SVR patients, diabetes (HR 5.750; 95 % CI = 1.387-23.841, P = 0.016), post treatment AMC ≥370 mm(-3) (HR 5.805; 95 % CI = 1.268-26.573, P = 0.023), and post-treatment APRI ≥1.5 (HR 10.905; 95 % CI = 2.493-47.697, P = 0.002) were independent risks associated with HCC. In conclusion, post-treatment AMC has a role in prognostication of HCC development in HCV-infected patients who failed to achieve an SVR after PR combination therapy. PMID:26662957

  8. A Pilot Study of Omalizumab in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, Denise; Enav, Benjamin; Komlodi-Pasztor, Edina; Hider, Pamela; Kim-Chang, Julie; Noonan, Laura; Taber, Tabitha; Kaushal, Suhasini; Limgala, Renuka; Brown, Margaret; Gupta, Raavi; Balba, Nader; Goker-Alpan, Ozlem; Khojah, Amer; Alpan, Oral

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are an emerging subset of immune pathologies within the spectrum of allergic inflammation. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE), once considered a rare disease, is increasing in incidence, with a rate of over 1 in 10,000 in the US, for unknown reasons. The clinical management of EoE is challenging, thus there is an urgent need for understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of this eosinophilic disease to develop better therapeutic approaches. In this open label, single arm, unblinded study, we evaluated the effects of an anti-IgE treatment, omalizumab, on local inflammation in the esophagus and clinical correlates in patients with EoE. Omalizumab was administered for 12 weeks to 15 subjects with long standing EoE. There were no serious side effects from the treatment. Esophageal tissue inflammation was assessed both before and after therapy. After 3 months on omalizumab, although tissue Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly reduced in all but two of the subjects, we found that full remission of EoE, which is defined as histologic and clinical improvement only in 33% of the patients. The decrease in tryptase-positive cells and eosinophils correlated significantly with the clinical outcome as measured by improvement in endoscopy and symptom scores, respectively. Omalizumab-induced remission of EoE was limited to subjects with low peripheral blood absolute eosinophil counts. These findings demonstrate that in a subset of EoE patients, IgE plays a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and that anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab may result in disease remission. Since this study is open label there is the potential for bias, hence the need for a larger double blind placebo controlled study. The data presented in this pilot study provides a foundation for proper patient selection to maximize clinical efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01040598 PMID:25789989

  9. A quantitative study of eosinophil polymorphs in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Fuggle, W J; Crocker, J; Smith, P J

    1984-03-01

    Eosinophil polymorphonuclear leucocytes (polymorphs) were counted in 45 specimens from patients with Hodgkin's disease and five specimens from patients with reactive follicular hyperplasia. The use of chlorazol fast pink BK, a little known stain for eosinophil polymorphs, combined with image analysis facilitated rapid and reliable counting. Significant differences were found between the mean percentages of eosinophil polymorphs in the Rye subtypes of Hodgkin's disease. The numbers of eosinophil polymorphs in specimens from patients with reactive follicular hyperplasia were very low and could not be counted. PMID:6699190

  10. Effect of topical applications of budesonide and azelastine on nasal symptoms, eosinophil count and mediator release in atopic patients after nasal allergen challenge during the pollen season.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Smitz, J; De Waele, M; Clement, P

    1997-10-01

    We studied the activity of a topical form of a corticosteroid (budesonide) and an antihistamine (azelastine) in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis by including an assessment of mediator concentrations and the percentage of eosinophils in the nasal secretions before and after the treatment. Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) during the season was performed to mimic an acute attack of allergic rhinitis and to objectively evaluate the effect of the drugs on the early-phase reaction. The study compared in a randomized way (2 parallel groups) the effect of budesonide (Rhinocort Aqua) and azelastine (Allergodil nasal spray) in a group of 14 patients during the pollen season. The study showed that azelastine significantly reduced sneezing, total nasal resistance and increased nasal airflow even when significant increases in histamine, tryptase and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) concentrations in nasal secretions were evidenced immediately after NAC. Budesonide showed a strong (p<0.05) decrease in infiltration and activation of eosinophils, and on tryptase and LTC4 release after NAC. These effects (not for LTC4) lasted at least for 1 week after therapy. Azelastine is a powerful topical antihistamine, while budesonide appears to be a potent long-acting anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:9338613

  11. [Eosinophilic esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Couto, Mariana; Rodrigues, Susana; Piedade, Susana; Gaspar, Ângela; Morais-Almeida, Mário; Macedo, Guilherme

    2011-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by significant and isolated infiltration of the esophageal mucosa by eosinophils, associated with clinical symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, affecting children and adults. It is an increasingly frequent cause of symptoms similar to gastroesophageal reflux disease but refractory to anti-acid therapeutic. It is commonly associated with food allergies or other atopic diseases. Since there are no symptoms, signs, serological biomarkers or endoscopic findings pathognomonic of EE, the diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion; moreover, due to its chronic relapsing nature the potential to cause major esophageal structural changes, its early recognition and close cooperation between gastroenterologists and immunoallergologists is essential for the timely institution of appropriate therapy. The treatment is based on two main strategies: diet and / or pharmacotherapy, depending on the co-existence of sensitization to food allergens. It is our aim to review this issue, considering recent guidelines, as well as propose a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. PMID:22863504

  12. Galectin-10, a Potential Biomarker of Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Justin C.; Douglass, Jo A.; Gillman, Andrew; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Meeusen, Els N.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of eosinophilic airway inflammation can assist in the diagnosis of allergic asthma and in the management of exacerbations, however its clinical implementation remains difficult. Galectin-10 has been associated with eosinophilic inflammation and has the potential to be used as a surrogate biomarker. This study aimed to assess the relationship between galectin-10 in sputum with sputum eosinophil counts, the current gold standard of eosinophil inflammation in the lung. Thirty-eight sputum samples were processed for both eosinophil counts by cytospins and semi-quantitative measurements of galectin-10 by western blots. A strong association was observed between galectin-10 levels in sputum and sputum eosinophil measurements, and they accurately determined sputum eosinophilia. The results support the potential for galectin-10 to be used as a surrogate biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. PMID:22880030

  13. Evaluation of the FACSPresto, a New Point of Care Device for the Enumeration of CD4% and Absolute CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Makadzange, Azure Tariro; Bogezi, Carola; Boyd, Kathryn; Gumbo, Anesu; Mukura, Dorinda; Matubu, Allen; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Enumeration of CD4+ T lymphocytes is important for pre-ART disease staging and screening for opportunistic infections, however access to CD4 testing in resource limited settings is poor. Point of care (POC) technologies can facilitate improved access to CD4 testing. We evaluated the analytical performance of a novel POC device the FACSPresto compared to the FACSCalibur as a reference standard and to the PIMA, a POC device in widespread use in sub-Saharan Africa. Method Specimens were obtained from 253 HIV infected adults. Venous blood samples were analyzed on the FACSPresto and the FACSCalibur, in a subset of 41 samples additional analysis was done on the PIMA. Results The absolute CD4 count results obtained on the FACSPresto were comparable to those on the FACSCalibur with low absolute (9.5cells/μl) and relative bias (3.2%). Bias in CD4% values was also low (1.06%) with a relative bias of 4.9%. The sensitivity was lower at a CD4 count threshold of ≤350cells/μl compared with ≤500cells/μl (84.9% vs. 92.8%) resulting in a high upward misclassification rate at low CD4 counts. Specificity at thresholds of ≤350cells/μl and ≤500cells/μl were 96.6% and 96.8% respectively. The PIMA had a high absolute (-68.6cells/μl) and relative bias (-10.5%) when compared with the FACSCalibur. At thresholds of ≤350cells/μl and ≤500cells/μl the sensitivity was 100% and 95.5% respectively; specificity was 85.7% and 84.2% respectively. The coefficients of repeatability were 4.13%, 5.29% and 9.8% respectively. Discussion The analytic performance of the FACSPresto against the reference standard was very good with better agreement and precision than the PIMA. The FACSPresto had comparable sensitivity at a threshold of 500 cells/μl and better specificity than the PIMA. However the FACSPresto showed reduced sensitivity at low CD4 count thresholds. Conclusion The FACSPresto can be reliably used as a POC device for enumerating absolute CD4 count and CD4% values

  14. Periostin - A Novel Systemic Biomarker for Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Emprm, Viswanathan; Rajanandh, MG

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic airway inflammation and remodelling are fundamental features of asthma. The molecular phenotypes in asthma are Th2 high and Th2 low. Serum periostin is a biomarker which aid in understanding Th2 high eosinophilic asthma. Aim The present study aimed to identify whether or not serum periostin is a systemic biomarker for eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatics. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a prospective, case control study. Patients who presented with consistent symptoms of asthma and confirmed by spirometry with reversibility were the cases. The controls were healthy subjects who had no history of lung disease with normal lung function. The sputum and blood samples were collected from both the groups. Sputum eosinophils, Absolute Eosinophil Counts (AEC) and serum periostin levels were compared between the groups. Results The study comprised of 101 participants in which 30 were controls and 71 were cases. In the study group, mean post FEV1 was 64.45. There was a positive correlation of sputum eosinophils with severity of obstruction. The ROC curve analysis showed the cut-off value of 24.556 for serum periostin with the p-value of <0.001. As the severity of obstruction increased, the serum periostin levels were also found to be increased. Serum periostin had a sensitivity and specificity of 97.18% and 86.67% with a diagnostic accuracy of 94.06%. Conclusion Serum periostin appears to be a more sensitive tool for detection of airflow limitation in asthmatic patients with a Th2 high eosinophilic phenotype when compared to AEC and sputum eosinophils. PMID:27054127

  15. Clinical evaluation of eosinophils in the sputum.

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, V G; Prolla, J C

    1979-01-01

    The sputum differential eosinophil/neutrophil count was done in 384 patients using Leishman staining. The patients were distributed in four groups: bronchial asthma (197 patients); chronic bronchitis with wheezing (45 patients); chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema without wheezing (73 patients); other pulmonary diseases (64 patients). Eosinophils were present in patients from all groups but more frequently (P less than 0.001) in asthma: 142 (72%) of 197 patients. In bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis with wheezing the percentages of eosinophils were more frequently (P less than 0.001) above 80%: 57% and 58% of the patients respectively. The other two groups had more cases with 19% or less eosinophils. There is no percentage level specific for asthma but levels above 80% of eosinophils are strongly suggestive of asthma or of chronic bronchitis with wheezing. PMID:521497

  16. β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis.

    PubMed

    Mogilevski, Tamara; Nickless, David; Hume, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma presented with a 2-week history of watery diarrhoea and marked peripheral eosinophilia in the setting of recent use of cephalexin. His colonoscopy revealed patchy colitis. Biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic colitis. Two months later he received a course of amoxicillin resulting in recurrence of peripheral eosinophilia. Given the time-frame of β-lactam administration to symptom onset and elimination of all other precipitating causes, he was diagnosed with β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis. The patient's symptoms resolved and peripheral eosinophil count decreased with no specific treatment. Eosinophilic colitis is a rare heterogeneous condition, the pathogenesis of which is likely to be an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It can be secondary to a helminthic infection or a drug reaction and has been associated with ulcerative colitis. If secondary causes of eosinophilic colitis have been excluded, the mainstay of treatment is with corticosteroids. PMID:26106168

  17. Eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Saurabh; Baruah, Bhaskar Jyoti; Makharia, Govind; Ahuja, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity characterised by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilia on esophageal mucosal biopsies in the absence of other causes of esophageal eosinophilia. It is a chronic inflammatory condition of esophagus often characterized by refractory reflux symptoms in children and dysphagia in adults. It occurs as a result of Th2 inflammatory response to environmental triggers (food antigens) in genetically predisposed individuals. The diagnostic criteria include symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, esophageal eosinophilia (> 15/hpf), and a PPI trial (persistent eosinophilia after 8 weeks of PPI). Mainstay of treatment at present is topical steroids and dietary therapy. Maintenance treatment should be considered to prevent long term complications. PMID:27522734

  18. Eosinophils in hereditary and inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Thomas; Fuchss, Johann; Schneider, Ilka; Stoltenburg-Didinger, Gisela; Hanisch, Frank

    2013-12-01

    It is not known whether eosinophilic myositis is a specific histopathological feature of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (LGMD2A). Number and location of eosinophils in skeletal muscle biopsies (n=100) was analysed by Giemsa and modified hematoxylin/eosin staining in patients with genetically confirmed myopathies (LGMD2A, LGMD2B, LGMD2L, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, dystrophinopathy), histologically confirmed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (neurogenic control), and normal controls. The number of eosinophils/mm² was significantly higher in LGMD2A, PM, DM, and sIBM compared to controls but not significantly higher than other myopathies. A large overlap in the number of eosinophils/mm2 between all groups was seen. In all disease groups eosinophils were mainly found endomysially (46- 88%) and intra- and perivascularly (4-37%). There was no correlation between the numbers of eosinophils/mm² and (i) age at biopsy and (ii) the duration of the disease. The extent of myopathic, fibrotic, and inflammatory changes did not differ in samples with high and low eosinophil count. Eosinophils seem to represent an unspecific histological finding in hereditary and inflammatory myopathies, but also amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24803842

  19. Eosinophilic Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic lung diseases especially comprise eosinophilic pneumonia or as the more transient Löffler syndrome, which is most often due to parasitic infections. The diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia is based on characteristic clinical-imaging features and the demonstration of alveolar eosinophilia, defined as at least 25% eosinophils at BAL. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is common but may be absent at presentation in idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, which may be misdiagnosed as severe infectious pneumonia. All possible causes of eosinophilia, including drug, toxin, fungus related etiologies, must be thoroughly investigated. Extrathoracic manifestations should raise the suspicion of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. PMID:27514599

  20. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  1. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  2. Chronic diarrhea, eosinophilic ascites, acute pancreatitis and deep venous thrombosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Javid Bhat, Khalid; Bhat, Sanjay; Dutt, Kalyan; Gupta, Sakul; Jeelani Samoon, Hamaad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is rare and is characterized by recurrent eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract and chronic diarrhea. In this report we present a case of EG with acute pancreatitis and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Case presentation: A 30 years old male was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of epigastric pain, vomitting and swelling of his left limb for the past six days. He was also having diarrhea for the last several months. He had been evaluated for chronic diarrhea and ascites before he sought the current consultation. Duplex color doppler of left limb showed DVT of distal calf vein. Contrast enhanced CT imaging of abdomen revealed thickening of duodenum, proximal jejunal wall and presence of ascites. Duodenal biopsy showed normal villous pattern with mild inflammation and eosinophilic infiltration. The constellation of clinical presentation, hypereosinophilia, CT and biopsy findings all is in consistence to EG. The patient was treated with prednisolone 20 mg/day for four weeks and tapered slowly. Acute pancreatitis was managed conservatively while DVT was treated with heparin and oral anticoagulants. The patient’s diarrhea settled and ascites resolved completely. At follow up, the absolute eosinophil count was 300/μl and the patient was doing well. Conclusion: This case report emphasizes that one should consider these rare disorders during the differential diagnosis of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms in the presence of hypereosinophilia. PMID:25202449

  3. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  4. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  5. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and related eosinophilic disorders.

    PubMed

    Prussin, Calman

    2014-06-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) represents one member within the spectrum of diseases collectively referred to as eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, which includes eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. EGE is less common than EoE and involves a different site of disease but otherwise shares many common features with EoE. The clinical manifestations of EGE are protean and can vary from nausea and vomiting to protein-losing enteropathy or even bowel obstruction requiring surgery. Although systemic corticosteroids are an effective treatment for EGE, their use results in substantial corticosteroid toxicity. Accordingly, there is a great need for improved therapies for these patients. PMID:24813518

  6. Human eosinophil transmigration.

    PubMed

    Bazan-Socha, Stanislawa; Zuk, Joanna; Jakiela, Bogdan; Musial, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we describe an optimized eosinophil transmigration assay. Transmigration of purified human peripheral blood eosinophils can be studied using special insert with membrane coated with extracellular matrix components or membrane covered with cells growing as a confluent monolayer, such as vascular endothelial cells of any origin or airway epithelial cells. In our opinion, eosinophil transmigration assay performed through monolayer of human microvascular endothelial cells of lung origin is a suitable tool to estimate the full migratory potential of eosinophils in studies on the pathology of asthma or other respiratory diseases, where eosinophils play important effector functions. This experimental system is easy to perform, simple for optimization, and comparable to in vivo processes occurring during eosinophil migration to the inflammatory sites in lungs. PMID:24986615

  7. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis : Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Shih, H-M; Bair, M-J; Chen, H-L; Lin, I-T

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease which belongs to primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (primary EGIDs), characterized by an accumulation of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is strongly associated with atopy and allergy. The clinical presentations vary depending on the site and depth of eosinophilic intestinal infiltration. Radiology pictures may show irregular thickening of the folds, but these findings can also be present in other conditions like inflammatory bowel disease and lymphoma. The endoscopic appearance is also nonspecific. The definite diagnosis requires biopsy for histological evidence of GI eosinophilic infiltration and clinicians make the diagnosis in correlation with and by exclusion of other possible causes of eosinophilic infiltration. Because EGE is a rare disease, the treatment is based on limited case reports and clinicians' experience. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. The prognosis of EGE is relatively good when patients receive timely and proper treatment. PMID:27382945

  8. Low absolute lymphocyte count and addition of rituximab confer high risk for interstitial pneumonia in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Liu, Chun-Yu; Pai, Jih-Tung; Hong, Ying-Chung; Teng, Hao-Wei; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chao, Ta-Chung; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2011-10-01

    Several small-scale studies have reported pulmonary toxicity among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, though whether the use of rituximab predisposes to interstitial pneumonia (IP) remains unclear. This retrospective study was intended to identify the characteristics and risk factors of IP in patients with DLBCL. Between 2000 and 2009, 529 consecutive patients with DLBCL receiving first-line tri-weekly COP- or CHOP-based chemotherapy with or without rituximab were enrolled as subjects. IP was defined as diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrates found on computed tomography scans in conjunction with respiratory symptoms. IP was observed in 26 patients (4.9%), six of whom were confirmed with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The median number of chemotherapy courses before IP was four cycles. Using multivariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count less than 1×10(9)/l at diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.75, p=0.014] and the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy (OR 4.56, p=0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for IP. In conclusion, the incidence of IP is increased in patients with DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Specific subgroups with lymphopenia at diagnosis may justify close scrutiny to detect pulmonary complications. PMID:21647583

  9. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a challenge to diagnose and treat.

    PubMed

    Phaw, Naw April; Tsai, Her Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The patient presented with bloody diarrhoea, and crampy abdominal pains. She was diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) after the finding of persistently high peripheral eosinophil counts and histology of endoscopic biopsies. She responded to steroids but became dependent on it and her symptoms recurred on steroid tapering. There was little improvement with alternative treatment such as budesonides, azathioprine and montelukast. Surprisingly her symptoms improved significantly after she was treated with clarithromycin for chest infection and she was continued on clarithromycin. Her eosinophil counts fell dramatically and follow-up CT (thorax, abdomen and pelvic) scan showed the mucosal thickening had improved. She became completely free of the symptoms since she was on clarithromycin and her eosinophils counts fell within the normal range during the follow-up. PMID:27613263

  10. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis and related eosinophilic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Prussin, Calman

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) represents one member within the spectrum of diseases collectively referred to as eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs), which includes eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. EGE is less common than EoE and involves a different site of disease, but otherwise shares many common features with EoE. The clinical manifestations of EGE are protean and can vary from nausea and vomiting to protein losing enteropathy or even bowel obstruction requiring surgery. Although systemic corticosteroids are an effective treatment for EGE, their use over the chronic course of the disease results in substantial corticosteroid toxicity. Accordingly, there is a great need for improved therapies for these patients. PMID:24813518

  11. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm3. Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal. PMID:26568697

  12. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    PubMed

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal. PMID:26568697

  13. Bone Marrow Derived Eosinophil Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas X.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional effector cells implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases including asthma, eosinophil gastrointestinal disorders and helminth infection. Mouse bone marrow derived progenitor cells can be differentiated into eosinophils following IL-5 exposure. These bone marrow derived eosinophils are fully differentiated at the end of a 14 day culture based on morphology and expression of molecular markers.

  14. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    PubMed

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents. PMID:25560024

  15. Pseudotumoral Eosinophilic Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Ahmed; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Ayed, Haroun; Kerkeni, Walid; Cherif, Mohamed; Ben Slama, Riadh M.; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the bladder which origin and pathogenesis are unknown. Since the first description in 1960, hundreds of cases have been reported, 20 Pseudotumor forms. We report a case of cystitis eosinophils in tumor-form, a patient of 72 years without urological or allergic history. The patient was treated with endoscopic resection alone. The outcome was favorable with disappearance symptoms and no recurrence at 1, 3 and 6 months controls. We carry a literature review of cystitis eosinophils on the different clinical manifestations, the means diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. PMID:26793503

  16. [Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Cerri, D; Carabelli, A; Bertani, E; Portaluppi, F; Novi, C; Gianotti, R; Gelmetti, C

    1990-09-01

    The Authors report a case of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome). The patient was a 61 year old woman, diabetic, with a cardio-respiratory insufficiency and a maniaco-depressive psycosis. She presented, on the upper arms and trunk, a cutaneous eruption of erythematous-urticarial plaques, that histopathologically were characterized by a dermic leukocyte population, with a prevalence of eosinophils, distributed in the perivascular site. Laboratory tests revealed eosinophilia and circulating immune complexes. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is discussed as is the possible role of immune complexes in eosinophilic cellulitis. PMID:2079351

  17. Eosinophilic cellulitis and dermographism.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nathalie Q; Ma, Linglei

    2005-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent erythematous plaques on his hands and legs. A peripheral blood eosinophilia was noted. Histopathologic examination showed numerous eosinophils and characteristic flame figures. The clinical presentation and histopathologic alterations are consistent with the diagnosis of Wells' syndrome, which is also known as eosinophilic cellulitis. Wells' syndrome is a rare condition of unclear etiology. We discuss its diagnosis and possible association with other conditions that manifest peripheral eosinophilia. PMID:16403379

  18. The Eosinophil in Infection.

    PubMed

    Ravin, Karen A; Loy, Michael

    2016-04-01

    First described by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, who noted its characteristic staining by acidophilic dyes, for many years, the eosinophil was considered to be an end-effector cell associated with helminth infections and a cause of tissue damage. Over the past 30 years, research has helped to elucidate the complexity of the eosinophil's function and establish its role in host defense and immunity. Eosinophils express an array of ligand receptors which play a role in cell growth, adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and cell-to-cell interactions. They play a role in activation of complement via both classical and alternative pathways. Eosinophils synthesize, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They can process antigen, stimulate T cells, and promote humoral responses by interacting with B cells. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells and can regulate processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. Although long known to play a role in defense against helminth organisms, the interactions of eosinophils with these parasites are now recognized to be much more complex. In addition, their interaction with other pathogens continues to be investigated. In this paper, we review the eosinophil's unique biology and structure, including its characteristic granules and the effects of its proteins, our developing understanding of its role in innate and adaptive immunity and importance in immunomodulation, and the part it plays in defense against parasitic, viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Rather than our worst enemy, the eosinophil may, in fact, be one of the most essential components in host defense and immunity. PMID:26690368

  19. Viscous topical is more effective than nebulized steroid therapy for patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Dellon, Evan S; Sheikh, Arif; Speck, Olga; Woodward, Kimberly; Whitlow, Ann B; Hores, Jessica M; Ivanovic, Marija; Chau, Allen; Woosley, John T; Madanick, Ryan D; Orlando, Roy C; Shaheen, Nicholas J

    2012-08-01

    We performed a randomized trial to compare nebulized and viscous topical corticosteroid treatments for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Subjects with incident EoE (n = 25) received budesonide 1 mg twice daily, either nebulized and then swallowed (NEB) or as an oral viscous slurry (OVB), for 8 weeks. Baseline eosinophil counts for the NEB and OVB groups were 101 and 83 (P = .62). Posttreatment counts were 89 and 11 (P = .02). The mucosal medication contact time, measured by scintigraphy, was higher for the OVB group than the NEB group (P < .005) and was inversely correlated with eosinophil count (R = -0.67; P = .001). OVB was more effective than NEB in reducing numbers of esophageal eosinophils in patients with EoE. OVB provided a significantly higher level of esophageal exposure to the therapeutic agent, which correlated with lower eosinophil counts. PMID:22561055

  20. Reslizumab for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Garry M

    2010-07-01

    Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory condition associated with marked eosinophil accumulation in the mucosal tissues of the esophagus. Eosinophils are major proinflammatory cells thought to make a major contribution to allergic diseases that affect the upper and lower airways, skin and GI tract. IL-5 is central to eosinophil maturation and release from the bone marrow, and their subsequent accumulation, activation and persistence in the tissues. Reslizumab (Cinquil, Ception Therapeutics Inc., PA, USA) is a humanized monoclonal antibody with potent IL-5 neutralizing effects that represents a potential treatment for eosinophilic diseases. This article considers the current status of the clinical development of reslizumab for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:20636000

  1. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  2. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, B; Seed, W A

    1980-01-01

    We described three cases of eosinophilic pneumonia of unknown aetiology investigated clinically and by lung biopsy. The illnesses lasted between six and 20 weeks and consisted of cough, dyspnoea, malaise, and in two cases prolonged pyrexia. All had blood eosinophilia and chest radiographs showing widespread bilateral shadowing; in two cases this had a characteristic peripheral distribution. One patient recovered spontaneously and the other two responded to steroids, with disappearance of pyrexia within 12 hours and radiological clearing within 14 days. Lung function tests during the acute illness showed volume restriction or gas transfer defects or both in two cases. After remission all three showed abnormalities if small airways function. Lung biopsies performed during the acute illness were examined histologically and by transmission electron microscopy, and in two cases by immunofluorescence. There was both intra-alveolar and interstitial eosinophilic pneumonia with bronchiolitis obliterans, microgranulomata, and a vasculitis. Electron microscopy showed numerous eosinophils, many degranulated, and macrophages with phagocytosed eosinophilic granules and intracytoplasmic inclusions. In one case IgM, IgG, and IgA were demonstrated in the bronchial walls and interstitium. No IgE or complement was present. We believe that eosinophil granules are responsible for the tissue damage and fever and suggest mechanisms for this and for the response to steroid therapy. Images PMID:7003796

  3. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  4. Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic asthma: a US perspective

    PubMed Central

    Walford, Hannah H; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic inflammation in asthma although several noninvasive biomarkers, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide and periostin, are emerging as potential surrogates. As novel therapies and biologic agents become increasingly available, there is an increased need for specific phenotype-directed treatment strategies. Greater recognition and understanding of the unique immunopathology of this asthma phenotype has important implications for management of the disease and the potential to improve patient outcomes. The present review provides a summary of the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic asthma. PMID:24748808

  5. Eosinophilic Drug Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Merin; Khan, David A

    2016-04-01

    While peripheral or tissue eosinophilia may certainly characterize drug eruptions, this feature is hardly pathognomonic for a medication-induced etiology. While delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions with prominent eosinophilic recruitment have been typically classified as type IVb reactions, their pathophysiology is now known to be more complex. Eosinophilic drug reactions have a diversity of presentations and may be benign and self-limited to severe and life-threatening. The extent of clinical involvement is also heterogeneous, ranging from isolated peripheral eosinophilia or single organ involvement (most often the skin and lung) to systemic disease affecting multiple organs, classically exemplified by drug-reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). The spectrum of implicated medications in the causation of DRESS is ever expanding, and multiple factors including drug metabolites, specific HLA alleles, herpes viruses, and immune system activation have been implicated in pathogenesis. Due to this complex interplay of various factors, diagnostic workup in terms of skin and laboratory testing has not been validated. Similarly, the lack of controlled trials limits treatment options. This review also describes other localized as well as systemic manifestations of eosinophilic disease induced by various medication classes, including their individual pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Given the multitude of clinical patterns associated with eosinophilic drug allergy, the diagnosis can be challenging. Considerable deficits in our knowledge of these presentations remain, but the potential for severe reactions should be borne in mind in order to facilitate diagnosis and institute appropriate management. PMID:26006718

  6. Mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia with bone marrow infiltration: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunjian; Luo, Ling; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia has been rarely reported. We reported a case of mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia in a 56-year-old female who took mesalazine without a prescription for suspected ulcerative colitis. She had an elevated eosinophil count in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Eosinophil infiltration was also noted in bone marrow aspirates. Chest radiograph and computed tomography demonstrated bilateral upper lung predominant infiltrates and spirometry showed a restrictive ventilatory defect with a reduced diffusion capacity. The patient recovered after cessation of mesalazine therapy. Mesalazine-induced lung damage should be considered in patients who develop unexplained respiratory symptoms while taking this agent. PMID:27366075

  7. Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Spergel, Jonathan M

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease (EGID) can be classified as eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) when the eosinophilia is limited to the esophagus or as eosinophilic gastritis (EG) if it is limited to the gastric tract, eosinophilic colitis (EC) if it is limited to the colon, and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) if the eosinophilia involves one or more parts of the gastrointestinal tract. EoE is by far the most common EGID. It is a well-defined chronic atopic disease due to a T helper type 2 (Th2) inflammation triggered often by food allergens. EoE diagnosis is done if an esophageal biopsy shows at least 15 eosinophils per high power field (eos/hpf). Globally accepted long-term therapies for EoE are the use of swallowed inhaled steroids or food antigen avoidance. The treatment of EoE is done not only to control symptoms but also to prevent complications such as esophageal stricture and food impaction. EGE cause non-specific gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and are diagnosed if esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)/colonoscopy show eosinophilia in one or more parts of the GI tract. They are rare diseases with an unclear pathogenesis, and they are poorly defined in terms of diagnostic criteria and treatment. Before initiating treatment of any EGE, it is imperative to conduct a differential diagnosis to exclude other causes of hypereosinophilia with GI localization. EGE are often poorly responsive to therapy and there is no commonly accepted long-term treatment. EG has many characteristics similar to EoE, including the fact that it is often due to a food allergen-driven Th2 inflammation; transcriptome analysis however shows that it is more a systemic disease and has a different gene signature than EoE. EC is a benign form of delayed food allergy in infant and is instead a difficult-to-treat severe inflammatory condition in older children and adults. EC in the latter groups can be a manifestation of drug allergy or autoimmune disease. Overall EGE, EC, and EG are rare and

  8. Eosinophilic bioactivities in severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Carr, Tara F; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Bochner, Bruce S; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is clearly related to airway or blood eosinophilia, and asthmatics with significant eosinophilia are at higher risk for more severe disease. Eosinophils actively contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses and inflammatory cascades through the production and release of diverse chemokines, cytokines, lipid mediators and other growth factors. Eosinophils may persist in the blood and airways despite guidelines-based treatment. This review details eosinophil effector mechanisms, surface markers, and clinical outcomes associated with eosinophilia and asthma severity. There is interest in the potential of eosinophils or their products to predict treatment response with biotherapeutics and their usefulness as biomarkers. This is important as monoclonal antibodies are targeting cytokines and eosinophils in different lung environments for treating severe asthma. Identifying disease state-specific eosinophil biomarkers would help to refine these strategies and choose likely responders to biotherapeutics. PMID:27386041

  9. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia complicated by eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Naoko; Nakamura, Kensuke; Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Tokunaga, Kurato; Fukuda, Tatsuma; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2013-07-01

    EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) is a phenomenon that occurs in vitro when EDTA reacts with harvested blood. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia usually does not indicate thrombocytopenia in vivo. Here, we report the first case of EDTA-PTCP complicated by eosinophilic pneumonia. A 70-year-old man with rectal cancer was admitted to the hospital for a liver abscess and rectal cancer. At the time of admission, his platelet count was 20,000/μL, but a peripheral blood smear showed platelet aggregation and the platelet count for a kanamycin-added EDTA blood sample was 180,000/μL. The patient's respiratory status worsened after treatment for the liver abscess and rectal cancer. The patient's bronchoalveolar lavage contained 45% eosinophils, and a diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia was made. In recent studies, the occurrence of eosinophilic disease has been shown in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia is an in vitro phenomenon, although platelet activation that results in eosinophil invasion may occur in severe cases. PMID:23702069

  10. Does eosinophilic COPD exacerbation have a better patient outcome than non-eosinophilic in the intensive care unit?

    PubMed Central

    Saltürk, Cüneyt; Karakurt, Zuhal; Adiguzel, Nalan; Kargin, Feyza; Sari, Rabia; Celik, M Emin; Takir, Huriye Berk; Tuncay, Eylem; Sogukpinar, Ozlem; Ciftaslan, Nezihe; Mocin, Ozlem; Gungor, Gokay; Oztas, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    Background COPD exacerbations requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission have a major impact on morbidity and mortality. Only 10%–25% of COPD exacerbations are eosinophilic. Aim To assess whether eosinophilic COPD exacerbations have better outcomes than non-eosinophilic COPD exacerbations in the ICU. Methods This retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in a thoracic, surgery-level III respiratory ICU of a tertiary teaching hospital for chest diseases from 2013 to 2014. Subjects previously diagnosed with COPD and who were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure were included. Data were collected electronically from the hospital database. Subjects’ characteristics, complete blood count parameters, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), delta NLR (admission minus discharge), C-reactive protein (CRP) on admission to and discharge from ICU, length of ICU stay, and mortality were recorded. COPD subjects were grouped according to eosinophil levels (>2% or ≤2%) (group 1, eosinophilic; group 2, non-eosinophilic). These groups were compared with the recorded data. Results Over the study period, 647 eligible COPD subjects were enrolled (62 [40.3% female] in group 1 and 585 [33.5% female] in group 2). Group 2 had significantly higher C-reactive protein, neutrophils, NLR, delta NLR, and hemoglobin, but a lower lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet count than group 1, on admission to and discharge from the ICU. Median (interquartile range) length of ICU stay and mortality in the ICU in groups 1 and 2 were 4 days (2–7 days) vs 6 days (3–9 days) (P<0.002), and 12.9% vs 24.9% (P<0.034), respectively. Conclusion COPD exacerbations with acute respiratory failure requiring ICU admission had a better outcome with a peripheral eosinophil level >2%. NLR and peripheral eosinophilia may be helpful indicators for steroid and antibiotic management. PMID:26392758

  11. Delta-doped electron-multiplied CCD with absolute quantum efficiency over 50% in the near to far ultraviolet range for single photon counting applications.

    PubMed

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael E; Greer, Frank; Jacquot, Blake; Monacos, Steve; Jones, Todd J; Blacksberg, Jordana; Hamden, Erika; Schiminovich, David; Martin, Chris; Morrissey, Patrick

    2012-01-20

    We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) based delta-doping technology to demonstrate nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency (QE) on silicon electron-multiplied charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) for single photon counting detection applications. We used atomic layer deposition (ALD) for antireflection (AR) coatings and achieved atomic-scale control over the interfaces and thin film materials parameters. By combining the precision control of MBE and ALD, we have demonstrated more than 50% external QE in the far and near ultraviolet in megapixel arrays. We have demonstrated that other important device performance parameters such as dark current are unchanged after these processes. In this paper, we briefly review ultraviolet detection, report on these results, and briefly discuss the techniques and processes employed. PMID:22270664

  12. Eosinophilic Cystitis with Eosinophilic Cholecystitis: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, F.; Hmida, W.; Mestiri, S.; Ziadi, S.; Sriha, B.; Mokni, M.; Mosbah, F.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found. PMID:24195001

  13. Novel Therapies for Eosinophilic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bochner, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Current therapies for eosinophilic disorders are limited. Most treatment approaches remain empirical, are not supported by data from controlled clinical trials, involve the off-label use of agents developed for treatment of other diseases, and tend to rely heavily on the use of glucocorticoids and other agents with significant toxicity. Also lacking are validated outcome metrics and clinically relevant biomarkers to help guide treatment choices, efficacy and assessment of disease activity. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in the discovery, preclinical development and clinical testing of a variety of biologics and small molecules that have the potential to directly or indirectly influence eosinophils, eosinophilic inflammation and the consequences of eosinophil activation. Particularly advanced are studies with biologics that target eosinophil-selective cytokines and their receptors. In addition, other therapies that have received FDA approval in recent years for non-eosinophil-related indications can be considered for testing in eosinophilic disorders. Overall, the landscape of therapeutic options for those suffering from eosinophilic disorders has never been brighter, with many new choices on the horizon. PMID:26209901

  14. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: an "emerging disease"].

    PubMed

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Hervieu, Valérie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves

    2007-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a recently identified disease. The histological examination of esophageal biopsies is essential for its diagnosis, which is made with steadily increasing frequency. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an anatomoclinical entity, involving both children and adults, characterized by a dense and isolated infiltration of the esophageal mucosa by eosinophils, revealed by clinical symptoms of upper digestive tract origin and resistant to anti-acid treatment with IPP at high doses. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently interpreted as an allergic disease, even though its pathogenesis remains unclear. The disease has a chronic course with persistent or relapsing symptoms, present with symptoms similar to those of gastro-esophageal reflux or with dysphagia. Endoscopic examination shows the presence of characteristic, but not pathognomonic, lesions (stenoses, strictures, circular rings, reduction of calibre, white specks, granularity of the mucosa). The histological diagnosis requires multiple biopsies taken all along the esophagus. The main sign is the presence of a dense eosinophilic infiltrate of the mucosa: a peak density of more than 15 eosinophils in at least one x400 field is the minimal criteria required for diagnosis. Associated lesions correspond to tissue damage and repair secondary to eosinophil activation (basal hyperplasia, microabscesses, fibrosis of the lamina propria). The treatment is based on dietary measures (allergen exclusion) and on the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, mainly corticoids. In conclusion, eosinophilic esophagitis is an emerging disease, important to identify, since it requires a specific treatment, different from that of reflux esophagitis. PMID:18554551

  15. Eosinophil peroxidase-dependent hydroxyl radical generation by human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M L; Roeder, T L; Railsback, M A; Britigan, B E

    1994-11-11

    Eosinophil production of superoxide (O2-.) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is important in host defense. The present study assessed the potential of eosinophils to generate another potent cytotoxic species, the hydroxyl radical (.OH). .OH formation by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated eosinophils was demonstrated using an alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butyl nitrone/ethanol spin trapping system. Additionally, .OH was spin trapped following the addition of purified eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) to a cell-free O2-./H2O2 generating systems. Effects of superoxide dismutase, catalase, azide, aminotriazole, chloride-depleted buffer, and extensive metal chelation were consistent with .OH formation via the reaction of O2-. and EPO-generated hypohalous acid. Under chloride-depleted conditions, physiologic concentrations of Br- increased .OH formation by both PMA-stimulated eosinophils and the cell-free EPO system. Physiologic concentrations of SCN-, however, did not increase .OH formation, and in the presence of both Br- and SCN-, .OH formation was similar to SCN- only. Eosinophils appear to form .OH via an EPO-dependent mechanism, the magnitude of which varies with the availability of various EPO substrates. Given the highly reactive nature of this radical and the ability of EPO to adhere to cell membranes, even small amounts of .OH formed at such sites could contribute to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:7961724

  16. Eosinophilic pancreatitis: Three case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, LIN; FU, PENG; DONG, XIANGHUI; QI, JIPING; ZHU, HONG

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic pancreatitis (EP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis characterized by localized or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the pancreas and elevated serum immunoglobulin E levels. EP is difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer on the basis of clinical symptoms and the results of auxiliary examination alone. A retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics and laboratory, imaging, and pathology results of 3 patients with EP, who were initially diagnosed with pancreatic malignancy, was performed. EP is an allergic disease with non-specific clinical manifestations that is difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer based exclusively on clinical symptoms and auxiliary examination, resulting in the need for invasive procedures to confirm the diagnosis. An increase in the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood and pathological examination are essential for the diagnosis of EP. PMID:27073662

  17. Familial aggregation and segregation analysis of eosinophil levels.

    PubMed

    Holberg, C J; Halonen, M; Wright, A L; Martinez, F D

    1999-11-01

    The number of circulating eosinophils is associated with the risk of asthma in population samples. Therefore, eosinophil levels may be an intermediate phenotype for asthma amenable to genetic analysis. We examined familial aggregation of the number of eosinophils x 10(6) L(-1) and the percentage of eosinophils based on a 300 count differential in 644 Hispanic and non-Hispanic white families, with 2, 097 subjects, enrolled in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study. Both measures were adjusted for age, season and year at the time blood was drawn, sex, and ethnicity. Segregation analysis was conducted in the 458 non-Hispanic white families, as there were no significant familial correlations in the Hispanic families, and there was significant heterogeneity by ethnic group. Familial correlations (rho) in the non-Hispanic white families were as follows: mother-father, 0.05; mother-child, 0.18 (p < 0.001); father-child, 0.07; sibling-sibling, 0.31 (p < 0.001). Without covariates analyses indicated a polygenic/multifactorial mode of inheritance. After adjusting for current and past asthma an oligogenic mode of inheritance was suggested, plus additional residual familial components that were mainly maternally mediated. This study supports the notion of multiple, relatively common genes interacting to determine genetic susceptibility to asthma. Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Wright AL, Martinez FD. Familial aggregation and segregation analysis of eosinophil levels. PMID:10556128

  18. Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Pien, F D; Pien, B C

    1999-01-01

    In the past 50 years, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis, has spread from Southeast Asia to the South Pacific, Africa, India, the Caribbean, and recently, to Australia and North America, mainly carried by cargo ship rats. Humans are accidental, "dead-end" hosts infected by eating larvae from snails, slugs, or contaminated, uncooked vegetables. These larvae migrate to the brain, spinal cord, and nerve roots, causing eosinophilia in both spinal fluid and peripheral blood. Infected patients present with severe headache, vomiting, paresthesias, weakness, and occasionally visual disturbances and extraocular muscular paralysis. Most patients have a full recovery; however, heavy infections can lead to chronic, disabling disease and even death. There is no proven treatment for this disease. In the authors' experience, corticosteroids have been helpful in severe cases to relieve intracranial pressure as well as neurologic symptoms due to inflammatory responses to migrating and eventually dying worms. PMID:10460929

  19. [Drug induced eosinophilic pleural effusion].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, Raluca

    2014-01-01

    The hypersensitivity reactions induced by drugs, some widely used, like central nervous system medication, can have various presentations. The lung is a frequent target for such events. We present the case of 40-year-old male patient, non-smoker, with infant encephalopaty, seizures since age of 6 with polimorphic crisis (mainly absences), with anticonvulsivant treatment since 2011 (carbamazepine, sodium valproate, levetiracetam), with no respiratory medical history. Current symptoms started two weeks before, with chest pain, dry cough. He received no antibiotics. Chest X-ray and thoracic CT scan (27 June 2013) showed a left pleral effusion. Left exploratory thoracocentesis extracted 20 ml reddish pleural fluid: eosinophilic exsudate (60%) with normal adenosin deaminase. He also presents moderate blood eosinophilia (13.7%-1780/mm3). Pulmonary infarction with secondary pleurisy, thoracic trauma, acute pancreatitis with secondary pleurisy were excluded. No Loeffler transient infiltrates were documented, serology for Toxocara is IgG positive (historical) and not significant for current episode, no symptoms suggestive for toxocarosis (characteristic to young children, patient had no liver enlargement etc.), no hidatidosis or trichinelosis were found. As an exclusion diagnosis, a hypersensitivity reaction to anticonvulsivant medication was considered (mentioned in literature) carbamazepine and sodium valproate (even if medication was taken for a longer time), with blood and pleural eosinophilia. Together with the neurologist, the mentioned drugs were stopped and he was started on lamotrigine 2 tb/day and levetiracetam 1 tb/day, well tolerated, no absences were noticed. Total remission of blood eosinophilia and partial remission of pleural effusion were noticed. Subsequent follow-ups confirm favourable evolution, with healing of pleurisy and normal blood cell count, which are stable at 7 months after changing anticonvulsivant treatment. PMID:25241560

  20. Eosinophilic ascites: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hesham; Joseph, Moby

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic ascites is a rare feature of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We would like to highlight this increasingly recognised diagnosis in a case of unexplained ascites. We present a challenging case of a woman aged 25 years who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, generalised abdominal pain and swelling 8-week following delivery of her first baby. Her symptoms were primarily aggravated by eating, and she had also noticed postprandial itching and self-limiting generalised rash. She had a strong history of atopy. Physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and distension with shifting dullness. Urticarial skin rash was noted on the face, neck, chest and abdomen. Routine biochemistry was normal apart from peripheral eosinophilia. Imaging confirmed moderate ascites. Diagnostic paracentesis showed exudative ascites with numerous eosinophils. Histology of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract showed infiltration of the oesophageogastroduodenal and rectosigmoid mucosa with eosinophils. The patient significantly improved following a course of steroids and six-food elimination diet. PMID:27600059

  1. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Biology to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, a recently recognized and growing clinical disorder over the past decade, is characterized by antigen-driven eosinophil accumulation in the esophagus. Symptoms frequently mimic those of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) but the two diseases are quite distinct in terms of their histopathology, genetic signature, response to therapy, hereditary risk and association with allergy. Disease pathogenesis involves the interplay of external and genetic factors, particularly food antigens and the eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin-3, respectively. Transcript signatures and animal models have uncovered the importance of adaptive T cell immunity involving IL-5 and IL-13 elicited esophageal epithelial cell responses. Notably, symptoms, dysregulated esophageal gene expression and pathology are largely reversible following reduction of specific food antigen exposure, as well as anti-inflammatory therapy, but chronic treatment is necessary to prevent relapse. As such, eosinophilic esophagitis is a disease with the unique features of chronic esophagitis, atopy, immune sensitization to oral antigens, reversibility and familial association. PMID:19596009

  2. Olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis.

    PubMed

    Evison, Matthew; Holme, Jayne; Alaloul, Mohamed; Doran, Helen; Bishop, Paul; Booton, Richard; Chaudhry, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    An elderly patient, with a history of depression with psychosis, presented with breathlessness, a right exudative pleural effusion and a peripheral eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was eosinophil-rich (10% of leucocytes). Olanzapine therapy had been commenced 12 months previously. There was a family history of TB and the patient was of African origin. A full diagnostic work-up ensued including computed tomography of the thorax and local anaesthetic thoracoscopy. The pleura was unremarkable on CT and displayed bland smooth thickening at visual inspection during thoracoscopy. Pleural biopsies demonstrated chronic inflammation with eosinophils but no evidence of granulomatous inflammation or malignancy. Pleural tissue culture did not yield mycobacteria. A diagnosis of olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis was suspected and the pleural disease resolved with withdrawal of olanzapine. Eosinophilic pleural fluid is not a marker of non-malignant aetiology and eosinophilic pleural effusions require a careful and systematic diagnostic work-up. This is the second case report to identify olanzapine as a causative agent in eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:26029571

  3. Characterization of the relationship between dose and blood eosinophil response following subcutaneous administration of mepolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Pouliquen, Isabelle J.; Kornmann, Oliver; Barton, Sharon V.; Price, Jeffrey A.; Ortega, Hector G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mepolizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks human IL-5 from binding to the IL-5 receptor, which is mainly expressed on eosinophils. Eosinophils are key cells in the inflammatory cascade of various diseases, including asthma. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship between exposure of mepolizumab subcutaneous (SC) administration and blood eosinophil reduction compared with intravenous (IV) administration in adult subjects with asthma. Methods: In this multi-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, repeat-dose study, 70 adult subjects received one of four possible treatment regimens: mepolizumab 12.5, 125, or 250 mg SC or 75 mg IV. In addition to analyzing the dose and PK/PD relationship, absolute bioavailability, safety, tolerability, and incidence of anti-mepolizumab antibodies were evaluated. Results: Blood eosinophil levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner with the lowest (12.5 mg) dose clearly differentiating from the other doses. A non-linear inhibition Imax model based on blood eosinophil levels at week 12 identified that the SC doses providing 50% and 90% of maximal blood eosinophil inhibition were 11 mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.19 – 16.85) and 99 mg (95% CI: 47 – 152), respectively. The route of administration did not affect the exposure-response relationship. The estimated mepolizumab SC absolute bioavailability (arm) was 74% (90% CI: 54 – 102%). The safety profile of mepolizumab was favorable. Conclusions: A dose-dependent reduction in blood eosinophils across all mepolizumab doses investigated was observed. The subcutaneous absolute bioavailability was 74%. The route of administration did not affect the mepolizumab exposure eosinophil response relationship. PMID:26445140

  4. Major Basic Protein from Eosinophils and Myeloperoxidase from Neutrophils Are Required for Protective Immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis in Mice ▿

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Amy E.; Hess, Jessica A.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Lok, James B.; Lee, James J.; Abraham, David

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils and neutrophils contribute to larval killing during the primary immune response, and neutrophils are effector cells in the secondary response to Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms used by eosinophils and neutrophils to control infections with S. stercoralis. Using mice deficient in the eosinophil granule products major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), it was determined that eosinophils kill the larvae through an MBP-dependent mechanism in the primary immune response if other effector cells are absent. Infecting PHIL mice, which are eosinophil deficient, with S. stercoralis resulted in development of primary and secondary immune responses that were similar to those of wild-type mice, suggesting that eosinophils are not an absolute requirement for larval killing or development of secondary immunity. Treating PHIL mice with a neutrophil-depleting antibody resulted in a significant impairment in larval killing. Naïve and immunized mice with neutrophils deficient in myeloperoxidase (MPO) infected with S. stercoralis had significantly decreased larval killing. It was concluded that there is redundancy in the primary immune response, with eosinophils killing the larvae through an MBP-dependent mechanism and neutrophils killing the worms through an MPO-dependent mechanism. Eosinophils are not required for the development or function of secondary immunity, but MPO from neutrophils is required for protective secondary immunity. PMID:21482685

  5. Reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis: a pilot study conducted on biopsy specimens

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hongki; Kang, DongKyun; Katz, Aubrey J.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Yagi, Yukako; Tanpowpong, Pornthep; Namati, Jacqueline; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) currently requires endoscopic biopsy and histopathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens to count intraepithelial eosinophils. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an endomicroscopy technology that is capable of obtaining high-resolution, optically sectioned images of esophageal mucosa without the administration of exogenous contrast. Objective In this study, we investigated the capability of a high-speed form of RCM, termed spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), to count intraepithelial esophageal eosinophils and characterize other microscopic findings of EoE. Design A total of 43 biopsy samples from 35 pediatric patients and 8 biopsy samples from 8 adult patients undergoing EGD for EoE were imaged by SECM immediately after their removal and then processed for routine histopathology. Two SECM readers, trained on adult cases, prospectively counted intraepithelial eosinophils and detected the presence of abscess, degranulation, and basal cell hyperplasia on SECM images from the pediatric patients. A pathologist blinded to the SECM data analyzed the same from corresponding slides. Setting The Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital. Results Eosinophils by SECM demonstrated a higher reflectance than the surrounding cells and other inflammatory cells. There was good correlation between SECM and histology maximum eosinophil counts/high-power field (R = 0.76, P < .0001). Intra- and interobserver correlations for SECM counts were very good (R = 0.93 and R = 0.92, respectively; P < .0001). For the commonly used eosinophil count cutoff of 15 per high-power field, the sensitivity and specificity of SECM for EoE were 100%. The sensitivity and specificity for abscess, degranulation, and basal cell hyperplasia were 100% and 82%, 91% and 60%, and 94% and 80%, respectively. Intra- and interobserver agreements for these microscopic features of EoE were very good (κ = 0.9/0.9, 0.84/1.0, 0

  6. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Adolescent Patients Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients Basics Overview Eosinophilic esophagitis also known as ( ... children may have vomiting and abdominal pain, and adolescents may complain of the feeling of food getting ...

  7. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  8. Eosinophilic esophagitis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Jay A; Chehade, Mirna

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a clinicopathologic disease that can present with a constellation of upper gastrointestinal symptoms and endoscopic findings in conjunction with significant infiltration of the esophageal tissue with eosinophils. Clinical and histologic resolution of the disease can be seen with dietary restriction therapies and systemic and topical corticosteroids. Because most patients have an atopic background and the disease seems to have an underlying T-helper type 2 pathogenesis, allergists and gastroenterologists need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of this disease. In this review, clinical characteristics, endoscopic and histologic findings, and available therapy options are discussed. PMID:22244233

  9. Absolute Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.; Sheibley, D.; Belloni, M.; Stamper-Kurn, D.; Vinen, W. F.

    2006-12-01

    Absolute Zero is a two hour PBS special attempting to bring to the general public some of the advances made in 400 years of thermodynamics. It is based on the book “Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold” by Tom Shachtman. Absolute Zero will call long-overdue attention to the remarkable strides that have been made in low-temperature physics, a field that has produced 27 Nobel Prizes. It will explore the ongoing interplay between science and technology through historical examples including refrigerators, ice machines, frozen foods, liquid oxygen and nitrogen as well as much colder fluids such as liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. A website has been established to promote the series: www.absolutezerocampaign.org. It contains information on the series, aimed primarily at students at the middle school level. There is a wealth of material here and we hope interested teachers will draw their student’s attention to this website and its substantial contents, which have been carefully vetted for accuracy.

  10. Eosinophilic ascites, as a rare presentation of eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Cuko, L; Bilaj, F; Bega, B; Barbullushi, A; Resuli, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic ascites is the most unusual presentation of eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), caused by edema and eosinophilic inflammation of the small bowel wall's serosal layer. Case Report: We report the case of a 37-year-old woman, who presented with diffuse abdominal pain, nausea, abdominal distension, moderate ascites and diarrhea of two weeks duration. The rest of physical and clinical examination was unremarkable, and her past medical history was uneventful. Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed the presence of ascites and diffuse thickening of small bowel wall, but did not detect a primary malignancy in the abdominal cavity; and no signs of portal hypertension or liver damage. Laboratory test results revealed essential peripheral blood eosinophilia, elevated serum IgE and marked increase of eosinophils in the abdominal fluid. Treatment with corticosteroids normalized laboratory tests results, and the ascites resolved immediately. Conclusions: EGE is a rare entity and it should be kept in mind in patients of unexplained ascites. The absence of primary malignancy on imaging, coupled with marked increase of fluid esinophilia and immediate response to treatment with steroids, confirm indirectly the diagnosis of EGE. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (3): 275-277. PMID:25694765

  11. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report.

    PubMed

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  12. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  13. Strongyloidiasis histologically mimicking eosinophilic folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Serafinella P; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of strongyloidiasis in an Italian patient, who has always lived in Sicily. The patient presented with marked blood eosinophilia and an itching maculo-papular eruption, histologically simulating eosinophilic folliculitis. The clinical resolution was achieved after albendazol therapy. PMID:15319162

  14. Eosinophils in mucosal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Travers, J; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils, multifunctional cells that contribute to both innate and adaptive immunity, are involved in the initiation, propagation and resolution of immune responses, including tissue repair. They achieve this multifunctionality by expression of a diverse set of activation receptors, including those that directly recognize pathogens and opsonized targets, and by their ability to store and release preformed cytotoxic mediators that participate in host defense, to produce a variety of de novo pleotropic mediators and cytokines and to interact directly and indirectly with diverse cell types, including adaptive and innate immunocytes and structural cells. Herein, we review the basic biology of eosinophils and then focus on new emerging concepts about their role in mucosal immune homeostasis, particularly maintenance of intestinal IgA. We review emerging data about their development and regulation and describe new concepts concerning mucosal eosinophilic diseases. We describe recently developed therapeutic strategies to modify eosinophil levels and function and provide collective insight about the beneficial and detrimental functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:25807184

  15. Combination of CD157 and FLAER to Detect Peripheral Blood Eosinophils by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Giovanni; Marini, Alessandra; Sammuri, Paola; Domenichini, Cristiana; Ottaviano, Virginia; Pacini, Simone; Petrini, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The identification of eosinophils by flow cytometry is difficult because most of the surface antigens expressed by eosinophils are shared with neutrophils. Some methods have been proposed, generally based on differential light scatter properties, enhanced autofluorescence, lack of CD16 or selective positivity of CD52. Such methods, however, show several limitations. In the present study we report a novel method based on the analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked molecules. The combination of CD157 and FLAER was used, since FLAER recognizes all GPI-linked molecules, while CD157 is absent on the membrane of eosinophils and expressed by neutrophils. Peripheral blood samples from normal subjects and patients with variable percentages of eosinophils (n = 31), and without any evidence for circulating immature myeloid cells, were stained with the combination of FLAER-Alexa Fluor and CD157-PE. A FascCanto II cytometer was used. Granulocytes were gated after CD33 staining and eosinophils were identified as CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events. Neutrophils were identified as CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events. The percentages of eosinophils detected by this method showed a very significant correlation both with automated counting and with manual counting (r = 0.981 and 0.989, respectively). Sorting assays were carried out by a S3 Cell Sorter: cytospins obtained from CD157(-)/FLAER(+) events consisted of 100% eosinophils, while samples from CD157(+)/FLAER(+) events were represented only by neutrophils. In conclusion, this method shows high sensitivity and specificity in order to distinguish eosinophils from neutrophils by flow cytometry. However, since CD157 is gradually up-regulated throughout bone marrow myeloid maturation, our method cannot be applied to cases characterized by immature myeloid cells. PMID:26490516

  16. Human peripheral blood eosinophils induce angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Puxeddu, Ilaria; Alian, Akram; Piliponsky, Adrian Martin; Ribatti, Domenico; Panet, Amos; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2005-03-01

    Eosinophils play a crucial role in allergic reactions and asthma. They are also involved in responses against parasites, in autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, and in fibroses. There is increasing evidence that angiogenesis plays an important role in these processes. Since eosinophils are known to produce angiogenic mediators, we have hypothesized a direct contribution of these cells to angiogenesis. The effect of human peripheral blood eosinophil sonicates on rat aortic endothelial cell proliferation (in vitro), rat aorta sprouting (ex vivo) and angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (in vivo) have been investigated. To determine whether eosinophil-derived vascular endothelial growth factor influences the eosinophil pro-angiogenic activity, eosinophil sonicates were incubated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies and then added to the chorioallantoic membrane. Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor density on the endothelial cells were also evaluated. Eosinophils were found to enhance endothelial cell proliferation and to induce a strong angiogenic response both in the aorta rings and in the chorioallantoic membrane assays. Pre-incubation of eosinophil sonicates with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies partially reduced the angiogenic response of these cells in the chorioallantoic membrane. Eosinophils also increased vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA production on endothelial cells. Eosinophils are able to induce angiogenesis and this effect is partially mediated by their pre-formed vascular endothelial growth factor. This strongly suggests an important role of eosinophils in angiogenesis-associated diseases such as asthma. PMID:15618019

  17. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  18. Eosinophilic Skin Diseases: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Long, Hai; Zhang, Guiying; Wang, Ling; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic skin diseases, commonly termed as eosinophilic dermatoses, refer to a broad spectrum of skin diseases characterized by eosinophil infiltration and/or degranulation in skin lesions, with or without blood eosinophilia. The majority of eosinophilic dermatoses lie in the allergy-related group, including allergic drug eruption, urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and eczema. Parasitic infestations, arthropod bites, and autoimmune blistering skin diseases such as bullous pemphigoid, are also common. Besides these, there are several rare types of eosinophilic dermatoses with unknown origin, in which eosinophil infiltration is a central component and affects specific tissue layers or adnexal structures of the skin, such as the dermis, subcutaneous fat, fascia, follicles, and cutaneous vessels. Some typical examples are eosinophilic cellulitis, granuloma faciale, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, recurrent cutaneous eosinophilic vasculitis, and eosinophilic fasciitis. Although tissue eosinophilia is a common feature shared by these disorders, their clinical and pathological properties differ dramatically. Among these rare entities, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or malignancies, and some other diseases, like eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilic cellulitis, may be associated with an underlying hematological disorder, while others are considered idiopathic. However, for most of these rare eosinophilic dermatoses, the causes and the pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown, and systemic, high-quality clinical investigations are needed for advances in better strategies for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Here, we present a comprehensive review on the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and management of these rare entities, with an emphasis on recent advances and current consensus. PMID:25876839

  19. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C. PMID:18190587

  20. Analysis of Gastric and Duodenal Eosinophils in Children with Abdominal Pain Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders According to Rome III Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran; Lee, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) is common in children and adults. However, the mechanism of AP-FGID is not clearly known. Recently, micro-inflammation, especially eosinophilia in the gastrointestinal tract, was suggested in the pathophysiology of AP-FGID in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric and duodenal eosinophilia with pediatric AP-FGID. Methods In total, 105 pediatric patients with AP-FGID were recruited and classified into 4 subgroups based on the Rome III criteria. Eosinophil counts in the gastric and duodenal tissues of children with AP-FGID were compared to those from normal pathology references or those of children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Tissue eosinophil counts were also compared among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Results Eosinophil counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with AP-FGID than normal reference values. Duodenal eosinophil counts were higher in children with AP-FGID, but not significantly when compared with normal reference values. There were no significant differences in eosinophil counts of the stomach or duodenum among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Eosinophils counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with H. pylori infection than in those with AP-FGID. Duodenal eosinophilia was prominent in cases of H. pylori infection, but not statistically significant when compared with AP-FGID. Conclusions Our study revealed that gastric eosinophilia is associated with AP-FGID in children, regardless of the subtype of functional abdominal pain. This suggests some contribution of gastrointestinal eosinophils in the development of pediatric AP-FGID. PMID:27053514

  1. Current Approach to Diagnosis and Management of Pulmonary Eosinophilic Syndromes: Eosinophilic Pneumonias, Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, and Hypereosinophilic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sergew, Amen; Fernández Pérez, Evans R

    2016-06-01

    Eosinophils play a key role in orchestrating the complex clinicopathological pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease features in patients with eosinophilic syndromes. Eosinophilic pulmonary syndromes consist of a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the presence of peripheral blood eosinophilia and/or eosinophilic-related pulmonary impairment. These disorders can present with varying degrees of organ involvement, and while their presentation may be similar, it is important to define the disease state, as management and prognosis differ. In this article, we discuss acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonias, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and the hypereosinophilic syndromes. The mainstay of therapy for these disorders has been corticosteroids; however, recent and ongoing studies have provided strong grounds for optimism for specific targeted treatment approaches. PMID:27231866

  2. Eosinophilic phenotypes of airway disease.

    PubMed

    Pavord, Ian D

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the clinical implications of eosinophilic airway inflammation has increased significantly over the last 20 years, aided by the development of noninvasive means to assess it. This pattern of airway inflammation can occur in a diverse range of airway diseases. It is associated with a positive response to corticosteroids and a high risk of preventable exacerbations. Our new understanding of the role of eosinophilic airway inflammation has paved the way for the clinical development of a number of more specific inhibitors that may become new treatment options. Different definitions, ideas of disease, and adoption of biomarkers that are not well known are necessary to fully realize the potential of these treatments. PMID:24313765

  3. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  4. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  5. [Eosinophilic oesophagitis in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mikhaleva, L M; Barkhina, T G; Golovanova, V E; Shchegoleva, N N; Gracheva, N A

    2012-01-01

    Combination of bronchial asthma and gastrointestinal pathology is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Clinical symptoms of this condition are highly diversified and gastrointestinal diseases play an important role in exacerbation of bronchial asthma. The prevalence of allergic diseases has recently become rampant. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is worth of special attention because its histological criteria, unlike clinical ones, are well defined. They include chronic immune antigen-mediated inflammatory oesophageal disease with pronounced intraepithelial eosinophilic infiltration and clinical symptoms resulting from oesophageal dysfunction that resemble manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease but fail to respond to antireflux and antacid therapy. Many specific and practical aspects of the problem remain to be elucidated. The poor awareness of clinicians of this disease hampers its adequate diagnostics and treatment. In order to revise and optimize the former diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm., an interdisciplinary expert group was set up in 2010 constituted by specialists of the American College of Gastroenterology, American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, and Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Results of the work of this group together with the literature data on eosinophilic esopahgitis are discussed in the present review. PMID:23516863

  6. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  7. Expression of eosinophils be beneficial to early clinical diagnosis of brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Peng-Fei; Chu, Wei-Li; Ren, Gao-Fei; Hou, Jun-Na; Li, Ya-Meng; Xing, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the expression and significance of eosinophils in brucellosis. Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical data for 151 brucellosis patients (BR group), complete blood count and blood bacterial culture etc.; in addition, 150 general bacterial infection patients (BI group) and 135 persons in healthy physical condition upon testing (NC group) are selected respectively as the control groups to comparatively study expression of white blood cells and eosinophils for brucellosis patients. Adopt t test to compare measurement data. Results: In comparison with BI group, WBC, NE, EO, MO, NE% and EO% in BR group are reduced but LY, LY% and MO% are increased and such difference shows statistical significance (P<0.01). In comparison with NC group, difference of WBC and NE in BR group shows no statistical significance (P>0.05). NE%, EO and EO% are reduced but MO, LY% and MO% are increased and such difference shows statistical significance (P<0.01). LY is increased and the difference shows statistical significance (P<0.05). White blood cell count is normal or is reduced among most of Brucellosis patients, accounting for 90.73% (137/151); the patients whose eosinophils are reduced account for 75.50% (114/151) and those whose eosinophils disappear are about 18.54% (28/151). Conclusion: There is an incidence rate of eosinophils decrease or disappearance in Brucellosis and it shows the indication significance in the diagnosis of early disease. PMID:26770598

  8. Eosinophilic jejunitis presenting as intractable abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Mungan, Zeynel; Attila, Tan; Kapran, Yersu; Tokatli, Ilyas Pinar; Unal, Zeynep

    2014-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy. PMID:25565932

  9. Eosinophilic Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Samiullah; Bhurgri, Hadi; Sohail, Umair

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders represent a spectrum of disorders demonstrating gastrointestinal eosinophilia without any known cause for eosinophilia. Pathogenesis is not clearly established, but immune responses to dietary antigens are implicated. These disorders affect children and adults and are seen in association with allergic disorders. Eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed in the setting of mucosal eosinophilia on endoscopic biopsy and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is also diagnosed with endoscopic biopsies. Eosinophilic colitis commonly presents with lower gastrointestinal symptoms and is a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:27545738

  10. The Consequences of Not Having Eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Gleich, G. J.; Klion, A. D.; Lee, J. J.; Weller, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that deficiency of eosinophils is not associated with any characteristic abnormality. Patients lacking eosinophils, in the setting of immunodeficiency or as a consequence of IgG-mediated eosinophil precursor destruction, do not display any distinguishing abnormalities related to eosinophil reduction. The observation that eosinophil-deficient mice do not display any distinctive syndrome or failure of their health is evidence that, under ordinary laboratory conditions, the eosinophil does not play a critical role in the well-being of mammals. Observations that monoclonal antibodies to interleukin-5 (IL-5) are well tolerated appear unsurprising in light of these findings. For example, patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome have received mepolizumab, an anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody, for as long as 6 years and have not developed any characteristic set of adverse events. Safety data for reslizumab, another anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody, and benralizumab, a monoclonal antibody to the IL-5 receptor α-chain, are comparatively limited, especially for benralizumab, although reports of administration of these antibodies to humans suggest that they are well tolerated. Thus, data to the present suggest that reduction of eosinophils appears to have no characteristic ill effects on normal health, and monoclonal antibodies that deplete eosinophils have the potential to be widely employed in the treatment of eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:23742015

  11. Eosinophils: changing perspectives in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Foster, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils have been traditionally perceived as largely end-stage, cytotoxic effector cells. Recent studies have profoundly altered this simplistic view of eosinophils and their function. New insights into the molecular basis of development, trafficking and degranulation of eosinophils have provided a better understanding of the role of these cells in promoting homeostasis through their immunomodulatory functions. Likewise, recent developments have generated a more sophisticated view of how eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of disease, including asthma and primary hypereosinophilic syndromes, and also a more complete appreciation of their activities in parasitic infection. PMID:23154224

  12. Roles of integrin activation in eosinophil function and the eosinophilic inflammation of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Barthel, Steven R.; Johansson, Mats W.; McNamee, Dawn M.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of asthma. Integrins are highly versatile cellular receptors that regulate extravasation of eosinophils from the postcapillary segment of the bronchial circulation to the airway wall and airspace. Such movement into the asthmatic lung is described as a sequential, multistep paradigm, whereby integrins on circulating eosinophils become activated, eosinophils tether in flow and roll on bronchial endothelial cells, integrins on rolling eosinophils become further activated as a result of exposure to cytokines, eosinophils arrest firmly to adhesive ligands on activated endothelium, and eosinophils transmigrate to the airway in response to chemoattractants. Eosinophils express seven integrin heterodimeric adhesion molecules: alpha4beta1 (CD49d/29), alpha6beta1 (CD49f/29), alphaMbeta2 (CD11b/18), alphaLbeta2 (CD11a/18), alphaXbeta2 (CD11c/18), alphaDbeta2 (CD11d/18), and alpha4beta7 (CD49d/beta7). The role of these integrins in eosinophil recruitment has been elucidated by major advances in the understanding of integrin structure, integrin function, and modulators of integrins. Such findings have been facilitated by cellular experiments of eosinophils in vitro, studies of allergic asthma in humans and animal models in vivo, and crystal structures of integrins. Here, we elaborate on how integrins cooperate to mediate eosinophil movement to the asthmatic airway. Antagonists that target integrins or the effectors that regulate integrins of eosinophils represent potentially promising therapies in the treatment of asthma. PMID:17906117

  13. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  14. Tryptase staining of mast cells may differentiate eosinophilic esophagitis from gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Chen, Xiaoxin; Miller, C. Ryan; Fritchie, Karen J.; Rubinas, Tara C.; Woosley, John T.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mast cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), but their role in diagnosis is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether tryptase staining of esophageal mast cells differentiates EoE from GERD and has utility for diagnosis of EoE. Methods We performed a case-control study comparing patients with EoE, defined by consensus guidelines, to GERD patients with eosinophils on esophageal biopsy. Immunohistochemistry was performed with mast cell tryptase. The density (mast cells/mm2) and intensity (0–4 scale) of mast cell staining was compared between groups after masking the diagnosis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed, and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated to assess mast cell staining as both a stand-alone diagnostic test and an adjunctive assay with eosinophil counts. Results Fifty-four EoE (mean age: 24; 69% male; mean 146 eos/hpf) and 55 GERD (mean age 34; 60% male; mean 20 eos/hpf) patients were analyzed. The maximum epithelial tryptase density was higher in EoE than in GERD (162 ± 87 mast cells/mm2 vs 67 ± 54; p<0.001). Mast cells were diffusely distributed throughout the biopsy in more EoE than GERD patients (41% vs 7%; p<0.001). Tryptase density and eosinophil count were only weakly correlated (R2=0.09; p=0.002). The AUC was 0.84 for tryptase staining alone, and 0.96 for the combination of mast cells and eosinophils. Conclusions Patients with EoE have higher levels of tryptase positive mast cells compared to GERD patients, improving the diagnostic value of biopsies beyond eosinophil counts alone. Mast cell tryptase may have utility as a diagnostic assay for EoE. PMID:20978486

  15. COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic airway inflammation is observed in 10-30% of COPD subjects. Whether increased eosinophils or impairment in their clearance by macrophages is associated with the severity and frequency of exacerbations is unknown. Methods We categorised 103 COPD subjects into 4 groups determined by the upper limit of normal for their cytoplasmic macrophage red hue (<6%), an indirect measure of macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils, and area under the curve sputum eosinophil count (≥3%/year). Eosinophil efferocytosis by monocyte-derived macrophages was studied in 17 COPD subjects and 8 normal controls. Results There were no differences in baseline lung function, health status or exacerbation frequency between the groups: A-low red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n = 10), B-high red hue, high sputum eosinophils (n = 16), C-low red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n = 19) and D- high red hue, low sputum eosinophils (n = 58). Positive bacterial culture was lower in groups A (10%) and B (6%) compared to C (44%) and D (21%) (p = 0.01). The fall in FEV1 from stable to exacerbation was greatest in group A (ΔFEV1 [95 % CI] -0.41 L [-0.65 to -0.17]) versus group B (-0.16 L [-0.32 to -0.011]), C (-0.11 L [-0.23 to -0.002]) and D (-0.16 L [-0.22 to -0.10]; p = 0.02). Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils was impaired in COPD versus controls (86 [75 to 92]% versus 93 [88 to 96]%; p = 0.028); was most marked in group A (71 [70 to 84]%; p = 0.0295) and was inversely correlated with exacerbation frequency (r = -0.63; p = 0.006). Conclusions Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils is impaired in COPD and is related to the severity and frequency of COPD exacerbations. PMID:25007795

  16. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma.

    PubMed

    Hilvering, Bart; Xue, Luzheng; Pavord, Ian D

    2015-08-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma attacks and the peripheral blood eosinophil count. The link between blood eosinophil counts and treatment efficacy is biologically obvious given that IL-5 has a pivotal role in eosinophil production, proliferation and chemotaxis. It is also clinically relevant as the blood eosinophil count is routinely measured and thus readily available in patients with asthma. Recognition of the link between airway or blood eosinophilia and treatment response was also important in the clinical testing of the alternative IL-5 blocker, such as reslizumab, which is currently being evaluated in a phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) after having shown to improve lung function, improve symptom score and reduce sputum eosinophilia in a smaller phase IIb study. In addition, benralizumab, an IL-5α receptor blocker, has shown good effects in a phase IIb RCT with patients with severe asthma that had sputum eosinophilia and more recently in a phase IIa trial with patients with eosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore anti-IL-5 treatment seems generally effective in eosinophilic asthma, either assessed by blood or airway eosinophilia. This factor together with the impressive clinical efficacy and good safety profile make anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab, reslizumab) and benralizumab (anti-IL-5 receptor α) very promising drugs for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, a subgroup that is in desperate need of better treatments. PMID:25900924

  17. The transcription factor XBP1 is selectively required for eosinophil differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bettigole, Sarah E.; Lis, Raphael; Adoro, Stanley; Lee, Ann-Hwee; Spencer, Lisa A.; Weller, Peter F.; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor XBP1 has been linked to the development of highly secretory tissues such as plasma cells and Paneth cells, yet its function in granulocyte maturation has remained unknown. Here we discovered an unexpectedly selective and absolute requirement for XBP1 in eosinophil differentiation without an effect on the survival of basophils or neutrophils. Progenitors of myeloid cells and eosinophils selectively activated the endoribonuclease IRE1α and spliced Xbp1 mRNA without inducing parallel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways. Without XBP1, nascent eosinophils exhibited massive defects in the post-translational maturation of key granule proteins required for survival, and these unresolvable structural defects fed back to suppress critical aspects of the transcriptional developmental program. Hence, we present evidence that granulocyte subsets can be distinguished by their differential reliance on secretory-pathway homeostasis. PMID:26147683

  18. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Spergel, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic atopic clinical-pathologic disease with an estimated prevalence of 1/1000 similar to the one of Crohn's diseases. Usually, EoE is firstly suspected due to symptoms that are caused by esophageal dysfunction and/or fibrosis. EoE diagnosis is confirmed if the esophageal biopsy shows at least 15 eosinophils per high power field (eos/hpf) as a peak value in one or more of at least four specimens obtained randomly from the esophagus. Most of the patients affected by EoE have other atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, IgE-mediated food allergies, and/or atopic dermatitis. The local inflammation is a T helper type 2 (Th2) flogosis, which most likely is driven by a mixed IgE and non-IgE-mediated reaction to food and/or environmental allergens. Recently published genetic studies showed also that EoE is associated with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on genes which are important in atopic inflammation such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) located close to the Th2 cytokine cluster (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) on chromosome 5q22. When the EoE diagnosis is made, it is imperative to control the local eosinophilic inflammation not only to give symptomatic relief to the patient but also to prevent complications such as esophageal stricture and food impaction. EoE is treated like many other atopic diseases with a combination of topical steroids and/or food antigen avoidance. PMID:26194940

  19. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a complication of influenza A (H1N1) pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Larranaga, Jose Maria; Marcos, Pedro J; Pombo, Francisco; Otero-Gonzalez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease characterized by its acute onset and a clinical presentation simulating a bacterial pneumonia. Although it can be idiopathic, it has been described related to drugs, toxic agents and infections, mostly parasitic. We describe the case of influenza A (H1N1) severe pneumonia complicated by an acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Patient presented with respiratory failure and diffuse ground-glass opacities at chest-computed tomography. Clinical suspicion for this complication and bronchoalveolar lavage with cellular count analysis is crucial. PMID:27055842

  20. Full recovery from Baylisascaris procyonis eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Pai, Poulomi J; Blackburn, Brian G; Kazacos, Kevin R; Warrier, Rajasekharan P; Bégué, Rodolfo E

    2007-06-01

    Infection by Baylisascaris procyonis is an uncommon but devastating cause of eosinophilic meningitis. We report the first case-patient, to our knowledge, who recovered from B. procyonis eosinophilic meningitis without any recognizable neurologic deficits. The spectrum of illness for this organism may be wider than previously recognized. PMID:17553240

  1. Histological eosinophilic gastritis is a systemic disorder associated with blood and extra-gastric eosinophilia, Th2 immunity, and a unique gastric transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Julie M.; Collins, Margaret H.; Stucke, Emily M.; Putnam, Philip E.; Franciosi, James P.; Kushner, Jonathan P.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The definition of eosinophilic gastritis (EG) is currently limited to histological EG based on the tissue eosinophil count. Objective We aimed to provide additional fundamental information about the molecular, histopathological, and clinical characteristics of EG. Methods Genome-wide transcript profiles and histological features of gastric biopsies as well as blood eosinophil numbers were analyzed in EG and control patients (n = 15 each). Results The peak gastric antrum eosinophil count was 282.7 ± 163.9 eosinophils/400X high-power field (HPF) in EG and 11.0 ± 8.5 eosinophils/HPF in control patients (P = 6.1 × 10−7). EG patients (87%) had co-existing eosinophilic inflammation in multiple gastrointestinal segments; the esophagus represented the most common secondary site. Elevated peripheral blood eosinophil numbers (EG 1.09 ± 0.88 × 103 [K]/μl vs. control 0.09 ± 0.08 K/μl, P = .0027) positively correlated with peak gastric eosinophil counts (Pearson r2 = .8102, P < .0001). MIB-1+ (proliferating), CD117+ (mast cells), and FOXP3+ cells (regulatory and/or activated T cells) were increased in EG. Transcript profiling revealed changes in 8% of the genome in EG gastric tissue. Only 7% of this EG transcriptome overlapped with the eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) transcriptome. Significantly increased IL4, IL5, IL13, IL17, CCL26 and mast cell-specific transcripts and decreased IL33 were observed. Conclusion EG is a systemic disorder involving profound blood and gastrointestinal tract eosinophilia, Th2 immunity, and a conserved gastric transcriptome markedly distinct from the EoE transcriptome. The data herein define germane cellular and molecular pathways of EG and provide a basis for improving diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25234644

  2. Antagonism of eosinophil accumulation in asthma.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Garry M

    2010-11-01

    There is considerable evidence that implicates eosinophils as important effector cells and immunomodulators in the inflammation characteristic of asthma. Numerous in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated essential roles for cell adhesion molecules in eosinophil adhesion and transendothelial migration including the selectins, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 together with many of the 1 and β2 integrins. A large body of evidence has also implicated several cytokines and chemokines in the selective recruitment of eosinophils to sites of asthmatic inflammation. Biopharmaceutical approaches have been used to identify inhibitory molecules that target key elements in the processes controlling eosinophil accumulation in asthma. This review will summarise, the problems and successes regarding recent patents and developments in adhesion-based therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing eosinophil-mediated inflammation in the asthmatic lung. PMID:20804449

  3. [Acute-onset eosinophilic leukemia associated with tumor lysis syndrome after imatinib and steroid pulse therapy].

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Tomoe; Saito, Yuriko; Tokuhira, Michihide; Tomikawa, Atsushi; Sagawa, Morihiko; Haba, Yuichiro; Hanzawa, Kyoko; Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Reiko; Tamaru, Jun-ichi; Itoyama, Shinji; Mori, Shigehisa; Kizaki, Masahiro

    2010-05-01

    An 83-year-old woman had been suffering from palpitations and fatigue for a month. An annual screening test revealed an increased WBC count so she was referred to our hospital. CBC showed extremely elevated WBC count (186,300/microl), in which the population of blastic eosinophils was over 90%. The eosinophils expressed CD7/13/33/34/DR, and the karyotype demonstrated 47,XX,+8. The fusion gene of FIP1-LP/PDGFRalpha in peripheral blood was negative. As plural effusion due to the underlying disease progressively worsened, she was given prednisolone and hydroxyurea, but the effect was limited. Steroid pulse therapy and imatinib (100 mg/day) were administrated. As a result, a prompt response was observed. The WBC count rapidly decreased, but tumor lysis syndrome led to acute renal failure and disseminated intravasucular coagulation appeared. Supportive therapies such as artificial dialysis and transfusions were conducted, but unfortunately she died because of alveolar hemorrhage. PMID:20534953

  4. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

  5. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

  6. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Maurici, Rosemeri; Trevisol, Daisson José; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emílio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating parameters before and after prednisone use, including values for sputum eosinophils, sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and sputum IL-5-with or without values for post-bronchodilator FEV1-with corresponding 95% CIs or with sufficient data for calculation. The independent variables were the use, dose, and duration of prednisone treatment. The outcomes evaluated were sputum eosinophils, IL-5, and ECP, as well as post-bronchodilator FEV1. RESULTS: The pooled analysis of the pre- vs. post-treatment data revealed a significant mean reduction in sputum eosinophils (↓8.18%; 95% CI: 7.69-8.67; p < 0.001), sputum IL-5 (↓83.64 pg/mL; 95% CI: 52.45-114.83; p < 0.001), and sputum ECP (↓267.60 µg/L; 95% CI: 244.57-290.63; p < 0.0001), as well as a significant mean increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1 (↑8.09%; 95% CI: 5.35-10.83; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic bronchitis, treatment with prednisone caused a significant reduction in sputum eosinophil counts, as well as in the sputum levels of IL-5 and ECP. This reduction in the inflammatory response was accompanied by a significant increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1. PMID:25410844

  7. Eosinophil ETosis and DNA Traps: a New Look at Eosinophilic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Honda, Kohei; Hirokawa, Makoto; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2016-07-01

    The traditional paradigm of eosinophils as end-stage damaging cells has mainly relied on their release of cytotoxic proteins. Cytokine-induced cell survival and secretion of granular contents from tissue-dwelling eosinophil are thought to be important mechanisms for eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, although the occurrence of cytolysis and its products (i.e., free extracellular granules) has been observed in affected lesions. Recent evidence indicates that activated eosinophils can exhibit a non-apoptotic cell death pathway, namely extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) that mediates the eosinophil cytolytic degranulation. Here, we discuss the current concept of eosinophil ETosis which provides a new look at eosinophilic inflammation. Lessons from eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis revealed that ETosis-derived DNA traps, composed of stable web-like chromatin, contribute to the properties of highly viscous eosinophilic mucin and impairments in its clearance. Intact granules entrapped in DNA traps are causing long-lasting inflammation but also might have immunoregulatory roles. Eosinophils possess a way to have post-postmortem impacts on innate immunity, local immune response, sterile inflammation, and tissue damage. PMID:27393701

  8. Blood eosinophils as a marker of response to inhaled corticosteroids in COPD.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Neil C; Sharma, Raj; Lettis, Sally; Calverley, Peter M A

    2016-05-01

    Identification of a biomarker that predicts response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) would help evaluate the risk/benefit profile of ICS in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and guide treatment.The ISOLDE study randomised 751 patients (mean post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 1.4 L: 50% predicted normal) to fluticasone propionate 500 μg twice daily or placebo for 3 years, finding no difference in FEV1 rate of decline between treatments (p=0.16) and a significant reduction in median exacerbation rate with fluticasone propionate versus placebo (p=0.026). We re-analysed ISOLDE results by baseline blood eosinophil count to investigate whether eosinophil level predicts ICS benefit.Patients with eosinophils <2% (n=456) had a similar rate of post-bronchodilator FEV1 decline with fluticasone propionate as placebo (-2.9 mL·year(-1); p=0.688). With eosinophils ≥2% (n=214), the rate of decline decreased by 33.9 mL·year(-1) with fluticasone propionate versus placebo (p=0.003). Exacerbation rate reduction on ICS for fluticasone propionate versus placebo was higher in the eosinophil <2% group compared with the ≥2% group; time-to-first moderate/severe exacerbation was not different between treatments in either group.A baseline blood eosinophil count of ≥2% identifies a group of COPD patients with slower rates of decline in FEV1 when treated with ICS: prospective testing of this hypothesis is now warranted. PMID:26917606

  9. Emergency cesarean section as a result of acute eosinophilic pneumonia during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Yasushi; Shiota, Mitsuru; Umemoto, Masahiko; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Tobiume, Takako; Tsuritani, Hiromitsu; Shimaoka, Masao; Doh, Kunihiko; Hoshiai, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltrative shadows on radiography. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia follows an acute course within 1 week and the symptoms include fever, dyspnea, and cough. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia has a good prognosis and responds promptly to steroid treatments. Here we present a critical case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia during pregnancy, which led to emergency cesarean section because of fetal distress. The patient was a 24-year-old gravida at 34 + 6 weeks gestation, with fever, and an elevated CRP; thus antibiotics were started. At 35 + 1 weeks gestation, cardiotocography (CTG) revealed late decelerations, fetal distress was diagnosed, and an emergency cesarean section was performed. The pre-operative maternal blood gas analysis showed a low PaO(2) of 55.7 mmHg and a chest X-ray revealed ground-glass opacities and pleural effusions in the middle lower lung fields bilaterally. A male of 2,336 g in weight was delivered with Apgar scores of 8 and 8 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. Due to the clinical progress and the elevated eosinophil count (532/microl) in the peripheral blood differential leukocyte count, the diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia was made. With the administration of oxygen and steroid treatment, the patient's general condition recovered. Both the mother and the baby were discharged on the 10(th) post-operative day and the patient has been leading a normal life with no recurrence for > 3 years since delivery. PMID:19851054

  10. Severe Aplastic Anemia Associated With Eosinophilic Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    de Masson, Adèle; de Latour, Régis Peffault; Benhamou, Ygal; Moluçon-Chabrot, Cécile; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Laquerrière, Annie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Michonneau, David; Leguy-Seguin, Vanessa; Rybojad, Michel; Bonnotte, Bernard; Jardin, Fabrice; Lévesque, Hervé; Bagot, Martine; Socié, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Diffuse eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman disease) is a rare sclerodermiform syndrome that, in most cases, resolves spontaneously or after corticosteroid therapy. It has been associated with hematologic disorders, such as aplastic anemia. The clinical features and long-term outcomes of patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated aplastic anemia have been poorly described. We report the cases of 4 patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated severe aplastic anemia. For 3 of these patients, aplastic anemia was refractory to conventional immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine. One of the patients received rituximab as a second-line therapy with significant efficacy for both the skin and hematologic symptoms. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe rituximab used to treat eosinophilic fasciitis with associated aplastic anemia. In a literature review, we identified 19 additional cases of eosinophilic fasciitis and aplastic anemia. Compared to patients with isolated eosinophilic fasciitis, patients with eosinophilic fasciitis and associated aplastic anemia were more likely to be men (70%) and older (mean age, 56 yr; range, 18–71 yr). Corticosteroid-containing regimens improved skin symptoms in 5 (42%) of 12 cases but were ineffective in the treatment of associated aplastic anemia in all but 1 case. Aplastic anemia was profound in 13 cases (57%) and was the cause of death in 8 cases (35%). Only 5 patients (22%) achieved long-term remission (allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: n = 2; cyclosporine-containing regimen: n = 2; high-dose corticosteroid-based regimen: n = 1). PMID:23429351

  11. Eosinophils: important players in humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Berek, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils perform numerous tasks. They are involved in inflammatory reactions associated with innate immune defence against parasitic infections and are also involved in pathological processes in response to allergens. Recently, however, it has become clear that eosinophils also play crucial non-inflammatory roles in the generation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. Eosinophils, being a major source of the plasma cell survival factor APRIL (activation and proliferation-induced ligand), are essential not only for the long-term survival of plasma cells in the bone marrow, but also for the maintenance of these cells in the lamina propria which underlies the gut epithelium. At steady state under non-inflammatory conditions eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal tract, although only few are present in the major organized lymphoid tissue of the gut - the Peyer's patches (PP). Surprisingly, however, lack of eosinophils abolishes efficient class-switching of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)A in the germinal centres of PP. Thus, eosinophils are required to generate and to maintain mucosal IgA plasma cells, and as a consequence their absence leads to a marked reduction of IgA both in serum and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Eosinophils thus have an essential part in long-term humoral immune protection, as they are crucial for the longevity of antibody-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow and, in addition, for gut immune homeostasis. PMID:26291602

  12. A study on the relationship between clinical features with Ki67 expression and eosinophil cells infiltration in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jalayer Naderi, Noushin; Tirgari, Farrokh; KharaziFard, Mohammad Javad; Farahani Parsa, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell proliferation is one of the most critical factors in metastasis and prognosis of the malignant tumors.Recent investigations show that the eosinophil granolosytes have an important role in developing of malignant tumors. The relation between cell proliferation and eosinophilic infiltration in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCS) with prognosis is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the Ki67 expression and eosinophilic infiltration with the clinical features on OSCC. Methods: This study was cross sectional in which 24 paraffined embeded block of OSCC selected from the Imam Khomeini hospital; cancer institute’s archive. 4 micron sections were prepared and studied for Ki67 antigen immunohistochemically. The labeling index (LI: positive epithelial cells/1000 epithelial cells) of Ki67 positive cells were obtained. In each section eosinophilic cells were counted in 10 fields with 400 (HPF). The relations between the eosinophil cells and Ki67 positive cells counts with clinical features and histopathological differentiation were achived by the linear regression and spirman statistical tests. Results: There were no any significant relationship between gender, histopathological differentiation and the number of eosinophils and Ki67 positive cells counts (p= 0.33 and p=0.73). A significant relationship between lymph node involvement and the number of eosinophils and the Ki67 positive cells counts was found (p=0.04).There was a positive relationship between the number of Ki67 positive cells and the number of eosinophil cells (p= 0.05). Conclusion: A significant relationship between lymph node involvement with eosinophilc cells and Ki67 positive cells counts were exist. PMID:25678994

  13. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  14. Medical therapy in eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Straumann, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease of the oesophagus. If left untreated, eosinophilic inflammation induces fibrosis, angiogenesis and stricture formation, resulting finally in a so called remodelling with structural and functional damage of the organ. In addition, patients with untreated EoE are permanently at risk of experiencing food impactions. It is therefore widely accepted that active EoE should be treated. Any treatment applied in EoE should ideally achieve two therapeutic goals: first, resolution of symptoms, and, second, control of inflammation. Avoidance of food allergens by elimination diets as well as anti-inflammatory drugs have both the ability to achieve these goals. Among the pharmacological options, only corticosteroids have documented efficacy, whereas alternatives have shown rather disappointing results or are still under evaluation. Of note, swallowed topical corticosteroids are at least as efficient as systemically administered corticosteroids but have fewer side effects. As such topical corticosteroids are widely used as first-line drug in the treatment of EoE, even though this compound is currently not approved for this indication by regulatory authorities. Unfortunately, complete resolution of symptoms can be achieved with swallowed topical corticosteroids only in approximately 70% of patients despite appropriate dosing and despite correct administration of these compounds. Control of inflammation is even harder to achieve, as only in approximately 50% of patients tissue eosinophilia disappears completely under this anti-inflammatory medication. For this group of "difficult to treat" patients, therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Fortunately several anti-allergic drugs and several biologicals are currently under investigation. PMID:26552779

  15. Esophageal Microbiome in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. Kirk; Fang, Rui; Wagner, Brandie D.; Choe, Ha Na; Kelly, Caleb J.; Schroeder, Shauna; Moore, Wendy; Stevens, Mark J.; Yeckes, Alyson; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F.; Zalewski, Angelika; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Henry, Lauren N.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Robertson, Charles E.; Leung, Donald Y.; Pace, Norman R.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Fillon, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis. Design In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST). Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease. Results Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects. Conclusions Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD. PMID:26020633

  16. Platelet-activating factor induces eosinophil peroxidase release from purified human eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Kroegel, C; Yukawa, T; Dent, G; Chanez, P; Chung, K F; Barnes, P J

    1988-01-01

    The degranulation response of purified human eosinophils to platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been studied. PAF induced release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and beta-glucuronidase from highly purified human eosinophils with an EC50 of 0.9 nM. The order of release was comparable with that induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The new specific PAF antagonist 3-[4-(2-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-H-thieno[3,2-f] [1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3a][1,4]-diazepin-2-yl](4-morpholinyl)- 1-propane-one (WEB 2086) inhibited the PAF-induced enzyme release by human eosinophils in a dose-dependent manner. The viability of eosinophils were unaffected both by PAF and WEB 2086. The results suggest that PAF may amplify allergic and inflammatory reactions by release of preformed proteins from eosinophil granules. PMID:3410498

  17. Eosinophilic follicular reaction induced by Demodex folliculorum mite: a different disease from eosinophilic folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Marco, V; Escutia-Muñoz, B; Botella-Estrada, R

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is an idiopathic dermatitis included in the spectrum of eosinophilic pustular follicular reactions. Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as contributing to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated EF, but it has not been described outside this context. We present an immunocompetent 65-year-old white man with a 5-year history of recurrent pruritic erythematous and oedematous lesions on his face, neck and scalp. Histopathologically, an eosinophilic microabcess with Demodex folliculorum mite within a pilosebaceous follicle was seen, and considered the causal agent. There were also accumulations of eosinophil granules on collagen bundles, and flame figure formations in the dermis. We believe that 'eosinophilic follicular reaction' is an appropriate term to describe this case of EF induced by D. folliculorum and thus distinguish it from the idiopathic form of EF. Moreover, this case suggests that D. folliculorum can sometimes induce an eosinophilic immune reaction. PMID:25623943

  18. Diagnostic utility of major basic protein, eotaxin-3, and leukotriene enzyme staining in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Chen, Xiaoxin; Miller, C. Ryan; Woosley, John T.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Features of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) overlap. We aimed to determine whether staining for tissue biomarkers would differentiate EoE from GERD, suggesting utility for diagnosis of EoE. Methods In this case-control study, EoE patients defined by consensus guidelines were compared to GERD patients with eosinophils on esophageal biopsy. Immunohistochemistry was performed for major basic protein (MBP), eotaxin-3, leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), and leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S). After masking, the maximum staining density (cells/mm2) was quantified for each marker and compared between groups. Receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed, and the area under the curve (AUC) calculated to assess the diagnostic utility of each of the biomarkers alone and in combination with eosinophil counts. Results There were 51 EoE cases (mean age 24; mean 143 eos/hpf) and 54 GERD controls (mean age 34; mean 20 eos/hpf). The MBP density was higher in EoE than in GERD (1479 vs 59 cells/mm2; p<0.001), as was the eotaxin-3 density (2219 vs 479; p<0.001). There were no differences for LTA4H and LTC4S. MBP density and eosinophil count correlated (R=0.81; p<0.001); correlation with eotaxin-3 was weaker (R=0.25; p=0.01). The AUC for diagnosis of EoE was 0.96 for MBP, 0.87 for eotaxin-3, 0.58 for LTA4H, 0.66 for LTC4S, and 0.99 for the combination of MBP, eotaxin-3, and eosinophil count. Conclusions Patients with EoE had substantially higher levels of MBP and eotaxin-3 staining than GERD patients. These markers may have utility as a diagnostic assay for EoE. PMID:22777338

  19. [A case of eosinophilic pneumonia caused by inhalation of nickel dusts].

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, M; Sato, A; Taniguchi, M; Imokawa, S; Nakazawa, K; Hayakawa, H; Chida, K

    1994-05-01

    A 16-year-old male, an industrial high school student working at an ironworks, without a dust mask, began to complain of dry cough and fever several hours after inhalation of stainless steel dusts including 0.1% nickel. A chest X-ray film revealed ground glass shadows, patchy shadows and Kerley B lines in the right lung fields. A high resolution chest CT scan showed fusing panlobular densities, thickening of bronchial walls and thickening of interlobular septa. Blood cells counts revealed leucocytosis with eosinophilia. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia. A bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen showed a marked increase in the total cell count and in eosinophils. A transbronchial biopsy specimen showed eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration in the alveolar septa. Steroid therapy with methylpredonisolne (250 mg x three days) resulted in clinical remission. As we suspected nickel-induced eosinophilic pneumonia, an inhalation provocation test with 0.5% nickel sulfate solution was carried out with the patient's informed consent. Six hours after inhalation he developed a dry cough and fever with leucocytosis and A-aDo2 widening. The positive results of the inhalation provocation test provided a definite diagnosis of nickel induced eosinophilic pneumonia. A review of the world literature revealed three case reports of nickel induced PIE syndrome, all of whom were clinically diagnosed without biopsy however. We believe that this is the first case diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy-proven tissue eosinophilia and a positive nickel inhalation provocation test. PMID:8084105

  20. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  1. Increased local IgE production induced by common aeroallergens and phenotypic alteration of mast cells in Chinese eosinophilic, but not non-eosinophilic, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Na; Liao, Bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Bao-Feng; Wang, Heng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Hong; Schleimer, Robert P.; Liu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) display distinct patterns of inflammation. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of CRSwNP need further investigation. Objective To investigate local immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and phenotype of mast cells in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP in Chinese. Methods Total and specific IgE levels were analyzed by means of the ImmunoCAP system. The molecular steps involved in class switch recombination to IgE were investigated using RT-PCR assays. Mast cell phenotypes, IgE- and high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-positive cells, and allergen binding to specific IgE in sinonasal mucosa were determined by means of immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with controls and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP, local total IgE levels were increased, and local specific IgE to common aeroallergens was more frequently found, in Chinese eosinophilic CRSwNP independent of atopy and without significant association with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. The ε germline gene transcript was also more frequently detected in eosinophilic CRSwNP. The number of IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP. Most IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells were mast cells. Dust mite antigens could bind to IgE on mast cells in situ. The number of mast cells positive for both tryptase and chymase and activated mast cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP and the number of activated mast cells positively correlated with local IgE level, eotaxin-1 level, and eosinophil count in CRSwNP. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The local IgE induced by common aeroallergens may mediate mast cell activation and contribute to subsequent eosinophilic inflammation in Chinese CRSwNP. This study offers a rationale for considering intervention strategies designed to target “local allergy” in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PMID:24597471

  2. Spectrum of Surgical Presentation of Eosinophilic Enteritis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Spoorthy Sudhakar; Shetty, Charan Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder presenting mostly with diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, weight loss, and hypersensitivity. Surgical manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders depends on the site and extent of involvement. In our case series of four patients two of them had ileocaecal masses with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction with past history of intake of antitubercular drugs for 9 months. On histopathological examination both of them proved to have eosinophilic enterocolitis. Thus it is a clinical dilemma to differentiate between these two conditions. The other two patients presented as acute abdomen with perforation and intussusception. All four patients were treated surgically. Postoperatively they recovered well with no symptoms on one year follow-up. In Indian setup tuberculosis being rampant there may be under reporting or wrongly diagnosed cases of eosinophilic enteritis. Thus a strong clinical suspicion and awareness of this clinical entity are essential among surgical community. PMID:25960910

  3. Imipenem/cilastatin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Foong, Kap Sum; Lee, Ashley; Pekez, Marijeta; Bin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Drugs, toxins, and infections are known to cause acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Daptomycin and minocycline are the commonly reported antibiotics associated with acute eosinophilic pneumonia. In this study, we present a case of imipenem/cilastatin-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia. The patient presented with fever, acute hypoxic respiratory distress, and diffuse ground-glass opacities on the chest CT a day after the initiation of imipenem/cilastatin. Patient also developed peripheral eosinophilia. A reinstitution of imipenem/cilastatin resulted in recurrence of the signs and symptoms. A bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage showed 780 nucleated cells/mm(3) with 15% eosinophil. The patient's clinical condition improved significantly after the discontinuation of imipenem/cilastatin therapy and the treatment with corticosteroid. PMID:26944380

  4. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Barbie, David A; Mangi, Abeel A; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with an obscure etiology, although associations with allergy, the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, and connective tissue disease have been reported. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who presented with refractory nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Imaging studies were significant for bowel wall thickening and ascites, while laboratory studies revealed a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), a positive anti-double stranded (DS) DNA antibody, low complement, and proteinuria. Exploratory laparotomy with gastric and small bowel biopsies established the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In addition, the patient met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Previous studies have described eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with scleroderma, polymyositis, or dermatomyositis. This is the first report to our knowledge of an individual with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:15492606

  5. Spectrum of surgical presentation of eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Spoorthy Sudhakar; Shetty, Charan Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis is a rare disorder presenting mostly with diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, weight loss, and hypersensitivity. Surgical manifestation of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders depends on the site and extent of involvement. In our case series of four patients two of them had ileocaecal masses with recurrent subacute intestinal obstruction with past history of intake of antitubercular drugs for 9 months. On histopathological examination both of them proved to have eosinophilic enterocolitis. Thus it is a clinical dilemma to differentiate between these two conditions. The other two patients presented as acute abdomen with perforation and intussusception. All four patients were treated surgically. Postoperatively they recovered well with no symptoms on one year follow-up. In Indian setup tuberculosis being rampant there may be under reporting or wrongly diagnosed cases of eosinophilic enteritis. Thus a strong clinical suspicion and awareness of this clinical entity are essential among surgical community. PMID:25960910

  6. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  7. Pharmacological and immunohistochemical evidence for a functional nitric oxide synthase system in rat peritoneal eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Zanardo, Renata C. O.; Costa, Edmar; Ferreira, Heloisa H. A.; Antunes, Edson; Martins, Antonio R.; Murad, Ferid; De Nucci, Gilberto

    1997-01-01

    Eosinophil migration in vivo is markedly attenuated in rats treated chronically with the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). In this study, we investigated the existence of a NOS system in eosinophils. Our results demonstrated that rat peritoneal eosinophils strongly express both type II (30.2 ± 11.6% of counted cells) and type III (24.7 ± 7.4% of counted cells) NOS, as detected by immunohistochemistry using affinity purified mouse mAbs. Eosinophil migration in vitro was evaluated by using 48-well microchemotaxis chambers and the chemotactic agents used were N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP, 5 × 10−8 M) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4, 10−8 M). l-NAME (but not d-NAME) significantly inhibited the eosinophil migration induced by both fMLP (54% reduction for 1.0 mM; P < 0.05) and LTB4 (61% reduction for 1.0 mM; P < 0.05). In addition, the type II NOS inhibitor 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine and the type I/II NOS inhibitor 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole also markedly (P < 0.05) attenuated fMLP- (52% and 38% reduction for 1.0 mM, respectively) and LTB4- (52% and 51% reduction for 1.0 mM, respectively) induced migration. The inhibition of eosinophil migration by l-NAME was mimicked by the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3,-a] quinoxalin-1-one (0.01 and 0.1 mM) and reversed by either sodium nitroprusside (0.1 mM) or dibutyryl cyclic GMP (1 mM). We conclude that eosinophils do express NO synthase(s) and that nitric oxide plays an essential role in eosinophil locomotion by acting through a cyclic GMP transduction mechanism. PMID:9391161

  8. Murine eosinophils labeled with indium-111 oxine: localization to delayed hypersensitivity reactions against a schistosomal antigen and to lymphokine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Runge, V.; English, D.; Colley, D.G.

    1983-04-01

    We have evaluated a method for quantitation of eosinophil migration to stimuli in vivo. Upon transfusion into normal syngeneic mice, 111In-labeled eosinophils had an intravascular half-life of 9.5 hr and distributed predominantly into spleen, bone marrow, and liver. In either Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice or recipients of lymphoid cells from infected mice, intradermal (ear pinna) injection of the schistosomal egg antigenic preparation (SEA) elicited time-dependent accumulation of 111In-labeled eosinophils detectable by either gamma scintillation counting of tissue samples or by nuclear medicine external imaging. Intradermal administration of a lymphokine fraction (containing eosinophil stimulation promoter activity) similarly caused accumulation of 111In-labeled eosinophils. Both reactions depended on the concentration of stimulus (SEA or lymphokine). 111In-labeled neutrophils or macrophages or 125I-albumin did not preferentially accumulate at the reactions examined to the extent found with 111In-labeled eosinophils, indicating that localization of label depends on an active process and is due to eosinophils rather than a contaminating cell type. The method was used to estimate how long eosinotactic lymphokine remained at dermal sites: 60% of initial activity was present 12 hr after injection. The model is discussed with regard to the role of lymphokines in hypersensitivity reactions with eosinophil involvement, such as the granulomatous response to S. mansoni eggs.

  9. Tumor eosinophil infiltration and improved survival of colorectal cancer patients: Iowa Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Prizment, Anna E; Vierkant, Robert A; Smyrk, Thomas C; Tillmans, Lori S; Lee, James J; Sriramarao, P; Nelson, Heather H; Lynch, Charles F; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Church, Timothy R; Cerhan, James R; Anderson, Kristin E; Limburg, Paul J

    2016-05-01

    The role of the innate immune response in colorectal cancer is understudied. We examined the survival of colorectal cancer patients in relation to eosinophils, innate immune cells, infiltrating the tumor. Tissue microarrays were constructed from paraffin-embedded tumor tissues collected between 1986 and 2002 from 441 post-menopausal women diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Tissue microarrays were stained with an eosinophil peroxidase antibody. Eosinophils in epithelial and stromal tissues within the tumor (called epithelial and stromal eosinophils, hereafter) were counted and scored into three and four categories, respectively. In addition, the degree of eosinophil degranulation (across epithelial and stromal tissues combined) was quantified and similarly categorized. We used Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval for all-cause and colorectal cancer death during 5-year follow-up after diagnosis and during follow-up through 2011 ('total follow-up'). The hazard ratios associated with eosinophil scores were adjusted for age of diagnosis, SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) stage, tumor grade, body mass, and smoking history. High tumor stromal eosinophil score was inversely correlated with age and stage, and was associated with a decreased risk for all-cause and colorectal cancer death: hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.61 (0.36-1.02; P-trend=0.02) and 0.48 (0.24-0.93; P-trend=0.01), respectively, during the 5-year follow-up for the highest vs lowest category. The inverse associations also existed for total follow-up for all-cause and colorectal cancer death for the highest vs lowest stromal eosinophil score: hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P-trend=0.04) and 0.61 (0.34-1.12; P-trend=0.04), respectively. Further adjustment for treatment, comorbidities, additional lifestyle factors, tumor location, or molecular markers did not markedly change the

  10. Eosinophilic Myocarditis Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Caused by Toxocara Canis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hee; Chang, Kyung-Yoon; Ko, Sun-Young; Park, Mi-Hee; Sa, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Yun-Seok; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Man-Young

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with myocarditis presented eosinophilia. Since the antibody against Toxocara canis (T. canis) was positive, we diagnosed that she had visceral larva migrans due to T. canis associated with myocarditis. She was treated with oral albendazole and prednisolone for two weeks, eosinophil count and hepatic enzymes were normalized after completion of treatment. This is the first report of myocarditis caused by T. canis infection in Korea. PMID:23185659

  11. Allergic mechanisms of Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Leung, John; Beukema, Koen Robert; Shen, Alice Hangzhou

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is characterized by oesophageal dysfunction and oesophageal eosinophilia refractory to proton-pump-inhibitor treatment. EoE is a food allergy, as elimination of food trigger(s) abrogates the disease, while trigger reintroduction causes recurrence. The allergic mechanism of EoE involves both IgE and non-IgE processes. There is a break in oral tolerance, the immune mechanism allowing enteric exposure to food and micro-organisms without causing deleterious immune responses. Changes in life-style, alterations in gut flora and use of antibiotics may be increasing disease prevalence. Mouse models of EoE and human studies revealed the role of regulatory T-cells and iNKT-cells in the pathogenesis. Th2-cytokines like IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and other cytokines like TGFβ and TSLP are involved, but perhaps no one cytokine is critically important for driving the disease. Control of EoE may require a pharmaceutical approach that blocks more than one target in the Th2-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26552770

  12. Diagnostic Approach to Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Jorda, Merce; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Context Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC, acquired cystic disease–associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high). PMID:25357116

  13. Human Eosinophils Express the High Affinity IgE Receptor, FcεRI, in Bullous Pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Messingham, Kelly N.; Holahan, Heather M.; Frydman, Alexandra S.; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE≥400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  14. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Messingham, Kelly N; Holahan, Heather M; Frydman, Alexandra S; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an autoimmune esophageal disorder.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neha; Levine, Jeremiah

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal inflammatory disease associated with esophageal dysfunction resulting from severe inflammation. The incidence and prevalence of EoE have been increasing in the past decade; however, the reason for this increase is unclear. There is a chronic inflammatory infiltrate that is present in EoE which promotes inflammation, symptoms, and dysfunction. In addition to eosinophils, interleukin (IL)-5 expressing T cells, B cells, eotaxin-3, IL-13, and IgE-bearing mast cells are present in EoE and are thought to contribute to the disease process. Eosinophils are pro-inflammatory and modulate multiple aspects of the immune response. Eosinophils produce a wide range of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors. Once activated, eosinophils release granule components, which are toxic to a variety of tissues. Transforming growth factor β1 is a pro-fibrotic molecule produced by epithelial and inflammatory cells, is overexpressed in EoE, and plays a role in esophageal remodeling. Fibrous remodeling in EoE could be associated with symptoms of dysphagia and may explain and predict future esophageal strictures and dysmotility. EoE is a complex disease involving multiple activation pathways, a large number of cells, and various inflammatory molecules. It, along with other atopic disease, is becoming increasingly prevalent and has an important genetic load and may represent as an immunological tolerance disorder of the GI tract. PMID:25499460

  16. New Insights into Eosinophilic Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a type of intractable otitis media that occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma (BA). In 2011, the diagnostic criteria for EOM were established. EOM is characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellowish effusion containing eosinophils and immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil chemoattractants, such as eosinophil cationic protein, interleukin-5, and eotaxin. Local sensitization against foreign agents such as fungi or bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) may result in local IgE production in the middle ear and may be responsible for the severity of EOM. The clinical features of EOM closely resemble localized eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis, therefore it is necessary to be vigilant to the symptoms of mononeuritis, polyneuritis, and skin purpura during diagnosis. Standard treatment for EOM is the instillation of triamcinolone acetonide into the mesotympanum. However, severe cases exhibiting strong inflammation and otorrhea are not easily controlled with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids. We proposed the introduction of a severity score to evaluate the severity of EOM. This score correlated with local IgE levels in middle ear effusion. Clinically, the risk factors associated with this severity score were body mass index, and the duration of bronchial asthma (from the onset of BA to the age of the first consultation of otitis media to our hospital). We emphasize that early diagnosis and adequate treatment are vital in preventing progressive and sudden hearing loss resulting from EOM. PMID:26546407

  17. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: a novel treatment using Montelukast

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, S E A; Lewis, C J; Bronder, C S; Morris, C D; Armstrong, G R; Whittam, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a rarely diagnosed condition involving eosinophil infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa and creating significant symptoms of dysphagia. Failure to diagnose this disorder relates to reluctance to biopsy an apparently normal oesophagus. This is essential for histological diagnosis. To date, treatment success has been achieved only with corticosteroids. We describe here the use of an eosinophil stabilising agent Montelukast for the symptomatic relief of these patients. Patients and methods: Twelve patients have been identified with this condition in our unit since 1995, after thorough investigation of their dysphagia. We commenced eight of these patients on the leukotriene receptor antagonist Montelukast to symptomatically improve their swallowing while avoiding the use of long term corticosteroids. Results: Many of these patients had been previously misdiagnosed, and therefore inappropriately and unsuccessfully treated for an extensive period prior to referral to our unit. All patients were unresponsive to acid suppression therapy alone but showed improvement in their swallowing on Montelukast. Six of eight reported complete subjective improvement, five patients remaining completely asymptomatic on a maintenance regimen. Conclusions: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a disease that is often misdiagnosed due to lack of awareness and reluctance of clinicians to biopsy an apparently normal oesophagus in dysphagic patients, and therefore obtain a histological diagnosis. Investigation of these patients adds further evidence to this condition being a separate pathological state from gastro-oesophageal reflux and eosinophilic enteritis. Montelukast has been found to be of significant help in the symptomatic control of these patients while avoiding long term corticosteroids use. PMID:12524397

  18. Functional expression of IL-12 receptor by human eosinophils: IL-12 promotes eosinophil apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nutku, E; Zhuang, Q; Soussi-Gounni, A; Aris, F; Mazer, B D; Hamid, Q

    2001-07-15

    In murine models of allergic inflammation, IL-12 has been shown to decrease tissue eosinophilia, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We evaluated the expression of IL-12R and the effect of IL-12 on eosinophil survival. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of mRNA and immunoreactivity for IL-12Rbeta1 and -beta2 subunits in human peripheral blood eosinophils. Surface expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and -beta2 subunits on freshly isolated human eosinophils was optimally expressed after incubation with PMA. To determine the functional significance of IL-12R studies, we studied cell viability and apoptosis. Morphological analysis and propidium iodide staining for cell cycle demonstrated that recombinant human IL-12 increased in vitro human eosinophil apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of IL-5 together with IL-12 abrogated eosinophil apoptosis, suggesting that IL-12 and IL-5 have antagonistic effects. Our findings provide evidence for a novel role for IL-12 in regulating eosinophil function by increasing eosinophil apoptosis. PMID:11441113

  19. Indomethacin inhibits eosinophil migration to prostaglandin D2: therapeutic potential of CRTH2 desensitization for eosinophilic pustular folliculitis

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Naoko; Satoh, Takahiro; Hirai, Aiko; Saeki, Kazumi; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Indomethacin is a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, and shows therapeutic potential for various eosinophilic skin diseases, particularly eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. One of the unique characteristics of indomethacin is that, unlike other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, it is a potent agonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells (CRTH2), a receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). This study investigated the pharmacological actions of indomethacin on eosinophil migration to clarify the actual mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of indomethacin on eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. Eosinophils exhibited chemokinetic and chemotactic responses to both PGD2 and indomethacin through CRTH2 receptors. Pre-treatment of eosinophils with indomethacin greatly inhibited eosinophil migration to PGD2 and, to a much lesser extent, to eotaxin (CCL11); these effects could be mediated by homologous and heterologous desensitization of eosinophil CRTH2 and CCR3, respectively, by agonistic effects of indomethacin on CRTH2. Indomethacin also cancelled a priming effect of Δ12-PGJ2, a plasma metabolite of PGD2, on eosinophil chemotaxis to eotaxin. Indomethacin down-modulated cell surface expression of both CRTH2 and CCR3. Hair follicle epithelium and epidermal keratinocytes around eosinophilic pustules together with the eccrine apparatus of palmoplantar lesions of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis were immunohistochemically positive for lipocalin-type PGD synthase. Indomethacin may exert therapeutic effects against eosinophilic skin diseases in which PGD2-CRTH2 signals play major roles by reducing eosinophil responses to PGD2. PMID:23582181

  20. [FEATURES OF TREATMENT OF EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Horodylovska, M I

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of probiotic L. reuteri into the complex therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis significantly affect the outcomes of children--there was significant decrease in the number of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosa of children. PMID:26118052

  1. SOCS3 Silencing Attenuates Eosinophil Functions in Asthma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zafra, Mª Paz; Cañas, Jose A.; Mazzeo, Carla; Gámez, Cristina; Sanz, Veronica; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Quirce, Santiago; Barranco, Pilar; Ruiz-Hornillos, Javier; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL)-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process. PMID:25764157

  2. SOCS3 silencing attenuates eosinophil functions in asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Zafra, Ma Paz; Cañas, Jose A; Mazzeo, Carla; Gámez, Cristina; Sanz, Veronica; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Quirce, Santiago; Barranco, Pilar; Ruiz-Hornillos, Javier; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are one of the key inflammatory cells in asthma. Eosinophils can exert a wide variety of actions through expression and secretion of multiple molecules. Previously, we have demonstrated that eosinophils purified from peripheral blood from asthma patients express high levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). In this article, SOCS3 gene silencing in eosinophils from asthmatics has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the suppressor function in eosinophils. SOCS3 siRNA treatment drastically reduced SOCS3 expression in eosinophils, leading to an inhibition of the regulatory transcription factors GATA-3 and FoxP3, also interleukin (IL)-10; in turn, an increased STAT3 phosphorilation was observed. Moreover, SOCS3 abrogation in eosinophils produced impaired migration, adhesion and degranulation. Therefore, SOCS3 might be regarded as an important regulator implicated in eosinophil mobilization from the bone marrow to the lungs during the asthmatic process. PMID:25764157

  3. Roles and Regulation of Gastrointestinal Eosinophils in Immunity and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jung, YunJae; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils have been considered to be destructive end-stage effector cells that have a role in parasitic infections and allergy reactions by the release of their granule-derived cytotoxic proteins. However, an increasing number of experimental observations indicate that eosinophils also are multifunctional leukocytes involved in diverse inflammatory and physiologic immune responses. Under homeostatic conditions, eosinophils are particularly abundant in the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract where their involvement in various biological processes within the gastrointestinal tract has been posited. In this review, we summarize the molecular steps involved in eosinophil development and describe eosinophil trafficking to the gastrointestinal tract. We synthesize the current findings on the phenotypic and functional properties of gastrointestinal eosinophils and the accumulating evidence that they have a contributory role in gastrointestinal disorders, with a focus on primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, we discuss the potential role of eosinophils as modulators of the intestinal immune system. PMID:25049430

  4. Counting every quantum

    PubMed Central

    Sakitt, B.

    1972-01-01

    1. Human subjects were asked to rate both blanks and very dim flashes of light under conditions of complete dark adaptation at 7° in the periphery. The ratings used were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. 2. For one subject (B.S.) the distributions of ratings were approximately Poisson distributions. The data were consistent with each rating being the actual number of effective quantal absorptions plus the number of noise events. This subject was presumably able to count every rod signal (effective absorptions plus noise). 3. For two other subjects, the data were consistent with the ratings being one less (L.F.) and two less (K.D.) than the number of effective absorptions plus noise. They were able to count every rod signal beginning with 2 and 3 respectively. A fourth subject's erratic data could not be fitted. 4. The fraction of quanta incident at the cornea that resulted in a rod signal was estimated to be about 0·03 which is consistent with physical estimates of effective absorption for that retinal region. 5. A simulated forced choice experiment leads to an absolute threshold about 0·40 log units below the normal yes-no absolute threshold. This and other results indicate that subjects can use the sensory information they receive even when only 1, 2 or 3 quanta are effectively absorbed, depending on the individual. Humans may be able to count every action potential or every discrete burst of action potentials in some critical neurone. PMID:5046137

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis: emerging therapies and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Straumann, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Twenty years have passed since eosinophilic esophagitis was first recognized as a new and distinct entity. Current treatment modalities for eosinophilic esophagitis include the "3 Ds": drugs, allergen avoidance with diet, and esophageal dilation. Drugs entail the limitation that only corticosteroids have a proven efficacy; most other compounds evoke only a minimal effect. Diets must be maintained continuously and they interfere markedly with the quality of life, possibly even involving some risk of malnutrition. A greater understanding of the immunopathogenesis, natural history, and disease spectrum will inevitably lead to improved therapeutic outcomes for this emerging entity. PMID:24813523

  6. Eosinophilic pleural effusion complicating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Austin N; Kuhlmann, Erica; Kuzniar, Tomasz J

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is primarily a disease of patients with cystic fibrosis or asthma, who typically present with bronchial obstruction, fever, malaise, and expectoration of mucus plugs. We report a case of a young man with a history of asthma who presented with cough, left-sided pleuritic chest pain and was found to have lobar atelectasis and an eosinophilic, empyematous pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy and sputum cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus, and testing confirmed strong allergic response to this mold, all consistent with a diagnosis of ABPA. This novel and unique presentation of ABPA expands on the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusions. PMID:21311176

  7. [The eosinophilic otitis media's research progress].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-09-01

    The eosinophilic otitis media(EOM) is an intractable disease characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellow effusion with extensive accumulation of eosinophils in the middle ear; granulation tissue can been discovered in the middle ear cavity; most of patients have association with bronchial asthma; resist to conventional treatment for otitis media; EOM patients show gradual deterioration of hearing and sometimes become deaf suddenly; effective treatment involves use of topical and oral steroids. This article summarizes the progress of the EOM's diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26647553

  8. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  9. Natural killer cells regulate eosinophilic inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Heui; Choi, Go Eun; Lee, Bong-Jae; Kwon, Seog Woon; Lee, Seung-Hyo; Kim, Hun Sik; Jang, Yong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils play a major pathologic role in the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Dysregulated production of prostaglandin (PG), particularly PGD2, is considered to be an important contributing factor to eosinophilic inflammation in CRS primarily through proinflammatory and chemotactic effects on eosinophils. Here, we provide evidence that PGD2 can promote eosinophilic inflammation through a suppression of Natural killer (NK) cell effector function and NK cell-mediated eosinophil regulation. Eosinophil apoptosis mediated by NK cells was significantly decreased in CRS patients compared with healthy controls. This decrease was associated with NK cell dysfunction and eosinophilic inflammation. Tissue eosinophils were positively correlated with blood eosinophils in CRS patients. In a murine model of CRS, NK cell depletion caused an exacerbation of blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic inflammation in the sinonasal tissue. PGD2 and its metabolite, but not PGE2 and a panel of cytokines including TGF-β, were increased in CRS patients compared with controls. Effector functions of NK cells were potently suppressed by PGD2-dependent, rather than PGE2-dependent, pathway in controls and CRS patients. Thus, our results suggest decreased NK cell-mediated eosinophil regulation, possibly through an increased level of PGD2, as a previously unrecognized link between PG dysregulation and eosinophilic inflammation in CRS. PMID:27271931

  10. Natural killer cells regulate eosinophilic inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Heui; Choi, Go Eun; Lee, Bong-Jae; Kwon, Seog Woon; Lee, Seung-Hyo; Kim, Hun Sik; Jang, Yong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils play a major pathologic role in the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Dysregulated production of prostaglandin (PG), particularly PGD2, is considered to be an important contributing factor to eosinophilic inflammation in CRS primarily through proinflammatory and chemotactic effects on eosinophils. Here, we provide evidence that PGD2 can promote eosinophilic inflammation through a suppression of Natural killer (NK) cell effector function and NK cell-mediated eosinophil regulation. Eosinophil apoptosis mediated by NK cells was significantly decreased in CRS patients compared with healthy controls. This decrease was associated with NK cell dysfunction and eosinophilic inflammation. Tissue eosinophils were positively correlated with blood eosinophils in CRS patients. In a murine model of CRS, NK cell depletion caused an exacerbation of blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic inflammation in the sinonasal tissue. PGD2 and its metabolite, but not PGE2 and a panel of cytokines including TGF-β, were increased in CRS patients compared with controls. Effector functions of NK cells were potently suppressed by PGD2-dependent, rather than PGE2-dependent, pathway in controls and CRS patients. Thus, our results suggest decreased NK cell-mediated eosinophil regulation, possibly through an increased level of PGD2, as a previously unrecognized link between PG dysregulation and eosinophilic inflammation in CRS. PMID:27271931

  11. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal disorders- eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The gastrointestinal tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil’s role in health and disease. The normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa in varying numbers. This latter fact raises the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. In contrast, a number of clinical studies provide a wealth of data that associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases; these findings prompt concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. In this article we present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance. PMID:26209893

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: asthma of the esophagus?

    PubMed

    Arora, Amindra S; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is rapidly emerging as a distinct disease entity in both pediatric and adult gastroenterology. The typical clinical presentation includes solid food dysphagia in young men who have an atopic predisposition. Food impaction necessitating endoscopic intervention is common. EE should be suspected, in particular, in patients with unexplained dysphagia or those with no response to antacid or anti-acid secretory therapy. Careful endoscopic and radiographic examinations reveal furrows, corrugations, rings, whitish plaques, fragile crêpe paper-like appearance, and a small-caliber esophagus. Mucosal erosion in the distal esophagus, characteristic to reflux esophagitis, is absent in EE. Marked eosinophil infiltration in the esophageal epithelia (>20 eosinophils per high-power field) is the diagnostic hallmark. Food antigens and aeroallergens may play a role in the pathogenesis of EE. The mechanisms may be dependent or independent of immunoglobulin E. Elimination diets, systemic and topical corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and, most recently, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody have been used to treat EE. EE likely represents another example of eosinophil-associated inflammation of epithelia at the interface between external and internal milieu, similar to bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. This review summarizes recent progress in the diagnosis and management of EE and discusses future research directions. PMID:15224275

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Asifa K; Mussarat, Ahad; Mishra, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized allergic disorder, characterized by eosophageal dysfunction, accumulation of ≥15 eosinophils/high-powered field, eosinophil microabssess, basal cell hyperplasia, extracellular eosinophilic granules in the esophageal epithelial mucosal biopsy and a lack of response to a 8-week proton pump inhibitor treatment. Despite the increased incidences and considerable progress made in understanding EoE pathogenesis, there are limited diagnostic and therapeutic options available for EoE. Currently, the only criterion for diagnosing EoE is repetitive esophageal endoscopic biopsies and histopathological evaluation. Antigen elimination or corticosteroid therapies are effective therapies for EoE but are expensive and have limitations, if continued in the long term. Hence, there is a great necessity for novel noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers that can easily diagnose EoE and assess effectiveness of therapy. Herein, we have provided an update on key molecules involved in the disease initiation, and progression and proposed novel noninvasive diagnostic molecules and strategies for EoE therapy. PMID:25400904

  14. Participation of eosinophils in the toxic oil syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ten, R M; Kephart, G M; Posada, M; Abaitua, I; Soldevilla, L; Kilbourne, E M; Dunnette, S L; Gleich, G J

    1990-01-01

    The participation of eosinophils in the Spanish toxic oil syndrome (TOS) was investigated. Eosinophil infiltration and degranulation in tissues from 52 patients with the TOS were examined by immunofluorescence staining for the eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP). Serum MBP levels were determined in sera from 323 patients. Eosinophil infiltration and degranulation were found in several tissues, especially during the acute phase of the TOS, and serum MBP was significantly elevated during all phases of the disease, suggesting that eosinophils play a role in the pathogenesis of the TOS. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2242612

  15. Case of chronic eosinophilic leukemia with deletion of chromosome 16 and hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kamineni, Padma; Baptiste, Ayanna; Hassan, Mukhtar; Dawkins, Fitzroy W; Zaidi, Syed; Tefferi, Ayalew; Lindsey, Mercedes; Taddesse-Heath, Lekidelu

    2006-08-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a rare entity, characterized by eosinophilia of >1.5 x 10(9)/L, persisting for >6 months after exclusion of other reactive and neoplastic causes of eosinophilia, and occurring in association with a clonal cytogenetic abnormality. Various chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 16 is a cytogenetic abnormality first reported 20 years ago in patients with acute myeloid leukemia associated with bone marrow eosinophilia (AML-M4Eo). We report a case of a 45-year-old African-American male with hepatitis C and sustained peripheral blood eosinophilia who presented with gross hematuria, dyspnea on exertion, chills, decreased appetite and weight loss of 40 pounds associated with hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow biopsy showed clonal cytogenetic abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm of chromosome 16 (16q22). Philadelphia chromosome t (9;22) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for C-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) mutations were negative. The patient was treated with imatinib at 400 mg/d with improvement of symptoms, reduction of lymphadenopathy and normalization of the eosinophil count. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of isolated del (16) (q22), a cytogenetic abnormality associated with AML-M4Eo, occurring in chronic eosinophilic leukemia. Whether this cytogenetic abnormality might represent a prodromal phase of AML-M4Eo is not known. In addition, the role of hepatitis C in inducing clonal proliferation of eosinophils is unclear. PMID:16916138

  16. Prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults presenting with oesophageal food bolus obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Heerasing, Neel; Lee, Shok Yin; Alexander, Sina; Dowling, Damian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To look at the relationship between eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) and food bolus impaction in adults. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed medical records of 100 consecutive patients who presented to our hospital with oesophageal food bolus obstruction (FBO) between 2012 and 2014. In this cohort, 96 were adults (64% male), and 4 paediatric patients were excluded from the analysis as our centre did not have paediatric gastroenterologists. Eighty-five adult patients underwent emergency gastroscopy. The food bolus was either advanced into the stomach using the push technique or retrieved using a standard retrieval net. Biopsies were obtained in 51 patients from the proximal and distal parts of the oesophagus at initial gastroscopy. All biopsy specimens were assessed and reviewed by dedicated gastrointestinal pathologists at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital Geelong. The diagnosis of EO was defined and established by the presence of the following histological features: (1) peak eosinophil counts > 20/hpf; (2) eosinophil microabscess; (3) superficial layering of eosinophils; (4) extracellular eosinophil granules; (5) basal cell hyperplasia; (6) dilated intercellular spaces; and (7) subepithelial or lamina propria fibrosis. The histology results of the biopsy specimens were accessed from the pathology database of the hospital and recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Our cohort had a median age of 60. Seventeen/51 (33%) patients had evidence of EO on biopsy findings. The majority of patients with EO were male (71%). Classical endoscopic features of oesophageal rings, furrows or white plaques and exudates were found in 59% of patients with EO. Previous episodes of FBO were present in 12/17 patients and 41% had a history of eczema, hay fever or asthma. Reflux oesophagitis and benign strictures were found in 20/34 patients who did not have biopsies. CONCLUSION: EO is present in approximately one third of patients who are admitted with FBO. Biopsies should be

  17. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Case Report and Review in Search for Diagnostic Key Points

    PubMed Central

    López-Medina, Guillermo; Gallo, Manuel; Prado, Alejandro; Vicuña-Honorato, Iliana; Castillo Díaz de León, Roxana

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is considered an uncommon disease with a low incidence rate that remains as a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, in spite of the fact that seventy years have passed since its original description. Hereby we present the case of a 29-year-old male without history of allergies who was evaluated for unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, without relevant findings on physical examination and presenting an initial complete blood count (CBC) with severe eosinophilia. The patient was evaluated and the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed by histopathological findings. The relevance of the case resides in highlighting the lack of guidelines or consensus for histological diagnosis being virtually the only one available. To a similar extent, treatment evidence is based on case series with a reasonable number of patients and case reports. PMID:26075112

  18. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Stephen P.; McMillan, Sarah J.; Colbert, Jeff D.; Lawrence, Rachel A.; Watts, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a “cytoprotectant” that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. Video Abstract PMID:27067058

  19. Origin, regulation and physiological function of intestinal eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Patricia C.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multi-functional leukocytes that are typically associated with the initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses, particularly helminth infection and allergic disease. However, expanding evidence supports a broader role for eosinophils in homeostatic function and organ development and modulation of local immune responses via interaction with other effector cells. In this review, the biology of eosinophils in the healthy gut is summarized. In particular, the molecular steps involved in eosinophil development and trafficking are described, with special attention to the important role of the transcription factor GATA-1, the eosinophil selective cytokine IL-5 and the eotaxin subfamily of chemokines. In addition, the regulation of eosinophil survival by inhibitory and death receptors and the expanding role for eosinophils in health and disease are reviewed. PMID:18492563

  20. Repeated Nitrogen Dioxide Exposures and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthmatics: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Guillossou, Gaëlle; Neukirch, Catherine; Dehoux, Monique; Koscielny, Serge; Bonay, Marcel; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Samet, Jonathan M.; Mure, Patrick; Ropert, Luc; Tokarek, Sandra; Lambrozo, Jacques; Aubier, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a ubiquitous atmospheric pollutant, may enhance the asthmatic response to allergens through eosinophilic activation in the airways. However, the effect of NO2 on inflammation without allergen exposure is poorly studied. Objectives: We investigated whether repeated peaks of NO2, at various realistic concentrations, induce changes in airway inflammation in asthmatics. Methods: Nineteen nonsmokers with asthma were exposed at rest in a double-blind, crossover study, in randomized order, to 200 ppb NO2, 600 ppb NO2, or clean air once for 30 min on day 1 and twice for 30 min on day 2. The three series of exposures were separated by 2 weeks. The inflammatory response in sputum was measured 6 hr (day 1), 32 hr (day 2), and 48 hr (day 3) after the first exposure, and compared with baseline values measured twice 10–30 days before the first exposure. Results: Compared with baseline measurements, the percentage of eosinophils in sputum increased by 57% after exposure to 600 ppb NO2 (p = 0.003) but did not change significantly after exposure to 200 ppb. The slope of the association between the percentage of eosinophils and NO2 exposure level was significant (p = 0.04). Eosinophil cationic protein in sputum was highly correlated with eosinophil count and increased significantly after exposure to 600 ppb NO2 (p = 0.001). Lung function, which was assessed daily, was not affected by NO2 exposure. Conclusions: We observed that repeated peak exposures of NO2 performed without allergen exposure were associated with airway eosinophilic inflammation in asthmatics in a dose-related manner. Citation: Ezratty V, Guillossou G, Neukirch C, Dehoux M, Koscielny S, Bonay M, Cabanes PA, Samet JM, Mure P, Ropert L, Tokarek S, Lambrozo J, Aubier M. 2014. Repeated nitrogen dioxide exposures and eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatics: a randomized crossover study. Environ Health Perspect 122:850–855; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307240 PMID

  1. Airway inflammation, airway responsiveness and cough before and after inhaled budesonide in patients with eosinophilic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Brightling, C E; Ward, R; Wardlaw, A J; Pavord, I D

    2000-04-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, characterized by sputum eosinophilia similar to that seen in asthma, but unlike asthma the patients have no objective evidence of variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. The reason for the different functional associations is unclear. The authors have tested the hypothesis that in eosinophilic bronchitis the inflammation is mainly localized in the upper airway. In an open study the authors measured the lower (provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20)) and upper (PC25 MIF50) airway responsiveness to histamine, lower and upper airway inflammation using induced sputum and nasal lavage, in II patients with eosinophilic bronchitis. The authors assessed changes in these measures and in cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin and cough severity after 400 microg of inhaled budesonide for 4 weeks. A nasal eosinophilia was present in only three patients with one having upper airway hyperresponsiveness. Following treatment with inhaled corticosteroids the geometric mean sputum eosinophil count decreased from 12.8% to 2.9% (mean difference 4.4-fold, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14-10.02), the mean +/- sem cough visual analogue score on a 100 mm scale decreased from 27.2 +/- 6.6 mm to 12.6 +/- 5.7 mm (mean difference 14.6, 95% CI 9.1-20.1) and the cough sensitivity assessed as the capsaicin concentration required to cause two coughs (C2) and five coughs (C5) improved (C2 mean difference 0.75 doubling concentrations, 95% CI 0.36-1.1; C5 mean difference 1.3 doubling concentration, 95% CI 0.6-2.1). There was a significant positive correlation between the fold change in sputum eosinophil count and doubling dose change in C5 after inhaled budesonide (r=0.61). It is concluded that upper airway inflammation is not prominent in eosinophilic bronchitis and that inhaled budesonide improves the sputum eosinophilia, cough severity and sensitivity suggesting a

  2. Cyclophilin D regulates necrosis, but not apoptosis, of murine eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiang; Hogan, Simon P; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Zimmermann, Nives

    2016-04-15

    Eosinophil degranulation and clusters of free extracellular granules are frequently observed in diverse diseases, including atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Whether these intact granules are released by necrosis or a biochemically mediated cytolysis remains unknown. Recently, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase located within the mitochondrial matrix, cyclophilin D (PPIF), was shown to regulate necrotic, but not apoptotic, cell death in vitro in fibroblasts, hepatocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Whether cyclophilin D regulates necrosis in hematopoietic cells such as eosinophils remains unknown. We used PPIF-deficient (Ppif(-/-)) mice to test whether cyclophilin D is required for regulating eosinophil necrosis. PPIF deficiency did not affect eosinophil development or maturation at baseline. After in vitro ionomycin or H2O2 treatment, Ppif(-/-) eosinophils were significantly protected from Ca(2+) overload- or oxidative stress-induced necrosis. Additionally, Ppif(-/-) eosinophils demonstrated significantly decreased necrosis, but not apoptosis, in response to Siglec-F cross-linking, a stimulus associated with eosinophil-mediated processes in vitro and in vivo. When treated with apoptosis inducers, Ppif(+/+) and Ppif(-/-) eosinophils exhibited no significant difference in apoptosis or secondary necrosis. Finally, in a dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model, although levels of colitogenic cytokines and eosinophil-selective chemokines were comparable between Ppif(+/+) and Ppif(-/-) mice, the latter exhibited decreased clinical outcomes. This correlated with significantly reduced eosinophil cytolysis in the colon. Collectively, our present studies demonstrate that murine eosinophil necrosis is regulated in vitro and in vivo by cyclophilin D, at least in part, thus providing new insight into the mechanism of eosinophil necrosis and release of free extracellular granules in eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:26893161

  3. A randomised controlled trial of small particle inhaled steroids in refractory eosinophilic asthma (SPIRA)

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, David; Anderson, John; Reynolds, Catherine; Meakin, Garry; Bailey, Helen; Pavord, Ian; Shaw, Dominick; Harrison, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients with refractory asthma have evidence of uncontrolled eosinophilic inflammation in the distal airways. While traditional formulations of inhaled steroids settle predominantly in the large airways, newer formulations with an extra-fine particle size have a more peripheral pattern of deposition. Specifically treating distal airway inflammation may improve asthma control. Methods 30 patients with refractory asthma despite high dose inhaled corticosteroids were identified as having persistent airway eosinophilia. Following 2 weeks of prednisolone 30 mg, patients demonstrating an improvement in asthma control were randomised to receive either ciclesonide 320 µg twice daily or placebo in addition to usual maintenance therapy for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was sputum eosinophil count at week 8. Alveolar nitric oxide was measured as a marker of distal airway inflammation. Results There was continued suppression of differential sputum eosinophil counts with ciclesonide (median 2.3%) but not placebo (median 4.5%) though the between-group difference was not significant. When patients who had changed their maintenance prednisolone dose during the trial were excluded the difference between groups was significant (1.4% vs 4.5%, p=0.028). Though alveolar nitric oxide decreased with ciclesonide the value did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions These data demonstrate that patients with ongoing eosinophilic inflammation are not truly refractory, and that suppression of airway eosinophilia may be maintained with additional inhaled corticosteroid. Further work is needed with a focus on patient-orientated outcome measures such as exacerbation rate, with additional tests of small airway function. Trial registration number NCT01171365. Protocol available at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25858909

  4. Eosinophil extracellular DNA trap cell death mediates lytic release of free secretion-competent eosinophil granules in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Ghiran, Ionita; Spencer, Lisa A.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Weller, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophils release their granule proteins extracellularly through exocytosis, piecemeal degranulation, or cytolytic degranulation. Findings in diverse human eosinophilic diseases of intact extracellular eosinophil granules, either free or clustered, indicate that eosinophil cytolysis occurs in vivo, but the mechanisms and consequences of lytic eosinophil degranulation are poorly understood. We demonstrate that activated human eosinophils can undergo extracellular DNA trap cell death (ETosis) that cytolytically releases free eosinophil granules. Eosinophil ETosis (EETosis), in response to immobilized immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA), cytokines with platelet activating factor, calcium ionophore, or phorbol myristate acetate, develops within 120 minutes in a reduced NADP (NADPH) oxidase-dependent manner. Initially, nuclear lobular formation is lost and some granules are released by budding off from the cell as plasma membrane–enveloped clusters. Following nuclear chromatolysis, plasma membrane lysis liberates DNA that forms weblike extracellular DNA nets and releases free intact granules. EETosis-released eosinophil granules, still retaining eosinophil cationic granule proteins, can be activated to secrete when stimulated with CC chemokine ligand 11 (eotaxin-1). Our results indicate that an active NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism of cytolytic, nonapoptotic eosinophil death initiates nuclear chromatolysis that eventuates in the release of intact secretion-competent granules and the formation of extracellular DNA nets. PMID:23303825

  5. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  6. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs that can increase the RBC count include: Gentamicin Methyldopa Lower-than-normal numbers of RBCs may be due to: Anemia Bleeding Bone marrow failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor) Deficiency of a hormone called erythropoietin (caused by ...

  7. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  8. GWAS identifies four novel eosinophilic esophagitis loci

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Patrick MA; Wang, Mei-Lun; Cianferoni, Antonella; Aceves, Seema; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Nadeau, Kari; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disorder characterized by infiltration of the esophagus with eosinophils. We had previously reported association of the TSLP/WDR36 locus with EoE. Here we report genome-wide significant associations at four additional loci; c11orf30 and STAT6, which have been previously associated with both atopic and autoimmune disease, and two EoE-specific loci, ANKRD27 that regulates the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes to epidermal melanocytes and CAPN14, that encodes a calpain whose expression is highly enriched in the esophagus. The identification of five EoE loci, not only expands our etiological understanding of the disease but may also represent new therapeutic targets to treat the most debilitating aspect of EoE, esophageal inflammation and remodeling. PMID:25407941

  9. Successful treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis with dapsone.

    PubMed

    Coelho de Sousa, Virgínia; Laureano Oliveira, André; Cardoso, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of recurrent episodes of pruritic cellulitis-like erythematous plaques, mostly located on the limbs. Simultaneously, fever, malaise and peripheral eosinophilia were noted. The clinical diagnosis of eosinophilic cellulitis (also known as Well's syndrome) was supported by the histopathological finding of typical "flame figures". Treatment with dapsone was initiated at a dose of 50 mg per day. After one year of follow-up the patient was relapse-free. Eosinophilic cellulitis is an uncommon, recurrent inflammatory skin disease. The management is often a challenge, due to the frequent need for long-term therapy. Dapsone is an effective and safe treatment option. PMID:27617724

  10. Mepolizumab: A Review in Eosinophilic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-08-01

    Mepolizumab (Nucala(®)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, a cytokine involved in the development, recruitment and activation of eosinophils (cellular mediators of airway inflammation, hyper-responsiveness and tissue remodelling). The drug is indicated as an add-on treatment for severe eosinophilic asthma, on the basis of its clinical benefit in this setting in the placebo-controlled DREAM, MENSA and SIRIUS trials. Based on the 52-week, phase II, DREAM study (which assessed varying intravenous mepolizumab dosages), intravenous mepolizumab 75 mg every 4 weeks (q4w) and the corresponding (recommended) subcutaneous dosage of 100 mg q4w were studied in the 32- and 24-week phase III MENSA and SIRIUS trials. In patients aged ≥12 years with severe eosinophilic asthma in the phase III studies, adding subcutaneous mepolizumab 100 mg q4w to current asthma therapy significantly reduced the rate of clinically relevant asthma exacerbations and, in those dependent on oral glucocorticoids (OCSs) for asthma control, enabled the daily OCS dose to be significantly reduced, relative to adding placebo. This mepolizumab regimen also significantly improved asthma control, health-related quality of life and (in one of the two studies) lung function, and had acceptable tolerability (with headache the most common adverse event). In the MENSA and SIRIUS extension, COSMOS, mepolizumab provided durable clinical benefit over up to 84 weeks' therapy with no new tolerability concerns. Thus, mepolizumab is a valuable add-on treatment option for adults and adolescents aged ≥12 years who have severe eosinophilic asthma despite optimized standard therapies. PMID:27311938

  11. Mechanisms of Disease of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Benjamin P; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-05-23

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized inflammatory disease of the esophagus with clinical symptoms derived from esophageal dysfunction. The etiology of EoE is now being elucidated, and food hypersensitivity is emerging as the central cornerstone of disease pathogenesis. Herein, we present a thorough picture of the current clinical, pathologic, and molecular understanding of the disease with a focus on disease mechanisms. PMID:26925500

  12. A spectrum of hypereosinophilic syndromes exemplified by six cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, M

    1981-03-01

    Of six cats with eosinophilic enteritis, two had lesions confined to the intestinal tract, and four had varied disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of other organs. The lesions in these cats are similar to those of the hypereosinophilic syndrome in man. A feline hypereosinophilic syndrome is proposed, consisting of eosinophilic enteritis, disseminated eosinophilic disease, and eosinophilic leukemia. PMID:7467078

  13. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: clinical presentation and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Jonas; O'Shea, Nuala R

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disorder of the oesophagus which has become increasingly recognised over recent years, although it remains underdiagnosed in many centres. It is characterised histologically by a significant eosinophilic infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa (>15 eosinophils per high powered field), and clinically with features of oesophageal dysfunction such a dysphagia, food impaction, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) resistant dyspepsia. Fibrosis and oesophageal remodelling may occur and lead to oesophageal strictures. An allergic predisposition is common in the EoE population, which appears to be primarily food antigen driven in children and aeroallergen driven in adults. Evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of EoE is due to a dysregulated immunological response to an environmental allergen, resulting in a T helper type 2 (Th2) inflammatory disease and remodelling of the oesophagus in genetically susceptible individuals. Allergen elimination and anti-inflammatory therapy with corticosteroids are currently the mainstay of treatment; however, an increasing number of studies are now focused on targeting different stages in the disease pathogenesis. A greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms resulting in EoE will allow us to improve the therapeutic options available. PMID:24647582

  14. Further characterization of human eosinophil peroxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, R L; Syse, K; Little, C; Christensen, T B

    1985-01-01

    The large and the small subunits (Mr 50 000 and 10 500 respectively) of human eosinophil peroxidase were isolated by gel filtration under reducing conditions. The subunits were very strongly associated but not apparently cross-linked by disulphide bridges. During storage, the large subunit tended to form aggregates, which required reduction to dissociate them. Amino acid analysis of the performic acid-treated large subunit showed the presence of 19 cysteic acid residues. The small subunit of eosinophil peroxidase had the same Mr value as the small subunit of myeloperoxidase. However, although these subunits have very similar amino acid compositions, they showed different patterns of peptide fragmentation after CNBr treatment. The carbohydrate of eosinophil peroxidase seemed associated exclusively with the large subunit and comprised mannose (4.5%, w/w) and N-acetylglucosamine (0.8%, w/w). The far-u.v.c.d. spectrum of the enzyme indicated the presence of relatively little ordered secondary structure. Images Fig. 3. PMID:4052025

  15. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunchuan; Liu, Honggang; Zang, Hongrui; Wang, Tong; Hu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion. PMID:23634315

  16. Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Andreev, Darja; Oeser, Katharina; Krljanac, Branislav; Hueber, Axel; Kleyer, Arnd; Voehringer, David; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Th2–eosinophil immune responses are well known for mediating host defence against helminths. Herein we describe a function of Th2–eosinophil responses in counteracting the development of arthritis. In two independent models of arthritis, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection leads to Th2 and eosinophil accumulation in the joints associated with robust inhibition of arthritis and protection from bone loss. Mechanistically, this protective effect is dependent on IL-4/IL-13-induced STAT6 pathway. Furthermore, we show that eosinophils play a central role in the modulation of arthritis probably through the increase of anti-inflammatory macrophages into arthritic joints. The presence of these pathways in human disease is confirmed by detection of GATA3-positive cells and eosinophils in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these results demonstrate that eosinophils and helminth-induced activation of the Th2 pathway axis effectively mitigate the course of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:27273006

  17. Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Andreev, Darja; Oeser, Katharina; Krljanac, Branislav; Hueber, Axel; Kleyer, Arnd; Voehringer, David; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Th2-eosinophil immune responses are well known for mediating host defence against helminths. Herein we describe a function of Th2-eosinophil responses in counteracting the development of arthritis. In two independent models of arthritis, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection leads to Th2 and eosinophil accumulation in the joints associated with robust inhibition of arthritis and protection from bone loss. Mechanistically, this protective effect is dependent on IL-4/IL-13-induced STAT6 pathway. Furthermore, we show that eosinophils play a central role in the modulation of arthritis probably through the increase of anti-inflammatory macrophages into arthritic joints. The presence of these pathways in human disease is confirmed by detection of GATA3-positive cells and eosinophils in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these results demonstrate that eosinophils and helminth-induced activation of the Th2 pathway axis effectively mitigate the course of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:27273006

  18. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  19. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  20. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  1. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  2. Eosinophilic esophagitis and food impaction: an instructive case.

    PubMed

    Tilakaratne, Samantha; Day, Andrew; Lemberg, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Although the key features of eosinophilic esophagitis have been increasingly described over recent years, this entity is still often not considered and consequently diagnosis is often either not made or delayed. Typical endoscopic findings may be present. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, however, relies on the histological assessment of mucosal biopsies. This case report highlights a common pattern of presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis and demonstrates the importance of considering this diagnosis. PMID:22798122

  3. Eosinophilic myositis in a slaughtered Korean native cattle

    PubMed Central

    Do, Sun Hee; Jeong, Da-Hee; Chung, Jae-Yong; Park, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Hai-Jie; Yuan, Dong-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Histopathological findings of eosinophilic myositis in the carcass of a slaughtered Korean native cow are presented. Lesions contained massive fibrous septae with vacuolar changes in some lesions, and the hypercontraction and rupturing of muscle bundles, with replacement by eosinophils. Necrosis and severe eosinophil infiltration were observed. Sarcoplasmic fragmentation and atrophy developed. Typical of granuloma, calcified myofibers were focally surrounded by macrophages and numerous inflammatory cells, and multinucleated giant cell formation was evident. PMID:19043319

  4. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates degranulation in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Ilarraza, Ramses; Davoine, Francis; Logan, Michael R; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Wu, Yingqi; Majaesic, Carina; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2015-04-01

    Degranulation from eosinophils in response to secretagogue stimulation is a regulated process that involves exocytosis of granule proteins through specific signalling pathways. One potential pathway is dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its effector molecules, p35 and p39, which play a central role in neuronal cell exocytosis by phosphorylating Munc18, a regulator of SNARE binding. Emerging evidence suggests a role for Cdk5 in exocytosis in immune cells, although its role in eosinophils is not known. We sought to examine the expression of Cdk5 and its activators in human eosinophils, and to assess the role of Cdk5 in eosinophil degranulation. We used freshly isolated human eosinophils and analysed the expression of Cdk5, p35, p39 and Munc18c by Western blot, RT-PCR, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation. Cdk5 kinase activity was determined following eosinophil activation. Cdk5 inhibitors were used (roscovitine, AT7519 and small interfering RNA) to determine its role in eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) secretion. Cdk5 was expressed in association with Munc18c, p35 and p39, and phosphorylated following human eosinophil activation with eotaxin/CCL11, platelet-activating factor, and secretory IgA-Sepharose. Cdk5 inhibitors (roscovitine, AT7519) reduced EPX release when cells were stimulated by PMA or secretory IgA. In assays using small interfering RNA knock-down of Cdk5 expression in human eosinophils, we observed inhibition of EPX release. Our findings suggest that in activated eosinophils, Cdk5 is phosphorylated and binds to Munc18c, resulting in Munc18c release from syntaxin-4, allowing SNARE binding and vesicle fusion, with subsequent eosinophil degranulation. Our work identifies a novel role for Cdk5 in eosinophil mediator release by agonist-induced degranulation. PMID:25346443

  5. Immunization of mice with a Trypanosoma cruzi-like strain isolated from a bat: predictive factors for involvement of eosinophiles in tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Nascentes, Gabriel Antonio Nogueira; Meira, Wendell Sérgio Ferreira; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramírez, Luis Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The granules of eosinophiles are cytotoxic to Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote and amastigote forms and to several cell types of the host, revealing their role in either parasite elimination or the production of tissue lesions. In this study, we evaluated the biological characteristics of T. cruzi infection that are responsible for the increase in tissue eosinophile levels in mice previously immunized with a bat isolated T. cruzi-like strain that does not infect mice. Nonisogeneic mice were divided into 24 groups that received from zero to three inoculations of T. cruzi-like RM1 strain, with or without adjuvant, followed by challenge with T. cruzi VIC or JG strains. Uni- and multivariate comparisons were performed comparing the tissue eosinophile levels with the parasitemia peak, severity of myositis in skeletal muscle, phase of infection, and the immunization strategies induced by the T. cruzi-like strain (adjuvant, number of reinoculations, and parasites). Although the severity of inflammation was higher in the acute phase, the score of tissue eosinophiles was similar in the acute and chronic phases of infection. In addition, there was a positive correlation among eosinophile levels and parasitemia peak. In the chronic phase, a greater eosinophile count was accompanied by an augmentation of myositis. Regardless of the phase of infection, we observed a positive correlation between the intensity of eosinophile infiltration and the number of sensitizations with T. cruzi-like strain. The multivariate analysis showed that the peak of parasitemia, number of inoculations with the T. cruzi-like strain, and severity of myositis were associated with greater tissue eosinophilia, in comparison with adjuvant, T. cruzi strains used in the challenge or tissue parasitism. Therefore, tissue eosinophile levels proved to be an important parameter in the pathogenesis of experimental Chagas disease in the acute and chronic phases of infection and might be related to reinfections

  6. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Hernández, Hermes Fundora; Barroso, Jesús Callol; Sanchez-Martinez, Consuelo

    2008-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram) was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis. PMID:19032790

  7. Monitoring nasal allergic inflammation by measuring the concentration of eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophils in nasal secretions.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Clement, P; Smitz, J; de Waele, M; Derde, M P

    1995-02-01

    Quantitative measurement of the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) concentration and the percentage of eosinophils in nasal secretions has greatly improved our understanding of the inflammatory process after natural allergen exposure. ECP and eosinophils were measured in the nasal secretions of 40 symptomatic patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis during the pollen season. Results showed a significant relationship between a high concentration of ECP (median: 410 ng/g, range: 6-2380 ng/g) and a high percentage of eosinophils (median: 13.5%, range: 1-85%). This quantitative study again demonstrated that infiltration by eosinophils and release of ECP play a key role in allergic rhinitis. It also suggests that the combined measurement of the percentage of eosinophils together with the ECP concentration in nasal secretions seems to be a very useful model in monitoring and assessing the condition of chronic nasal inflammation in patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:7604937

  8. Serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the management of perennial and periodic asthma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Purohit, A; Stenger, R; Gries, P; Hamberger, C; David, B; Frossard, N; Pauli, G

    1998-03-01

    We performed a prospective study in order: 1) to determine whether a correlation could be found between serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels and clinical and functional status in perennial asthmatics during a 5 month prospective study; and 2) to evaluate the relationship between allergic exposure and ECP levels in periodic asthmatics. Two groups of asthmatic patients were selected: a group of acutely ill perennial asthmatics and a group of periodic asthmatics. The acutely ill perennial asthmatics (n=22, mean age=39.4 yrs) were included on the basis of hospitalization for acute asthma. At the end of the hospitalization, there was a 5 month follow-up of clinical, functional and medication scores, as well as eosinophil counts and ECP levels. The periodic asthmatic group was composed of asthmatics sensitized to birch and tree pollens (n=10, mean age=33.8 yrs). The same measurement were performed on this group, before, during and after the pollen season. Under corticosteroid treatment in the acutely ill patients, there was a significant decrease in serum ECP levels between the first day of hospitalization and the day of discharge (mean: 23.2 microg x L(-1) and 9.5 microg x L(-1), respectively; p=0.006). No correlation was found between the clinical status, functional status and serum ECP levels during the 5 month follow-up. A significant increase in ECP levels was found in periodic asthmatics during the pollen season. Our results suggest that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a useful marker of allergen exposure and of acute asthma treatment. This could be of importance in the prevention and follow-up of allergic asthma; the value of serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the day-to-day management of adult asthmatics needs to be further clarified. PMID:9596108

  9. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce eosinophilic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Liang; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hau-Inh; Liao, Huang-Shen; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2015-10-30

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used in industry. The metal composition of PM2.5 might contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. To investigate the effects of ZnO NPs on allergic airway inflammation, mice were first exposed to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg) or to a combination of ZnO NPs and chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA) by oropharyngeal aspiration on day 0 and day 7 and then were sacrificed 5 days later. The subsequent time course of airway inflammation in the mice after ZnO NPs exposure was evaluated on days 1, 7, and 14. To further determine the role of zinc ions, ZnCl2 was also administered. The inflammatory cell count, cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology were examined. We found significant neutrophilia after exposure to high-dose ZnO NPs on day 1 and significant eosinophilia in the BALF at 7 days. However, the expression levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 increased significantly after 24h of exposure to only ZnO NPs and then decreased gradually. These results suggested that ZnO NPs could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in the absence of allergens. PMID:26010476

  10. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  11. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  12. Role of advanced diagnostics for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), diagnostic tests aid in the identification of pathophysiologic consequences and accurate detection of the disease. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classifies and grades the severity of the five major endoscopically identified esophageal features of EoE (edema, rings, exudates, furrows and strictures). The EREFS may be useful in the evaluation of disease severity and as an objective outcome of response to therapy. pH monitoring identifies the presence of abnormal degrees of acid exposure in the esophagus that characterizes gastroesophageal reflux disease. The presence of acid reflux, however, does not indicate that the reflux is responsible for esophageal eosinophilia. Esophageal manometry has not demonstrated a characteristic abnormality with sufficient sensitivity to make the test of diagnostic value in clinical practice. On the other hand, manometric characteristics of esophageal pressurization and longitudinal muscle dysfunction may help identify important pathophysiologic consequences of EoE. Esophageal impedance testing has demonstrated increased baseline mucosal impedance that correlates with increased epithelial permeability in EoE. Reduced mucosal integrity may provide intraluminal allergens access to antigen-presenting cells, serving as an early event in the pathogenesis of EoE. The functional luminal impedance probe (FLIP) provides quantitative assessment of esophageal mural compliance, a physiologic correlate of remodeling in EoE. Studies using FLIP have associated reductions in esophageal distensibility in EoE with the important outcome of food impaction risk. Finally, confocal endomicroscopy, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and novel eosinophil-enhancing contrast agents are emerging methods that may allow for in vivo visualization of esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, thereby improving the detection and understanding of this emerging disease. PMID:24603385

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An update

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Monjur

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a worldwide chronic allergic disease of the esophagus. In the last decade, there is an epidemic of this entity in the western world. Mostly seen in children and young adults, patients present with dysphagia or food impaction in the emergency room. Characteristic endoscopic findings, esophageal eosinophilia and non-responsiveness to proton pump inhibitors help make the diagnosis. Avoidance of food allergens, administration of steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and dilation of the esophagus are the mainstays of treatment. Investigations are ongoing for mucosal healing and optimum maintenance treatment. PMID:27158535

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An update.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Monjur

    2016-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a worldwide chronic allergic disease of the esophagus. In the last decade, there is an epidemic of this entity in the western world. Mostly seen in children and young adults, patients present with dysphagia or food impaction in the emergency room. Characteristic endoscopic findings, esophageal eosinophilia and non-responsiveness to proton pump inhibitors help make the diagnosis. Avoidance of food allergens, administration of steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and dilation of the esophagus are the mainstays of treatment. Investigations are ongoing for mucosal healing and optimum maintenance treatment. PMID:27158535

  15. Histiocytosis X. Unusual-confusing features of eosinophilic granuloma.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, S J; Proto, A V

    1986-01-01

    We report our experience with seven cases of eosinophilic granuloma in which unusual and/or confusing features were encountered. These features include: histologic confusion with desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, diffuse histiocytic lymphoma, eosinophilic pneumonia; cysts filled with air and/or fluid; radiographic onset in the eighth decade of life; intratracheal mass; and focal parenchymal consolidation. PMID:3484446

  16. Steroid responsive eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a rare complication of eosinophilic gastroenteritis, most commonly treated surgically. We report a case of eosinophilic gastric outlet obstruction in a child that responded to conservative medical management. A brief review of this clinical entity is also provided....

  17. [Relation between serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) level and asthma attack in children].

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, N; Masuhara, C; Sakamaki, K; Ishikawa, Y; Ohta, K; Koike, R; Mikuni, K; Haruna, H; Awa, S

    2000-11-01

    Serum eosinophil cationic protein (sECP) levels were measured in 339 patients with childhood asthma, and the clinical courses of these patients were followed for 57 weeks. While considering the history and characteristics of each patient, we examined the correlation between asthma attack frequency and sECP, blood eosinophil count, and serum total IgE (tIgE) to determine their usefulness in predicting asthma attacks. Among patients with no other allergic diseases, sECP levels in patients who had no asthma attacks two weeks before or after the measurement were significantly lower than those of patients who had attacks during the same four-week period. Among patients who had attacks, those patients with no attack for a year after the measurement were also found to have low sECP levels. Similarly, even among patients with asthma attacks and high sECP levels, there were cases where attacks were well controlled using nebulizer treatments with DSCG or BDP. The incident rate of attacks for patients with other allergic diseases and a low sECP was low. Yet, there was no common trend in patients with high sECP levels. Moreover, this study detected a significant correlation between sECP level and blood eosinophil count as well as between sECP level and serum tIgE. The most significant correlation with asthma attack frequency was sECP level. Thus, sECP level seems to reflect the allergy activity level, especially two weeks prior to and after the measurement. For patients without other allergic diseases, asthma attack prediction during the two weeks period after the measurement of sECP also seems possible. Therefore, periodic measurement of sECP level is useful in objectively monitoring the improvement of symptoms and establishing the treatment plan, including treatment with DSCG or BDP. PMID:11193461

  18. Dietary Elimination Therapy is an Effective Option for Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, W. Asher; Jerath, Maya R.; Sperry, Sarah L. W.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated disorder. Food elimination is an established treatment for children, but data in adults are limited. We aimed to determine the response of adults with EoE to dietary therapy. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using the University of North Carolina EoE database from 2006–2012. Subjects were ≥18 years, had EoE by consensus guidelines, and had undergone dietary therapy either with targeted or six-food elimination (SFED). Outcomes were symptomatic, endoscopic, and histologic improvement. Demographic, endoscopic, symptomatic, and laboratory predictors of response to dietary therapy were assessed. Results Of 31 adults who underwent dietary therapy (mean age 36 years; 48% male; 90% white; mean baseline eosinophil count 78 eos/hpf), 22 had targeted and 9 had SFED. Symptoms improved in 71% (68% in targeted, 78% in SFED) and endoscopic appearance improved in 54% (53% in targeted, 56% in SFED). After dietary therapy, the mean eosinophil count decreased to 43 eos/hpf (p=0.009). Eleven subjects (39%) responded with <15 eos/hpf (32% in targeted and 56% in SFED; p=0.41). No clinical, endoscopic, or histologic factors predicted response to dietary therapy. Of the 11 responders, 9 underwent food reintroduction to identify trigger(s), and 4 (44%) reacted to dairy, 4 (44%) to eggs, 2 (22%) to wheat, 1 (11%) to shellfish, 1 (11%) to legumes, and 1 (11%) to nuts. Conclusions Dietary elimination is a successful treatment modality for adults with EoE. Further research should emphasize which factors can predict effective dietary therapy. PMID:24440337

  19. 2013 Update on Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Pellicano, Rinaldo; De Angelis, Claudio; Ribaldone, Davide Giuseppe; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Astegiano, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease. PMID:23974065

  20. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock.

    PubMed

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration. PMID:26078733

  1. An Atypical Case of Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Martillo, Miguel; Abed, Jean; Herman, Michael; Abed, Elie; Shi, Wenjing; Munot, Khushboo; Mankal, Pavan Kumar; Gurunathan, Rajan; Ionescu, Gabriel; Kotler, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon condition characterized by focal or diffuse infiltration of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. The pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood and its clinical presentation depends on the segment and layer of the gastrointestinal tract affected. The definition of eosinophilic gastroenteritis may be difficult, as the normal ranges of eosinophil numbers in normal and abnormal gastric and intestinal mucosa are not standardized. We present the case of a 59-year-old male who came to the hospital with hypovolemic shock and lethargy secondary to severe diarrhea. Laboratory analysis was significant for peripheral eosinophilia, and pathology from both the duodenum and colon showed marked eosinophilic infiltration. PMID:26078733

  2. Mepolizumab for the reduction of exacerbations in severe eosinophilic asthma.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Brightling, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Asthma affects over 300 million people worldwide and is severe in 10% of sufferers. Severe asthma is associated with greater morbidity and mortality particularly as a consequence of frequent exacerbations. Advances in approaches to phenotype the heterogeneity of severe asthma has established the importance of eosinophilic inflammation and emerging new therapies are broadly designed to target T2-mediated eosinophilic inflammation with the aim to reduce exacerbation frequency. Here, we summarize the evidence that eosinophilic asthma is an important pheno(endo)type and identifies a group at risk of exacerbations; that established therapies reduce exacerbations, particularly in eosinophilic severe asthma; and discuss the role of mepolizumab, an IL-5 neutralising monoclonal antibody therapy, in reducing exacerbations in severe eosinophilic asthma compared to established and other emerging therapies. PMID:27058452

  3. The relationship between repressive and defensive coping styles and monocyte, eosinophile, and serum glucose levels: support for the opioid peptide hypothesis of repression.

    PubMed

    Jamner, L D; Schwartz, G E; Leigh, H

    1988-01-01

    The opioid peptide hypothesis of repression (1) predicts that repressive coping is associated with increased functional endorphin levels in the brain, which can result in decreased immunocompetence and hyperglycemia. In a random sample of 312 patients seen at a Yale Medical School outpatient clinic, significant main effects of coping style were found for monocyte and eosinophile counts, serum glucose levels, and self-reports of medication allergies. Specifically, repressive and defensive high-anxious patients demonstrated significantly decreased monocyte counts. In addition, repressive coping was associated with elevated eosinophile counts, serum glucose levels, and self-reported reactions to medications. This behavioral, immunologic, and endocrine profile is consistent with the opioid peptide hypothesis, which provides an integrative framework for relating the attenuated emotional experience of pain and distress characteristic of repressive coping with reduced resistance to infectious and neoplastic disease. PMID:2853404

  4. Eosinophilic esophagitis: From pathophysiology to treatment

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Esposito, Dario; Pesce, Marcella; Cuomo, Rosario; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune disease, characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophagus, leading to bolus impaction and reflux-like symptoms. Traditionally considered a pediatric disease, the number of adult patients with EoE is continuously increasing, with a relatively higher incidence in western countries. Dysphagia and food impaction represent the main symptoms complained by patients, but gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms may also be present. Esophageal biopsies are mandatory for the diagnosis of EoE, though clinical manifestations and proton pump inhibitors responsiveness must be taken into consideration. The higher prevalence of EoE in patients suffering from atopic diseases suggests a common background with allergy, however both the etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Elimination diets are considered the first-line therapy in children, but this approach appears less effective in adults patients, who often require steroids; despite medical treatments, EoE is complicated in some cases by esophageal stricture and stenosis, that require additional endoscopic treatments. This review summarizes the evidence on EoE pathophysiology and illustrates the safety and efficacy of the most recent medical and endoscopic treatments. PMID:26600973

  5. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. PMID:25950805

  6. Treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis by dilation.

    PubMed

    Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) include drugs, diets and esophageal dilation. Esophageal dilation can be performed using either through-the-scope balloons or wire-guided bougies. Dilation can lead to long-lasting symptom improvement in EoE patients presenting with esophageal strictures. Esophageal strictures are most often diagnosed when the 8- to 9-mm outer diameter adult gastroscope cannot be passed any further or only against resistance. A defined esophageal diameter to be targeted by dilation is missing, but the majority of patients have considerable symptomatic improvement when a diameter of 16-18 mm has been reached. A high complication rate, especially regarding esophageal perforations, has been reported in small case series until 2006. Several large series were published in 2007 and later that demonstrated that the complication risk (especially esophageal perforation) was much lower than what was reported in earlier series. The procedure can therefore be regarded as safe when some simple precautions are followed. It is noteworthy that esophageal dilation does not influence the underlying eosinophil-predominant inflammation. Patients should be informed before the procedure that postprocedural retrosternal pain may occur for some days, but that it usually responds well to over-the-counter analgesics such as paracetamol. Dilation-related superficial lacerations of the mucosa should not be regarded and reported as complications, but instead represent a desired effect of the therapy. Patient tolerance and acceptance for esophageal dilation have been reported to be good. PMID:24603396

  7. Eosinophil-mediated signalling attenuates inflammatory responses in experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Joanne C; McNamee, Eóin N; Fillon, Sophie A; Hosford, Lindsay; Harris, Rachel; Fernando, Shahan D; Jedlicka, Paul; Iwamoto, Ryo; Jacobsen, Elizabeth; Protheroe, Cheryl; Eltzschig, Holger K; Colgan, Sean P; Arita, Makoto; Lee, James J; Furuta, Glenn T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eosinophils reside in the colonic mucosa and increase significantly during disease. Although a number of studies have suggested that eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of GI inflammation, the expanding scope of eosinophil-mediated activities indicate that they also regulate local immune responses and modulate tissue inflammation. We sought to define the impact of eosinophils that respond to acute phases of colitis in mice. Design Acute colitis was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or oxazolone to C57BL/6J (control) or eosinophil deficient (PHIL) mice. Eosinophils were also depleted from mice using antibodies against interleukin (IL)-5 or by grafting bone marrow from PHIL mice into control mice. Colon tissues were collected and analysed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and reverse transcription PCR; lipids were analysed by mass spectroscopy. Results Eosinophil-deficient mice developed significantly more severe colitis, and their colon tissues contained a greater number of neutrophils, than controls. This compensatory increase in neutrophils was accompanied by increased levels of the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, which attract neutrophils. Lipidomic analyses of colonic tissue from eosinophil-deficient mice identified a deficiency in the docosahexaenoic acid-derived anti-inflammatory mediator 10, 17- dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (diHDoHE), namely protectin D1 (PD1). Administration of an exogenous PD1-isomer (10S, 17S-DiHDoHE) reduced the severity of colitis in eosinophil-deficient mice. The PD1-isomer also attenuated neutrophil infiltration and reduced levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and inducible NO-synthase in colons of mice. Finally, in vitro assays identified a direct inhibitory effect of PD1-isomer on neutrophil transepithelial migration. Conclusions Eosinophils exert a protective effect in acute mouse colitis, via production of anti-inflammatory lipid

  8. Integrin Activation States and Eosinophil Recruitment in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mats W.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophil arrest and recruitment to the airway in asthma are mediated, at least in part, by integrins. Eosinophils express α4β1, α6β1, αLβ2, αMβ2, αXβ2, αDβ2, and α4β7 integrins, which interact with counter-receptors on other cells or ligands in the extracellular matrix. Whether a given integrin-ligand pair mediates cell adhesion and migration depends on the activation state of the integrin. Integrins exist in an inactive bent, an intermediate-activity extended closed, and a high-activity extended open conformation. Integrin activation states can be monitored by conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Studies in mice indicate that both β1 and β2 integrins mediate eosinophil recruitment to the lung. In vitro studies indicate that α4β1 and αMβ2 are the principal integrins mediating eosinophil adhesion, including to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the novel αMβ2 ligand periostin. In vivo, blood eosinophils have intermediate-activity β1 integrins, as judged by mAb N29, apparently resulting from eosinophil binding of P-selectin on the surface of activated platelets, and have a proportion of their β2 integrins in the intermediate conformation, as judged by mAb KIM-127, apparently due to exposure to low concentrations of interleukin-5 (IL-5). Airway eosinophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after segmental antigen challenge have high-activity β1 integrins and high-activity αMβ2 that does not require IL-5. Here we review information on how the activation states of eosinophil β1 and β2 integrins correlate with measurements of eosinophil recruitment and pulmonary function in asthma. Blood eosinophil N29 reactivity is associated with decreased lung function under various circumstances in non-severe asthma and KIM-127 with BAL eosinophil numbers, indicating that intermediate-activity α4β1 and αMβ2 of blood eosinophils are important for eosinophil arrest and consequently for recruitment and aspects of asthma. PMID

  9. THE ROLE OF TARGET ORGAN DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH IN SEASONAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS: NASAL SMEAR EOSINOPHILS

    PubMed Central

    Nurkic, Jasmina; Ahmad, Mona Al; Arifhodzic, Nermina; Jusufovic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) related to local weeds pollen sensitization (Chenopodiaceous family) is the most common cause of respiratory allergy in Kuwait. Local nasal accumulation of different cells typical of allergic inflammation is responsible for clinical symptoms of AR. Although nasal smear for Eosinophils (NSE) is one of the earliest included valuable test in diagnosis of AR, with time is underestimated. Aim: Explore possible correlation of natural pollen allergen stimulation with appearance and quantity of Eosinophils in nasal smear. Methods: A group of randomly selected patients with clinical history suggestive for seasonal AR (SAR), who came to Al Rashed Allergy Center in period from October 2014 to October 2015, obtain Nasal Smear for Eosinophils as a screening test before further diagnostic evaluation. Nasal samples were collected by passing a sterile swab, from each nasal cavity, along the medial surface of the inferior turbinate 2 to 3 times and the specimen smeared on a clear glass slide. Nasal smears were examined by light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Skin prick test is performed in all symptomatic patients with a battery of inhalant allergens that include local pollens. The control group was recruited, with their voluntary consent, from the medical stuff with a negative history of any allergic nasal symptoms. In this group we performed only nasal smear for Eosinophils. Air Biology Laboratory Kuwait provided us with daily pollen count. Results: From total 158 study participants, 132 had SAR symptoms and are divided in four groups. Fifth, control, group is non symptomatic. For 38.6% of symptomatic patients NSE were positive, while 45% of these patients have negative SPT. From 62.1% NSE negative patients, 37.8% have negative SPT. Our results showed expected positive correlation of NSE positive patients with pollen season in Kuwait, in SPT positive group. However, presence of Eosinophils in nasal smear was moderate

  10. An uncommon presentation of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare and potentially fatal disease if not readily diagnosed. Cerebral involvement is extremely rare and clinical presentation as hemorrhagic stroke is even rarer. Case presentation A 58-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our medical unit because of a computed tomography-diagnosed hemorrhagic stroke with right-sided hemiparesis and fever. A chest computed tomography scan also revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary infiltrates; coronary artery, and carotid and left vertebral artery calcifications were also observed. Empiric antimicrobial therapy with cephalosporins was promptly undertaken; low-molecular-weight heparin was introduced as prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism. Over the following days, magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a regression of the hemorrhagic framework, also revealing hypoxic areas consistent with acute ischemic lesions. With a computed tomography scan showing a worsening of his pulmonary framework, antimicrobial therapy was modified and corticosteroids were introduced. A new blood cell count revealed further increased leukocytosis (17.49×103μL), characterized by a surprising rise of eosinophilic cells (32.8%). Angiography of the coronary arteries found diffuse dilatations with severe signs of endothelial damage. Such an unexpected framework induced a strong suspicion that the stroke was the expression of a systemic vasculitis, which had triggered his cerebral, coronary, and pulmonary frameworks. The search for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was positive for perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis was diagnosed. Explaining to the patient the rarity of his disease, and what the most typical presentations of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis were, he revealed that before admission he had had scalp injuries, in the nuchal region, and had taken corticosteroids as self-medication, with subsequent

  11. Therapeutic Targeting of Eosinophil Adhesion and Accumulation in Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Baiula, Monica; Bedini, Andrea; Carbonari, Gioia; Dattoli, Samantha Deianira; Spampinato, Santi

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules. Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target. Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs. This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:23271999

  12. Eosinophils In Health and Disease: The LIAR Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, James J.; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; McGarry, Michael P.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Discussions of eosinophils are often descriptions of end-stage effector cells with destructive capabilities mediated predominantly by released cytotoxic cationic granule proteins. Moreover, eosinophils in the medical literature are invariably associated with the pathologies linked with helminth infections or allergic diseases such as asthma. This has led to an almost fatalist view of eosinophil effector functions and associated therapeutic strategies targeting these cells that would make even William of Ockham proud - eosinophil effector functions have physiological consequences that increase patient morbidity/mortality and “the only good eosinophils are dead eosinophils”. Unfortunately, the strengths of dogmas are also their greatest weaknesses. Namely, while the repetitive proclamation of dogmatic concepts by authoritative sources (i.e., reviews, meeting proceedings, textbooks, etc.) builds consensus within the medical community and lower the entropies surrounding difficult issues, they often ignore not easily explained details and place diminished importance on alternative hypotheses. The goal of this perspective is two fold: (i) We will review recent observations regarding eosinophils and their activities as well as reinterpret earlier data as part of the synthesis of a new paradigm. In this paradigm, we hypothesize that eosinophils accumulate at unique sites in response to cell turnover or in response to local stem cell activity(ies). We further suggest that this accumulation is part of one or more mechanisms regulating tissue homeostasis. Specifically, instead of immune cells exclusively mediating innate host defense, we suggest that accumulating tissue eosinophils are actually regulators of Local Immunity And/or Remodeling/Repair in both health and disease - The LIAR Hypothesis; (ii) We want to be inflammatory (pun intended!) and challenge the currently common perspective of eosinophils as destructive end-stage effector cells. Our hope is to create more

  13. Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.

    PubMed

    Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

    2004-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

  14. Nasal Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis with Orbital Extension.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Moghimi, Mansour; Sharouny, Hadi; Behniafard, Nasim

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is an extremely rare, chronic, benign, idiopathic disorder that mostly affects the upper respiratory tract, particularly the nasal cavity, and features progressive submucosal perivascular fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of EAF with orbital involvement have been reported. We report a case of sinonasal EAF with orbital extension that presented with left nasolacrimal duct obstruction. A 35-year-old man presented with left epiphora, proptosis, anterolateral globe displacement and nasal obstruction. Endoscopic sinus examination showed a firm, gritty, creamy, yellow, fibrous, adherent mass of maxillary sinus. Diagnosis was established with histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of the lesion. Although EAF is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions of upper airway tract, particularly the nasal cavity. Biopsy is necessary for diagnosis and treatment planning. Resecting of the involved tissues completely is essential for prevention of recurrence. PMID:25601283

  15. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Barnes, C.W. |; Loughlin, M. |

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  16. Chronic eosinophilic pancreatitis and ulcerative colitis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Breider, M A; Kiely, R G; Edwards, J F

    1985-04-15

    A generalized debilitating disease in a horse was believed to be related to hypersensitivity to migrating strongyle larvae. The clinical signs included weight loss, diarrhea, and ulcers on all 4 coronary bands. The mare's condition deteriorated rapidly, so the mare was euthanatized and necropsied. The major histopathologic findings were chronic multifocal eosinophilic pancreatitis, hepatic portal fibrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and chronic ulcerative eosinophilic colitis. This case was similar to previously reported cases of chronic eosinophilic gastroenteritis in horses. Although the etiologic agent was not evident, the distribution and character of the lesions were consistent with a hypersensitivity response to migrating parasitic larvae, most probably Strongylus equinus. PMID:3997643

  17. A case of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Manabu; Onchi, Miyako; Ozaki, Masakazu

    2013-03-01

    Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia was diagnosed in an 8-month-old Scottish fold that had a primary gastrointestinal mass involving the stomach, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Histopathologically, the most characteristic feature of this mass was granulation tissue with eosinophil infiltration and hyperplasia of sclerosing collagen fiber. Immunohistochemically, large spindle-shaped cells were positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin. This case emphasizes the importance of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia as a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplastic lesions such as osteosarcoma and mast cell tumor in cats. PMID:23723568

  18. Disseminated eosinophilic disease resembling idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in a dog.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Perl, S; Markovics, A

    2001-09-29

    True idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome has been described in human beings and cats, but not in dogs. The syndrome is characterised by prolonged unexplained peripheral mature eosinophilia, the infiltration of many organs by eosinophils, organ dysfunction and a fatal outcome. This paper describes an idiopathic disseminated eosinophilic disease in a dog involving various organs, manly the heart and the lungs, accompanied by a leukemoid eosinophilic response, and a fatal outcome. The histopathological findings included the infiltration of the myocardium, lung parenchyma, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and skeletal muscles with eosiniphils. PMID:11601516

  19. Eosinophil granule cationic proteins regulate the classical pathway of complement.

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, J M; Edens, R E; Bell, C S; Gleich, G J

    1995-01-01

    Major basic protein, the primary constituent of eosinophil granules, regulates the alternative and classical pathways of complement. Major basic protein and other eosinophil granule cationic proteins, which are important in mediating tissue damage in allergic disease, regulate the alternative pathway by interfering with C3b interaction with factor B to assemble an alternative pathway C3 convertase. In the present study, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, as well as major basic protein, were examined for capacity to regulate the classical pathway. Eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein inhibited formation of cell-bound classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a), causing 50% inhibition of complement-mediated lysis at about 0.19, 0.75 and 0.5 micrograms/10(7) cellular intermediates, respectively. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin had no activity on this pathway of complement. The eosinophil granule proteins were examined for activity on the formation of the membrane attack complex. Major basic protein and eosinophil cationic protein had no activity on terminal lysis. In contrast, eosinophil peroxidase inhibited lysis of EAC1,4b,2a,3b,5b, but had only minimal activity on later events in complement lysis. These polycations were then examined to determine the site(s) at which they regulated the early classical pathway. Eosinophil granule polycationic proteins: (1) reduced the Zmax at all time points but had only minimal effect on the Tmax during the formation of the classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a); (2) inhibited formation of EAC1,4b,2a proportional to C4 but independent of C2 concentration; (3) inhibited fluid phase formation of C1,4b,2a, as reflected by a decrease in C1-induced consumption of C2 over time; and (4) inhibited C1 activity over time without a direct effect on either C4 or C2. These observations suggest that polycations regulate the early classical pathway by

  20. An Overview of the Diagnosis and Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Manish B; Moawad, Fouad J

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. The diagnosis requires esophageal biopsies demonstrating at least 15 eosinophils per high-powered field following a course of high-dose proton pump inhibitors. Management of EoE consists of the three Ds: drugs, dietary therapy, and esophageal dilation. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of EoE to include the role of emerging therapies. PMID:26986655

  1. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hariman, Richard; Patel, Payal; Strouse, Jennifer; Collins, Michael P.; Rosenthal, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α. PMID:27293946

  2. Biologic Therapies Targeting Eosinophils: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, Fanny; Klion, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The recent explosion in the number of biologic therapies in clinical development for the treatment of eosinophilic disorders is unprecedented. As these agents become available for clinical use, the selection of the most appropriate agent for a given patient will become increasingly complicated. The aims of this review are twofold: 1) to present the lessons learned from clinical trials using the first generation of eosinophil-targeted biologics (anti-IL-5 antibodies), and 2) to discuss the advantages and potential limitations of currently available and novel targeted therapies to treat eosinophilic disorders. PMID:25754717

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of deposits of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil peroxidase in the myocardium of patients with Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, H A; Kierszenbaum, F

    1988-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of eosinophil distribution in the inflammatory cell infiltrates of four different types of myocardial lesions associated with Chagas' disease--caused by Trypanosoma cruzi--showed larger numbers of these cells in areas presenting tissue necrosis and degeneration, most notably in patients with the most severe myocarditis from a histopathological stand-point. Using antisera specific for human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin or eosinophil peroxidase, we detected deposits of these secretion products on myofibres and in the interstitium of chagasic myocardium displaying necrosis and degeneration but rarely in other types of lesions. These deposits were not detectable in the myocardium of non-chagasic patients who had died from myocardial infarction (acute or in the scarring stage) or myocarditis secondary to bacterial endocarditis. When human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin was incubated with myoblast monolayers there was a significant cell injury, detachment and lysis. These effects were abrogated by yeast RNA, added as a competitive ribonuclease substrate, and inhibited by the ribonuclease inhibitor RNasin, suggesting that the ribonuclease activity of the eosinophil-derived neurotoxin was involved in the effect. These results suggest a link between eosinophil infiltration and necrosis in chagasic myocardial lesions and point to EDN, and perhaps other toxic eosinophil secretion products, as possible mediators of tissue damage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3049321

  4. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  5. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  6. Azithromycin for the treatment of eosinophilic nasal polyposis: Clinical and histologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borges Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; dos Reis, Diego Carlos; Rodrigues, Danilo Santana; Nunes, Flavio Barbosa; Guimarães, Roberto Eustáquio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Macrolides used as immunomodulators are a promising tool for chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Eosinophilic nasal polyposis (ENP) is still considered a disease that is difficult to control with the currently standardized treatments. Objectives: To evaluate prolonged treatment with low-dose azithromycin for ENP based on clinical and histopathologic variables. Methods: The present investigation was a self-paired case study of 33 patients with ENP. A comparison was performed between patients before and after treatment with azithromycin for 8 weeks. The patients were subjected to clinical examinations, staging (three-dimensional imaging by endoscopy), application of the questionnaire, and biopsy of nasal polyps at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Results: The treatment yielded a clinical improvement regarding the two variables studied: polyposis staging (69.7%) and questionnaire (57.6%). We did not find significant differences in the inflammatory pattern and in the percentage or absolute number of eosinophils per field between samples obtained before and after the treatment (p > 0.05). There was no difference between the answers obtained from groups with and without asthma and/or aspirin intolerance (p > 0.3). The patients with advanced initial staging exhibited lower subjective improvement index and staging reduction (p = 0.031 and p = 0.012, respectively). Conclusion: Based on this study, azithromycin may be considered as another therapeutic option for ENP. However, further studies are necessary to define the real mechanism of action involved. PMID:27465667

  7. UNUSUAL EOSINOPHILIC GRANULE CELL PROLIFERATION IN COHO SALMON (ONCHORHYNCHUS KISUTCH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proliferative lesions comprised of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) extended throughout the gastrointestinal tract of several mature, spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum). istological examination of the tumour showed extensive proliferation and infiltration of EGC...

  8. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Eosinophilic and Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Vatrella, Alessandro; Busceti, Maria Teresa; Gallelli, Luca; Calabrese, Cecilia; Terracciano, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways, characterized by either predominant eosinophilic or neutrophilic, or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory patterns. Eosinophilic inflammation can be associated with the whole spectrum of asthma severity, ranging from mild-to-moderate to severe uncontrolled disease, whereas neutrophilic inflammation occurs mostly in more severe asthma. Eosinophilic asthma includes either allergic or nonallergic phenotypes underlying immune responses mediated by T helper (Th)2 cell-derived cytokines, whilst neutrophilic asthma is mostly dependent on Th17 cell-induced mechanisms. These immune-inflammatory profiles develop as a consequence of a functional impairment of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes, which promotes the activation of dendritic cells directing the differentiation of distinct Th cell subsets. The recent advances in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying asthmatic inflammation are contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, potentially suitable for the implementation of future improvements in antiasthma pharmacologic treatments. PMID:25878402

  9. Cellular mechanisms underlying eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma.

    PubMed

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Vatrella, Alessandro; Busceti, Maria Teresa; Gallelli, Luca; Calabrese, Cecilia; Terracciano, Rosa; Maselli, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways, characterized by either predominant eosinophilic or neutrophilic, or even mixed eosinophilic/neutrophilic inflammatory patterns. Eosinophilic inflammation can be associated with the whole spectrum of asthma severity, ranging from mild-to-moderate to severe uncontrolled disease, whereas neutrophilic inflammation occurs mostly in more severe asthma. Eosinophilic asthma includes either allergic or nonallergic phenotypes underlying immune responses mediated by T helper (Th)2 cell-derived cytokines, whilst neutrophilic asthma is mostly dependent on Th17 cell-induced mechanisms. These immune-inflammatory profiles develop as a consequence of a functional impairment of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes, which promotes the activation of dendritic cells directing the differentiation of distinct Th cell subsets. The recent advances in the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying asthmatic inflammation are contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, potentially suitable for the implementation of future improvements in antiasthma pharmacologic treatments. PMID:25878402

  10. Recurrent Postpartum Eosinophilic Pneumonia Presenting as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Elif Yilmazel; Araz, Omer; Yilmaz, Nafiye; Akgun, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a rare disease of the lung. We aimed to present atypical course of two EP cases. They were admitted to our hospital because of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in postpartum period. Eosinophilia was detected in bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage and laboratory examination. In these cases, no spesific cause for eosinophilic pneumonia was determined and steroid treatment was started. After the treatment, the patients were in full recovery which were confirmed by clinical and radiological investigations, readmitted to our clinic with relapses of ARDS. The patients have received regular treatment for 1 year. Our cases were neither fitting the classic definitions of acute eosinophilic pneumonia nor chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Therefore, we wanted to contribute additional data in the literature by sharing these interesting cases. PMID:25610194

  11. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEUTROPHILS AND EOSINOPHILS GRANULES IN SAPPHIRE MINKS].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Kizhina, A G; Ilyukha, V A

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that sapphire minks have abnormality of subcellular structure of blood and bone marrow neutrophils and eosinophils. The abnormality consists in forming of abnormal "giant" granules. The si- ze and the number of abnormal granules significantly change during maturation of leucocytes in bone marrow. We have found differences between abnormal granules forming in neutrophils and eosinophils that depend on the maturing stage and the cells life cycle duration as well as morphofunctional features of these granulocytes. PMID:26863773

  12. Co-existent eosinophilic gastroenteritis and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Haeney, M. R.; Wilson, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    A case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in a 42-year-old man is described. The patient had diarrhoea, faecal blood loss, a protein-losing enteropathy, malabsorption of fat, xylose and vitamin B12. Co-existent hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and hypothalamic dysfunction was demonstrated. Complete clinical recovery occurred with pituitary replacement therapy alone. The association of this endocrine abnormality with the picture of eosinophilic gastroenteritis has not previously been described. Images Fig. 1 PMID:882484

  13. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis as a Rare Cause of Recurrent Epigastric Pain

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mohammad Taghi; Shahrokh, Shabnam; Miri, Mohammad Bagher; Ehsani Ardakani, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall. It can mimic many gastrointestinal disorders due to its wide spectrum of presentations. Diagnose is mostly based on excluding other disorders and a high suspicion. Here we report a case of 26 year old man with a history of sever epigastric pain followed by nausea, vomiting since a few days before admission with final diagnosis of EGE.

  14. Pattern of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration in patients with achalasia and response to Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Cools-Lartigue, J; Chang, S-Y; Mckendy, K; Mayrand, S; Marcus, V; Fried, G M; Ferri, L E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is now recognized as a common cause of dysphagia. Eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus has also been associated with other conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the incidence, pattern, and clinical significance of eosinophilic infiltration in achalasia are poorly documented. We sought to characterize this histological finding in patients undergoing Heller myotomy (HM) for achalasia. Ninety-six patients undergoing laparoscopic HM for primary achalasia between 1999 and 2008 were identified from a prospective database. Serial mid and distal per-endoscopic esophageal biopsies taken from patients before and after surgery were assessed for the presence of elevated intraepithelial eosinophils (EIEs). Slides from patients with reports suggestive of EIE were reviewed independently by two pathologists, and the highest eosinophil count/high-power field (eos/hpf) was recorded. Dysphagia scores (0 = none to 5 = severe dysphagia), GERD health-related quality of life scores (0 = best to 45 = worst), and 24-hour pH results were compared before and 3 months after surgery. We related the highest eos to the symptoms and response to HM. Data are presented as median (range). Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test determined significance, *P < 0.05. Of 96 patients with achalasia, 50 had undergone pre-HM biopsies revealing EIE in 17/50 (34%), with a median of 3 eos/hpf (1-21). Two patients were found to have superimposed esophageal candidiasis. One patient met the pathologic criteria for EoE. Twenty-five of 50 (50%) postoperative biopsies demonstrated a median of 5 eos/hpf (1-62) for a total of 28/50 patients (56%) with EIE in either the preoperative or postoperative period. Four patients (8%) met the pathologic criteria for EoE, and two demonstrated persistent esophageal candidiasis. A decrease in eosinophils was found in 6/28 patients (21%) from 3/hpf (1-21) to 0.5/hpf (0-4). Increase in eosinophils was found in

  15. Prospective, comparative effectiveness trial of cow's milk elimination and swallowed fluticasone for pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Kruszewski, P G; Russo, J M; Franciosi, J P; Varni, J W; Platts-Mills, T A E; Erwin, E A

    2016-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease in which food antigens play a key role. Current therapeutic options are limited to long-term steroid medication and dietary elimination of multiple foods, each of which is challenging. Our objective was to compare single food elimination of cow's milk to swallowed fluticasone in pediatric EoE patients. This is a prospective, comparative effectiveness trial of newly diagnosed EoE patients (ages 2-18 years) treated with swallowed fluticasone (n = 24) or elimination of cow's milk (n = 20). The dual outcome measures of repeat esophageal biopsy (6-8 weeks) and change in Pediatric Quality of Life Inventor (PedsQL) EoE Module and Symptoms Scales were used to assess response to treatment. After 6-8 weeks of treatment, peak esophageal eosinophil counts decreased to below the threshold of 15 eosinophils/high-power field in 64% of patients treated with cow's milk elimination and 80% of patients treated with swallowed fluticasone (P = 0.4). Mean PedsQL EoE Module total scores (69 vs. 82; P < 0.005) and Total Symptoms scores (58 vs. 75; P = 0.001) showed significant improvement with cow's milk elimination. Among children treated with swallowed fluticasone, mean PedsQL EoE Module total scores (64 vs. 75; P < 0.05) and Total Symptoms scores (58 vs. 69; P < 0.01) were also significantly improved after 6-8 weeks of therapy. Removal of cow's milk from the diet is an effective single food elimination treatment for pediatric patients with EoE as assessed by statistically significant histologic and symptomatic improvement. Cow's milk elimination may be more desirable for EoE patients who do not want to take chronic, long-term steroid medications. PMID:25721813

  16. Toward the Proteome of the Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophil

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Christof; Pazdrak, Konrad; Young, Travis W.; Stafford, Susan J.; Wu, Zheng; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Haag, Anthony M.; English, Robert D.; Soman, Kizhake V.; Kurosky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophils are granular leukocytes that have significant roles in many inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses, especially asthma and allergic diseases. We have undertaken a fairly comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified peripheral blood eosinophils from normal human donors primarily employing 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with protein spot identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Protein subfractionation methods employed included isoelectric focusing (Zoom® Fractionator) and subcellular fractionation using differential protein solubilization. We have identified 3,141 proteins which had Mascot expectation scores of 10−3 or less. Of these 426 were unique and non-redundant of which 231 were novel proteins not previously reported to occur in eosinophils. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that some 70% of the non-redundant proteins could be subdivided into categories that are clearly related to currently known eosinophil biological activities. Cytoskeletal and associated proteins predominated among the proteins identified. Extensive protein posttranslational modifications were evident, many of which have not been previously reported that reflected the dynamic character of the eosinophil. This dataset of eosinophilic proteins will prove valuable in comparative studies of disease versus normal states and for studies of gender differences and polymorphic variation among individuals. PMID:21048890

  17. Computed tomographic findings in 15 dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Luis; Lam, Richard; Lamb, Christopher R; McConnell, J Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy is a disease characterized by the infiltration of the lung and bronchial mucosa by eosinophils. The aim of the present study was to describe the CT findings in a large series of dogs with confirmed diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy. Computed tomographic scans of 15 dogs with confirmed diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy were evaluated retrospectively by two boarded radiologists who reached a consensus. Abnormalities were identified in 14/15 (93%) dogs, including pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities in 14/15 (93%) dogs, bronchial wall thickening in 13 (87%) dogs, which was considered marked in eight (53%), plugging of the bronchial lumen by mucus/debris in 11 (73%) dogs, and bronchiectasis in nine (60%) dogs. Pulmonary nodules were identified in 5/15 (33%) dogs including one dog with a mass. All dogs with a nodular lung pattern had additional abnormalities. Lymphadenopathy was present in 10 dogs (67%). Lesions associated with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy are variable and heterogeneous and encompass a wider variety of computed tomographic features than reported previously. Computed tomographic images were abnormal in the majority of affected dogs, hence CT is a useful modality to characterize the nature and distribution of thoracic lesions in dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy. PMID:25124052

  18. Eosinophilic ascites: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaiman, Raed M.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by nonspecific GI symptoms, peripheral eosinophilia, and eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal wall. The disorder is classified into mucosal, muscular, and sub-serosal types, depending on the clinical picture and the depth of eosinophilic infiltration within the GI wall. Sub-serosal disease, which is complicated by ascites, usually results in the most severe clinical form of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and requires early corticosteroid therapy. In such cases, a favorable outcome can be achieved after a short course of corticosteroids. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with diffuse abdominal pain and distention for 2 weeks. Her physical examination was significant for moderate ascites. Initial work-up demonstrated severe peripheral blood eosinophilia, normal liver function tests, and elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). Upper endoscopy, colonoscopy showed a thickening of the stomach and colon, and biopsies showed marked eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa. Ascitic fluid analysis showed significant eosinophilia. Subsequent treatment with oral prednisone resulted in the normalization of laboratory and radiologic abnormalities 45 days after the start of the treatment. Despite its rarity, eosinophilic gastroenteritis needs to be recognized by the clinician because the disease is treatable, and timely diagnosis and initiation of treatment could be of major importance. PMID:26392801

  19. Implants as absolute anchorage.

    PubMed

    Rungcharassaeng, Kitichai; Kan, Joseph Y K; Caruso, Joseph M

    2005-11-01

    Anchorage control is essential for successful orthodontic treatment. Each tooth has its own anchorage potential as well as propensity to move when force is applied. When teeth are used as anchorage, the untoward movements of the anchoring units may result in the prolonged treatment time, and unpredictable or less-than-ideal outcome. To maximize tooth-related anchorage, techniques such as differential torque, placing roots into the cortex of the bone, the use of various intraoral devices and/or extraoral appliances have been implemented. Implants, as they are in direct contact with bone, do not possess a periodontal ligament. As a result, they do not move when orthodontic/orthopedic force is applied, and therefore can be used as "absolute anchorage." This article describes different types of implants that have been used as orthodontic anchorage. Their clinical applications and limitations are also discussed. PMID:16463910

  20. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  1. Eosinophil hematopoietins antagonize the programmed cell death of eosinophils. Cytokine and glucocorticoid effects on eosinophils maintained by endothelial cell-conditioned medium.

    PubMed Central

    Her, E; Frazer, J; Austen, K F; Owen, W F

    1991-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was established as the constitutive and elicited human umbilical vein endothelial cell-derived eosinophil viability-sustaining factor. Stimulation of endothelium cell monolayers with IL-1 alpha (5 U/ml) increased the 48-h elaboration of GM-CSF from a mean of 3.2 to a mean of 8.2 pM (P less than 0.05). Dexamethasone (100 nM) decreased the constitutive GM-CSF elaboration by 49% (P less than 0.001) but did not diminish production by IL-1 alpha-stimulated endothelium. However, eosinophil viability decreased by 21% in dexamethasone-pretreated IL-1 alpha-stimulated endothelial cell-conditioned medium (P less than 0.05), which suggested viability antagonism by glucocorticoids. After 24 h of culture, eosinophil viability for replicate cells in enriched medium alone or with 1 pM GM-CSF decreased from means of 43 and 75% to means of 21 and 54%, respectively, when dexamethasone was included (P less than 0.05). However, 10 pM GM-CSF, IL-3, or IL-5 protected the cells against dexamethasone and against endonuclease-specific DNA fragmentation. In this model system of eosinophil-tissue interactions, dexamethasone prevents the endothelial cells from inducing a pathobiologic phenotypic change in the eosinophil by suppression of GM-CSF elaboration to concentrations that are not cytoprotective. Cytokine priming by GM-CSF, IL-3, or IL-5 may account for the differential responsiveness of select eosinophilic disorders to glucocorticoids. Images PMID:1752957

  2. Major basic protein, but not eosinophil cationic protein or eosinophil protein X, is related to atopy in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Koller, D Y; Halmerbauer, G; Müller, J; Frischer, T; Schierl, M

    1999-10-01

    Increased eosinophil granule proteins have been described in serum and sputum samples of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It has been assumed that eosinophil degranulation is enhanced in atopic subjects - as in asthmatics. Since in CF no differences in eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil protein X (EPX), and eosinophil peroxidase between atopic and nonatopic subjects have been detected, we investigated whether major basic protein (MBP) is increased in serum and sputum samples derived from atopic (n = 14) compared with nonatopic CF subjects (n = 26). In CF patients, high mean serum (sputum) levels of ECP 29.7 microg/l (2.7 mg/l), EPX 53.7 microg/l (7.9 mg/l), and MBP 984.6 microg/l but low sputum MBP levels (57.4 microg/l) were measured. In addition, in serum and in sputum samples, a significant correlation between MBP and ECP (P<0.03 and P<0.0001, respectively) or EPX (P<0.05 and P<0.0004, respectively) was detected. By subdivision of the patients into allergic and nonallergic subjects, significant differences were found for serum MBP values only(mean 1382.2 microg/l vs. 770.5 microg/l; P<0.0001), but not for ECP or EPX serum levels or for eosinophil proteins in sputum. Although no differences between atopic and nonatopic CF patients in ECP and EPX were found, serum MBP levels were higher in patients sensitized to inhalant allergens than in nonsensitized subjects. These results indicate differential release of eosinophil granule proteins in peripheral blood from eosinophils, and they also indicate that MBP in serum likely is to be a better discriminator of atopy in CF. PMID:10536888

  3. Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Burk, Caitlin M; Long, Millie D; Dellon, Evan S

    2016-07-01

    There are currently limited data on the management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) during pregnancy. At our center, however, we have followed several pregnant women with EoE and others have asked pertinent questions in pre-pregnancy counseling. The relatively young age of patients with EoE implies that many practitioners will also encounter patients with these questions. In this review, we use four cases to prompt a discussion about concerns focused on the safety of steroids and diet therapy during pregnancy and breast-feeding, potential nutritional risks with dietary elimination, how to optimize therapy, and whether endoscopic evaluation for monitoring of disease activity is safe during pregnancy and breast-feeding. An additional concern is whether the disease could progress during pregnancy and breast-feeding if no therapies are used. Although there are no studies specifically examining pregnant EoE patients, we have reviewed the literature relevant to this population as informed by the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease patients during pregnancy, where these issues have been studied in more depth. Providers who care for EoE patients who could become pregnant should familiarize themselves with these issues. PMID:26888769

  4. Diagnosis and classification of eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Pinal-Fernandez, I; Selva-O' Callaghan, A; Grau, J M

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare scleroderma-like syndrome with an unknown etiology and pathogenesis that should be considered an immune-allergic disorder. Painful swelling with progressive induration and thickening of the skin and soft tissues of the limbs and trunk are the clinical hallmarks of the disease. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate are the main laboratory findings. Full-thickness wedge biopsy of the clinically affected skin showing inflammation and thickening of deep fascia is essential to establish the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes systemic sclerosis and other scleroderma subsets such as morphea, and epidemic fasciitis syndromes caused by toxic agents such as the myalgia-eosinophilia syndrome and toxic oil syndrome. Peripheral T cell lymphomas should also be ruled out. The diagnosis of EF can be established by clinical, laboratory and histological findings, but universally accepted international diagnostic criteria are lacking. Corticosteroids are efficacious and remain the standard therapy for EF, although some patients may improve spontaneously. PMID:24424187

  5. Redox thermodynamics of lactoperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Vlasits, Jutta; Banerjee, Srijib; Furtmüller, Paul G; Sola, Marco; Obinger, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are important constituents of the innate immune system of mammals. These heme enzymes belong to the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily and catalyze the oxidation of thiocyanate, bromide and nitrite to hypothiocyanate, hypobromous acid and nitrogen dioxide that are toxic for invading pathogens. In order to gain a better understanding of the observed differences in substrate specificity and oxidation capacity in relation to heme and protein structure, a comprehensive spectro-electrochemical investigation was performed. The reduction potential (E degrees ') of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of EPO and LPO was determined to be -126mV and -176mV, respectively (25 degrees C, pH 7.0). Variable temperature experiments show that EPO and LPO feature different reduction thermodynamics. In particular, reduction of ferric EPO is enthalpically and entropically disfavored, whereas in LPO the entropic term, which selectively stabilizes the oxidized form, prevails on the enthalpic term that favors reduction of Fe(III). The data are discussed with respect to the architecture of the heme cavity and the substrate channel. Comparison with published data for myeloperoxidase demonstrates the effect of heme to protein linkages and heme distortion on the redox chemistry of mammalian peroxidases and in consequence on the enzymatic properties of these physiologically important oxidoreductases. PMID:19944669

  6. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Mycoplasma arginini Infection

    PubMed Central

    Silló, Pálma; Pintér, Dóra; Ostorházi, Eszter; Mazán, Mercedes; Wikonkál, Norbert; Pónyai, Katinka; Volokhov, Dmitriy V.; Chizhikov, Vladimir E.; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) with generalized sclerodermiform skin lesions developed over a 19-month period in a previously healthy 23-year-old man. Although we confirmed EF by skin histology and laboratory tests, the recurrent fevers and the clinical observation of sclerotic prepuce with urethritis indicated further bacteriological analysis by conventional microbiological and DNA-based tests. Urethra cultures were positive for an arginine-hydrolyzing mycoplasma and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The patient also had serum IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based qualitative detection. Mycoplasma arginini was isolated from two independent venous blood serum samples and was identified by conventional microbiological tests and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes (GenBank sequence accession numbers HM179555 and HM179556, respectively). M. arginini genomic DNA also was detected by species-specific PCR in the skin lesion biopsy sample. Treatment with corticosteroids and long-term courses of selected antibiotics led to remission of skin symptoms and normalization of laboratory values. This report provides the first evidence of EF associated with mycoplasma infection and the second report of human infection with M. arginini and therefore suggests that this mycoplasma infection might have contributed to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:22189109

  7. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Evidence-Based Approach to Therapy.

    PubMed

    González-Cervera, J; Lucendo, A J

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of the various therapeutic options available for treating patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, including dietary modifications, proton pump inhibitors, topical corticosteroids, and endoscopic esophageal dilation. Proton pump inhibitors are currently considered the first-line treatment for eosinophilic esophagitis, achieving histological remission and improvement of symptoms in 50.5% and 60.8% of patients, respectively. The efficacy of topical corticosteroids in eosinophilic esophagitis has been assessed in several trials. Meta-analyses summarizing results indicate that budesonide and fluticasone propionate are significantly superior to placebo, both in decreasing eosinophil densities in the esophageal mucosa and in relieving symptoms. However, owing to differences in drug delivery, viscous budesonide seems to be the best pharmacological therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis. Results for dietary modifications have been mixed depending on the type of diet prescribed. Thus, while exclusive amino acid-based elemental diets are the most effective in inducing histological remission of eosinophilic esophagitis (90.8%), their severe drawbacks limit their implementation in clinical practice. Allergy testing-based food elimination provides a suboptimal remission rate of 45.5%, although this is lower in adults than in children (32.2% vs 47.9%, respectively). In addition, the various available studies are highly heterogeneous. Empirical 6-food elimination diets were shown to be the best diet-based therapy, with a homogeneous remission rate of 72%. Simpler, more convenient empirical schemes have also been evaluated. The aim of this review is to provide an evidence-based overview on the efficacy of the options available for treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis along with a practical management algorithm. PMID:27012011

  8. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with eosinophilic cystitis: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Gao; Chen, Ying; Qian, Zi-Hua; Yang, Li; Yu, Ri-Sheng; Zhu, Xiu-Liang; Li, Qing-Hai; Chen, Qian

    2015-03-14

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare, distinct clinical entity, and EG associated with eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is extremely rare and has not been well documented. Here, we report two cases of EG and coexistent EC along with findings from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An 18-year-old male with a history of hematuria, urgency and occasional urodynia for two weeks and a 34-year-old male with a history of abdominal distention for one week were admitted to our hospital. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT in both patients revealed wall thickening in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract with inhomogeneous reinforcement, coexistent with local or diffuse bladder wall thickening with progressive enhancement, and also showed that the bladder mucosal lining was nondestructive. Pelvic MRI showed that the local or diffuse thickened bladder wall was iso-intense on T1-weighted images, hypo-intense on T2-weighted images, and slightly restricted on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in one case. After therapy, the thickened wall of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder had improved markedly in the two cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the radiological imaging of EG and coexistent EC by both CT and MRI and the first with DWI findings. PMID:25780317

  9. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  10. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  11. Nitric oxide regulates human eosinophil adhesion mechanisms in vitro by changing integrin expression and activity on the eosinophil cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Conran, N; Ferreira, H H A; Lorand-Metze, I; Thomazzi, S M; Antunes, E; de Nucci, G

    2001-01-01

    The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), inhibits both rat and human eosinophil chemotaxis in vitro. Here, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in human eosinophil cell surface integrin expression and function was investigated. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were treated with L-NAME (0.01 – 1.0 mM) and their adhesion to human fibronectin and serum observed. Adhesion of cells to fibronectin and serum increased by 24.0±4.6 and 43.8±4.7%, respectively, when eosinophils were treated with 1.0 mM L-NAME. Increased adhesion by L-NAME could be abolished when cells were co-incubated with VLA-4- and Mac-1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (2.5 mM), significantly inhibited eosinophil adhesion to fibronectin and serum by 34.3±4.5 and 45.2±5.6%, respectively. This inhibition was accompanied by a 4 fold increase in the levels of intracellular cyclic GMP. Flow cytometrical analysis demonstrated that L-NAME induced an increased expression of CD11b (Mac-1) on the eosinophil cell surface of 36.3±7.4%. L-NAME had no effect upon CD49d (VLA-4) expression. Treatment of human eosinophils, in vitro, with H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (0.1 mM), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, also significantly increased eosinophil adhesion to fibronectin and serum by 73.5±17.9 and 91.7±12.9%, respectively. This increase in adhesion could also be inhibited by co-incubation with the Mac-1 and VLA-4-specific mAbs. In conclusion, results indicate that NO, via a cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism, inhibits the adhesion of human eosinophils to the extracellular matrix (ECM). This inhibition is accompanied by a decrease in the expression and function of the eosinophil's adhesion molecules, in particular, the expression of the Mac-1 integrin and the function of the VLA-4 integrin. PMID:11588118

  12. Modulation of human eosinophil polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration and function.

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Eosinophil migration toward a concentration gradient of a chemotactic factor is regulated at four levels. Diverse immunologic pathways generate stimuli with eosinophil chemotactic activity, including the complement products C5a and a fragment of C3a and the peptide products of mast cells and basophils activated by IgE-mediated reactions, such as eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A) and other oligopeptides. The intrinsic preferential leukocyte activity of the chemotactic stimuli represents the second level of modulation, with ECF-A and other mast cell-derived peptides exhibiting the most selective action on eosinophils. The third level of control of eosinophil chemotaxis is composed of inactivators and inhibitors of chemotactic stimuli and is exemplified by degradation of C5a by anaphylatoxin inactivator or chemotactic factor inactivator and of ECF-A by carboxypeptidase-A or aminopeptidases. The activity of ECF-A is uniquely suppressed by equimolar quantities of its NH2- terminal tripeptide substituent, presumably by eosinophil membrane receptor competition. Factors comprising the fourth level of regulation, which alter eosinophil responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli, include the chemotactic factors themselves, through deactivation; nonchemotactic inhibitors such as the COOH-terminal tripeptide substituent of ECF-A, the neutrophil-immobilizing factor (NIF), the phagocytosis-enhancing factor Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg, and histamine at concentrations greater than 400 ng/ml; and nonchemotactic enhancing principles represented by ascorbate and by histamine at concentrations of 30 ng/ml or less. Local concentrations of eosinophils called to and immobilized at the site of a hypersenitivity reaction may express their regulatory functions by degrading the chemical mediators elaborated including histamine, slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A), and platelet-activating factor (PAF) by way of their content of histaminase, arylsulfatase B, and phospholipase D

  13. Advances in Clinical Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Liacouras, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    EoE is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsies, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and PPI-REE. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (current incidence of 1/10,000 new cases per year and prevalence of 0.5-1/1,000 cases per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and non-directed empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenostic complications of EoE. There are number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment endpoints, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines—EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  14. Degranulation patterns of eosinophils in advanced gastric carcinoma: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Caruso, R A; Ieni, A; Fedele, F; Zuccalà, V; Riccardo, M; Parisi, E; Parisi, A

    2005-01-01

    Recruitment and activation of eosinophils have been studied intensely in asthma and other allergic diseases. Less is known about the infiltration and degranulation patterns of eosinophils in the tumor stroma. Seven cases of advanced gastric carcinomas were found to be massively infiltrated by eosinophils and studied by light and electron microscopy. Gastric carcinomas, despite having similar numbers of tissue eosinophils, exhibited markedly different degranulation patterns. In 2 cases, resting nondegranulating eosinophils were found. Piecemeal degranulation was the predominant mode of secretion from eosinophils localized within the tumor stroma in 4 cases. Eosinophil exocytosis and cytolysis were rarely observed. In 1 case, crystals morphologically similar to Charcot-Leyden crystals were observed at the extracellular level as well as in phagosomes of tissue macrophages, confirming active sequestrations of eosinophil Charcot-Leyden protein by macrophages in vivo. In the same case, eosinophils showed characteristic features of early and late apoptotic changes, such as condensed chromatin, focal dilatation of nuclear envelope, and preserved plasma membrane. Morphological association between apoptotic eosinophils and deposition of granules in the tumor stroma was found. Extracellular deposition of intact granules from apoptotic eosinophils was distinct from eosinophilic (necrotic) cytolysis, and has reported previously in experimental studies in vitro. To the knowledge of the authors, this case represents the first report of late apoptotic eosinophils that release their granules within the tumor stroma in a human gastric carcinoma. PMID:15931778

  15. Bullous delayed pressure urticaria: pathogenic role for eosinophilic granulocytes?

    PubMed

    Kerstan, A; Rose, C; Simon, D; Simon, H-U; Bröcker, E-B; Trautmann, A; Leverkus, M

    2005-08-01

    Bullous delayed pressure urticaria (DPU) is a rare variant of DPU. Treatment of DPU is difficult and the underlying pathogenic mechanism of DPU remains elusive. We report a 72-year-old man with DPU and associated chronic urticaria as well as delayed urticarial dermographism. Pressure challenge gave rise to a deep weal covered by multiple vesicles and bullae after 24 h. Histological examination of a skin biopsy specimen obtained 24 h after pressure challenge demonstrated intraepidermal bullae filled with eosinophils accompanied by a dense, predominantly eosinophilic infiltrate in the dermis. Whereas the numbers and morphology of mast cells were unaltered, the extracellular deposition of eosinophil cationic protein revealed evidence for eosinophil activation. Concomitantly, both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were present in the infiltrate and expressed interleukin 5. As bullous DPU may represent the maximal variant of DPU, the investigation of the cellular infiltrate and the chemokines/cytokines released may reveal potential pathogenic mechanisms. A possible effector role of eosinophilic granulocytes, T-cell subsets and mast cells is discussed. PMID:16086763

  16. Integrins are Mechanosensors That Modulate Human Eosinophil Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzai, Mustafa; Small, Mike; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail; Janssen, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophil migration to the lung is primarily regulated by the eosinophil-selective family of eotaxin chemokines, which mobilize intracellular calcium (Ca2+) and orchestrate myriad changes in cell structure and function. Eosinophil function is also known to be flow-dependent, although the molecular cognate of this mechanical response has yet to be adequately characterized. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we determined the effects of fluid shear stress on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human peripheral blood eosinophils by perfusing cells in a parallel-plate flow chamber. Our results indicate that fluid perfusion evokes a calcium response that leads to cell flattening, increase in cell area, shape change, and non-directional migration. None of these changes are seen in the absence of a flow stimulus, and all are blocked by chelation of intracellular Ca2+ using BAPTA. These changes are enhanced by stimulating the cells with eotaxin-1. The perfusion-induced calcium response (PICR) could be blocked by pre-treating cells with selective (CDP-323) and non-selective (RGD tripeptides) integrin receptor antagonists, suggesting that α4β7/α4β1 integrins mediate this response. Overall, our study provides the first pharmacological description of a molecular mechanosensor that may collaborate with the eotaxin-1 signaling program in order to control human eosinophil activation. PMID:26539194

  17. Diagnosis and Treatment of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Adults.

    PubMed

    Kavitt, Robert T; Hirano, Ikuo; Vaezi, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a relatively recently discovered disease of increasing incidence and prevalence and is a common cause of dysphagia and food bolus impaction. The definition of eosinophilic esophagitis continues to evolve, most recently with the characterization of proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. The number of high-quality prospective, controlled trials guiding therapeutic decisions in eosinophilic esophagitis has increased steadily over the past several years. Treatment options at present focus on dietary therapy, particularly implementation of a 6-food elimination diet, and medical therapy, primarily the use of swallowed, topical corticosteroids. Proton pump inhibitors play an important role in current management. Conservative esophageal dilation is effective at ameliorating dysphagia in symptomatic patients with esophageal strictures. We conducted an evidence-based review of the diagnosis and treatment options in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis. The understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis continues to be refined. Continued validation of appropriate endpoints, however, is essential to establish the efficacy of existing and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27155108

  18. Activated mouse eosinophils protect against lethal respiratory virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Percopo, Caroline M.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Luo, Janice L.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are recruited to the airways as a prominent feature of the asthmatic inflammatory response where they are broadly perceived as promoting pathophysiology. Respiratory virus infections exacerbate established asthma; however, the role of eosinophils and the nature of their interactions with respiratory viruses remain uncertain. To explore these questions, we established acute infection with the rodent pneumovirus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), in 3 distinct mouse models of Th2 cytokine–driven asthmatic inflammation. We found that eosinophils recruited to the airways of otherwise naïve mice in response to Aspergillus fumigatus, but not ovalbumin sensitization and challenge, are activated by and degranulate specifically in response to PVM infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated eosinophils from both Aspergillus antigen and cytokine-driven asthma models are profoundly antiviral and promote survival in response to an otherwise lethal PVM infection. Thus, although activated eosinophils within a Th2-polarized inflammatory response may have pathophysiologic features, they are also efficient and effective mediators of antiviral host defense. PMID:24297871

  19. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause

    PubMed Central

    Shibazaki, Shunichi; Eguchi, Shunsuke; Endo, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Tadamasa; Araki, Makoto; Gu, Yoshiaki; Imai, Taku; Asano, Kouji; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole. PMID:27123346

  20. Unusual presentations of eosinophilic gastroenteritis: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Leal, Regina; Fayad, Leonardo; Vieira, Daniella; Figueiredo, Teresa; Lopes, Aldemae; Carvalho, Roberta; Dantas-Corrêa, Esther; Schiavon, Leonardo; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína

    2014-06-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease that is characterized by eosinophil infiltration in one or multiple segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of this condition remains unknown. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis has heterogeneous clinical manifestations that depend upon the location and depth of infiltration in the gastrointestinal tract, and eosinophilia may or may not be present. This article reports two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The first is that of a 49-year-old woman with abdominal pain, ascites, eosinophilia, and a history of asthma. The second case is that of a 69-year-old male with a history of loss of appetite, belching, postprandial fullness, heartburn, and a 5-kilogram weight loss over a period of 9 months; ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with a gastric outlet obstruction due to pyloric stenosis. The rare character of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and its varied clinical presentations often lead to delayed diagnoses and complications. Case reports may help to disseminate knowledge about the disease, thereby increasing the likelihood of early diagnosis and intervention to prevent complications. PMID:25141324

  1. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with EoE depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect. PMID:26855813

  2. Clinical usefulness of mepolizumab in severe eosinophilic asthma.

    PubMed

    Menzella, Francesco; Lusuardi, Mirco; Montanari, Gloria; Galeone, Carla; Facciolongo, Nicola; Zucchi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with variable clinical severity from very mild and occasional symptoms to recurrent critical exacerbations, at risk of fatal or near-fatal outcome, in a small percentage of patients. Within the different inflammatory cascades involved in asthma, eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis and largely influence disease severity. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is the main cytokine controlling eosinophil activity and proliferation at the site of inflammation. Mepolizumab was the first biological humanized anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody tested in randomized clinical trials on eosinophilic asthma and other eosinophilic diseases. On the basis of several positive clinical efficacy data, it has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Unfortunately, high costs are at present a critical issue. Future studies will probably help in the correct selection of a potential "responder phenotype", allowing the prescription of this promising therapy to appropriate patients and best define cost-effectiveness issues. PMID:27354806

  3. Killing of juvenile Fasciola hepatica by purified bovine eosinophil proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Duffus, W P; Thorne, K; Oliver, R

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophils were isolated from the mammary gland of Fasciola hepatica-infected cattle by intramammary infusion with a crude extract from adult F. hepatica. Up to 5 x 10(9) eosinophils with a purity of over 90% could be obtained from a single quarter of the gland. The major contaminating cells were monocytes which reached their peak several days following the eosinophil peak. Two major proteins were isolated from bovine eosinophil granules, a high molecular weight peroxidase-active protein and a smaller molecular weight predominantly basic protein. This smaller protein was thought to be the bovine equivalent of guinea-pig and human major basic protein (MBP), although it possessed an unusually high concentration of cysteine. The bovine MBP had a profound effect on juvenile F. hepatica in vitro causing damage and death at concentrations down to 1 x 10(-6) M. The damage was detected by a 51Cr release assay and/or a viability assay involving microscopical examination of the flukes. Other cations, especially protamine sulphate, were also shown to kill flukes, although both lysozyme, found in neutrophils, and the peroxidase-positive peak from bovine eosinophils were unable to mediate any detectable damage. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7438542

  4. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with EoE depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect. PMID:26855813

  5. Clinical usefulness of mepolizumab in severe eosinophilic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Menzella, Francesco; Lusuardi, Mirco; Montanari, Gloria; Galeone, Carla; Facciolongo, Nicola; Zucchi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with variable clinical severity from very mild and occasional symptoms to recurrent critical exacerbations, at risk of fatal or near-fatal outcome, in a small percentage of patients. Within the different inflammatory cascades involved in asthma, eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis and largely influence disease severity. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is the main cytokine controlling eosinophil activity and proliferation at the site of inflammation. Mepolizumab was the first biological humanized anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody tested in randomized clinical trials on eosinophilic asthma and other eosinophilic diseases. On the basis of several positive clinical efficacy data, it has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. Unfortunately, high costs are at present a critical issue. Future studies will probably help in the correct selection of a potential “responder phenotype”, allowing the prescription of this promising therapy to appropriate patients and best define cost-effectiveness issues. PMID:27354806

  6. Fecal microbiota transplantation and prednisone for severe eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi-Xuan; Shi, Chuan-Bing; Cui, Bo-Ta; Wang, Min; Ji, Guo-Zhong; Zhang, Fa-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by patchy or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and various gastrointestinal manifestations. We describe a case of severe eosinophilic gastroenteritis presenting as frequent bowel obstruction and diarrhea in a 35-year-old man. The patient was misdiagnosed and underwent surgery because of intestinal obstruction when he was first admitted to a local hospital. Then he was misdiagnosed as having Crohn’s disease in another university teaching hospital. Finally, the patient asked for further treatment from our hospital because of the on-going clinical trial for treating refractory Crohn’s disease by fecal microbiota transplantation. Physical examination revealed a slight distended abdomen with diffuse tenderness. Laboratory investigation showed the total number of normal leukocytes with neutrophilia as 90.5%, as well as eosinopenia, monocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Barium radiography and sigmoidoscopy confirmed inflammatory stenosis of the sigmoid colon. We diagnosed the patient as having eosinophilic gastroenteritis by multi-examinations. The patient was treated by fecal microbiota transplantation combined with oral prednisone, and was free from gastrointestinal symptoms at the time when we reported his disease. This case highlights the importance of awareness of manifestations of a rare disease like eosinophilic gastroenteritis. PMID:25473198

  7. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  8. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  9. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Derek K.; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P.; Walker, Tina D.; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E.; Barra, Nicole G.; Bassett, Jennifer D.; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D.; Bowdish, Dawn M.; Erjefält, Jonas S.; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A.; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4+/+ or il4−/− eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103+ dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

  10. Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chu, Derek K; Jimenez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Verschoor, Christopher P; Walker, Tina D; Goncharova, Susanna; Llop-Guevara, Alba; Shen, Pamela; Gordon, Melissa E; Barra, Nicole G; Bassett, Jennifer D; Kong, Joshua; Fattouh, Ramzi; McCoy, Kathy D; Bowdish, Dawn M; Erjefält, Jonas S; Pabst, Oliver; Humbles, Alison A; Kolbeck, Roland; Waserman, Susan; Jordana, Manel

    2014-07-28

    Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4(+/+) or il4(-/-) eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and extraintestinal adaptive immunity. PMID:25071163

  11. Heparin reduces nonspecific eosinophil staining artifacts in mass cytometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Adeeb H; Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of heterogeneous cell samples by mass cytometry (CyTOF) relies on the assumption that metal labeled antibodies accurately bind to their target antigens. We report a previously unappreciated experimental artifact of non-specific antibody binding by eosinophils during intracellular CyTOF analysis of human whole blood samples. We hypothesized that this non-specific binding results from a charge-based interaction between the metal-labeled antibodies and highly cationic proteins found in eosinophillic granules and found that this non-specific staining artifact could be reduced to background levels with a simple blocking protocol using heparin as a competing anionic protein. This protocol eliminates a potential source of erroneous data interpretation in all experiments involving intracellular staining of human whole blood samples, and allows accurate assessment of dynamic changes in intracellular proteins in eosinophils by CyTOF. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27061608

  12. Recent Progress in the Research of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishimura, Norihisa; Oshima, Naoki; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Jiao, Di Jin; Ishihara, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroenteritis are allergic gastrointestinal diseases mainly caused by food allergens. The number of patients with EoE is rapidly increasing in both Western and Asian countries. Basic knowledge of these diseases has mainly come from studies of EoE and Th2 type allergic reactions, including IL-5, IL-13, and IL-15, thymic stromal protein, and eotaxin 3, which are considered to have important roles. For a diagnosis of EoE, endoscopic abnormalities and histological confirmation of dense eosinophile infiltration in the esophageal epithelial layer are important, in addition to identifying dysphagia symptoms. As for eosinophilic gastroenteritis, blood test findings are more useful and the role of an endoscopic examination is reduced. For both diseases, the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori is lower than in healthy controls. Glucocorticoid administration is standard treatment for these diseases, while proton pump inhibitors are frequently effective for EoE. PMID:26789117

  13. Diagnostic approach to eosinophilic oesophagitis: Pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Schoepfer, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) has first been described a little over 20 years ago. EoE has been defined by a panel of international experts as a "chronic, immune/antigen-mediated, oesophageal disease, characterized clinically by symptoms related to oesophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation". A value of ≥ 15 eosinophils has been defined as histologic diagnostic cutoff. Other conditions associated with oesophageal eosinophilia, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia, or Crohn's disease should be excluded before EoE can be diagnosed. This review highlights the latest insights regarding the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of EoE. PMID:26552777

  14. A case of an unexplained eosinophilic myocarditis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Keeshen, T P; Chalkley, M; Stauthammer, C

    2016-09-01

    An 8-year-old spayed female Munsterlander was evaluated for a chronic low grade fever and a two month history of exercise intolerance. On physical examination, tachycardia and a grade II/VI right systolic heart murmur were detected. Echocardiography revealed marked thickening of the atrial and ventricular walls with mixed echogenicity and concentric hypertrophy of the left and right ventricles and equivocal systolic dysfunction. Serum cardiac troponin I level was markedly elevated. Endomyocardial biopsy was attempted; however, the patient arrested during the procedure and resuscitation was unsuccessful. Post-mortem examination revealed severe, chronic atrial and ventricular eosinophilic myocarditis associated with marked interstitial fibrosis. Serological testing, histopathology and immunohistochemistry staining did not reveal an underlying infectious agent or neoplasm. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary eosinophilic myocarditis in the absence of a peripheral eosinophilia and multi-organ eosinophilic inflammation in a dog. PMID:27170173

  15. Eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue--Case report.

    PubMed

    Didona, Dario; Paolino, Giovanni; Donati, Michele; Didona, Biagio; Calvieri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is a rare, self-limiting, chronic and benign lesion of unknown pathogenesis that affects the oral mucosa. We present the case of a 65 year-old Caucasian female with a five month history of a painful ulcer on the lateral side of her tongue. The ulcer was not adhered to the underlying structures and there was no evidence of regional lymph node involvement. Laboratory examinations and X-rays revealed no abnormalities. Topical treatments had been performed without any improvement. Histopathological examination showed an ulcerated surface and mixed inflammatory infiltrate with several eosinophils extending into the mucosa and submucosa. No cellular atypia was observed. Based on the patient-s history and mucosal biopsy, a final diagnosis of eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa was made. PMID:26312683

  16. Childhood-onset eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a rare childhood vasculitis mimicking anthrax and eosinophilic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Sezgin; Adrovic, Amra; Barut, Kenan; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy previously misdiagnosed as having cutaneous anthrax was referred with a 2-month history of multiple wide and deep ulceronecrotic lesions in the lower extremities, which occurred after contact with animals. Skin biopsy was compatible with vasculitis. Further examination at our hospital elicited eosinophilia and a history of asthma. On the second day of hospitalisation, he developed deep vein thrombosis. A diagnosis of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) was established and intravenous methylprednisolone was administered. The patient showed remarkable improvement of the cutaneous lesions. Diagnosis of EGPA is challenging in the vasculitic phase and necessitates a detailed history that specifically questions the patient for an asthma background. This case illustrates a severe cutaneous presentation of EGPA and emphasises the difficulty of diagnosis as a result of overlapped signs and symptoms with cutaneous anthrax and leukaemia. EGPA should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions associated with eosinophilia. PMID:26887883

  17. Unsedated transnasal esophagoscopy for monitoring therapy in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Joel A.; DeBoer, Emily M.; Soden, Jason S.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Menard-Katcher, Calies D.; Atkins, Dan; Fleischer, David M.; Kramer, Robert E.; Deterding, Robin R.; Capocelli, Kelley E.; Prager, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Unsedated transnasal endoscopy (TNE) is safer and less costly than sedated EGD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of TNE with biopsies in monitoring the esophageal mucosa of pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Methods Patients between 8 and 17 years of age with eosinophilic esophagitis and their parents were enrolled. Unsedated TNE was performed. A 2.8-mm (1.2-mm channel) or a 4-mm flexible bronchoscope (2-mm channel) was used, and esophageal biopsy specimens were obtained. Biopsy specimen analysis, duration, adverse events, and billing charges of TNE were assessed. Immediately after TNE and a minimum of 2 weeks later, a modified Group Health Association of America 9 survey and a preference questionnaire were completed, respectively. Results Twenty-one of 22 enrolled patients underwent TNE. TNE was performed with no serious adverse events. Histopathological analysis revealed 0 eosinophils per high-power field (n = 12), fewer than 15 eosinophils per high-power field (n = 4), and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field (n = 5). The total epithelial surface area of mucosal biopsy samples from either TNE Forceps (1.2 mm or 2 mm biopsy channel forceps) compared with those obtained during the subject’s previous EGD by using standard endoscopic forceps was not statistically different (P = .308 [1.2 mm]/P = .492 [2 mm]). All parents and 76.2% of subjects would undergo the TNE again. TNE was preferred over EGD by 85.7% of parents and 52.4% of subjects. The modified Group Health Association of America 9 survey revealed a high degree of satisfaction (average, 43.19 ± 2.6; maximum score, 45). Charges associated with TNE were 60.1% lower than for previous EGDs. Conclusions Unsedated TNE is an effective, lower-cost procedure for monitoring the esophageal mucosa of children with eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:26142551

  18. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features.

    PubMed

    Gelain, Maria Elena; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Bertazzolo, Walter; Zaccolo, Maurizia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2006-12-01

    A 3-year-old, male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. The cat was moderately dehydrated, had pale, slightly icteric, mucous membranes, oral ulcerations, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive. CBC results obtained at initial presentation included severe normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis (>100,000/microL) with 77% eosinophils. After 15 days of treatment with prednisone and doxycycline, the cat had persistent severe nonregenerative anemia (HCT 3.4%), thrombocytopenia (28,000/microL), and extreme eosinophilia (total eosinophils, 123.1 x 10(3)/microL; segmented 103.0 x 10(3)/microL; immature 20.1 X 10(3)/microL). Cytologic examination of aspirates from bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen revealed a predominance of mature and immature eosinophils, many with dysplastic changes. The M:E ratio was 96.4. On histopathologic examination, multiple organs were infiltrated by eosinophilic granulocytes. Neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and were negative for myeloperoxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. On flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD11b and CD14. These findings were consistent with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat associated with naturally acquired FeLV infection, in which flow cytometry was used to characterize the neoplastic cells. PMID:17123254

  19. Role of Eosinophil Granulocytes in Allergic Airway Inflammation Endotypes.

    PubMed

    Amin, K; Janson, C; Bystrom, J

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes are intriguing members of the innate immunity system that have been considered important defenders during parasitic diseases as well as culprits during allergy-associated inflammatory diseases. Novel studies have, however, found new homoeostasis-maintaining roles for the cell. Recent clinical trials blocking different Th2 cytokines have uncovered that asthma is heterogeneous entity and forms different characteristic endotypes. Although eosinophils are present in allergic asthma with early onset, the cells may not be essential for the pathology. The cells are, however, likely disease causing in asthma with a late onset, which is often associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Assessment of eosinophilia, fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and periostin are markers that have emerged useful in assessing and monitoring asthma severity and endotype. Current scientific knowledge suggests that eosinophils are recruited by the inflammatory environment, activated by the innate interleukin (IL)-33 and prevented from apoptosis by both lymphocytes and innate immune cells such as type two innate immune cells. Eosinophils contain four specific granule proteins that exhibit an array of toxic and immune-modulatory activates. The granule proteins can be released by different mechanisms. Additionally, eosinophils contain a number of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators as well as radical oxygen species that might contribute to the disease both by the recruitment of other cells and the direct damage to supporting cells, leading to exacerbations and tissue fibrosis. This review aimed to outline current knowledge how eosinophils are recruited, activated and mediate damage to tissues and therapies used to control the cells. PMID:27167590

  20. Caustic ingestion: a possible cause of eosinophilic esophagitis?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok; Liacouras, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease in both pediatric and adult patients. It is a chronic disease of the esophagus and refers to intense eosinophilic infiltration limited to the esophageal epithelium in the absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In most patients, EoE is thought to be part of an allergic response to food antigens or aeroallergens. One such trigger could be caustic damage of the mucosa. To the best of our knowledge, the following case report describes for the first time the possible association between caustic injury of the esophagus and EoE. PMID:23478872

  1. Primary Eosinophilic Gastritis in a Child with Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Richa; Patne, Shashikant C U; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2016-06-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with multiple episodes of vomiting, fever, and hematemesis for the past 2 months. Except for hemoglobin, her rests of the laboratory tests were unremarkable. Her barium X-ray showed absence of the duodenal bulb and the C-loop. Her endoscopy showed deformed stomach with multiple ulcers and diverticuli. The gastric outlet was not visualized. Distal gastrectomy with gastro-duodenal anastomosis was performed. Histopathological findings revealed transmural dense infiltrates of eosinophils, consistent with eosinophilic gastritis. PMID:26768007

  2. Recent advances in the recognition and management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Eustace, Gregory; Gui, Xianyong; Iacucci, Marietta

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and recognition of eosinophilic esophagitis is increasing. Pathophysiological understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis is improving and an immunological reaction to ingested food is likely to play a significant role. Patients present with dysphagia and food bolus obstruction. Both histological and endoscopic criteria have been developed and validated. Dietary therapy, topical steroid therapy, proton pump inhibitors and endoscopic dilation are the main approaches to therapy; however, novel targeted therapies are being developed. Among the food items commonly implicated are wheat, dairy, nuts, soy, shellfish and eggs. A multidisciplinary approach to management in dedicated clinics may yield the best results. PMID:26076223

  3. Spontaneous intramural esophageal dissection: an unusual onset of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Sanz, Gemma; Rodríguez Alonso, Lorena; Romero Martínez, Natalia M

    2016-03-01

    A 35-year-old man, with a history of rhinitis, eczema and a dubious achalasia was admitted due to chest pain and sialorrhea. Upper endoscopy showed a little hole and a narrowing of the distal esophagus. A CT-scan with oral contrast exposed a discontinuity of the lumen of the middle third of the esophagus and a dissection of submucosal space 16 cm long. The patient recovered after parenteral nutrition. After four months, an esophageal endoscopic showed transient whitish exudates, longitudinal furrows and esophageal lacerations. The biopsies illustrated significant eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophilic microabscesses and basal cell hyperplasia. PMID:26949147

  4. Eosinophilic esophagitis as paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with ganglioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Prader, S; Spalinger, J; Caduff, J; Hürlimann, S; Rischewski, J

    2015-05-01

    A 16-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive despite sufficient caloric intake, hypersalivation, abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea and blepharitis. An eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was diagnosed by esophageal biopsy. Dietary restrictions and topical steroid treatment lead to no improvement. Further diagnostic work-up revealed an intrathoracal, paraspinal ganglioneuroblastoma. After operative extirpation of the tumour, all initial symptoms resolved. An esophageal control biopsy 4 weeks after tumour resection was normal. This is the first report of eosinophilic esophagitis as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with a malignant disease other than a carcinoma. PMID:25985452

  5. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon

    2016-01-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  6. Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils

    SciTech Connect

    Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P. )

    1991-09-01

    The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 {times} 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 {plus minus} 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 {plus minus} 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 {plus minus} 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 {plus minus} 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of (3H)LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 {plus minus} 0.14 and 18.14 {plus minus} 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 {times} 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 {times} 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions.

  7. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children with esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, J; Tobias, V; Sugo, E; Varjavandi, V; Lemberg, D; Day, A; Bohane, T; Ledder, O; Jiwane, A; Adams, S; Henry, G; Dilley, A; Shi, E; Krishnan, U

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has only rarely been reported in esophageal atresia (EA) patients. A retrospective case analysis of all EA patients born at our center between January 1999 and April 2012 was performed. A total of 113 of patients were identified; 10 patients were excluded as a result of inadequate data. Eighteen patients (17%) were diagnosed with EoE. The average number of eosinophilis was 30/high-power field (HPF) (19/HPF-80/HPF). The median age for diagnosis of EoE was 1 year and 6 months (8 months-8 years and 7 months). Children with EoE had a significantly greater incidence of reflux symptoms, dysphagia, tracheomalacia, and 'hypoxic spells' (P < 0.05). EoE patients also underwent significantly more surgery including fundoplication and aortopexy when compared with those without EoE (P < 0.0001). Although the incidence of gastrostomy was greater in the EoE group (33% vs. 13%), this was not statistically significant. Half of the EoE patients had a coexisting atopic condition at time of diagnosis. The commonest condition was asthma 7/18 (38%) followed by specific food allergy 6/18 (33%). EoE was treated in 11 patients with either swallowed fluticasone or budesonide slurry. All improved clinically. Histologically, five had complete resolution and six had partial improvement. Six children with EoE were treated with acid suppression alone. All improved clinically, and 5/6 had subsequent histological resolution. One child who received acid suppression and an exclusion diet also improved. Seven patients (38%) had an esophageal stricture at time of EoE diagnosis. Five were dilated at time of the initial endoscopy, prior to the diagnosis of EoE being available. Two patients had resolution of their strictures on medical treatment of their EoE alone and did not require further dilatation. EoE was seen in 17% of children with EA in this study. EoE should be considered in EA patients with persistent symptoms on standard reflux treatment, increasing

  8. Eosinophils in the zebrafish: prospective isolation, characterization, and eosinophilia induction by helminth determinants

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Keir M.; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Stachura, David L.; Hu, Yan; Bañuelos, Karina; Romo-Fewell, Octavio; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophils are granulocytic leukocytes implicated in numerous aspects of immunity and disease. The precise functions of eosinophils, however, remain enigmatic. Alternative models to study eosinophil biology may thus yield novel insights into their function. Eosinophilic cells have been observed in zebrafish but have not been thoroughly characterized. We used a gata2:eGFP transgenic animal to enable prospective isolation and characterization of zebrafish eosinophils, and demonstrate that all gata2hi cells in adult hematopoietic tissues are eosinophils. Although eosinophils are rare in most organs, they are readily isolated from whole kidney marrow and abundant within the peritoneal cavity. Molecular analyses demonstrate that zebrafish eosinophils express genes important for the activities of mammalian eosinophils. In addition, gata2hi cells degranulate in response to helminth extract. Chronic exposure to helminth- related allergens resulted in profound eosinophilia, demonstrating that eosinophil responses to allergens have been conserved over evolution. Importantly, infection of adult zebrafish with Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, a natural nematode pathogen of teleosts, caused marked increases in eosinophil number within the intestine. Together, these observations support a conserved role for eosinophils in the response to helminth antigens or infection and provide a new model to better understand how parasitic worms activate, co-opt, or evade the vertebrate immune response. PMID:20713961

  9. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  10. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  11. Eosinophils Are Important for Protection, Immunoregulation and Pathology during Infection with Nematode Microfilariae

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, Emma T.; Thysse, Katherine A.; Bearder, Siobhan; Cheung, Anita Y. N.; Johnston, Ashleigh C.; Lee, James J.; Lawrence, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophil responses typify both allergic and parasitic helminth disease. In helminthic disease, the role of eosinophils can be both protective in immune responses and destructive in pathological responses. To investigate whether eosinophils are involved in both protection and pathology during filarial nematode infection, we explored the role of eosinophils and their granule proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1), during infection with Brugia malayi microfilariae. Using eosinophil-deficient mice (PHIL), we further clarify the role of eosinophils in clearance of microfilariae during primary, but not challenge infection in vivo. Deletion of EPO or MBP-1 alone was insufficient to abrogate parasite clearance suggesting that either these molecules are redundant or eosinophils act indirectly in parasite clearance via augmentation of other protective responses. Absence of eosinophils increased mast cell recruitment, but not other cell types, into the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid during challenge infection. In addition absence of eosinophils or EPO alone, augmented parasite-induced IgE responses, as measured by ELISA, demonstrating that eosinophils are involved in regulation of IgE. Whole body plethysmography indicated that nematode-induced changes in airway physiology were reduced in challenge infection in the absence of eosinophils and also during primary infection in the absence of EPO alone. However lack of eosinophils or MBP-1 actually increased goblet cell mucus production. We did not find any major differences in cytokine responses in the absence of eosinophils, EPO or MBP-1. These results reveal that eosinophils actively participate in regulation of IgE and goblet cell mucus production via granule secretion during nematode-induced pathology and highlight their importance both as effector cells, as damage-inducing cells and as supervisory cells that shape both innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:24626328

  12. Eosinophilic otitis media: a new middle ear disease entity.

    PubMed

    Iino, Yukiko

    2008-11-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is intractable otitis media characterized by the presence of a highly viscous yellow effusion containing eosinophils. It occurs mainly in patients with bronchial asthma and is resistant to conventional treatments for otitis media. Here we discuss the clinical features, pathogenesis, and management of EOM. EOM predominantly affects women and presents most often in patients in their 50s. The clinical features of the middle ear in EOM are roughly divided into the otitis media with effusion type and chronic otitis media type. The latter is further divided into two subtypes: simple perforation and granulation tissue formation. EOM is often complicated by rhinosinusitis (eosinophilic sinusitis). High-tone loss is more frequently found and more severe in EOM patients than in chronic otitis media control patients, and EOM patients sometimes become deaf suddenly. Systemic or topical steroid administration is the most effective treatment for patients with EOM. The instillation of triamcinolone acetonide, a suspension of steroids, into the middle ear is very effective for controlling eosinophilic inflammation. It is very important to explain to patients with EOM that the disease may last for a long period and that progressive and sudden hearing loss may occur. PMID:18940145

  13. Eosinophilic cystitis in a female German wire-haired pointer

    PubMed Central

    Evason, Michelle D.; Carr, Anthony P.

    2007-01-01

    A 7-month-old, intact female, German wire-haired pointer presented with a 3-week history of stranguria, pollakiuria, and dysuria that was nonresponsive to antibiotics. Two prior episodes of dysuria-stranguria appeared to respond to antibiotic therapy. Bladder wall biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis and the dog responded well to medical management. PMID:17542370

  14. Histologic analysis of eosinophils and mast cells of the gastrointestinal tract in healthy Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Chernetsova, Elizaveta; Sullivan, Katrina; de Nanassy, Joseph; Barkey, Janice; Mack, David; Nasr, Ahmed; El Demellawy, Dina

    2016-08-01

    Many gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including GI eosinophilia and inflammatory bowel disease, can be characterized by increased mucosal eosinophils (EOs) or mast cells (MCs). Normal mucosal cellular counts along the GI tract in healthy children have not been established for a Canadian pediatric population. To establish a benchmark reference, we quantified EO and MC from 356 mucosal biopsies of the GI tract obtained during upper and lower endoscopic biopsies of 38 pediatric patients in eastern Ontario. Mean total counts of EO varied for the 11 tissues we examined, from a low of 7.6±6.5/high-power field (HPF) (×40 [×400, 0.55mm(2)]) in the body of the stomach to a high of 50.3±17.4/HPF in the cecum. The lower GI tract (ileum, cecum, colon, sigmoid, and rectum) generally had higher total EO counts than the upper GI tract (antrum and body of stomach, duodenum, and duodenal cap) (combined average of 32.1±20.6 versus 19.3±15.8, respectively). Similarly, the number of mucosal MC was different in the various regions of the GI tract ranging from 0.04±0.2/HPF in the duodenal cap to 0.9±2.6/HPF in the ileum. Total counts for EO and MC in the lamina propria were not significantly different between sexes when adjusted for multiple testing. EO polarity was absent in many cases, irrespective of the GI region. These numeration and localization of EO and MC will provide normative data for upper and lower endoscopic GI biopsies in the pediatric population of Eastern Ontario. PMID:27045513

  15. Comparison of human eosinophils from normals and patients with eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Bass, D A; Grover, W H; Lewis, J C; Szejda, P; DeChatelet, L R; McCall, C E

    1980-12-01

    Previous studies of the biochemistry and physiology of eosinophils have relied upon cells obtained from patients with eosinophilia (EE). It is unknown whether such cells might have been activated or partially exhausted by the pathological state causing eosinophilia. We examined cell surface charge, membrane transport of deoxyglucose, activation of lyso-somal acid phosphatase, and oxidative metabolism to provide a profile to compare EE with purified normal eosinophils (NE) and normal neutrophils. Eosinophils or neutrophils were obtained in >95% purity from normal individuals and patients with eosinophilia of diverse etiologies. Cell surface charge was determined by electrophoretic mobility in micromoles per second per volt per centimeter. Normal eosinophils demonstrated a surface charge of 2.46+/-0.03. Stimulation of the cells by zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) reduced the surface charge to 1.82+/-0.02. In contrast, the charge of "resting" EE was already reduced (1.89+/-0.05) and was not altered by ZAS. Resting and stimulated neutrophils had a charge of 1.98+/-0.01 and 1.69+/-0.02, respectively. Uptake of [(3)H]2-deoxyglucose has been shown to reflect carrier-facilitated hexose transport in granulocytes. Deoxyglucose uptake by resting NE and NE stimulated by ZAS was 2.40+/-0.40 and 5.44+/-0.39 (cpm x 10(-3)/2 x 10(5) eosinophils), respectively. Resting and stimulated EE demonstrated deoxyglucose uptake of 7.55+/-0.58 and 15.3+/-0.6, respectively.Lysosomal acid phosphatase was determined by an electron microscopic cytochemical technique. In normal eosinophils and neutrophils, lysosomal acid phosphatase in mature cells is held in a latent form. Normal eosinophils demonstrated weakly positive acid phosphatase activity in 7.8+/-1.2% of the specific granules. Normal eosinophils, stimulated by opsonized staphylococci or the calcium ionophore A23187, develop rapid activation of acid phosphatase in approximately 80% of the granules throughout the cells. Resting EE were

  16. Interleukin-5 pathway inhibition in the treatment of eosinophilic respiratory disorders: evidence and unmet needs

    PubMed Central

    Varricchi, Gilda; Bagnasco, Diego; Borriello, Francesco; Heffler, Enrico; Canonica, Giorgio W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Human eosinophils were first identified and named by Paul Ehrlich in 1879 on the basis of the cell's granular uptake of eosin. Although eosinophils represent approximately 1% of peripheral blood leukocytes, they have the propensity to leave the blood stream and migrate into inflamed tissues. Eosinophils and their mediators are critical effectors to asthma and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Eosinophils are equipped with a large number of cell-surface receptors and produce specific cytokines and chemokines. Recent findings Eosinophils are the major source of interleukin-5 and highly express the interleukin-5Rα on their surface. Clinical trials evaluating monoclonal antibodies to interleukin-5 (mepolizumab and reslizumab) and its receptor interleukin-5Rα (benralizumab) have been or are underway in patients with eosinophilic asthma, EGPA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Overall, targeting interleukin-5/interleukin-5Rα is associated with a marked decrease in blood and sputum eosinophilia, the number of exacerbations and improvement of some clinical parameters in adult patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Pilot studies suggest that mepolizumab might be a glucocorticoid-sparing treatment in patients with EGPA. A preliminary study found that benralizumab did not reduce the exacerbations and did modify lung function in patients with eosinophilic COPD. Summary The review examines recent advances in the biology of eosinophils and how targeting the interleukin-5 pathway might offer benefit to some patients with severe asthma, EGPA, and COPD. Interleukin-5/interleukin-5Rα-targeted treatments offer promises to patients with eosinophilic respiratory disorders. PMID:26859368

  17. Eosinophil differentiation in the bone marrow is promoted by protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2

    PubMed Central

    Xia, L-x; Hua, W; Jin, Y; Tian, B-p; Qiu, Z-w; Zhang, C; Che, L-q; Zhou, H-b; Wu, Y-f; Huang, H-q; Lan, F; Ke, Y-h; Lee, J J; Li, W; Ying, S-m; Chen, Z-h; Shen, H-h

    2016-01-01

    SHP2 participates in multiple signaling events by mediating T-cell development and function, and regulates cytokine-dependent granulopoiesis. To explore whether and how SHP2 can regulate bone-marrow eosinophil differentiation, we investigate the contribution of SHP2 in the bone-marrow eosinophil development in allergic mice. Blockade of SHP2 function by SHP2 inhibitor PHPS-1 or conditional shp2 knockdown by adenovirus-inhibited bone-marrow-derived eosinophil differentiation in vitro, with no detectable effects on the apoptosis of eosinophils. Furthermore, SHP2 induced eosinophil differentiation via regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Myeloid shp2 conditional knockout mice (LysMcreshp2flox/flox) failed to induce eosinophilia as well as airway hyper-responsiveness. The SHP2 inhibitor PHPS-1 also alleviated eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness, accompanied by significantly reduced levels of systemic eosinophils and eosinophil lineage-committed progenitors in allergic mice. We demonstrate that inhibition of eosinophil development is SHP2-dependent and SHP2 is sufficient to promote eosinophil formation in vivo. Our data reveal SHP2 as a critical regulator of eosinophil differentiation, and inhibition of SHP2 specifically in myeloid cells alleviates allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27054330

  18. Specific pollen allergen activates eosinophils of the patient with chronic allergic contact urticaria.

    PubMed

    Panaszek, B; Małolepszy, J; Kuryszko, J; Litwa, M

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of eosinophils in an unique case of a young man with atopy manifested as chronic pollen contact urticaria. In order to reveal the role of eosinophils in that case, the study was performed by means of monoclonal antibodies EG2 and chemiluminescence. In addition, comparative electron microscopic study of peripheral blood and skin infiltrating eosinophils were performed for which the name ultrastructural morphometric analysis of intracytoplasmic eosinophil granules has been proposed. The results indicated, that 40% of peripheral blood eosinophils were activated spontaneously and they were more active than those in skin infiltrates. Specific pollen allergen caused activation of 100% of peripheral blood eosinophils. The study suggests presence of a systemic pattern of eosinophil activation in atopy. PMID:7487362

  19. Eosinophil-Associated Lung Diseases. A Cry for Surfactant Proteins A and D Help?

    PubMed Central

    Ledford, Julie G.; Addison, Kenneth J.; Foster, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D (SP-A/-D) play important roles in numerous eosinophil-dominated diseases, including asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and allergic rhinitis. In these settings, SP-A/-D have been shown to modulate eosinophil chemotaxis, inhibit eosinophil mediator release, and mediate macrophage clearance of apoptotic eosinophils. Dysregulation of SP-A/-D function in eosinophil-dominated diseases is also not uncommon. Alterations in serum SP-A/-D levels are associated with disease severity in allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, oligimerization of SP-A/-D, necessary for their proper function, can be perturbed by reactive nitrogen species, which are increased in eosinophilic disease. In this review, we highlight the associations of eosinophilic lung diseases with SP-A and SP-D levels and functions. PMID:24960334

  20. Immunoregulatory roles of eosinophils: a new look at a familiar cell

    PubMed Central

    Akuthota, P.; Wang, H. B.; Spencer, L. A.; Weller, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are usually considered as end-stage degranulating effector cells of innate immunity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed additional roles for eosinophils that are immunoregulatory in nature in both the adaptive and innate arms of immunity. Specifically, eosinophils have key immunoregulatory roles as professional antigen-presenting cells and as modulators of CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B cell, mast cell, neutrophil, and basophil functions. This review addresses the emerging immunoregulatory roles of eosinophils with a focus on recent data that support this new paradigm. Recognizing both the effector and immunoregulatory functions of eosinophils will enable a fuller understanding of the roles of eosinophils in allergic airways inflammation and may be pertinent to therapies that target eosinophils both for their acute and ongoing immunomodulatory functions. PMID:18727793

  1. Siglec-8 on human eosinophils and mast cells, and Siglec-F on murine eosinophils, are functionally related inhibitory receptors *

    PubMed Central

    Bochner, Bruce S.

    2009-01-01

    Siglecs (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin [Ig]-like lectins) are a family of single-pass transmembrane cell surface proteins found predominantly on leukocytes. Their unique structural characteristics include an N-terminal carbohydrate-binding (“lectin”) domain that binds sialic acid, followed by a variable number of Ig-like domains, hence these structures are a subset of the Ig gene superfamily. Another unique feature of Siglecs is that most, but not all, possess so-called immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (“ITIMs”) in their cytoplasmic domains, suggesting that these molecules function in an inhibitory capacity. Siglec-8, the eighth member identified at the time, was discovered as part of an effort initiated almost a decade ago to identify novel human eosinophil and mast cell proteins. Since that time, its selective expression on human eosinophils and mast cells has been confirmed. On eosinophils, Siglec-8 engagement results in apoptosis, whereas on mast cells, inhibition of FcεRI-dependent mediator release, without apoptosis, is seen. It has subsequently been determined that the closest functional paralog in the mouse is Siglec-F, selectively expressed by eosinophils but not expressed on mast cells. Despite only modest homology, both Siglec-8 and Siglec-F preferentially recognize a sulfated glycan ligand closely related to sialyl Lewis X, a common ligand for the selectin family of adhesion molecules. Murine experiments in normal, Siglec-F-deficient mice and hypereosinophilic mice have resulted in similar conclusions that Siglec-F, like Siglec-8, plays a distinctive and important role in regulating eosinophil accumulation and survival in vivo. Given the resurgent interest in eosinophil-directed therapies for a variety of disorders, plus its unique additional ability to also target the mast cell, therapies focusing on Siglec-8 could some day prove to be a useful adjunct to our current armamentarium for the treatment of asthma, allergies and

  2. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Özcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Methods: Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Results: Patients’ demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Conclusion: Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow. PMID:25225502

  3. Eosinophilic presentation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rezamand, Azim; Ghorashi, Ziaaedin; Ghorashi, Sona; Nezami, Nariman

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 5 Primary Diagnosis: Rule-out appendicitis Co-existing Diseases: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Medication: Chemiotherapy Clinical Procedure: Chest CT • flow cytometry Specialty: Pediatrics’ oncology • infection diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Leukemias are among the most common childhood malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) accounts for 77% of all leukemias. In rare cases, ALL patients may present with eosinophilia. Case Report: Here, a 5-year old boy was admitted to our hospital with a possible diagnosis of appendicitis. This patient’s complete blood cell count demonstrated leukocytosis with severe eosinophilia. Following a 1-month clinical investigation, 2 bone marrow aspirations, and flow cytometry analysis, a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was proposed. Finally, the patient was transferred to the oncology ward to receive standard therapeutic protocol, which resulted in disease remission. After chemotherapy for 2 years, patient is successfully treated. Conclusions: ALL is diagnosed by eosinophilia in rare cases. These patients need immediate diagnosis and intensive therapy due to worsened prognosis of ALL presenting as hypereosinophilia. PMID:23869247

  4. Carbonic anhydrase IV (CAR4) is expressed on IL-5 activated murine eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ting; Mingler, Melissa K.; Wahl, Benjamin; Khorki, M. Eyad; Pabst, Oliver; Zimmermann, Nives; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilia and its cellular activation are hallmark features of asthma, as well as other allergic/TH2 disorders, yet there are few, if any, reliable surface markers of eosinophil activation. We have employed a FACS-based genome-wide screening system to identify transcriptional alterations in murine lung eosinophils recruited and activated by pulmonary allergen exposure. Using a relatively stringent screen with false-positive correction, we identified 82 candidate genes that could serve as eosinophil activation markers and/or pathogenic effector markers in asthma. Carbonic anhydrase IV (Car4) was a top dysregulated gene with 36-fold induction in allergen-elicited pulmonary eosinophils, which was validated by quantitative PCR, IHC and by flow cytometry. Eosinophil CAR4 expression was kinetically regulated by IL-5 but not IL-13. IL-5 was both necessary and sufficient for induction of eosinophil CAR4. While CAR4-deficient mice did not have a defect in eosinophil recruitment to the lung nor a change in eosinophil pH-buffering capacity, allergen-challenged chimeric mice that contained Car4−/− hematopoietic cells aberrantly expressed a series of genes enriched in biological processes involved in epithelial differentiation, keratinization, and anion exchange. In conclusion, we have determined that eosinophils express CAR4 following IL-5 or allergen exposure, and that CAR4 is involved in regulating the lung transcriptome associated with allergic airway inflammation; as such, CAR4 has potential value for diagnosing and monitoring eosinophilic responses. PMID:24808371

  5. A specific elevation of RANTES in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kurashima, K; Mukaida, N; Fujimura, M; Yasui, M; Shinagawa, T; Matsuda, T; Ohmoto, Y; Matsushima, K

    1997-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a rare, idiopathic lung disorder characterized pathologically by massive eosinophil infiltration into lung. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with CEP, eosinophil numbers were markedly increased but returned to normal-levels upon the resolution of clinical symptoms, which suggests the crucial role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of CEP. To clarify the mechanism of eosinophil accumulation in CEP, we determined the BALF levels of RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, two chemokines that predominantly exhibit in vitro eosinophil chemotactic activities. RANTES (106.7 +/- 27.2 pg/mg albumin; n = 16) concentrations in BALF from patients with CEP were significantly elevated in comparison with those of normal control subjects (1.4 pg/mg albumin; n = 13), whereas BALF macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha levels were not. In addition, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in BALF were positively stained with a specific anti-RANTES antibody, which suggests that RANTES was produced locally in the lungs of CEP patients. Moreover, BALF-RANTES levels correlated significantly with the proportion of eosinophils in BALF. Furthermore, nearly half of the eosinophil chemotactic activities in BALF were abrogated by the anti-RANTES antibody in vitro. Collectively, these data suggest that locally produced RANTES is involved in eosinophil accumulation in the pulmonary alveolus and interstitium of patients with CEP. PMID:9010450

  6. Activation of β1 Integrins on Blood Eosinophils by P-Selectin

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Deane F.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of β1 integrins of blood eosinophils, assessed by mAb N29, correlates inversely with FEV1 in two paradigms for studying control of human asthma. We asked whether P-selectin causes eosinophil β1 integrin activation and results in increased adhesivity. By dual-label flow cytometry, eosinophils with high levels of surface-associated P-selectin had higher reactivity with the activation-sensitive anti-β1 mAbs N29, 8E3, and 9EG7 than eosinophils with no or with a low-level of surface-associated P-selectin. Among patients with nonsevere asthma, surface P-selectin correlated with N29, 8E3, and 9EG7 signals. By immunofluorescence microscopy, surface-associated P-selectin was present in patches on eosinophils, some of which stained for the platelet marker thrombospondin-1. Activated β1 and P-selectin partially colocalized on eosinophils. Soluble P-selectin added to whole blood enhanced activation of eosinophil β1, but not β2, integrins. In contrast, IL-5 activated eosinophil β2, but not β1, integrins. Eosinophils that did not attach to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in a static adhesion assay had a lower N29 signal than the original population. Soluble P-selectin added to whole blood enhanced eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1. These findings are compatible with a scenario whereby P-selectin, on eosinophil-associated activated platelets or acquired from plasma or from prior interactions with endothelial cells or platelets, activates eosinophil α4β1 integrin and stimulates eosinophils to adhere to VCAM-1 and move to the airway in asthma. PMID:21441381

  7. Differential Activation of Airway Eosinophils Induces IL-13 Mediated Allergic Th2 Pulmonary Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, EA; Doyle, AD; Colbert, DC; Zellner, KR; Protheroe, CA; LeSuer, WE; Lee, NA.; Lee, JJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are hallmark cells of allergic Th2 respiratory inflammation. However, the relative importance of eosinophil activation and the induction of effector functions such as the expression of IL-13 to allergic Th2 pulmonary disease remain to be defined. Methods Wild type or cytokine deficient (IL-13−/− or IL-4−/−) eosinophils treated with cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-33) were adoptively transferred into eosinophil-deficient recipient mice subjected to allergen provocation using established models of respiratory inflammation. Allergen-induced pulmonary changes were assessed. Results In contrast to the transfer of untreated blood eosinophils to the lungs of recipient eosinophildeficient mice, which induced no immune/inflammatory changes either in the lung or lung draining lymph nodes (LDLNs), pretreatment of blood eosinophils with GM-CSF prior to transfer elicited trafficking of these eosinophils to LDLNs. In turn, these LDLN eosinophils elicited the accumulation of dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells to these same LDLNs without inducing pulmonary inflammation. However, exposure of eosinophils to GM-CSF, IL-4 and IL-33 prior to transfer induced not only immune events in the LDLN, but also allergen-mediated increases in airway Th2 cytokine/chemokine levels, the subsequent accumulation of CD4+ T cells as well as alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, and the induction of pulmonary histopathologies. Significantly, this allergic respiratory inflammation was dependent on eosinophil-derived IL-13 whereas IL-4 expression by eosinophils had no significant role. Conclusion The data demonstrate the differential activation of eosinophils as a function of cytokine exposure and suggest that eosinophil-specific IL-13 expression by activated cells is a necessary component of the subsequent allergic Th2 pulmonary pathologies. PMID:26009788

  8. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group. PMID:27610357

  9. T-helper 2 Cytokines, Transforming Growth Factor β1, and Eosinophil Products Induce Fibrogenesis and Alter Muscle Motility in Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Nonevski, Ilche; Ma, Jie; Ouyang, Zhufeng; West, Gail; Protheroe, Cheryl; DePetris, Giovanni; Schirbel, Anja; Lapinski, James; Goldblum, John; Bonfield, Tracey; Lopez, Rocio; Harnett, Karen; Lee, James; Hirano, Ikuo; Falk, Gary; Biancani, Piero; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) often become dysphagic from the combination of organ fibrosis and motor abnormalities. We investigated mechanisms of dysphagia, assessing the response of human esophageal fibroblasts (HEF), muscle cells (HEMC), and esophageal muscle strips to eosinophil-derived products. METHODS Biopsies were collected via endoscopy from the upper, middle and lower thirds of the esophagus of 18 patients with EoE and 21 individuals undergoing endoscopy for other reasons (controls). Primary cultures of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells were derived from 12 freshly resected human esophagectomy specimens. Eosinophil distribution was investigated by histologic analyses of full-thickness esophageal tissue. Active secretion of EoE-related mediators was assessed from medium underlying mucosal biopsy cultures. We quantified production of fibronectin and collagen I by HEF and HEMC in response to eosinophil products. We also measured expression of ICAM1 and VCAM1 by, and adhesion of human eosinophils to, HEF and HEMC. Eosinophil products were tested in an esophageal muscle contraction assay. RESULTS Activated eosinophils were present in all esophageal layers. Significantly higher concentrations of eosinophil-related mediators were spontaneously secreted in mucosal biopsies from patients with EoE than controls. Exposure of HEF and HEMC to increasing concentrations of eosinophil products or co-culture with eosinophils caused HEF and HEMC to increase secretion of fibronectin and collagen I; this was inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAKP) signaling. Eosinophil binding to HEF and HEMC increased following incubation of mesenchymal cells with eosinophil-derived products, and decreased following blockade of TGFβ1 and p38MAPK blockade. Eosinophil products reduced electrical field-induced contraction of esophageal muscle strips, but not acetylcholine

  10. [Differencial diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease -- eosinophilic esophagitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Franzius, M; Stolte, M; Porschen, R

    2005-04-01

    We report on a 22-year-old man with dysphagia and repeated bolus impaction in the esophagus for 10 years. Bolus impactions were frequently mobilised using an endoscope. At endoscopy, esophagitis IV degrees was described. After treatment with omeprazol there was no improvement. The patient was submitted to our hospital for fundoplication. pH-metry demonstrated an increased reflux. At endoscopy of the esophagus, we found red stripes which did not show the typical appearance of erosions. Manometry and X-ray films of the esophagus did not reveal any pathological findings. In combination with anamnesis, symptoms, and endoscopy, the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis was documented by histology. After administration of oral corticosteroids a rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms was observed. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis should be kept in mind in patients with chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux persisting despite medical therapy, pathological pH-metry and repeated bolus impactions. PMID:15830305

  11. Eosinophilic pleuritis due to sparganum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Chang, You-Jin; Eom, Keeseon; Park, Jung-Gi; Lee, Ki-Man; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; An, Jin-Young

    2014-10-01

    Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:25352705

  12. Emphysematous Eosinophilic Lymphangitis in the Ruminal Submucosa of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ohfuji, S

    2015-11-01

    Twenty cattle (14 Holstein-Friesian, 3 Japanese Black, 3 Aberdeen Angus) ranging in age from 3 months to 8 years exhibited, at slaughter, emphysematous thickening of the ruminal submucosa owing to the appearance of numerous, contiguous, small gas bubbles. Microscopic changes in the ruminal submucosa consisted of (1) multiple cystic (emphysematous) lymphangiectasis that was frequently lined or occluded by granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates including macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, and eosinophils; (2) intralymphatic phagocytosis by macrophages and giant cells of eosinophils that showed positive labeling with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay; and (3) an inflammatory infiltrate extending from the area of lymphangitis into surrounding tissue, as well as edema, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibroplasia, or capillary proliferation throughout the lesional submucosa. In addition, 15 (75%) of the cattle had globular leukocyte infiltrates in the mucosal epithelia of the rumen. PMID:25710949

  13. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Pyrethroid Exposure & Change In Smoking Habit!

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Kevin; Klair, Jagpal Singh; Johnsrud, Andrew; Meena, Nikhil K

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP) in a 29-year-old white woman with recent use of a'flea bomb' (containing pyrethroids) at home while remaining indoors, about 48 hours prior to presentation, and recent change in smoking habit (restarted 2 weeks prior after quitting for 10 years). She presented with two days of worsening fever, shortness of breath, productive cough, developed hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. She required a PEEP of 20 and 100% FiO2 to maintain oxygenation. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed 36% Eosinophils. She was given IV steroids with dramatic clinical and radiological improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report associating AEP with pyrethroid exposure. PMID:27434983

  14. Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Patient with Bronchial Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Arindom; Al-Ismaili, Suad; Ramadhan, Fatma A.; Al-Wardi, Talal H. M.; Al-Salmi, Quasem; Al-Hashami, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary myiasis is an unusual form of myiasis in humans and has been recently identified as a cause of eosinophilic pneumonia. We report the case of a 13-year-old Omani boy who presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in October 2014 with respiratory distress. Bronchial aspirates revealed features of eosinophilic pneumonia. Possible larvae identified in the cytology report, a high immunoglobulin E level and the patient history all indicated bronchial myiasis. The patient was treated with steroids and ventilation and has since been disease-free with no long-term side-effects. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of bronchial myiasis in Oman. PMID:26629385

  15. Eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture: a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Daniel; Naseem, Zainab; Mustaev, Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Although the most common cause of cholecystitis is gallstones, other conditions may present as acute cholecystitis. We describe a case of eosinophilic cholecystitis with common bile duct stricture. A 36-year-old woman initially had generalised abdominal pain and peripheral eosinophilia. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed eosinophilic ascites and necrotic nodules on the posterior abdominal wall. She was treated with anthelminthics on presumption of toxacara infection based on borderline positivity of serological tests. She later presented with acute cholecystitis and had a cholecystectomy and choledocotomy. Day 9 T-tube cholangiogram showed irregular narrowing of the distal common bile duct. The patient's symptoms were improved with steroids and the T-tube was subsequently removed. PMID:27222280

  16. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis preceding allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Teo, F S W; Santosa, A; Teng, G G

    2015-11-01

    A 61-year-old Chinese man with long-standing, stable Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and asthma, presented with acute hypoxemia and declining obstructive pulmonary function. Elevated serum IgE levels, positive Aspergillus fumigatus specific IgE and CT findings of central bronchiectasis with small airway mucoid impaction confirmed new development of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). The maintenance therapy for EGPA, azathioprine, was discontinued. Prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/day and Itraconazole improved his symptoms and IgE levels. To our knowledge, ABPA occurring in a patient with EGPA has not been reported. Differentiation of EGPA with asthmatic flare vs ABPA vs asthma with aspergillus hypersensitivity is discussed. Heightened Th2 immunity where eosinophils play a central role may link these conditions. PMID:26549342

  17. Insights into the emerging epidemic of eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EOE) is a relatively recently recognised condition characterised by an increase in oesophageal eosinophils. EOE occurs in children and adults with a strong male preponderance. There has been a sharp increase in EOE in North America, Europe and Australia. The reasons for this increase remain unclear but are likely to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors, as well as early-life exposures. Based on recent population-based data, the estimated EOE prevalence in the USA is 56.7 per 100,000 persons. The peak prevalence was observed in patients between 35 and 39 years of age. Prevalence figures in Asia and the Middle East generally appear to be lower than in Western countries, but population-based studies are not available. A causal association between coeliac disease and EOE appears unlikely. Data on the seasonal variation of EOE remain inconclusive. Further population-based studies are needed to define the epidemiology of EOE. PMID:26552772

  18. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Won Jung; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity. PMID:22563277

  19. Montelukast as a treatment modality for eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    De Maeyer, N; Kochuyt, A-M; Van Moerkercke, W; Hiele, M

    2011-12-01

    Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare condition, caused by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates in the gastrointestinal tract. It is usually treated successfully with systemic glucocorticoids. Because of frequent relapses, however, there is need for alternatives. We describe a 38-year old man with steroid-dependent EG, who was successfully treated with montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist. It inhibits leukotriene D4, an important cytokine in the inflammatory cascade. Although montelukast could not replace steroid therapy, it acted as a steroid sparing agent in our patient. Review of the literature shows that montelukast is efficient in the treatment of EG in a part of the patients. The low cost, the low number of side effects and its efficiency make it an interesting alternative in relapsing or steroid dependent EG. There is need for multicentric studies regarding the treatment of EG. PMID:22319970

  20. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: The "Not-So-Rare" Disease.

    PubMed

    Goh, Vi Lier

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively newly described disorder with increasing incidence. Patients with EoE may present at all ages from childhood through adulthood. Presenting symptoms may vary from feeding refusal, gagging, and/or vomiting in the younger population, dysphagia, chest pain, and abdominal pain in adolescents, as well as emergent food impactions. However, there are strict diagnostic criteria that must be met to make the diagnosis. Specifically, the diagnosis of EoE requires at least 15 eosinophils per high-powered field in the esophageal biopsies and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction after other causes, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, have been ruled out. Common treatments include diet modifications and/or topical corticosteroids. PMID:26878186

  1. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  2. The Makah Counting Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinn, Arlington A., Jr.

    The first edition of the counting workbook centers around the numbers from 1 to 100 and focuses on number and set concepts. The workbook introduces the Makah spelling of each number and reinforces the spelling with exercises such as matching words to numbers, writing the words, counting symbols, and circling the correct number. Spaced throughout…

  3. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral," funded by…

  4. [Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting as livedo racemosa].

    PubMed

    Klossowski, N; Vordenbäumen, S; Sewerin, P; Braun, S A; Reifenberger, J; Homey, B; Meller, S

    2014-04-01

    As a rare antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, formerly Churg-Strauss syndrome) is characterized by asthma, severe peripheral eosinophilia and the presence of extravascular granulomas. Cutaneous involvement usually includes palpable purpura or cutaneous to subcutaneous nodes. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman with EPGA and the unusual cutaneous manifestation of livedo racemosa. PMID:24700024

  5. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  6. Distinguishing GERD from eosinophilic oesophagitis: concepts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the detection of oesophageal mucosal eosinophils has transitioned from a biomarker of GERD to a diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). In GERD, oesophageal eosinophils are considered part of the chronic inflammatory response to acid reflux, whereas the marked eosinophilia in EoE is viewed as a central feature of the immune response to ingested food and/or environmental antigen stimulation. Descriptions of a considerable subset of patients with symptomatic, endoscopic and histological findings of EoE that resolve with PPI therapy has led to confusion and controversy regarding the distinction of EoE from GERD. Study findings indicate that PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) more closely resembles EoE than GERD, both from a clinical and immunological aspect. Although responsiveness to PPI therapy should not be utilized to exclude EoE, PPI therapy is effective at reducing oesophageal eosinophilia in ~40% of patients, and PPI therapy is both a safe and practical initial step in the management of patients with oesophageal eosinophilia. Ongoing studies elucidating the mechanism behind PPI-REE will improve our understanding and management of EoE. In this Review, the mechanisms and evidence that underlie the controversy in the distinction between GERD and EoE are evaluated. PMID:25986303

  7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an immune-mediated esophageal disease.

    PubMed

    Weinbrand-Goichberg, Jenny; Segal, Idit; Ovadia, Adi; Levine, Arie; Dalal, Ilan

    2013-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease defined by esophageal dysfunction, by typical endoscopic findings and by abnormal eosinophilic inflammation within the esophagus. Eosinophilic accumulation in the esophagus occurs as a result of esophageal overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators, including T cells and mast cells, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-13, IL-5 and IL-15, as well as chemoattractants (eotaxin and transforming growth factor-β1, fibroblast growth factor and the newly characterized gene--thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which is a key regulator of allergic sensitization initiation). The role of allergy, particularly food allergy in EoE is indisputable, as elimination diet is a proven commonly used treatment for the disease. However, unlike classical immediate IgE-mediated reaction to allergen, EoE is associated with an altered immune response, characterized by a combination of IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. In this review, we aim to discuss the many typical aspects of EoE as opposed to other entities involving the esophagus, with focusing on the aberrant immune-mediated key players contributing to the pathogenesis of this unique disease. PMID:23579771

  8. Biodegradation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Eosinophil Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Andón, Fernando T.; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Yanamala, Naveena; Feng, Weihong; Baygan, Arjang; Chambers, Benedict J.; Hultenby, Kjell; Ye, Fei; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Brandner, Birgit D.; Fornara, Andrea; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kotchey, Gregg P.; Star, Alexander; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is one of the major oxidant-producing enzymes during inflammatory states in the human lung. The degradation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) upon incubation with human EPO and H2O2 is reported. Biodegradation of SWCNTs is higher in the presence of NaBr, but neither EPO alone nor H2O2 alone caused the degradation of nanotubes. Molecular modeling reveals two binding sites for SWCNTs on EPO, one located at the proximal side (same side as the catalytic site) and the other on the distal side of EPO. The oxidized groups on SWCNTs in both cases are stabilized by electrostatic interactions with positively charged residues. Biodegradation of SWCNTs can also be executed in an ex vivo culture system using primary murine eosinophils stimulated to undergo degranulation. Biodegradation is proven by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and confocal Raman imaging. Thus, human EPO (in vitro) and ex vivo activated eosinophils mediate biodegradation of SWCNTs: an observation that is relevant to pulmonary responses to these materials. PMID:23447468

  9. Nasal histamine responses in nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ciofalo, Andrea; Romeo, Raffaello; Soldo, Pietro; Fusconi, Massimo; Greco, Antonio; Magliulo, Giuseppe; de Vincentiis, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilic syndrome (NARES) is persistent, without atopy, but with ≥25% nasal eosinophilia. Hypereosinophilia seems to contribute to nasal mucosa dysfunction. Objectives: This analytical case-control study aimed at assessing the presence and severity of nonspecific nasal hyperactivity and at finding out whether eosinophilia may be correlated with the respiratory and mucociliary clearance functions. Materials: The symptom score was assessed in 38 patients and 15 controls whose nasal smear was also tested for eosinophils and mucociliary transport (MCT). Nonspecific nasal provocation tests (NSNPT) with histamine were also carried out, and total nasal resistance (TNR) was determined. Results: The symptom score of NARES after NSNPT were not significantly different from the control group, and there was poor or no correlation among the single symptoms and the differences studied for every nasal reactivity class. This correlation improved when using the composite symptom score. The most severe eosinophilia was observed in high reactivity groups, and it was correlated with an increase in TNR. MCT worsened as eosinophilia and nasal reactivity increased. Unlike controls, a significant correlation was observed between the increase in MCT and TNR. Conclusions: In NARES, nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity is the result of epithelial damage produced by eosinophilic inflammation, which causes MCT slow down, an increase in TNR, and nasal reactivity classes, with possible impact on classification, prognosis, and treatment control. PMID:26302729

  10. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Allison J.; Hitt, Stacy L.; Stier, Michael A.; Houser, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM) is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1) myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2) myocyte necrosis and eventually (3) fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM. PMID:26495174

  11. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Allison J; Hitt, Stacy L; Stier, Michael A; Houser, Laura M

    2015-10-01

    Background Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM) is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1) myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2) myocyte necrosis and eventually (3) fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM. PMID:26495174

  12. Clinical Implications and Pathogenesis of Esophageal Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Ikuo; Aceves, Seema S.

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), remodeling changes are manifest histologically in both the epithelium as well as in the subepithelium where lamina propria (LP) fibrosis, expansion of the muscularis propria and increased vascularity occur. The major clinical symptoms and complications of EoE are largely consequences of esophageal remodeling. Important mediators of the process include IL-5, IL-13, TGFβ1, mast cells, fibroblasts and eosinophils. Methods to detect remodeling effects include upper endoscopy, histopathology, barium esophagram, endoscopic ultrasonography, esophageal manometry, and functional luminal imaging. These modalities provide evidence of organ dysfunction that include focal and diffuse esophageal strictures, expansion of the mucosa and subepithelium, esophageal motor abnormalities and reduced esophageal distensibility. Complications of food impaction and perforations of the esophageal wall have been associated with reduction in esophageal caliber and increased esophageal mural stiffness. The therapeutic benefits of topical corticosteroids and elimination diet therapy in resolving mucosal eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus are evident. Available therapies, however, have demonstrated variable ability to reverse existing remodeling changes of the esophagus. Systemic therapies that include novel, targeted biologic agents have the potential of addressing subepithelial remodeling. Esophageal dilation remains a useful, adjunctive therapeutic maneuver in symptomatic adults with esophageal stricture. As novel treatments emerge, it is essential that therapeutic endpoints account for the fundamental contributions of esophageal remodeling to overall disease activity. PMID:24813517

  13. Eosinophilic Cystitis: A Rare Cause of Nocturnal Enuresis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Ozcan; Akand, Murat; Gul, Murat; Karabagli, Pinar; Goktas, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare and poorly understood inflammatory condition, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of all layers of the bladder wall, which mimics bladder tumors. EC may present with symptoms such as increased urination frequency, dysuria, gross/microscopic hematuria, suprapubic pain and urinary retention. Case Presentation We present a 17-year-old male patient, who was continent night and day in his childhood, and was admitted to our clinic for complaints of hematuria and nocturnal enuresis for the past six months. His history and physical examination were unremarkable, and routine hematological and biochemical tests were normal. Cystoscopy revealed a 4 × 3 cm erythematous, polypoidal, solid lesion on the bladder dome. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed transitional epithelium with stromal edema, where diffuse, dense infiltration of lamina propria by eosinophils and lymphocytes was also seen. According to these findings, a histopathological diagnosis of EC was made, and the patient was treated with corticosteroids, antimicrobial agents and antihistamines. His symptoms dramatically improved and nocturnal enuresis also recovered after treatment. Conclusions Although it is a rare entity, EC should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dysuria, hematuria and any kind of acquired voiding dysfunction, including frequency, pollakiuria and incontinence.

  14. Eosinophil-Associated Gene Pathways but not Eosinophil Numbers are Differentially Regulated between Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Treatment and Synchrotron Broad-Beam Treatment by 48 Hours Postirradiation.

    PubMed

    Ibahim, M J; Yang, Y; Crosbie, J C; Stevenson, A; Cann, L; Paiva, P; Rogers, P A

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron microbeam radiation treatment (MRT) is a preclinical radiotherapy technique with considerable clinical promise, although some of the underlying radiobiology of MRT is still not well understood. In recently reported studies, it has been suggested that MRT elicits a different tumor immune profile compared to broad-beam treatment (BB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synchrotron MRT and BB on eosinophil-associated gene pathways and eosinophil numbers within and around the tumor in the acute stage, 48 h postirradiation. Balb/C mice were inoculated with EMT6.5 mouse mammary tumors and irradiated with microbeam radiation (112 and 560 Gy) and broad-beam radiation (5 and 9 Gy) at equivalent doses determined from a previous in vitro study. After tumors were collected 24 and 48 h postirradiation, RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR performed to assess eosinophil-associated gene expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect two known markers of eosinophils: eosinophil-associated ribonucleases (EARs) and eosinophil major basic protein (MBP). We identified five genes associated with eosinophil function and recruitment (Ear11, Ccl24, Ccl6, Ccl9 and Ccl11) and all of them, except Ccl11, were differentially regulated in synchrotron microbeam-irradiated tumors compared to broad-beam-irradiated tumors. However, immunohistochemical localization demonstrated no significant differences in the number of EAR- and MBP-positive eosinophils infiltrating the primary tumor after MRT compared to BB. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that the effects of MRT on eosinophil-related gene pathways are different from broad-beam radiation treatment at doses previously demonstrated to be equivalent in an in vitro study. However, a comparison of the microenvironments of tumors, which received MRT and BB, 48 h after exposure showed no difference between them with respect to eosinophil accumulation. These findings contribute to our understanding of the

  15. Organ-specific eosinophilic disorders of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Dagmar; Wardlaw, Andrew; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that increase in various tissues in a variety of disorders. Locally, they can be involved in the initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses. In this review, the clinical association of eosinophils with diseases of the skin, lung and gastrointestinal tract is summarized. An approach to determining the causal role of eosinophils in these diseases is presented. Recent findings concerning molecular diagnosis, etiology and treatment are discussed. PMID:20392477

  16. Eosinophils in the 1990s: new perspectives on their role in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wardlaw, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Eosinophils are characterized by their unique crystalloid granules that contain four basic proteins--MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO. The cell has many common features with neutrophils but, unlike that cell type, eosinophils utilize VLA-4/VCAM-1 as an adherence pathway and have a number of other receptors not shared by neutrophils. These include recognition units for IgE (distinct from CD23), and receptors for IL-5, IL-3 and RANTES. Following stimulation with a variety of agents, eosinophils preferentially elaborate LTC4 as the major 5-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid and produce substantial amounts of PAF. Of particular interest is the ability of eosinophils to synthesize a number of cytokines. Thus eosinophils have marked pro-inflammatory potential. There is now convincing evidence that eosinophilia is T-cell dependent. The Th2-type cell, which selectively secretes IL-5 and IL-4, seems particularly involved. IL-5, IL-3 and GM-CSF are required for eosinophil maturation, and cause activation and prolonged survival of the mature cell. IL-5 is unique in that it promotes terminal differentiation of the committed eosinophil precursor and in vivo in mice appears to be sufficient on its own for eosinophil growth from uncommited stem cells. IL-4 selectively upregulates VCAM-1 expression on endothelial cells thus augmenting VLA-4-dependent eosinophil adhesion. The role of eosinophils in disease is complex but in general their numbers are increased in helminthic parasitic disease and atopic allergy and asthma. Eosinophil products can produce many of the pathological features of asthma, and helminthic larvae coated with immunoglobulin or complement are particularly susceptible to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity. Eosinopenia is often related to acute inflammation or stress. PMID:7937446

  17. Eosinophils as effector cells in the destruction of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in granulomas.

    PubMed

    Hsü, S Y; Hsü, H F; Mitros, F A; Helms, C M; Solomon, R I

    1980-04-01

    Histopathological sections of wedge-biopsied liver and surgically removed gallbladder of a schistosomiasis mansoni patient were studied for the eosinophil-mediated destruction of eggs in granulomas. Apparent degranulation of eosinophils on the eggs in the granulomas and concomittant deterioration of miracidia were observed. It was construed that granule-associated enzymes may be released upon the degranulation of eosinophils, pass through the micropores of the egg shell and cause death of the miracidium inside the egg. PMID:7436603

  18. Siglec-F antibody administration to mice selectively reduces blood and tissue eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, N.; McBride, M. L.; Yamada, Y.; Hudson, S. A.; Jones, C.; Cromie, K. D.; Crocker, P. R.; Rothenberg, M. E.; Bochner, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are a family of receptors that bind sialic acid and mostly contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, suggesting that these molecules possess inhibitory functions. We have recently identified Siglec-8 as an eosinophil-prominent Siglec, and cross-linking of Siglec-8 on human eosinophils induces apoptosis. In this article, we address the in vivo consequences of Siglec engagement. We and others have identified mouse Siglec-F as the closest functional paralog of human Siglec-8, based on shared ligand-binding and expression pattern. We therefore hypothesized that Siglec-F engagement would affect levels and viability of eosinophils in vivo. Methods Wild type and hypereosinophilic mice were administered Siglec-F antibody and levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood and tissue were measured. Eosinophil apoptosis (in vivo and in vitro) was determined by binding of Annexin-V. Results Studies in IL-5 transgenic mice, displaying hypereosinophilia, show that administration of a single dose of Siglec-F antibody results in rapid reductions in quantum of eosinophils in the blood. This decrease was accompanied by reductions in tissue eosinophils. Quantum of eosinophils in blood was decreased using two separate antibodies, as well as in other mouse models (wild type mice and in a mouse model of chronic eosinophilic leukemia). Mechanistic studies demonstrated that Siglec-F antibody administration induced apoptosis of eosinophils in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion These data demonstrate that activation of innate immune receptors, like Siglec-F, can significantly reduce mouse eosinophil viability. As such, targeting Siglec-8/F may be a therapeutic approach for eosinophilic disorders. PMID:18699932

  19. Sublattice counting and orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-06-01

    Abelian orbifolds of mathbb{C}3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L aba theories, and of mathbb{C}4.

  20. A Diagnostic Algorithm for Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Initially Diagnosed as Lumbar Disc Hernia or Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Personal Experience and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kosei; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Kota; Sato, Masaki; Arino, Yusuke; Mikami, Yoji

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a rare systemic vasculitis and is difficult to diagnose. EGPA has a number of symptoms including peripheral dysesthesia caused by mononeuropathy multiplex, which is similar to radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis. Therefore, EGPA patients with mononeuropathy multiplex often visit orthopedic clinics, but orthopedic doctors and spine neurosurgeons have limited experience in diagnosing EGPA because of its rarity. We report a consecutive series of patients who were initially diagnosed as having lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis by at least 2 medical institutions from March 2006 to April 2013 but whose final diagnosis was EGPA. All patients had past histories of asthma or eosinophilic pneumonia, and four out of five had peripheral edema. Laboratory data showed abnormally increased eosinophil counts, and nerve conduction studies of all patients revealed axonal damage patterns. All patients recovered from paralysis to a functional level after high-dose steroid treatment. We shortened the duration of diagnosis from 49 days to one day by adopting a diagnostic algorithm after experiencing the first case. PMID:27549670

  1. Differential white cell counts by frequency distribution analysis of cell volumes.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Jones, N C; Norley, I; Young, J M; England, J M

    1974-08-01

    Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts on peripheral blood can be made by analysis of the output from a Coulter particle counter, utilizing the difference in the relative cell volume between these two types of cell. A comparison has been made between the results obtained by volume analysis and those obtained by standard microscopical techniques in 10 normal people and 45 patients. The absolute neutrophil count obtained by volume analysis agreed well with values obtained by microscopy; the lymphocyte count did not give such good agreement, since the smaller number of cells counted gave rise to larger sampling errors. The method of volume analysis is suitable for the assessment of absolute neutrophil counts for clinical use. PMID:4420188

  2. A Player and Coordinator: The Versatile Roles of Eosinophils in the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hai; Liao, Wei; Wang, Ling; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils have traditionally been associated with allergic diseases and parasite infection. Research advances in the recent decades have brought evolutionary changes in our understanding of eosinophil biology and its roles in immunity. It is currently recognized that eosinophils play multiple roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. As effector cells in innate immunity, eosinophils exert a pro-inflammatory and destructive role in the Th2 immune response associated with allergic inflammation or parasite infection. Eosinophils can also be recruited by danger signals released by pathogen infections or tissue injury, inducing host defense against parasitic, fungal, bacterial or viral infection or promoting tissue repair and remodeling. Eosinophils also serve as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in response to allergen challenge or helminth infection, and, meanwhile, are known to function as a versatile coordinator that actively regulates or interacts with various immune cells including T lymphocytes and dendritic cells. More roles of eosinophils implicated in immunity have been proposed including in immune homeostasis, allograft rejection, and anti-tumor immunity. Eosinophil interactions with structural cells are also implicated in the mechanisms in allergic inflammation and in Helicobacter pylori gastritis. These multifaceted roles of eosinophils as both players and coordinators in immune system are discussed in this review. PMID:27226792

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  4. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Barnig, Cindy; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach–in a limited number of patients and controls—to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology. PMID:26524763

  5. Significance of Mouse Models in Dissecting the Mechanism of Human Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases (EGID)

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that eosinophils play a significant role in promoting several gastrointestinal diseases, and animal models are the significant tools to understand the pathogenesis of eosinophil-associatd inflammatory disorders. The focus of this review is on the significance of mouse models that mimic the characteristics of human eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases. Eosinophils are the important leukocytes with diverse functions in the gastrointestinal tract, such as excretion of intestinal parasites and promoting the pathogenesis of a numerous allergic gastrointestinal disorders like food allergy, parasitic infection, allergic gastroenteritis, allergic colitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis. Among these gastrointestinal diseases, the eosinophilic esophagitis is the most recently recognized disease and the mouse models are proven to be an effective tool to understand the pathophysiology of disease and to test novel treatment strategies. Based on patients allergic conditions and the gene overexpressed in human EGID, a number of gene overexpressed and allergen-challenged mouse models of gastrointestinal disorders were developed. These models were utilized to explore the mechanism(s) that promotes the eosinophil-mediated gastrointestinal diseases including the role of the eosinophil responsive cytokines and chemokines. Herein, we have provided a detailed overviews of the mouse models of gastrointestinal disorders that mimic the human eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases and can be utilized as a tool for understanding the diseases pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25866707

  6. Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and resource utilization in children and adults with eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Craig; Woosley, John T.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare condition where eosinophilic inflammation occurs in the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of secondary causes. Little is known regarding aetiology, pathogenesis, or natural history. Aims To characterize the clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic features of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and to summarize treatment outcomes. Methods Pathologic reports of all patients who had undergone upper endoscopy with biopsy between January 1, 2000 and June 20, 2013 were reviewed. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was diagnosed if there were ≥20 eosinophils/hpf on either gastric of duodenal biopsy, symptoms attributable to the gastrointestinal tract, and no known secondary cause of eosinophilia. Descriptive statistics characterized patients diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and bivariate analysis compared adults and children. Results There were 44 patients diagnosed with eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease. The most common symptoms were vomiting (71%) and abdominal pain (62%). Of the eosinophilic gastroenteritis cases, 12 (30%) had esophageal involvement, and 11 (28%) had colonic involvement. For treatment, 36 (80%) received corticosteroids. Overall, 27 (60%) had symptom resolution and 23 (51%) had endoscopic resolution. Cases underwent a mean of five endoscopic procedures per year. Conclusion Eosinophilic gastroenteritis presents with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms and in almost one-third of cases has concomitant esophageal or colonic involvement. It remains difficult to treat, with high rates of endoscopic utilization. PMID:25547198

  7. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  8. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  9. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  10. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach. PMID:10165241

  11. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  12. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  13. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  14. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  15. Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin (EDN/RNase 2) and the Mouse Eosinophil-Associated RNases (mEars): Expanding Roles in Promoting Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2015-01-01

    The eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN/RNase2) and its divergent orthologs, the mouse eosinophil-associated RNases (mEars), are prominent secretory proteins of eosinophilic leukocytes and are all members of the larger family of RNase A-type ribonucleases. While EDN has broad antiviral activity, targeting RNA viruses via mechanisms that may require enzymatic activity, more recent studies have elucidated how these RNases may generate host defense via roles in promoting leukocyte activation, maturation, and chemotaxis. This review provides an update on recent discoveries, and highlights the versatility of this family in promoting innate immunity. PMID:26184157

  16. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  17. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  18. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  19. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

  20. Effects of astragaloside IV on eosinophil activation induced by house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Desheng; Wang, Yuwei; Du, Qiang; Cai, Jiankang

    2012-07-01

    Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has been noted for its reduction of eosinophilic airway inflammation in a murine model of chronic asthma. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this anti-inflammatory phenomenon, the effect of AS-IV on human blood eosinophils was studied in vitro. Eosinophils were isolated from the blood of patients with mild atopic asthma, preincubated with AS-IV for 1 h and stimulated in the presence or absence of the house dust mite allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 for 4 h. The survival of the eosinophils at 48 h was investigated using trypan blue and the surface expression of CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by the eosinophils was analyzed using flow cytometry. The secretion of cytokines in the supernatants and the chemotaxis of the eosinophils were measured by ELISA and the transwell system, respectively. Der p 1 was found to prolong the survival of the eosinophils. Similarly, the expression of CCR3 and ICAM-1, secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transmigration of the eosinophils were increased in the presence of Der p 1. However, these inductive effects on the eosinophils were significantly inhibited by AS-IV (50 µg/ml). These findings suggest that AS-IV modulates eosinophil activation and trafficking in response to Der p 1 and may therefore be a useful therapeutic option in eosinophilic asthma. PMID:22505212

  1. Relationship of coronary collateral circulation with eosinophils in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Li, Qun; Li, Shi-jing; Wang, De-zhao; Chen, Bu-xing

    2016-01-01

    Background Eosinophils (EOS) have been associated with prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease, and those who showed plenitudinous coronary collateral circulation (CCC) often have good clinical consequences. However, the relationship between EOS and CCC was seldom reported. Objective To investigate the relationship between EOS and CCC development in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Methods The study population consisted of 502 consecutive patients with UAP who underwent coronary angiography and coronary stenosis ≥80%. CCC was graded according to the Rentrop grading system of 0–3. Rentrop grades of 0 and 1 indicated low-grade CCC group, whereas grades 2 and 3 indicated high-grade CCC group. Results The EOS was significantly higher in the high-grade CCC group compared with the low-grade CCC group. In multiple logistic regression analysis, EOS (odds ratio: 1.969; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.210–3.3205; P=0.006) and neutrophil count (odds ratio: 0.757; 95% CI: 0.584–0.981; P=0.035) were predictors of high-grade CCC development. EOS of >0.12×109/L could independently predict high-grade CCC with 72.5% sensitivity and 58.4% specificity (area under the curve: 0.681; 95% CI: 0.632–0.729). Conclusion EOS were associated with high-grade CCC in patients with UAP with coronary stenosis ≥80%. Increased EOS count may play an important role in the development of CCC in patients with UAP. PMID:26889082

  2. Manifold significance of serum eosinophil cationic protein in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Zubović, Ivan; Rozmanić, Vojko; Ahel, Vladimir; Banac, Srdan

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is the result of complex interaction between different cells, mediators and nervous system that leads to an inflammatory response accompanied by increased bronchial hyperactivity. Its clinical manifestations include recurrent cough, wheezing and difficult breathing. The purpose of this study was to establish the possibility of diagnosing inflammation in asthmatic patients based on the assessment of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and of following the efficacy of asthmatic treatment by the levels of inflammation mediators. In a prospective study, 134 children aged 1 to 18 (mean 8) years underwent serum ECP assessment. Experimental group included 87 patients with asthma, 56 boys and 31 girls, mean age 9.1 (range 2-17) years. Control group included patients with recurrent non-allergic disorders, 27 boys and 20 girls aged 1-16 (mean 6.1) years. Serum ECP was assessed using the Pharmacia CAP system ECP-FEIA method, i.e. fluoroimmunoassay test for quantitative assessment of serum ECP levels. Serum values of ECP were significantly higher in asthmatics than in controls (p = 0.001). Our results showed that increased levels of serum ECP to significantly correlate with increased eosinophil (p = 0.018) and immunoglobulin E (p = 0.003) levels. Increased ECP levels reflect the degree of inflammation and correlate with the clinical picture severity in asthmatic patients. Assessment of serum ECP levels can reveal eosinophilic activity, and indirectly detect immunologic inflammation in asthmatics. It is possible to follow the dynamics of immunologic inflammation during the course of treatment as well as treatment efficacy. PMID:12596625

  3. Invariant Natural Killer T cells in children with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Jyonouchi, Soma; Smith, Cara Lea; Saretta, Francesca; Abraham, Valsamma; Ruymann, Kathryn R; Modayur-Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna; Wang, Mei-Lun; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Cianferoni, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an atopic disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammation in which dietary antigens (in particular, milk) play a major role. EoE is most likely a mixed IgE and non-IgE food-mediated reaction in which over-expression of Th2 cytokines, particularly IL-13, play a major role; however, the cells responsible for IL-13 over-expression remain elusive. Th2-cytokines are secreted following the ligation of invariant natural killer T cell receptors to sphingolipids (SL). Sphingolipids (SL) are presented via the CD1d molecule on the INKT cell surface. Cow’s milk-derived SL has been shown to activate iNKTs from children with IgE-mediated food allergies to milk (FA-MA) to produce Th2 cytokines. The role of iNKTs and milk-SL in EoE pathogenesis is currently unknown. Objective To investigate the role of iNKTs and milk-SL in EoE. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 children with active EoE (EoE-A), 10 children with controlled EoE (EoE-C), and 16 healthy controls (Non-EoE) were measured ex-vivo and then incubated with α-galactosylceramide (αGal) and milk-SL. INKTs from peripheral blood (PB) and esophageal biopsies were studied. Results EoE-A-children had significantly fewer peripheral blood iNKTs with a greater Th2-response to αGal and milk-SM compared to iNKTs of EoE-C and Non-EoE children. Additionally, EoE-A children had increased iNKT levels in esophageal biopsies compared to EoE-C children. Conclusion Milk-SLs are able to activate peripheral blood iNKTs in EoE-A children to produce Th2 cytokines. Additionally, iNKT levels are higher at the site of active esophageal eosinophilic inflammation. Clinical Relevance This study suggests that sphingolipids (SL) contained in milk may drive the development of EoE by promoting an iNKT cell-mediated Th2-type cytokine response that facilitates eosinophil-mediated allergic inflammation. PMID:24118614

  4. Current Diagnostic and Therapeutic Aspects of Eosinophilic Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Kuchynka, Petr; Palecek, Tomas; Masek, Martin; Cerny, Vladimir; Lambert, Lukas; Vitkova, Ivana; Linhart, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) represents a rare form of myocardial inflammation with very heterogeneous aetiology. In developed countries, the most prevalent causes of EM are hypersensitivity or allergic reactions, as well as hematological diseases leading to eosinophilia. The disease may have a variable clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to life-threatening conditions. Most patients with EM have marked eosinophilia in peripheral blood. Endomyocardial biopsy needs to be performed in most cases in order to establish a definitive diagnosis of EM. The therapy depends on the underlying aetiology. Immunosuppressive therapy represents the treatment mainstay in the majority of EM forms. PMID:26885504

  5. Chronic Cough and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Uncommon Association

    PubMed Central

    Orizio, Paolo; Cinquini, Massimo; Minetti, Stefano; Alberti, Daniele; Paolo, Camilla Di; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Torri, Fabio; Crispino, Paola; Facchetti, Susanna; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bassotti, Gabrio; Tosoni, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of children, usually with gastrointestinal symptoms, is diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and a particular subset of these patients complains of airway manifestations. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with chronic dry cough in whom EE was found after a first diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to pathological 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Traditional allergologic tests were negative, while patch tests were diagnostic for cow's milk allergy. We discuss the intriguing relationship between GERD and EE and the use of patch test for the allergologic screening of patients. PMID:21960955

  6. Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; Capella, Diogo L.; Manfro, Gabriel; Nodari, Rudy José; Presta, Andréia Antoniuk

    2012-01-01

    Summary Eosinophilic Ulcer (EU) is a rare self-limiting chronic benign lesion of the oral mucosa with pathogenesis still unclear, however it may resemble malignancies, traumatic ulcerations and some infections such as deep fungal infections, tuberculosis and primary syphilis. This is a case report of a patient with EU in the lateral border of the tongue with no history of associated trauma and refractory to treatment with drugs. The ulcer rapidly healed after an incisional biopsy and the definite diagnosis was achieved only combining histologic findings and the clinical follow-up. PMID:22783449

  7. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  8. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  9. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  10. An Alpha-Gamma Counter for Absolute Neutron Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, A.; Greene, G.; Dewey, M.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Laptev, A.

    2012-03-01

    An alpha-gamma counter was used to measure the absolute neutron flux of a monochromatic cold neutron beam to sub-0.1,% precision. Simultaneously, the counter was used to calibrate a thin neutron flux monitor based on neutron absorption on ^6Li to the same precision. This monitor was used in the most precise beam-based measurement of the neutron lifetime, where the limiting systematic effect was the uncertainty in the neutron counting efficiency (0.3,%). The counter uses a thick target of ^10B-enriched boron carbide to completely absorb the beam. The rate of absorbed neutrons is determined by counting 478 keV gamma rays from neutron capture on ^10B with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors. The calibration results and the implications for the neutron lifetime will be discussed.

  11. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside. PMID:25274878

  12. Photon counting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  13. Functional Analysis of Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 in Human Eosinophils: Implications in Metabolic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Yasunori; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takeda, Masahide; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Mami; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Itoga, Masamichi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system. PMID:25790291

  14. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P.; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G.; Gagliardo, Lucille F.; Ruyechan, Maura C.; Lee, Nancy A.; Lee, James J.; Appleton, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth. PMID:26720604

  15. Morphology and staining behavior of neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Martina; Curths, Christoph; Dahlmann, Franziska; Wichmann, Judy; Bauer, Natali; Moritz, Andreas; Braun, Armin; Knauf, Sascha; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gruber-Dujardin, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used as translational animal models for human diseases. However, a comparative study of cytological and histochemical detection methods as well as morphometric and ultrastructural characterization of neutrophils and eosinophils in this species is lacking. Blood samples of house dust mite sensitized and allergen challenged as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged marmosets were analyzed with different cytological and histological staining methods. Furthermore, cell size and number of nuclear segments were compared between neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy was performed to characterize the ultrastructure of granulocytes. Of all applied cytological stains, three allowed differentiation of eosinophils and neutrophils and, thus, reliable quantification in blood smears: May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, Congo Red and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate-Esterase. For histology, Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) could not demonstrate clear differences, whereas Sirius Red, Congo Red, and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate Esterase showed capable results for identification of eosinophils or neutrophils in lung tissue. Morphometry revealed that marmoset neutrophils have more nuclear segments and are slightly larger than eosinophils. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils presented with large homogeneous electron-dense granules without crystalloid cores, while neutrophils were characterized by heterogeneous granules of different size and density. Additionally, sombrero-like vesicles were detected in tissue eosinophils of atopic marmosets, indicative for hypersensitivity-related piecemeal degranulation. In conclusion, we provide a detailed overview of marmoset eosinophils and neutrophils, important for phenotypic characterization of marmoset models for human airway diseases. PMID:27165445

  16. IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Y; Wen, T; Mingler, MK; Caldwell, JM; Wang, YH; Chaplin, DD; Lee, EH; Jang, MH; Woo, SY; Seoh, JY; Miyasaka, M; Rothenberg, ME

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double–deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3–deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial composition, and promote the development of Peyer’s patches. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed reduced expression of mediators of secretory IgA production, including intestinal interleukin 1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase, lymphotoxin (LT) α, and LT-β, and reduced levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t–positive (ROR-γt+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) while maintaining normal levels of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), BAFF (B cell–activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family), and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β). GI eosinophils expressed a relatively high level of IL-1β, and IL-1β–deficient mice manifested the altered gene expression profiles observed in eosinophil-deficient mice and decreased levels of IgA+ cells and ROR-γt+ ILCs. On the basis of these collective data, we propose that eosinophils are required for homeostatic intestinal immune responses including IgA production and that their affect is mediated via IL-1β in the small intestine. PMID:25563499

  17. Human eosinophil innate response to Alternaria fungus through protease-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Wada, Kota; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. An association between eosinophilic inflammation and infection or colonization by fungi has also been long recognized. However, the mechanisms underlying how eosinophils are activated and how they release proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators such as major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin remain largely unknown. We used a fungus, i.e. Alternaria, as a model microbe relevant to human asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the immune recognition of ubiquitous environmental allergens. Human eosinophils are activated by live Alternaria alternata organisms, release their granule proteins, and kill the fungi. Eosinophils, but not neutrophils, respond to secreted products from A. alternata. We found that eosinophils are equipped with innate cellular activation machinery that responds to an extracellular aspartate protease secreted by Alternaria. Aspartate protease activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 probably involves a novel mechanism different from that for serine protease activation of PAR-2. Thus, human eosinophils may recognize certain danger signals or virulence factors produced by fungi and provoke inflammatory responses against these organisms. Dysregulation of such an innate immune mechanism may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain human inflammatory diseases, including asthma and CRS. PMID:21646807

  18. Diethylcarbamazine and Non-Diethylcarbamazine Related Bancroftian Granuloma: An Immunohistochemical Study of Eosinophil Toxic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo-Silva, Jose; Cavalcanti, Carmelita; Montenegro, Luciano Tavares; Norões, Joaquim; Dreyer, Gerusa

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested, mostly using in vitro experiments, that defenses against parasites involve mainly activated eosinophils and their toxic proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil degranulation has been described around degenerating onchocercal microfilariae in patients treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC). In bancroftian filariasis, traditional histopathologic studies have shown remarkable numbers of eosinophils in granulomatous lesions associated with both DEC-induced and spontaneous death of adult Wuchereria bancrofti parasites. No immunohistochemical study targeting eosinophil degranulation has been previously performed in these granulomas, which are found mainly within intrascrotal lymphatic vessels. This investigation was undertaken in 22 (12 DEC-treated and 10 untreated) male patients in order to determine the immunohistochemical expressions of MBP, EPO and ECP in bancofitian granulomas, using the indirect method. Stained intact esosinophils, as well as granular, extra-cellular material positive for all three proteins, were found in all granulomas. The immunohistochemical patterns were similar in both DEC-treated and untreated cases, irrespective of microfilaremia, blood eosinophilia, and granuloma age. Positive intact cells were observed mostly at the periphery of the granulomas, whereas granular material predominated in central areas around dead or degenerating parasites. These results indicate that eosinophils accumulate in the granulomas and degranulate preferentially in close proximity to degenerating or dead adult parasites. In bancroftian granulomas, influx and degranulation of eosinophils are considered a consequence of parasite death, rather than its cause. PMID:23675184

  19. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth. PMID:26720604

  20. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10–40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a sputum eosinophilia is associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and tailored strategies aimed to normalize sputum eosinophils reduce exacerbation frequency and severity. Advances in our understanding of the multistep paradigm of eosinophil recruitment to the airway, and the consequence of eosinophilic inflammation, has led to the development of new therapies to target these molecular pathways. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of eosinophilic trafficking, the tools to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma and COPD during stable disease and exacerbations and review current and novel anti-eosinophilic treatments. PMID:26770668

  1. Interleukin-9 enhances interleukin-5 receptor expression, differentiation, and survival of human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Gounni, A S; Gregory, B; Nutku, E; Aris, F; Latifa, K; Minshall, E; North, J; Tavernier, J; Levit, R; Nicolaides, N; Robinson, D; Hamid, Q

    2000-09-15

    Interleukin-9 (IL-9) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. To examine the interaction between IL-9 and eosinophils, we evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the specific alpha-subunit of the IL-9 receptor (IL-9R-alpha). The expression of IL-9R-alpha by human eosinophils was detected at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunocytochemical analysis, respectively. Functional analyses demonstrated that recombinant human (rh)IL-9 inhibited in vitro peripheral blood human eosinophil apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We then examined the role of IL-9 in eosinophil differentiation using the human cord blood CD34(+) cells and human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). The addition of IL-9 to CD34(+) cells cultured in IL-3 and IL-5 enhanced eosinophil development, and IL-9 alone induced the expression of IL-5R-alpha. IL-9 also up-regulated the IL-5R-alpha chain cell surface expression during terminal eosinophil differentiation of the HL-60 cell line. Our findings suggest that IL-9 may potentiate in vivo eosinophil function by increasing their survival and IL-5-mediated differentiation and maturation. Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism by which IL-9 potentiates airway and tissue eosinophilia. PMID:10979962

  2. IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y; Wen, T; Mingler, M K; Caldwell, J M; Wang, Y H; Chaplin, D D; Lee, E H; Jang, M H; Woo, S Y; Seoh, J Y; Miyasaka, M; Rothenberg, M E

    2015-07-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3 deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial composition, and promote the development of Peyer's patches. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed reduced expression of mediators of secretory IgA production, including intestinal interleukin 1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase, lymphotoxin (LT) α, and LT-β, and reduced levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t-positive (ROR-γt(+)) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), while maintaining normal levels of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), BAFF (B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family), and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β). GI eosinophils expressed a relatively high level of IL-1β, and IL-1β-deficient mice manifested the altered gene expression profiles observed in eosinophil-deficient mice and decreased levels of IgA(+) cells and ROR-γt(+) ILCs. On the basis of these collective data, we propose that eosinophils are required for homeostatic intestinal immune responses including IgA production and that their affect is mediated via IL-1β in the small intestine. PMID:25563499

  3. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10-40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a sputum eosinophilia is associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and tailored strategies aimed to normalize sputum eosinophils reduce exacerbation frequency and severity. Advances in our understanding of the multistep paradigm of eosinophil recruitment to the airway, and the consequence of eosinophilic inflammation, has led to the development of new therapies to target these molecular pathways. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of eosinophilic trafficking, the tools to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma and COPD during stable disease and exacerbations and review current and novel anti-eosinophilic treatments. PMID:26770668

  4. A sensitive high throughput ELISA for human eosinophil peroxidase: a specific assay to quantify eosinophil degranulation from patient-derived sources.

    PubMed

    Ochkur, Sergei I; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Jarjour, Nizar N; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P; Furuta, Glenn T; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-10-31

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings. PMID:22750539

  5. A Sensitive High Throughput ELISA for Human Eosinophil Peroxidase: A Specific Assay to Quantify Eosinophil Degranulation from Patient-derived Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ochkur, Sergei I.; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M.; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A.; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings. PMID:22750539

  6. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Methods Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21–80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Results Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10−9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. Conclusion This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease. PMID:26540111

  7. Localization of Eosinophilic Esophagitis from H&E stained images using multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study is an initial investigation on the capability of multispectral imaging to capture subtle spectral information that would enable the automatic delineation between the eosinophilic esophagitis and other eosin stained tissue components, especially the RBCs. In the method, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the spectral transmittance samples of the different tissue components, excluding however the transmittance samples of the eosinophilic esophagitis. From the average spectral error configuration of the eosinophilic esophagitis transmittance samples, i.e. the difference between the actual transmittance and the estimated transmittance using m PC vectors, we indentified two spectral bands by which we can localize the eosinophils. Initial results show the possibility of automatically localizing the eosinophilic esophagitis by utilizing spectral information. PMID:21489190

  8. Glucocorticosteroid-sensitive inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in an adolescent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder is a rare inflammatory bladder disease. The etiology and pathophysiology of this condition are still unclear. Few case reports have described inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in adults or children. Although benign, this disease is occasionally clinically aggressive and locally invasive, thus open surgical removal or complete transurethral resection is recommended. Case presentation We present the case of a biopsy-proven inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in a previously healthy 16-year-old male adolescent with 2-month history of frequent micturition and dysuria with no significant apparent causative factors. The tumor regressed after a 6-week course of glucocorticosteroids. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, our case is a rare case of inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder treated with complete conservative management. Due to its glucocorticosteroid-sensitive nature, we postulate that this disease belongs to a subgroup of eosinophilic disorders. PMID:20062774

  9. Recent discoveries and emerging therapeutics in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Aakash; Cheng, Edaire

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-mediated disease culminating in severe eosinophilic inflammation and dysfunction of the esophagus. This chronic disorder of the esophagus causes significant morbidity, poor quality of life, and complications involving fibrosis and esophageal remodeling. Overlapping features between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pose great challenges to differentiating the two conditions, although the two disorders are not mutually exclusive. Recent findings suggest that the confounding condition proton pump inhibitor - responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) is likely a subset of EoE. Since PPIs have therapeutic properties that can benefit EoE, PPIs should be considered as a therapeutic option for EoE rather than a diagnostic screen to differentiate GERD, PPI-REE, and EoE. Other current treatments include dietary therapy, corticosteroids, and dilation. Immunomodulators and biologic agents might have therapeutic value, and larger trials are needed to assess efficacy and safety. Understanding the pathophysiology of EoE is critical to the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:26855809

  10. Immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella; Spergel, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinical pathologic disease characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilia of the esophagus. When the diagnosis is confirmed, it is important to treat the eosinophilic inflammation not only to control the presenting symptoms, but also to prevent acute and chronic complications. The pathogenesis of EoE is most likely a mixed IgE and non-IgE food-mediated reaction, where Th2 cytokines drive esophageal eosinophilia as in other atopic diseases. Hence, it is not surprising that therapy is based on inflammation control, with steroids (oral or topical) and/or food antigen avoidance. However, these treatment options are not specific, reduce the quality of life of patients and have significant side effects, therefore, there is an ongoing effort to design more specific immunotherapies. In this review, we review standard and immunotherapeutic options for EoE treatment, such as anti-IL-5, anti-TNFα, anti-IgE, anti-CRTH, oral allergy desensitization and environmental immunotherapy. PMID:24762076

  11. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Two Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frech, Tracy M.; Boynton, Kathleen; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Jones, Bryan; Kriesel, John D.; Peterson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the most common extracutaneous organ system damaged in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is the presenting feature in 10% of patients. The esophagus as the portion of the GIT is the most commonly affected and there is an association of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with SSc interstitial lung disease (ILD). Thus, an aggressive treatment for GER is recommended in all SSc patients with ILD; however, it is recognized that a long-term benefit to this treatment is needed to understand its impact. In this case report we discuss the presence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in two SSc patients and discuss the role for early EGD in SSc patients with moderate-severe GER symptoms for tissue study. Assessment of esophageal biopsy specimens for the presence of eosinophils and possibly ANA can help elucidate disease pathogenesis and direct therapy, as the presence of EoE in SSc has important management considerations, particularly with regards to dietary modification strategies. PMID:26904346

  12. Recent discoveries and emerging therapeutics in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Aakash; Cheng, Edaire

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-mediated disease culminating in severe eosinophilic inflammation and dysfunction of the esophagus. This chronic disorder of the esophagus causes significant morbidity, poor quality of life, and complications involving fibrosis and esophageal remodeling. Overlapping features between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pose great challenges to differentiating the two conditions, although the two disorders are not mutually exclusive. Recent findings suggest that the confounding condition proton pump inhibitor - responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) is likely a subset of EoE. Since PPIs have therapeutic properties that can benefit EoE, PPIs should be considered as a therapeutic option for EoE rather than a diagnostic screen to differentiate GERD, PPI-REE, and EoE. Other current treatments include dietary therapy, corticosteroids, and dilation. Immunomodulators and biologic agents might have therapeutic value, and larger trials are needed to assess efficacy and safety. Understanding the pathophysiology of EoE is critical to the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:26855809

  13. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  14. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

  15. Treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Räßler, F; Lukács, J; Elsner, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) is a rare inflammatory skin disease defined by erythematous, tender, sometimes urticarial plaques, possibly with vesicles and bullae, and granulomatous eosinophilic infiltrates in the dermis. Usually the disease has a benign course with spontaneous remission within a few weeks. Nevertheless, recurrences are quite frequent and may occur for several years. The objective of this study was to review the so far reported treatment options for Wells syndrome in a systematic manner. This systematic review is based on a search on Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register for English and German articles from 1970 to 2015. Advices on the treatment of Wells syndrome are limited predominately to case reports or to small case series. There are no randomized controlled trials, and control groups are missing. A variety of treatment options for Wells syndrome were reported including topical and systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, cyclosporine, dapsone, azathioprine, griseofulvin, doxycycline, minocycline, antimalarial medications, oral tacrolimus/topical tacrolimus, sulfasalazine, interferon alpha and gamma, TNF alpha inhibitors, colchicine and PUVA therapy. As well-designed, randomized controlled trials are missing, no guidelines for the treatment of this disease can be given. Due to the small number of patients and the frequent misdiagnosis of this clinical entity, the aim of this systematic overview is to call attention to this rare condition and to help clinicians to diagnose and treat Wells syndrome effectively. Due to the good prognosis and tendency to resolve, systemic treatment should be limited to cases resistant to local therapy or with widespread lesions. PMID:27357601

  16. Update on Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis and Its Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Ana Cristina Arámburu; Yoshimura, Kentaro

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is caused by a variety of helminthic infections. These worm-specific infections are named after the causative worm genera, the most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Worm parasites enter an organism through ingestion of contaminated water or an intermediate host and can eventually affect the central nervous system (CNS). These infections are potentially serious events leading to sequelae or death, and diagnosis depends on currently limited molecular methods. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible, while images and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment usually requires the concomitant administration of corticoids and anthelminthic drugs, yet new compounds and their extensive and detailed clinical evaluation are much needed. Eosinophilia in fluids may be detected in other infectious and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic disease, drug use, and prosthesis reactions. Thus, distinctive identification of eosinophils in fluids is a necessary component in the etiologic diagnosis of CNS infections. PMID:19366917

  17. [A case of pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma and diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Ochi, H; Aizawa, H; Matsumoto, K; Hashimoto, S; Hara, N

    1995-05-01

    A 31-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a sudden onset of thirst, polyposia, and polyuria. Five years previously he had been admitted to our hospital because of a dry cough. On the first admission, the chest X-ray film had shown reticular shadows and bullous changes in both upper lung fields. Histological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen had revealed that the nodular lesion in the interstitium of the alveolar lesion consisted of an aggregate of many Langerhans cells with pale cytoplasm and partly convoluted nuclei. In addition, immunoperoxidase stain for S-100 protein had been strongly positive in numerous Langerhans cells in a bone biopsy specimen from a left mandibullar lesion, which is the same histological appearance as the lung lesion. A diagnosis of pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma had been made. The course after discharge was not progressive without treatment for 5 years, but the patient suddenly began to have thirst, polyposia, and polyuria. Dehydration, vasopressin tests, and the findings of MRI indicated diabetes insipidus due to a pathological change in the pituitary gland. Although diabetes insipidus is known to be a common complication of pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma, only 9 cases have been reported in Japan. PMID:7609347

  18. IL-5 in post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schandené, L; Namias, B; Crusiaux, A; Lybin, M; Devos, R; Velu, T; Capel, P; Bellens, R; Goldman, M

    1993-01-01

    Thoracic trauma or pneumothorax can result in pleural fluid eosinophilia. In this study we investigated the role of the eosinophilopoietic cytokine IL-5 in three cases of post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPE). Using a specific immunoenzymatic assay, significant levels of IL-5 were found in EPE (range 100-3000 pg/ml), while IL-5 was undetectable (< 25 pg/ml) in corresponding serum samples and in non-eosinophilic pleural fluids. IL-5 present in pleural fluids was found bioactive in a proliferative assay using a mouse CTLL-2 cell line transfected with the cDNA corresponding to the alpha chain of the human IL-5 receptor. Using a reverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we found IL-5 mRNA expression within pleural mononuclear cells from patients with EPE, but not in corresponding peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), confirming that IL-5 is synthesized locally in the pleural cavity. In the two cases in which pleural CD4+ cells were purified, these cells were identified as the major source of IL-5. Taken together, these data indicate that the development of post-traumatic EPE is related to a local secretion of IL-5 by CD4+ cells present in the pleural cavity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8100745

  19. Characteristics of eosinophilic inclusions within Schistosoma japonicum eggs.

    PubMed

    Hirata, M; Nakashima, T; Fukuma, T

    1999-03-01

    Although eosinophilic bar- or droplet-like inclusions are frequently detectable inside eggs deposited in the livers of Schistosoma japonicum-infected animals, little is known of their exact nature. In the livers of mice implanted with freshly laid eggs, inclusion-positive eggs were found in 28.7 and 46.2% of deposited eggs at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, after implantation, but in 4.3% at 5 weeks when most of the eggs had already degenerated. When the extent of granuloma formation was investigated, granulomas around inclusion-positive eggs were smaller than those around negative eggs. Host factors associated with the formation of inclusion were sought using in vivo and in vitro studies. Following the administration of anti-egg antigen serum into egg-implanted mice, no increase in occurrence of inclusion-positive eggs was seen. In a co-culture of mature eggs with infected rabbit or mouse serum, inclusions were rarely found. In contrast, they were found in 17.9% of eggs in the presence of splenic cells. The present study is the first to show that there is decreased granuloma formation in the presence of eosinophilic inclusions inside eggs and our in vitro study suggests that host cell-egg interaction is responsible for the formation of inclusions. PMID:10205802

  20. Molecular, Genetic, and Cellular Bases for Treating Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE—particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-β, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity, strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal specific genetic risk variants, and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine–mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy. PMID:25666870

  1. Human eosinophils can express the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, J J; Matossian, K; Resnick, M B; Beil, W J; Wong, D T; Gordon, J R; Dvorak, A M; Weller, P F; Galli, S J

    1993-01-01

    By in situ hybridization, 44-100% of the blood eosinophils from five patients with hypereosinophilia and four normal subjects exhibited intense hybridization signals for TNF-alpha mRNA. TNF-alpha protein was detectable by immunohistochemistry in blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic subjects, and purified blood eosinophils from three atopic donors exhibited cycloheximide-inhibitable spontaneous release of TNF-alpha in vitro. Many blood eosinophils (39-91%) from hypereosinophilic donors exhibited intense labeling for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) mRNA, whereas eosinophils of normal donors demonstrated only weak or undetectable hybridization signals for MIP-1 alpha mRNA. Most tissue eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps were strongly positive for both TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. By Northern blot analysis, highly enriched blood eosinophils from a patient with the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome exhibited differential expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. These findings indicate that human eosinophils represent a potential source of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha, that levels of expression of mRNA for both cytokines are high in the blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic donors and in eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps, that the eosinophils of normal subjects express higher levels of TNF-alpha than MIP-1 alpha mRNA, and that eosinophils purified from the blood of atopic donors can release TNF-alpha in vitro. Images PMID:8514874

  2. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review. PMID:26797962

  3. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking.

    PubMed

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi; Ulven, Trond; Sturm, Eva M; Waldhoer, Maria; Hoefler, Gerald; Schuligoi, Rufina; Lippe, Irmgard Th; Peskar, Bernhard A; Heinemann, Akos

    2007-10-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is a major mast cell product that acts via two receptors, the D-type prostanoid (DP) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) receptors. Whereas CRTH2 mediates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes, the role of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid release of eosinophils from bone marrow and this effect was inhibited by either the DP receptor antagonist BWA868c or the CRTH2 receptor antagonist ramatroban. In contrast, BWA868c did not inhibit the release of bone marrow eosinophils when this was induced by the CRTH2-selective agonist 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGD2. In additional experiments, we isolated bone marrow eosinophils from the femoral cavity and found that these cells migrated toward PGD2. We also observed that BWA868c inhibited this response to a similar extent as ramatroban. Finally, using immunohistochemistry we could demonstrate that eosinophils in human bone marrow specimens expressed DP and CRTH2 receptors at similar levels. Eosinophils isolated from human peripheral blood likewise expressed DP receptor protein but at lower levels than CRTH2. In agreement with this, the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils was inhibited both by BWA868c and ramatroban. These findings suggest that DP receptors comediate with CRTH2 the mobilization of eosinophils from bone marrow and their chemotaxis, which might provide the rationale for DP antagonists in the treatment of allergic disease. PMID:17878378

  4. Anti-Siglec-F Antibody Reduces Allergen-Induced Eosinophilic Inflammation and Airway Remodeling1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dae Jin; Cho, Jae Youn; Lee, Sang Yeub; Miller, Marina; Rosenthal, Peter; Soroosh, Pejman; Croft, Michael; Zhang, Mai; Varki, Ajit; Broide, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Siglec-F is a sialic acid-binding Ig superfamily receptor that is highly expressed on eosinophils. We have investigated whether administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab to OVA-challenged wild-type mice would reduce levels of eosinophilic inflammation and levels of airway remodeling. Mice sensitized to OVA and challenged repetitively with OVA for 1 mo who were administered an anti-Siglec-F Ab had significantly reduced levels of peribronchial eosinophilic inflammation and significantly reduced levels of subepithelial fibrosis as assessed by either trichrome staining or lung collagen levels. The anti-Siglec-F Ab reduced the number of bone marrow, blood, and tissue eosinophils, suggesting that the anti-Siglec-F Ab was reducing the production of eosinophils. Administration of a F(ab′)2 fragment of an anti-Siglec-F Ab also significantly reduced levels of eosinophilic inflammation in the lung and blood. FACS analysis demonstrated increased numbers of apoptotic cells (annexin V+/CCR3+ bronchoalveolar lavage and bone marrow cells) in anti-Siglec-F Ab-treated mice challenged with OVA. The anti-Siglec-F Ab significantly reduced the number of peribronchial major basic protein+/TGF-β+ cells, suggesting that reduced levels of eosinophil-derived TGF-β in anti-Siglec-F Ab-treated mice contributed to reduced levels of peribronchial fibrosis. Administration of the anti-Siglec-F Ab modestly reduced levels of periodic acid-Schiff-positive mucus cells and the thickness of the smooth muscle layer. Overall, these studies suggest that administration of an anti-Siglec-F Ab can significantly reduce levels of allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and features of airway remodeling, in particular subepithelial fibrosis, by reducing the production of eosinophils and increasing the number of apoptotic eosinophils in lung and bone marrow. PMID:19783675

  5. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  6. Making Research Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Yvon; Kerwin, Marie; McCulloch, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Making research count in the education sector is often difficult to achieve as people, quite properly, question its relevance, purpose and impact. One of the significant barriers to research supporting practice in the lifelong learning sector is that funded research carried out in higher education institutions is frequently privileged above…

  7. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  8. Counting digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

  9. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  10. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  11. The Eosinophil in Health and Disease: from Bench to Bedside and Back.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei; Long, Hai; Chang, Christopher Chia-Chi; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-04-01

    Historically, eosinophils have been considered as end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasitic infection and in the mechanisms of hypersensitivity. However, later studies have shown that this multifunctional cell is also capable of producing immunoregulatory cytokines and soluble mediators and is involved in tissue homeostasis and modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review, we summarize the biology of eosinophils, including the function and molecular mechanisms of their granule proteins, cell surface markers, mediators, and pathways, and present comprehensive reviews of research updates on the genetics and epigenetics of eosinophils. We describe recent advances in the development of epigenetics of eosinophil-related diseases, especially in asthma. Likewise, recent studies have provided us with a more complete appreciation of how eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Over the past decades, the definition and criteria of HES have been evolving with the progress of our understanding of the disease and some aspects of this disease still remain controversial. We also review recent updates on the genetic and molecular mechanisms of HES, which have spurred dramatic developments in the clinical strategies of diagnosis and treatment for this heterogeneous group of diseases. The conclusion from this review is that the biology of eosinophils provides significant insights as to their roles in health and disease and, furthermore, demonstrates that a better understanding of eosinophil will accelerate the development of new therapeutic strategies for patients. PMID:26410377

  12. Advances in the immunobiology of eosinophils and their role in disease.

    PubMed

    Walsh, G M

    1999-10-01

    Eosinophils play a protective role in host immunity to infections by parasitic worms and, detrimentally, are involved in the pathophysiology of asthma and other allergic diseases. Airway inflammation is central to the pathology of asthma and is characterized by infiltration of the bronchial mucosa by large numbers of proinflammatory cells, amongst which the eosinophil is prominent despite being a minority constituent of circulating leukocytes. Crucial steps in eosinophilic inflammation include augmented production of eosinophils in the bone marrow, their increased release into the circulation, and their selective accumulation in the conducting airways. The eosinophil has a potent armory of proinflammatory mediators, including cytotoxic granule proteins, cytokines and lipid mediators with considerable potential to initiate and sustain an inflammatory response. Thus there is much interest in the elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for eosinophil accumulation, persistence, activation and ultimate fate. This article reviews our current understanding of the role of the eosinophil in human disease and the immunobiology of this important proinflammatory cell. PMID:10560888

  13. Eosinophil granule-derived major basic protein induces IL-8 expression in human intestinal myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Furuta, G T; Ackerman, S J; Varga, J; Spiess, A M; Wang, M Y; Wershil, B K

    2000-10-01

    Eosinophil infiltration occurs in a variety of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The release of preformed mediators from eosinophils may contribute to inflammatory responses. We investigated the ability of eosinophil-derived major basic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin to stimulate production of IL-8 from intestinal myofibroblasts. Intestinal myofibroblasts (18-Co cells) were incubated with major basic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, or a synthetic analogue of major basic protein, poly-L-arginine. Immunoreactive IL-8 was measured by ELISA and IL-8 mRNA levels were analysed by Northern blot or reverse transcription-polymerase chain assay. Major basic protein induced IL-8 mRNA production and release of significant levels of IL-8 immunoreactive protein. By contrast, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin stimulated little IL-8 release. The induction of IL-8 mRNA by poly-L-arginine was significantly inhibited by actinomycin D. These findings demonstrate a novel interaction between eosinophils and intestinal fibroblasts that may be involved in the pathogenesis of diseases associated with tissue eosinophilia. PMID:11012615

  14. Activated eosinophils and interleukin 5 expression in early recurrence of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dubucquoi, S; Janin, A; Klein, O; Desreumaux, P; Quandalle, P; Cortot, A; Capron, M; Colombel, J F

    1995-01-01

    Endoscopic recurrences after radical surgery for Crohn's disease are useful for studying the pathogenesis of initial lesions of Crohn's disease. Factors predisposing to recurrence are poorly understood, but it has been shown that eosinophilic infiltration of the neoileum may occur within a few weeks of resection. The aim of this study was to compare, in nine patients having an ileocolectomy, the infiltration of eosinophils and their activation state in normal and diseased areas of the neoileum, three months after surgery. Tissue eosinophils were studied by histochemical methods and electron microscopy. Mucosal expression of interleukin 5 (IL 5), an important eosinophil activating factor was studied using in situ hybridisation. Sixty per cent of patients had endoscopic recurrence at three months. Eosinophil infiltration was more pronounced in diseased than in endoscopically normal areas and was associated with a high expression of IL 5 mRNA. Ultrastructural analysis showed features of eosinophil activation, but no cytotoxic lesions of surrounding inflammatory or epithelial cells. This study suggests that local synthesis of IL 5 associated with eosinophil activation in the tissues could participate in early mucosal damage in Crohn's disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7557575

  15. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Ayesha; Choksi, Vivek; Chu, Andrew; Mankodi, Dhruti; Shaharyar, Sameer; O'Brien, Keith; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis. PMID:26229703

  16. Measurement of Absolute Carbon Isotope Ratios: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Giacomo, J. A.; Dueker, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) produced absolute isotope ratio measurements for 14C/13C as tested against >500 samples of NIST SRM-4990-C (OxII 14C standard) to an accuracy of 2.2±0.6‰ over a period of one year with measurements made to 1% counting statistics. The spectrometer is not maximized for 13C/12C, but measured ∂13C to 0.4±0.1‰ accuracy, with known methods for improvement. An AMS produces elemental anions from a sputter ion source and includes a charge-changing collision in a gas cell to isolate the rare 14C from the common isotopes and molecular isobars. Both these physical processes have been modeled to determine the parameters providing such absolute measures. Neutral resonant ionization in a cesium plasma produces mass-independent ionization, while velocity dependent charge-state distributions in gas collisions produce relative ion beam intensities that are linear in mass at specific collision energies. The mechanisms are not specific to carbon isotopes, but stand alone absolute IRMS (AIR-MS) instruments have not yet been made. Aside from the obvious applications in metrology, AIR-MS is particularly valuable in coupled separatory MS because no internal or external standards are required. Sample definition processes can be compared, even if no exact standard reference sample exists. Isotope dilution measurements do not require standards matching the dilution end-points and can be made over an extended, even extrapolated, range.

  17. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection. PMID:26801599

  18. A parallel signal-transduction pathway for eotaxin- and interleukin-5-induced eosinophil shape change

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Nam; Choi, Moon Kyung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and eotaxin are the most important cytokines/chemokines responsible for regulating eosinophil locomotion and are known to play a co-operative role in the selective recruitment of eosinophils to inflamed tissues. Following exposure to chemoattractants, eosinophils undergo a series of events, including reorganization of actin filaments and subsequent rapid shape changes, culminating in chemotaxis. In this study we examined the signalling pathways for eosinophil shape change regulated by eotaxin and IL-5, primarily using a gated autofluorescence/forward-scatter assay. Eotaxin and IL-5 were able to elicit shape change with peaks at 10 and 60 min, respectively, and IL-5 triggered the shape change more efficiently than eotaxin. The pharmacological inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) and p38 blocked both eotaxin- and IL-5-induced eosinophil shape change in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, depletion of intracellular Ca2+ and inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) strongly reduced eosinophil shape change. In contrast, even when used at high concentrations, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors caused only a slight reduction in the ability to change shape. However, treatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, such as GF109203X and staurosporine, resulted in a striking inhibition of eosinophil shape change by IL-5, but not eotaxin. Data from the inhibition of activation and chemotaxis of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) by the PKC inhibitors were also consistent with findings from the experiments on shape change. Collectively, two eosinophil-selective cytokines/chemokines probably regulate eosinophil shape change via a largely overlapping signalling pathway, with involvement of PKC restricted to the IL-5 signal alone. PMID:12562334

  19. Eosinophil resistance to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is mediated by the transcription factor NFIL3.

    PubMed

    Pazdrak, Konrad; Moon, Young; Straub, Christof; Stafford, Susan; Kurosky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The mainstay of asthma therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs) exert their therapeutic effects through the inhibition of inflammatory signaling and induction of eosinophil apoptosis. However, laboratory and clinical observations of GC-resistant asthma suggest that GCs' effects on eosinophil viability may depend on the state of eosinophil activation. In the present study we demonstrate that eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 show impaired pro-apoptotic response to GCs. We sought to determine the contribution of GC-mediated transactivating (TA) and transrepressing (TR) pathways in modulation of activated eosinophils' response to GC by comparing their response to the selective GC receptor (GR) agonist Compound A (CpdA) devoid of TA activity to that upon treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex). IL-5-activated eosinophils showed contrasting responses to CpdA and Dex, as IL-5-treated eosinophils showed no increase in apoptosis compared to cells treated with Dex alone, while CpdA elicited an apoptotic response regardless of IL-5 stimulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that both Nuclear Factor IL-3 (NFIL3) and Map Kinase Phosphatase 1 (MKP1) were inducible by IL-5 and enhanced by Dex; however, CpdA had no effect on NFIL3 and MKP1 expression. We found that inhibiting NFIL3 with specific siRNA or by blocking the IL-5-inducible Pim-1 kinase abrogated the protective effect of IL-5 on Dex-induced apoptosis, indicating crosstalk between IL-5 anti-apoptotic pathways and GR-mediated TA signaling occurring via the NFIL3 molecule. Collectively, these results indicate that (1) GCs' TA pathway may support eosinophil viability in IL-5-stimulated cells through synergistic upregulation of NFIL3; and (2) functional inhibition of IL-5 signaling (anti-Pim1) or the use of selective GR agonists that don't upregulate NFIL3 may be effective strategies for the restoring pro-apoptotic effect of GCs on IL-5-activated eosinophils. PMID:26880402

  20. Eosinophilic pneumonia presenting as life-threatening ARDS.

    PubMed

    Maia, José Miguel; Guedes, Fernando; Aragão, Irene; Cardoso, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 25-year-old woman with sudden onset of shortness of breath, cough and malaise, 24 h after discharge from a psychiatric hospital. She had been there for 2 weeks after a suicide attempt with lye, and started treatment with paroxetin, alprazolam and valproic acid. She also started smoking 20 cigarettes/day during that hospital admission. Brought to the emergency department, she evolved in the first 24 h with respiratory failure and shock needing intensive care unit (ICU) admission, with mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. Empiric antibiotic therapy was started (piperacillin-tazobactam and azithromycin) suspecting healthcare-associated pneumonia. The patient's chest radiography progressed with bilateral infiltrates. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was seen on the second day. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and had 50% of eosinophils. She was started on treatment with steroids and the next day no longer needed vasopressors; 4 days later she was extubated. PMID:26150613

  1. Characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis murine models using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Aneesh; Noti, Mario; Wojno, Elia D. Tait; Artis, David; Zhou, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies using murine models are critical for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying immune-mediated disorders such as Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this study, an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system capable of providing three-dimensional images with axial and transverse resolutions of 5 µm and 10 µm, respectively, was utilized to obtain esophageal images from a murine model of EoE-like disease ex vivo. Structural changes in the esophagus of wild-type (Tslpr+/+) and mutant (Tslpr−/−) mice with EoE-like disease were quantitatively evaluated and food impaction sites in the esophagus of diseased mice were monitored using OCT. Here, the capability of OCT as a label-free imaging tool devoid of tissue-processing artifacts to effectively characterize murine EoE-like disease models has been demonstrated. PMID:24575353

  2. Therapeutic strategies in eosinophilic esophagitis: Induction, maintenance and refractory disease.

    PubMed

    Sodikoff, Jamie; Hirano, Ikuo

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease that is increasingly recognized as one of the most common causes of dysphagia and foregut symptoms in adults and children. Topical corticosteroids, elimination diets, and esophageal dilations are effective options for both induction and maintenance therapy in EoE. Current pharmacologic options are being used off-label as no agent has yet been approved by regulatory authorities. Little is known about the natural history of EoE, however, raising controversy regarding the necessity of maintenance and therapy in asymptomatic or treatment-refractory patients. Furthermore, variability in treatment endpoints used in EoE clinical trials makes interpretation and comparability of EoE treatments challenging. Recent validation of a patient-related outcome (PRO) instruments, a histologic scoring tool, and an endoscopic grading system for EoE are significant advances toward establishing consistent treatment endpoints. PMID:26552781

  3. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with glyphosate-surfactant exposure.

    PubMed

    De Raadt, Wanda M; Wijnen, Petal A; Bast, Aalt; Bekers, Otto; Drent, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a female patient who developed acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) after recent onset of smoking and exposure to glyphosate-surfactant.The additional exposure associated with the recent start of smoking may have contributed to the development and/or severity of AEP.A clinical relapse after re-challenge four years later both with smoking and glyphosate-surfactant made the association highly likely.Respiratory distress is a factor of poor outcome and mortality after ingestion of glyphosate-surfactant.This case highlights the importance of a thorough exposure history e.g., possible occupational and environmental exposures together with drug-intake.Genotyping should be considered in cases of severe unexplained pulmonary damage. PMID:26278698

  4. Cervical spine cord compression by eosinophilic granuloma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Silva, E B; Noujaim J el-K; Carnevale, F

    1999-06-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a term reserved for the most often and benign form of disorder known as Langerhans cells histiocytosis. It is a disease of children and adolescents that very rarely affects adults, representing the localized form of a pathological proliferation of histiocytes in bones, like skull and long bones. Vertebral involvement is uncommon, approximately 8% of the cases, being the cervical localization the least affected. Moreover, the involvement of the spinal cord and roots remains a rare occurrence. Only five cases characterized by signs of cervical spinal cord compression have been reported. We report the sixth case in a 42-year-old-man who evolved with resolution of symptoms, and has remained asymptomatic after treatment. The clinical, radiological and histological features and, also, the value, in selected cases, of surgical treatment followed by low-dose radiation therapy is discussed. A review of the pertinent literature is also presented. PMID:10450361

  5. Eosinophilic granuloma of the mandible: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sherwani, Rana K; Akhtar, Kafil; Qadri, Shagufta; Ray, Prasenjit Sen

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare histiocytic disorder resulting from clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. It accounts for less than 1% of all osseous neoplasms and has a predilection for involving the axial skeleton. Although suspicion of the disease may arise from clinical features and radiographic demonstration of destructive bone lesions, it is still difficult to make a correct diagnosis without proper pathological evaluation. This is more evident when common differentials mimicking EG, both clinically and radiologically, need to be ruled out. This report describes a case of unifocal EG of the mandible occurring in a 4-year-old boy whose initial presentation led to confusion between osteomyelitis, primary bone tumour and lymphoma. A final diagnosis of EG was established after histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. PMID:24700031

  6. Eosinophilic abscesses: a new facet of hepatic visceral larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur; Patidar, Yashwant; Mangla, Vivek; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Sarin, Shiv K

    2013-08-01

    Hepatic visceral larva migrans (VLM) refers to a condition characterized by granulomatous liver lesions containing eosinophils and inflammatory cells associated with migration of second-stage larvae of certain nematodes such as toxocara canis. The typical imaging findings described in the literature include small, ill-defined, oval or elongated, low-attenuating nodules with fuzzy margins, non-spherical shape, and absent or insignificant rim enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scan. The present series in contrast depicts a new imaging manifestation of hepatic VLM presenting as confluent and clustered complex cystic liver lesions. Pre-treatment imaging studies including contrast-enhanced CT/MRI of three patients are presented. One of the patients underwent liver resection while post-treatment follow-up scan at 6 months in the remaining two displayed regression of the lesions with antihelminthic treatment. PMID:22801750

  7. Translating New Developments in Eosinophilic Esophagitis Pathogenesis into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Edaire

    2015-01-01

    Opinion Statement New developments in eosinophilic esophagitis pathogenesis are shaping our current therapeutic and management strategies. EoE is a chronic allergic inflammatory disease with progression to fibrostenotic disease. The disease warrants early diagnosis and long-term maintenance therapy. The diagnosis of EoE should be based on the concept of an allergy-mediated disease with esophageal dysfunction and esophageal eosinophilia. Recent findings suggest PPI-REE is likely a continuum of EoE or similar Th2-mediated allergic process. PPIs have therapeutic properties that can benefit both GERD and EoE. Therefore, PPIs should not be considered a diagnostic tool, but rather a therapeutic option for EoE. If patients are PPI-nonresponsive, then dietary therapy or steroid therapy should be considered. Dilation can be reserved as adjuvant therapy for severe fibrostenotic lesions. PMID:25598233

  8. Dividing the Janus vasculitis? Pathophysiology of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis.

    PubMed

    Chaigne, Benjamin; Terrier, Benjamin; Thieblemont, Nathalie; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Mouthon, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA) is a rare small- and medium-sized vessel vasculitis belonging to the group of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV). It is commonly divided into two phenotypes depending on the presence of ANCAs targeting myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO-ANCAs are present in 31% to 38% of patients and are associated with a vasculitis phenotype of the disease, whereas patients without MPO-ANCA are at risk of cardiac involvement. Despite significant advances in understanding the overall pathogenesis of the disease, the explanation for this dichotomy is still unclear. In this review, we synthesize our knowledge of the pathogenesis of EGPA and attempt to i) distinguish EGPA from other diseases including other AAVs, asthma, allergy and hypereosinophilic-associated conditions and ii) speculate about the preponderant mechanisms, which could explain the two disease phenotypes. PMID:26506114

  9. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Due to Rhus Ingestion Presenting with Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonsuk; Choi, Chan; Cho, Kyuman; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Rhus-related illnesses in Korea are mostly caused by ingestion of parts of the Rhus tree. Contact dermatitis occurrence after ingestion of Rhus-related food is very common in Korea. However, Rhus-related gastrointestinal disease is very rare. Herein, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis caused by Rhus ingestion. A 75-year-old woman was admitted with hematemesis and hematochezia after Rhus extract ingestion. Routine laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Endoscopy showed friable and granular mucosal changes with touch bleeding in the second portion of the duodenum. Abdominal computed tomography revealed edematous wall thickening of the duodenum and proximal jejunal loops. Patch testing with Rhus extracts showed a strong positive reaction, suggesting Rhus as the allergen. Her symptoms improved after avoidance of the allergen. PMID:25844348

  10. An allergist's perspective to the evaluation of Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Spergel, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a classic atopic disease as it shares features with other atopic disease on all levels including pathogenesis, genetics, epidemiology, and treatment options. EoE has elements of Th2 pathogenesis with increase levels of Th2 cytokines (IL4, 5, and 13). In addition, it shares atopic genetic risk factors including thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) loci as a risk factor in genome wide association studies. EoE patients have a higher rate of other atopic disease (asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergy) compared to the general population indicating their atopic phenotype. Like asthma, atopic dermatitis or food allergy, EoE has increased in the last 20 years. Treatment options include the basic principle of other atopic diseases include using topical steroids or avoidance of the triggers (food or pollen). An allergist provides a critical role as they are experts in the treatment of atopic disease including avoidance strategies. PMID:26552776

  11. Eosinophilic and granular cell tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Damiani, S; Dina, R; Eusebi, V

    1999-05-01

    Eosinophilic and granular cell tumors of the breast are a heterogeneous group encompassing both epithelial and mesenchymal lesions. A granular appearance of the cytoplasm may be caused by the accumulation of secretory granules, mitochondria, or lysosomes. In the breast, mucoid carcinomas, carcinomas showing apocrine differentiation, and neuroendocrine carcinomas are well known entities, while tumors with oncocytic and acinic cell differentiation have been only recently recognized. An abundance of lysosomes is characteristic of Schwannian granular cell neoplasms, but smooth muscle cell tumors also may have this cytoplasmic feature. Awareness of all these possibilities when granular cells are found in breast lesions improves diagnostic accuracy and helps to avoid misdiagnosis of both benign lesions and malignant tumors. PMID:10452577

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: updated consensus recommendations for children and adults.

    PubMed

    Liacouras, Chris A; Furuta, Glenn T; Hirano, Ikuo; Atkins, Dan; Attwood, Stephen E; Bonis, Peter A; Burks, A Wesley; Chehade, Mirna; Collins, Margaret H; Dellon, Evan S; Dohil, Ranjan; Falk, Gary W; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Katzka, David A; Lucendo, Alfredo J; Markowitz, Jonathan E; Noel, Richard J; Odze, Robert D; Putnam, Philip E; Richter, Joel E; Romero, Yvonne; Ruchelli, Eduardo; Sampson, Hugh A; Schoepfer, Alain; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Sicherer, Scott H; Spechler, Stuart; Spergel, Jonathan M; Straumann, Alex; Wershil, Barry K; Rothenberg, Marc E; Aceves, Seema S

    2011-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition of increasing recognition and prevalence. In 2007, a consensus recommendation provided clinical and histopathologic guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of EoE; however, only a minority of physicians use the 2007 guidelines, which require fulfillment of both histologic and clinical features. Since 2007, the number of EoE publications has doubled, providing new disease insight. Accordingly, a panel of 33 physicians with expertise in pediatric and adult allergy/immunology, gastroenterology, and pathology conducted a systematic review of the EoE literature (since September 2006) using electronic databases. Based on the literature review and expertise of the panel, information and recommendations were provided in each of the following areas of EoE: diagnostics, genetics, allergy testing, therapeutics, and disease complications. Because accumulating animal and human data have provided evidence that EoE appears to be an antigen-driven immunologic process that involves multiple pathogenic pathways, a new conceptual definition is proposed highlighting that EoE represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The diagnostic guidelines continue to define EoE as an isolated chronic disorder of the esophagus diagnosed by the need of both clinical and pathologic features. Patients commonly have high rates of concurrent allergic diatheses, especially food sensitization, compared with the general population. Proved therapeutic options include chronic dietary elimination, topical corticosteroids, and esophageal dilation. Important additions since 2007 include genetic underpinnings that implicate EoE susceptibility caused by polymorphisms in the thymic stromal lymphopoietin protein gene and the description of a new potential disease phenotype, proton pump inhibitor

  13. Intrapleural Corticosteroid Injection in Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion Associated with Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Yang, Bokyung; Kim, Mihee; Kang, Jingu; Lee, Jiun

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE) is defined as a pleural effusion that contains at least 10% eosinophils. EPE occurs due to a variety of causes such as blood or air in the pleural space, infection, malignancy, or an autoimmune disease. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) associated with eosinophilic pleural effusion is a rare condition generally characterized by the presence of the signs and symptoms but not fulfilling the existing classification criteria. We report a case involving a 67-year-old man with UCTD and EPE, who has been successfully treated with a single intrapleural corticosteroid injection. PMID:24265645

  14. Improving HST Pointing & Absolute Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallo, Matthew; Nelan, E.; Kimmer, E.; Cox, C.; Casertano, S.

    2007-05-01

    Accurate absolute astrometry is becoming increasingly important in an era of multi-mission archives and virtual observatories. Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Guidestar Catalog II (GSC2) has reduced coordinate error to around 0.25 arcsecond, a factor 2 or more compared with GSC1. With this reduced catalog error, special attention must be given to calibrate and maintain the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) and Science Instruments (SIs) alignments in HST to a level well below this in order to ensure that the accuracy of science product's astrometry keywords and target positioning are limited only by the catalog errors. After HST Servicing Mission 4, such calibrations' improvement in "blind" pointing accuracy will allow for more efficient COS acquisitions. Multiple SIs and FGSs each have their own footprints in the spatially shared HST focal plane. It is the small changes over time in primarily the whole-body positions & orientations of these instruments & guiders relative to one another that is addressed by this work. We describe the HST Cycle 15 program CAL/OTA 11021 which, along with future variants of it, determines and maintains positions and orientations of the SIs and FGSs to better than 50 milli- arcseconds and 0.04 to 0.004 degrees of roll, putting errors associated with the alignment sufficiently below GSC2 errors. We present recent alignment results and assess their errors, illustrate trends, and describe where and how the observer sees benefit from these calibrations when using HST.

  15. Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908

  16. Absolute Instability in Coupled-Cavity TWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, D. M. H.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Chernin, D.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper will present results of our analysis of absolute instability in a coupled-cavity traveling wave tube (TWT). The structure mode at the lower and upper band edges are respectively approximated by a hyperbola in the (omega, k) plane. When the Briggs-Bers criterion is applied, a threshold current for onset of absolute instability is observed at the upper band edge, but not the lower band edge. The nonexistence of absolute instability at the lower band edge is mathematically similar to the nonexistence of absolute instability that we recently demonstrated for a dielectric TWT. The existence of absolute instability at the upper band edge is mathematically similar to the existence of absolute instability in a gyroton traveling wave amplifier. These interesting observations will be discussed, and the practical implications will be explored. This work was supported by AFOSR, ONR, and L-3 Communications Electron Devices.

  17. Migration of eosinophils across endothelial cell monolayers: interactions among IL-5, endothelial-activating cytokines, and C-C chemokines.

    PubMed

    Shahabuddin, S; Ponath, P; Schleimer, R P

    2000-04-01

    Eosinophils are the predominant cell type recruited in inflammatory reactions in response to allergen challenge. The mechanisms of selective eosinophil recruitment in allergic reactions are not fully elucidated. In this study, the ability of several C-C chemokines to induce transendothelial migration (TEM) of eosinophils in vitro was assessed. Eotaxin, eotaxin-2, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-4, and RANTES induced eosinophil TEM across unstimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a concentration-dependent manner with the following rank order of potency: eotaxin approximately eotaxin-2 > MCP-4 approximately RANTES. The maximal response induced by eotaxin or eotaxin-2 exceeded that of RANTES or MCP-4. Preincubation of eosinophils with anti-CCR3 Ab (7B11) completely blocked eosinophil TEM induced by eotaxin, MCP-4, and RANTES. Activation of endothelial cells with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha induced concentration-dependent migration of eosinophils, which was enhanced synergistically in the presence of eotaxin and RANTES. Anti-CCR3 also inhibited eotaxin-induced eosinophil TEM across TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC. The ability of eosinophil-active cytokines to potentiate eosinophil TEM was assessed by investigating eotaxin or RANTES-induced eosinophil TEM across resting and IL-1beta-stimulated HUVEC in the presence or absence of IL-5. The results showed synergy between IL-5 and the chemokines but not between IL-5 and the endothelial activator IL-1beta. Our data suggest that eotaxin, eotaxin-2, MCP-4, and RANTES induce eosinophil TEM via CCR3 with varied potency and efficacy. Activation of HUVEC by IL-1beta or TNF-alpha or priming of eosinophils by IL-5 both promote CCR3-dependent migration of eosinophils from the vasculature in conjunction with CCR3-active chemokines. PMID:10725746

  18. Arraycount, an algorithm for automatic cell counting in microwell arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kachouie, Nezamoddin N.; Kang, Lifeng; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Microscale technologies have emerged as a powerful tool for studying and manipulating biological systems and miniaturizing experiments. However, the lack of software complementing these techniques has made it difficult to apply them for many high-throughput experiments. This work establishes Arraycount, an approach to automatically count cells in microwell arrays. The procedure consists of fluorescent microscope imaging of cells that are seeded in microwells of a microarray system and then analyzing images via computer to recognize the array and count cells inside each microwell. To start counting, green and red fluorescent images (representing live and dead cells respectively), are extracted from the original image and processed separately. A template-matching algorithm, is proposed in which pre-defined well and cell templates are matched against the red and green images to locate microwells and cells. Subsequently, local maxima in the correlation maps is determined and local maxima maps are thresholded. At the end, the software records the cell counts for each detected microwell on the original image in high-throughput. The automated counting was shown to be accurate compared with manual counting, with a difference of ~1–2 cells per microwell: based on cell concentration, the absolute difference between manual and automatic counting measurements was 2.5–13%. PMID:19852758

  19. Absolute negative mobility of interacting Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ya-li; Hu, Cai-tian; Wu, Jian-chun; Ai, Bao-quan

    2015-12-01

    Transport of interacting Brownian particles in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an ac force and a dc force. From Brownian dynamic simulations, we find that both the interaction between particles and the thermal fluctuations play key roles in the absolute negative mobility (the particle noisily moves backwards against a small constant bias). When no the interaction acts, there is only one region where the absolute negative mobility occurs. In the presence of the interaction, the absolute negative mobility may appear in multiple regions. The weak interaction can be helpful for the absolute negative mobility, while the strong interaction has a destructive impact on it.

  20. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide: comparison between portable devices and correlation with sputum eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Yune, Sehyo; Lee, Jin Young; Choi, Dong Chull; Lee, Byung Jae

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to compare the 2 different portable devices measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and to see the correlation between FeNO and induced sputum eosinophil count (ISE). Forty consecutive subjects clinically suspected to have asthma underwent FeNO measurement by NIOX-MINO® and NObreath® concurrently. All also had induced sputum analysis, methacholine provocation test or bronchodilator response test, and spin prick test. Agreement between the 2 devices was evaluated. The correlation between FeNO and ISE was assessed, as well as the cut-off level of FeNO to identify ISE ≥3%. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between FeNO levels measured by NIOX-MINO® (FeNO(NIOX-MINO)) and NObreath® (FeNO(NObreath)) was 0.972 with 95% confidence interval of 0.948-0.985. The 95% limits of agreement were -28.9 to 19.9 ppb. The correlation coefficient between ISE and FeNO(NIOX-MINO) was 0.733 (P<0.001), and 0.751 between ISE and FeNO(NObreath) (P<0.001). The ROC curve found that the FeNO(NIOXMINO) of 37.5 ppb and the FeNO(NObreath) of 36.5 ppb identified ISE ≥3% with 90% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, atopy, and the presence of asthma did not affect the FeNO level and its correlation with ISE. The NIOX-MINO ® and NObreath® agree with each other to a high degree. Both devices showed close correlation with ISE with similar cut-off value in identifying ISE ≥3%. PMID:25749783

  1. Clinical Characteristics and Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an uncommon inflammatory lung disease, and limited data exist concerning the clinical characteristics and factors that influence its occurrence. We retrospectively reviewed the records of AEP patients treated at Korean military hospitals between January 2007 and December 2013. In total, 333 patients were identified; their median age was 22 years, and all were men. All patients presented with acute respiratory symptoms (cough, sputum, dyspnea, or fever) and had elevated levels of inflammatory markers including median values of 13,185/µL for white blood cell count and 9.51 mg/dL for C-reactive protein. All patients showed diffuse ground glass opacity/consolidation, and most had pleural effusion (n = 265; 80%) or interlobular septal thickening (n = 265; 85%) on chest computed tomography. Most patients had normal body mass index (n = 255; 77%), and only 30 (9%) patients had underlying diseases including rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis. Most patients had recently changed smoking habits (n = 288; 87%) and were Army personnel (n = 297; 89%).The AEP incidence was higher in the Army group compared to the Navy or Air Force group for every year (P = 0.002). Both the number of patients and patients with high illness severity (oxygen requirement, intensive care unit admission, and pneumonia severity score class ≥ III) tended to increase as seasonal temperatures rose. We describe the clinical characteristics of AEP and demonstrate that AEP patients have recently changed smoking habits and work for the Army. There is an increasing tendency in the numbers of patients and those with higher AEP severity with rising seasonal temperatures. PMID:26839479

  2. Counting supersymmetric branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel

    2011-10-01

    Maximal supergravity solutions are revisited and classified, with particular emphasis on objects of co-dimension at most two. This class of solutions includes branes whose tension scales with xxxx. We present a group theory derivation of the counting of these objects based on the corresponding tensor hierarchies derived from E 11 and discrete T- and U-duality transformations. This provides a rationale for the wrapping rules that were recently discussed for σ ≤ 3 in the literature and extends them. Explicit supergravity solutions that give rise to co-dimension two branes are constructed and analysed.

  3. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children. PMID:24857428

  4. [Aplastic anemia combined with an autoimmune disease (eosinophilic fasciitis or glomerulonephritis)].

    PubMed

    Stebler, C; Tichelli, A; Gratwohl, A; Dazzi, H; Nissen, C; Steiger, U; Speck, B

    1991-06-01

    We describe 3 patients with aplastic anemia and an autoimmune disease. Two had eosinophilic fasciitis and 1 glomerulonephritis. In all patients both diseases were successfully treated by immunosuppressive therapy. Pathophysiological aspects of this association are discussed. PMID:1857945

  5. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  6. Expect the Unexpected: A Case of Isolated Eosinophilic Meningitis in Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sick, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young police officer suffering from headache without other neurological symptoms caused by isolated eosinophilic meningitis, which resulted from an infection with Toxocara cati, along with a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25535488

  7. Histopathologic study of eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia caused by Crenosoma striatum in the hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Seyed Mohammad; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Mousapour, Aliasghar; Dozouri, Rohollah; Eshkevari, Shahab Ramezanpour; Nikzad, Mohammad; Nikzad, Reza; Omidzahir, Shila

    2014-06-01

    Crenosoma striatum is a species of parasitic nematodes from the family Crenosomatidae responsible for pathologic lung lesions in the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Infection with C. striatum can cause weight loss, dry cough, and bronchitis. In the present study, hedgehogs killed by road accidents, or trapped and found dead on farms in different parts of Mazandaran province (Iran), were transferred to the laboratory. After dissection, parasite samples collected from the lung were placed into 70% alcohol. After clarification with lactophenol and subsequent staining, the nematodes were identified as C. striatum according to previously published guidelines. For histopathologic examination, lung samples were collected. The tissues were fixed and following routine processing, sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic diagnoses included hyperemia, eosinophilic bronchointerstitial pneumonia, thickening of the interstitium, and eosinophilic microabscesses in bronchial airways. Eosinophilic pneumonia was characterized by eosinophil and other mononuclear leukocyte infiltration within the lung interstitium. Crenosoma striatum can lead to mortality in hedgehogs. PMID:25000695

  8. Reduced expression of granule proteins during extended survival of eosinophils in splenocyte culture with GM-CSF.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seul Hye; Na, Hye Young; Sohn, Moah; Han, Sun Murray; Choi, Wanho; In, Hyunju; Hong, Sookyung; Jeon, Hyejin; Seo, Jun-Young; Ahn, Jongcheol; Park, Chae Gyu

    2016-05-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifaceted hematopoietic cytokine and the culture of mouse bone marrow with GM-CSF produces a variety of myeloid cells including granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In the present study, we cultured mouse splenocytes with GM-CSF and examined the changes in hematopoietic cell populations over a week. Most of the splenic hematopoietic cells disappeared significantly from culture within 6days with or without the presence of GM-CSF. Among the splenic granulocyte populations, only eosinophils fully survived throughout the culture with GM-CSF for more than a week. During 10days of culture with GM-CSF, splenic eosinophils maintained their morphology as well as most of their surface molecules at high levels, including CCR3 and Siglec F. Meanwhile, the expression of mRNAs encoding major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), two major eosinophil-derived granule proteins, was diminished significantly from the cultured eosinophils. EPO assays also revealed that eosinophils in culture for more than 5days retained 30% or less EPO activity compared to those in uncultured splenocytes. In contrast, culture of splenocytes with GM-CSF did not change the capacity of eosinophils to migrate in response to eotaxin-1. Our results indicate that mouse splenic eosinophils are effectively cultured for lengthy periods while their expression of eosinophil-derived granule proteins is specifically suppressed. The relevance of these findings to eosinophilic inflammatory response is discussed. PMID:26969350

  9. The pan-B cell marker CD22 is expressed on gastrointestinal eosinophils and negatively regulates tissue eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ting; Mingler, Melissa K; Blanchard, Carine; Wahl, Benjamin; Pabst, Oliver; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2012-02-01

    CD22 is currently recognized as a B cell-specific Siglec and has been exploited therapeutically with humanized anti-CD22 mAb having been used against B cell leukemia. In this study, tissue-specific eosinophil mRNA microarray analysis identified that CD22 transcript levels of murine gastrointestinal (GI) eosinophils are 10-fold higher than those of lung eosinophils. To confirm the mRNA data at the protein level, we developed a FACS-based protocol designed to phenotype live GI eosinophils isolated from the murine lamina propria. Indeed, we found that jejunum eosinophils expressed remarkably high levels of surface CD22, similar to levels found in B cells across multiple mouse strains. In contrast, CD22 was undetectable on eosinophils from the colon, blood, thymus, spleen, uterus, peritoneal cavity, and allergen-challenged lung. Eosinophils isolated from newborn mice did not express CD22 but subsequently upregulated CD22 expression to adult levels within the first 10 d after birth. The GI lamina propria from CD22 gene-targeted mice harbored more eosinophils than wild type control mice, whereas the GI eosinophil turnover rate was unaltered in the absence of CD22. Our findings identify a novel expression pattern and tissue eosinophilia-regulating function for the "B cell-specific" inhibitory molecule CD22 on GI eosinophils. PMID:22190185

  10. A rapid and simple method for the isolation of pure eosinophilic leukocytes from horse blood.

    PubMed

    Jörg, A; Portmann, P; Fellay, G; Dreyer, J L; Meyer, J

    1978-12-15

    An improved and short method is described for the isolation of intact eosinophilic leukocytes from horse blood with high yield (1--1.5 g/20 l). Viability and purity of the preparations were verified by light and electron microscopy and by the trypan blue exclusion test. Isolated eosinophils were 98--100% pure, intact and viable, and they could be shown to phagocytise immune-complexes. PMID:729750

  11. Neutrophil elastase and elastase-rich cystic fibrosis sputum degranulate human eosinophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Lazarus, S C; Caughey, G H; Fahy, J V

    1999-01-01

    Neutrophils, eosinophils, and their proinflammatory constituents are important mediators of airway disease, and high levels of neutrophil proteases and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) are found in sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). To investigate whether neutrophil proteases or CF sputum causes eosinophil degranulation, purified eosinophils from atopic asthmatic subjects were incubated for 2 h with neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and CF sputum, and the release of ECP was measured. We found that the percent release of ECP was higher after incubation with neutrophil elastase (10(-5) M) than with a buffer control [6.1 +/- 0.8 (SE) vs. 1.7 +/- 0.1%; P < 0.003] and represented >50% of the release caused by positive controls [Ca2+ ionophore A-23187 (5 x 10(-6) M) or serum-coated Sephadex beads]. The release of ECP after incubation with cathepsin G (2.3 +/- 0.2%) and CF sputum (6.2 +/- 2.0%) was also significantly higher than that with a buffer control (P < 0.05). Neutralization of free elastase activity with alpha1-proteinase inhibitor reduced the mean percent degranulation of eosinophils by neutrophil elastase by 50% (P = 0.0004) and by CF sputum by 75% (P = 0.02). Preincubation of eosinophils with cytochalasin B (10 mg/ml) and depletion of the incubation medium of Ca2+ also significantly attenuated degranulation of eosinophils incubated with purified free neutrophil elastase or CF sputum (P < 0.05). We conclude that neutrophil proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, and elastase-rich CF sputum cause degranulation of eosinophils in a mechanism partially dependent on Ca2+ and actin filaments. PMID:9887052

  12. Inequalities, Absolute Value, and Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an approach to the concept of absolute value that alleviates students' problems with the traditional definition and the use of logical connectives in solving related problems. Uses a model that maps numbers from a horizontal number line to a vertical ray originating from the origin. Provides examples solving absolute value equations and…

  13. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  14. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  15. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  16. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  17. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  18. A transient increase in eosinophils is associated with prolonged survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who receive sipuleucel-T.

    PubMed

    McNeel, Douglas G; Gardner, Thomas A; Higano, Celestia S; Kantoff, Philip W; Small, Eric J; Wener, Mark H; Sims, Robert B; DeVries, Todd; Sheikh, Nadeem A; Dreicer, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy used to treat asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Traditional short-term indicators of clinical response commonly used with chemotherapy have not correlated with survival in patients treated with sipuleucel-T. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate laboratory parameters as possible early biomarkers associated with clinical benefit following sipuleucel-T treatment. Patients treated with sipuleucel-T from three randomized, controlled, phase III clinical trials in mCRPC were considered: IMPACT (NCT00065442; n = 512), D9901 (NCT00005947; n = 127), and D9902A (NCT01133704; n = 98). Patients from these trials were included in this study if their samples were analyzed by the central laboratory and if data were available from baseline and ≥ 1 posttreatment time point (n = 377). We found that sipuleucel-T treatment was associated with a transient increase in serum eosinophil count at week 6 that resolved by week 14 in 28% of patients (105 of 377). This eosinophil increase correlated with induced immune response, longer prostate cancer-specific survival [HR, 0.713; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.525-0.970; P = 0.031], and a trend in overall survival (HR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.563-1.008; P = 0.057). Median serum globulin protein levels also increased transiently, which was associated with antigen-specific antibody responses; however, this finding did not correlate with longer survival. We conclude that transient increases in eosinophils at week 6 may be a useful, objective, short-term indicator of global immune activation and survival benefit with sipuleucel-T in patients with mCRPC. This observation warrants prospective evaluation in future clinical trials. PMID:25189164

  19. A Transient Increase in Eosinophils is Associated with Prolonged Survival in Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Who Receive Sipuleucel-T

    PubMed Central

    McNeel, Douglas G.; Gardner, Thomas A.; Higano, Celestia S.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Small, Eric J.; Wener, Mark H.; Sims, Robert B.; DeVries, Todd; Sheikh, Nadeem A.; Dreicer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy used to treat asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Traditional short-term indicators of clinical response commonly used with chemotherapy have not correlated with survival in patients treated with sipuleucel-T. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate laboratory parameters as possible early biomarkers associated with clinical benefit following sipuleucel-T treatment. Patients treated with sipuleucel-T from 3 randomized, controlled, phase III clinical trials in mCRPC were considered: IMPACT (NCT00065442, n = 512), D9901 (NCT00005947, n = 127), and D9902A (NCT01133704, n = 98). Patients from these trials were included in this study if their samples were analyzed by the central laboratory, and if data were available from baseline and ≥1 post-treatment time point (n = 377). We found that sipuleucel-T treatment was associated with a transient increase in serum eosinophil count at week 6 that resolved by week 14 in 28% of patients (105/377). This eosinophil increase correlated with induced immune response, longer prostate cancer-specific survival (HR = 0.713; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.525–0.970; P = 0.031) and trend in overall survival (HR = 0.753; 95% CI, 0.563–1.008; P = 0.057). Median serum globulin protein levels also increased transiently, which was associated with antigen-specific antibody responses; however, this did not correlate with longer survival. We conclude that transient increases in eosinophils at week 6 may be a useful, objective, short-term indicator of global immune activation and survival benefit with sipuleucel-T in patients with mCRPC. This observation warrants prospective evaluation in future clinical trials. PMID:25189164

  20. High background photon counting lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.