Science.gov

Sample records for absolute eosinophil count

  1. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Associations between peripheral blood eosinophil counts in patients with systemic sclerosis and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Nakashita, Tamao; Kaneko, Norihiro; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Motojima, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of serum pro-fibrotic cytokines have been reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Some of these cytokines also play an important role in the differentiation and migration of eosinophils. The aim of this study was to determine whether eosinophilic inflammation is caused in SSc. We retrospectively reviewed the peripheral blood eosinophil counts in 70 untreated patients with SSc and compared them with those in patients with other major collagen diseases. We additionally evaluated a possible association with disease severity. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher levels in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases, whereas total leukocyte counts were not. Eosinophil counts correlated positively with both severe interstitial lung disease (ILD; r = 0.255, p = 0.033) and modified Rodnan total skin thickness score (m-Rodnan TSS) in SSc (r = 0.347, p = 0.003), but did not correlate with ILD severity in other collagen diseases. In conclusion, peripheral eosinophil counts were higher in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases and were correlated with increased disease severity. Our data suggest that eosinophilic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of SSc. PMID:27610320

  5. Eosinophil Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Bacteremia: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Terradas, Roser; Grau, Santiago; Blanch, Jordi; Riu, Marta; Saballs, Pere; Castells, Xavier; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Knobel, Hernando

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is scarce evidence on the use of eosinophil count as a marker of outcome in patients with infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in eosinophil count, as well as the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), could be used as clinical markers of outcome in patients with bacteremia. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients with a first episode of community-acquired or healthcare-related bacteremia during hospital admission between 2004 and 2009. A total of 2,311 patients were included. Cox regression was used to analyze the behaviour of eosinophil count and the NLCR in survivors and non-survivors. Results In the adjusted analysis, the main independent risk factor for mortality was persistence of an eosinophil count below 0.0454·103/uL (HR = 4.20; 95% CI 2.66–6.62). An NLCR value >7 was also an independent risk factor but was of lesser importance. The mean eosinophil count in survivors showed a tendency to increase rapidly and to achieve normal values between the second and third day. In these patients, the NLCR was <7 between the second and third day. Conclusion Both sustained eosinopenia and persistence of an NLCR >7 were independent markers of mortality in patients with bacteremia. PMID:22912753

  6. Effectiveness using higher inhaled corticosteroid dosage in patients with COPD by different blood eosinophilic counts

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Lin, Ching-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil counts have been documented as a good biomarker for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy. However, the effectiveness and safety of prescribing high or medium dose of ICS for patients with different eosinophil counts are unknown. Methods A post hoc analysis of a previous prospective randomized study was performed for COPD patients using higher dose (HD: Fluticasone 1,000 μg/day) or medium dose (MD: Fluticasone 500 μg/day) of ICS combined with Salmeterol (100 μg/day). Patients were classified into two groups: those with high eosinophil counts (HE ≥3%) and those with low eosinophil counts (LE <3%). Lung function was evaluated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and COPD assessment test. Frequencies of acute exacerbation and pneumonia were also measured. Results Two hundred and forty-eight patients were studied and classified into higher eosinophil (HE) (n=85, 34.3%) and lower eosinophil (LE) groups (n=163, 65.7%). The levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second were significantly increased in patients of HE group treated with HD therapy, compared with the other groups (HE/HD: 125.9±27.2 mL vs HE/MD: 94.3±23.7 mL, vs LE/HD: 70.4±20.5 mL, vs LE/MD: 49.8±16.7 mL; P<0.05) at the end of the study. Quality of life (COPD assessment test) markedly improved in HE/HD group than in MD/LE group (HE/HD: 9±5 vs LE/MD: 16±7, P=0.02). The frequency of acute exacerbation was more decreased in HE/HD group patients, compared with that in LE/MD group (HE/HD: 13.5% vs LE/MD: 28.7%, P<0.01). Pneumonia incidence was similar in the treatment groups (HE/HD: 3.2%, HE/MD: 2.6%, LE/HD: 3.5%, LE/MD 2.8%; P=0.38). Conclusion The study results support using blood eosinophil counts as a biomarker of ICS response and show the benefits of greater improvement of lung function, quality of life, and decreased exacerbation frequency in COPD patients with blood eosinophil

  7. Flow rate calibration for absolute cell counting rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Walker, Clare; Barnett, David

    2006-05-01

    There is a need for absolute leukocyte enumeration in the clinical setting, and accurate, reliable (and affordable) technology to determine absolute leukocyte counts has been developed. Such technology includes single platform and dual platform approaches. Derivations of these counts commonly incorporate the addition of a known number of latex microsphere beads to a blood sample, although it has been suggested that the addition of beads to a sample may only be required to act as an internal quality control procedure for assessing the pipetting error. This unit provides the technical details for undertaking flow rate calibration that obviates the need to add reference beads to each sample. It is envisaged that this report will provide the basis for subsequent clinical evaluations of this novel approach. PMID:18770842

  8. Enumeration of absolute cell counts using immunophenotypic techniques.

    PubMed

    Mandy, F; Brando, B

    2001-05-01

    Absolute counting of cells or cell subsets has a number of significant clinical applications: monitoring the disease status of HIV-infected patients, enumerating residual white blood cells in leukoreduced blood products, and assessing immunodeficiency in a variety of situations. The single-platform method (flow cytometry alone) has emerged as the method of choice for absolute cell enumeration. This technology counts only the cells of interest in a precisely determined blood volume. Exact cell identification is accomplished by a logical electronic gating algorithm capable of identifying lineage-specific immunofluorescent markers. Exclusion of unwanted cells is automatic. This extensive and detailed unit presents protocols for both volumetric and flow-rate determination of residual white blood cells and of leukocyte subsets. PMID:18770719

  9. Absolute lymphocyte count is not a suitable alternative to CD4 count for determining initiation of antiretroviral therapy in fiji.

    PubMed

    Balak, Dashika A; Bissell, Karen; Roseveare, Christine; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R; Graham, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm(3). Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm(3) or 500 cells/mm(3). The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm(3) and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm(3) it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.

  10. Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Denaxas, Spiros; Nicholas, Owen; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hemingway, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Background Eosinophil and lymphocyte counts are commonly performed in clinical practice. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence of association with cardiovascular diseases. Methods We used linked primary care, hospitalisation, disease registry and mortality data in England (the CALIBER (CArdiovascular disease research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records) programme). We included people aged 30 or older without cardiovascular disease at baseline, and used Cox models to estimate cause-specific HRs for the association of eosinophil or lymphocyte counts with the first occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Results The cohort comprised 775 231 individuals, of whom 55 004 presented with cardiovascular disease over median follow-up 3.8 years. Over the first 6 months, there was a strong association of low eosinophil counts (<0.05 compared with 0.15–0.25×109/L) with heart failure (adjusted HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.72 to 2.43), unheralded coronary death (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.69), ventricular arrhythmia/sudden cardiac death and subarachnoid haemorrhage, but not angina, non-fatal myocardial infarction, transient ischaemic attack, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Low eosinophil count was inversely associated with peripheral arterial disease (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.89). There were similar associations with low lymphocyte counts (<1.45 vs 1.85–2.15×109/L); adjusted HR over the first 6 months for heart failure was 2.25 (95% CI 1.90 to 2.67). Associations beyond the first 6 months were weaker. Conclusions Low eosinophil counts and low lymphocyte counts in the general population are associated with increased short-term incidence of heart failure and coronary death. Trial registration number NCT02014610; results.

  11. Low eosinophil and low lymphocyte counts and the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a CALIBER cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Denaxas, Spiros; Nicholas, Owen; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hemingway, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Background Eosinophil and lymphocyte counts are commonly performed in clinical practice. Previous studies provide conflicting evidence of association with cardiovascular diseases. Methods We used linked primary care, hospitalisation, disease registry and mortality data in England (the CALIBER (CArdiovascular disease research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records) programme). We included people aged 30 or older without cardiovascular disease at baseline, and used Cox models to estimate cause-specific HRs for the association of eosinophil or lymphocyte counts with the first occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Results The cohort comprised 775 231 individuals, of whom 55 004 presented with cardiovascular disease over median follow-up 3.8 years. Over the first 6 months, there was a strong association of low eosinophil counts (<0.05 compared with 0.15–0.25×109/L) with heart failure (adjusted HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.72 to 2.43), unheralded coronary death (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.69), ventricular arrhythmia/sudden cardiac death and subarachnoid haemorrhage, but not angina, non-fatal myocardial infarction, transient ischaemic attack, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Low eosinophil count was inversely associated with peripheral arterial disease (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.89). There were similar associations with low lymphocyte counts (<1.45 vs 1.85–2.15×109/L); adjusted HR over the first 6 months for heart failure was 2.25 (95% CI 1.90 to 2.67). Associations beyond the first 6 months were weaker. Conclusions Low eosinophil counts and low lymphocyte counts in the general population are associated with increased short-term incidence of heart failure and coronary death. Trial registration number NCT02014610; results. PMID:27621833

  12. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on blood eosinophil count in steroid-naïve patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, James L; Watkins, Michael L; Lettis, Sally; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Locantore, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sputum and blood eosinophil counts have attracted attention as potential biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One question regarding the use of blood eosinophils as a biomarker in COPD is whether their levels are affected by the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), which are commonly prescribed for COPD. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes from a previously completed clinical trial that examined effects of ICS in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Results and conclusion The data show that the ICS-containing treatment arms (containing fluticasone propionate) had a small effect on peripheral blood eosinophils in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Trial registration number NCT00358358; Post-results. PMID:27651909

  13. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on blood eosinophil count in steroid-naïve patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kreindler, James L; Watkins, Michael L; Lettis, Sally; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Locantore, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sputum and blood eosinophil counts have attracted attention as potential biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One question regarding the use of blood eosinophils as a biomarker in COPD is whether their levels are affected by the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), which are commonly prescribed for COPD. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes from a previously completed clinical trial that examined effects of ICS in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Results and conclusion The data show that the ICS-containing treatment arms (containing fluticasone propionate) had a small effect on peripheral blood eosinophils in steroid-naïve patients with COPD. Trial registration number NCT00358358; Post-results.

  14. Eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chotmongkol, Verajit

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined by the presence of at least 10% eosinophils in the total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte count. Although there are several possible causes of eosinophils in the CSF, parasitic infection is the main cause. The three common parasites causing eosinophilic meningitis include Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, and Taenia solium. Even though these parasites are endemic in tropical countries, they are now spreading globally due to extensive traveling, and physicians worldwide should pay more attention to this condition. This chapter will review risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment of these three parasites.

  15. Roles of genotypes of beta2-adrenergic receptor in the relationship between eosinophil counts and lung function in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chu; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Shen, Chen-Yang; Lei, Huan-Yao; Guo, Yueliang Leon; Su, Huey-Jen

    2003-05-01

    To examine the roles of genetic polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) in the relationship between eosinophil (EOS) counts and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) counts and lung function, we recruited a random sample from the 1996 nationwide survey of asthma prevalence in middle school children. A total of 149 subjects--42 asthmatic children, 38 asthmatics in remission (no reported attack for more than 12 months), and 69 nonasthmatics--completed a physical evaluation, pulmonary function test, and determination of EOS, ECP, and beta2AR genotypes at amino acids 16 and 27. Asthmatic children had higher EOS and ECP than did nonasthmatics. No association was found between asthma and beta2AR genotypes. Lung function was significantly and inversely correlated with EOS but not with ECP in asthmatic children. By genotype, an inverse correlation between lung function and EOS was found in asthmatic children with Arg16Arg or Gln27Glu. A nonsignificant but similar inverse correlation was found in asthmatic children with Arg16Gly or Gln27Gln. However, a nonsignificant but positive correlation was found in asthmatic children with Gly16Gly. In conclusion, we suggest that EOS is a better clinical indicator of airway inflammation than ECP when children are not having an asthma attack. The association between an increase of EOS and lower lung function can be differentiated by beta2AR genotypes at amino acid 16.

  16. Predicting AIDS-related events using CD4 percentage or CD4 absolute counts

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Yasmin; Khuder, Sadik; Donabedian, Haig

    2006-01-01

    Background The extent of immunosuppression and the probability of developing an AIDS-related complication in HIV-infected people is usually measured by the absolute number of CD4 positive T-cells. The percentage of CD4 positive cells is a more easily measured and less variable number. We analyzed sequential CD4 and CD8 numbers, percentages and ratios in 218 of our HIV infected patients to determine the most reliable predictor of an AIDS-related event. Results The CD4 percentage was an unsurpassed predictor of the occurrence of AIDS-related events when all subsets of patients are considered. The CD4 absolute count was the next most reliable, followed by the ratio of CD4/CD8 percentages. The value of CD4 percentage over the CD4 absolute count was seen even after the introduction of highly effective HIV therapy. Conclusion The CD4 percentage is unsurpassed as a parameter for predicting the onset of HIV-related diseases. The extra time and expense of measuring the CD4 absolute count may be unnecessary. PMID:16916461

  17. Genetic loci on chromosome 5 are associated with circulating levels of interleukin-5 and eosinophil count in a European population with high risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Olga; Silveira, Angela; Valdes-Marquez, Elsa; Björkbacka, Harry; Almgren, Peter; Gertow, Karl; Gådin, Jesper R; Bäcklund, Alexandra; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Humphries, Steve E; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Nilsson, Jan; Melander, Olle; Hopewell, Jemma C; Clarke, Robert; Björck, Hanna M; Hamsten, Anders; Öhrvik, John; Strawbridge, Rona J

    2016-05-01

    IL-5 is a Th2 cytokine which activates eosinophils and is suggested to have an atheroprotective role. Genetic variants in the IL5 locus have been associated with increased risk of CAD and ischemic stroke. In this study we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with IL-5 concentrations and apply a Mendelian randomisation approach to assess IL-5 levels for causal effect on intima-media thickness in a European population at high risk of coronary artery disease. We analysed SNPs within robustly associated candidate loci for immune, inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identified 2 genetic loci for IL-5 levels (chromosome 5, rs56183820, BETA=0.11, P=6.73E(-5) and chromosome 14, rs4902762, BETA=0.12, P=5.76E(-6)) and one for eosinophil count (rs72797327, BETA=-0.10, P=1.41E(-6)). Both chromosome 5 loci were in the vicinity of the IL5 gene, however the association with IL-5 levels failed to replicate in a meta-analysis of 2 independent cohorts (rs56183820, BETA=0.04, P=0.2763, I(2)=24, I(2)-P=0.2516). No significant associations were observed between SNPs associated with IL-5 levels or eosinophil count and IMT measures. Expression quantitative trait analyses indicate effects of the IL-5 and eosinophil-associated SNPs on RAD50 mRNA expression levels (rs12652920 (r2=0.93 with rs56183820) BETA=-0.10, P=8.64E(-6) and rs11739623 (r2=0.96 with rs72797327) BETA=-0.23, P=1.74E(-29), respectively). Our data do not support a role for IL-5 levels and eosinophil count in intima-media thickness, however SNPs associated with IL-5 and eosinophils might influence stability of the atherosclerotic plaque via modulation of RAD50 levels. PMID:26821299

  18. Genetic loci on chromosome 5 are associated with circulating levels of interleukin-5 and eosinophil count in a European population with high risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Olga; Silveira, Angela; Valdes-Marquez, Elsa; Björkbacka, Harry; Almgren, Peter; Gertow, Karl; Gådin, Jesper R; Bäcklund, Alexandra; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Humphries, Steve E; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Nilsson, Jan; Melander, Olle; Hopewell, Jemma C; Clarke, Robert; Björck, Hanna M; Hamsten, Anders; Öhrvik, John; Strawbridge, Rona J

    2016-05-01

    IL-5 is a Th2 cytokine which activates eosinophils and is suggested to have an atheroprotective role. Genetic variants in the IL5 locus have been associated with increased risk of CAD and ischemic stroke. In this study we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with IL-5 concentrations and apply a Mendelian randomisation approach to assess IL-5 levels for causal effect on intima-media thickness in a European population at high risk of coronary artery disease. We analysed SNPs within robustly associated candidate loci for immune, inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identified 2 genetic loci for IL-5 levels (chromosome 5, rs56183820, BETA=0.11, P=6.73E(-5) and chromosome 14, rs4902762, BETA=0.12, P=5.76E(-6)) and one for eosinophil count (rs72797327, BETA=-0.10, P=1.41E(-6)). Both chromosome 5 loci were in the vicinity of the IL5 gene, however the association with IL-5 levels failed to replicate in a meta-analysis of 2 independent cohorts (rs56183820, BETA=0.04, P=0.2763, I(2)=24, I(2)-P=0.2516). No significant associations were observed between SNPs associated with IL-5 levels or eosinophil count and IMT measures. Expression quantitative trait analyses indicate effects of the IL-5 and eosinophil-associated SNPs on RAD50 mRNA expression levels (rs12652920 (r2=0.93 with rs56183820) BETA=-0.10, P=8.64E(-6) and rs11739623 (r2=0.96 with rs72797327) BETA=-0.23, P=1.74E(-29), respectively). Our data do not support a role for IL-5 levels and eosinophil count in intima-media thickness, however SNPs associated with IL-5 and eosinophils might influence stability of the atherosclerotic plaque via modulation of RAD50 levels.

  19. [Effect of triamcinolone acetonide, montelukast, nedocromil sodium and formoterol on eosinophil blood counts, ECP serum levels and clinical progression of asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Majak, Paweł; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Górski, Paweł; Kuna, Piotr

    2002-03-01

    Eosinophil-mediated damage to the respiratory epithelium is a major pathogenetic mechanism in asthma. Glucocorticoids have confirmed antiinflammatory properties and effect of formoterol, montelukast and nedocromil on markers of inflammation has been studied. Eosinophil blood counts and eosinophil cation protein (ECP) serum level are often use as markers of clinical monitoring of the disease activity. To evaluate the effect of treatment on allergic inflammation, we measured eosinophil blood counts and ECP serum level, and clinical parameters before and after 4 weeks treatment with triamcinolon, montelukast, nedocromil, formoterol. It was 8 week, placebo-controlled and randomized, double blind trial of 154 children with moderate atopic asthma. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 400 mg triamcinolon (n = 28), 5 or 10 mg (according to age) montelukast (n = 27), 16 mg nedocromil (n = 26), 24 micrograms formoterol (n = 28) or placebo (n = 45). 140 children completed the study. After treatment with triamcinolon and montelukast eosinophil blood counts significantly decreased, after treatment with triamcinolon, montelukast and nedocromil ECP serum level significantly decreased; all clinical parameters improved after treatment with each drug; treatment with triamcinolon had the strongest effect on most parameters (except of FEV1). Mean eosinophil blood counts before and after treatment with triamcinolon were 277.4 and 187.2 cells/mm3 respectively (p < 0.001); with montelukast were 279.6 and 250.7 cells/mm3 respectively (p = 0.002); with nedocromil were 181.7 and 170.1 cells/mm3 respectively (p < 0.183); with formoterol were 276.4 and 264.1 cells/mm3 respectively (p = 0.2). Mean ECP serum levels before and after treatment with triamcinolon were 94.3 and 63.5 micrograms/l respectively (p < 0.001); with montelukast were 85.1 micrograms/l and 71.2 micrograms/l respectively (p < 0.001); with nedocromil were 92.6 and 80.1 micrograms/l respectively (p < 0.001); with

  20. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm(3), bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  1. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm3, bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  2. Characterizing absolute lymphocyte count profiles in dimethyl fumarate–treated patients with MS

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew; Gold, Ralf; Phillips, J. Theodore; Selmaj, Krzysztof; Chang, Ih; Novas, Mark; Rana, Jitesh; Marantz, Jing L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF), indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), is a disease-modifying therapy with potential immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. In clinical trials, DMF was associated with reduced white blood cell and absolute lymphocyte counts. Current US prescribing information recommends obtaining a complete blood count, including absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), before initiating and during DMF treatment. Methods: We conducted an integrated analysis of phase 2b/3/long-term extension studies of DMF in MS (N = 2,470) to characterize ALC profiles. Results: Mean ALCs decreased by 30% during the first year and then plateaued, remaining above the lower limit of normal (LLN). Among patients treated ≥6 months (N = 2,099), 2.2% experienced ALCs <500 mm3 persisting ≥6 months. ALCs remained ≥LLN in 84% and 76% of patients during the first 6 and 12 months, respectively; of these, 0.1% and 0%, respectively, developed ALCs <500 mm3 persisting ≥6 months at any time. Evidence of ALC improvement following DMF discontinuation was observed. DMF efficacy was not substantially different in patients with and without lymphopenia. Conclusion: Lymphocyte monitoring provides effective means for early identification of patients at risk for developing severe, prolonged lymphopenia. PMID:27347439

  3. Association Between Absolute Neutrophil Count and Variation at TCIRG1: The NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Makaryan, Vahagn; Burt, Amber A; Crosslin, David R; Kim, Daniel Seung; Smith, Joshua D; Nickerson, Deborah A; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Jackson, Rebecca D; Ganesh, Santhi K; Polfus, Linda M; Qi, Lihong; Dale, David C; Jarvik, Gail P

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils are a key component of innate immunity. Individuals with low neutrophil count are susceptible to frequent infections. Linkage and association between congenital neutropenia and a single rare missense variant in TCIRG1 have been reported in a single family. Here, we report on nine rare missense variants at evolutionarily conserved sites in TCIRG1 that are associated with lower absolute neutrophil count (ANC; p = 0.005) in 1,058 participants from three cohorts: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA), and Jackson Heart Study (JHS) of the NHLBI Grand Opportunity Exome Sequencing Project (GO ESP). These results validate the effects of TCIRG1 coding variation on ANC and suggest that this gene may be associated with a spectrum of mild to severe effects on ANC. PMID:27229898

  4. Genetic loci on chromosome 5 are associated with circulating levels of interleukin-5 and eosinophil count in a European population with high risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Olga; Silveira, Angela; Valdes-Marquez, Elsa; Björkbacka, Harry; Almgren, Peter; Gertow, Karl; Gådin, Jesper R.; Bäcklund, Alexandra; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Nilsson, Jan; Melander, Olle; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Clarke, Robert; Björck, Hanna M.; Hamsten, Anders; Öhrvik, John; Strawbridge, Rona J.

    2016-01-01

    IL-5 is a Th2 cytokine which activates eosinophils and is suggested to have an atheroprotective role. Genetic variants in the IL5 locus have been associated with increased risk of CAD and ischemic stroke. In this study we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with IL-5 concentrations and apply a Mendelian randomisation approach to assess IL-5 levels for causal effect on intima-media thickness in a European population at high risk of coronary artery disease. We analysed SNPs within robustly associated candidate loci for immune, inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identified 2 genetic loci for IL-5 levels (chromosome 5, rs56183820, BETA = 0.11, P = 6.73E−5 and chromosome 14, rs4902762, BETA = 0.12, P = 5.76E−6) and one for eosinophil count (rs72797327, BETA = −0.10, P = 1.41E−6). Both chromosome 5 loci were in the vicinity of the IL5 gene, however the association with IL-5 levels failed to replicate in a meta-analysis of 2 independent cohorts (rs56183820, BETA = 0.04, P = 0.2763, I2 = 24, I2 − P = 0.2516). No significant associations were observed between SNPs associated with IL-5 levels or eosinophil count and IMT measures. Expression quantitative trait analyses indicate effects of the IL-5 and eosinophil-associated SNPs on RAD50 mRNA expression levels (rs12652920 (r2 = 0.93 with rs56183820) BETA = −0.10, P = 8.64E−6 and rs11739623 (r2 = 0.96 with rs72797327) BETA = −0.23, P = 1.74E−29, respectively). Our data do not support a role for IL-5 levels and eosinophil count in intima-media thickness, however SNPs associated with IL-5 and eosinophils might influence stability of the atherosclerotic plaque via modulation of RAD50 levels. PMID:26821299

  5. Cardiopulmonary and Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Eosinophil- associated Diseases and Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndromes: Multimodality Imaging Approach.

    PubMed

    Katre, Rashmi S; Sunnapwar, Abhijit; Restrepo, Carlos S; Katabathina, Venkata S; Mumbower, Amy; Baxi, Ameya; Sonavane, Sushilkumar

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophil-associated diseases (EADs) are a diverse group of disorders characterized by an increase in circulating or tissue eosinophils. Cardiopulmonary and gastrointestinal system involvement can be due to primary EAD with no known cause or can be secondary to known systemic disease. The cardiopulmonary spectrum of EADs comprises simple pulmonary eosinophilia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, Churg-Strauss syndrome, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis, parasitic infections, and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and eosinophilic colitis. Diagnosis is often challenging and requires a combination of clinical and imaging features along with laboratory findings. The absolute eosinophil count in peripheral blood and the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are crucial in evaluation of various eosinophilic lung diseases. Although chest radiography is the initial imaging modality used in suspected cases of pulmonary EAD, multidetector computed tomography may demonstrate more characteristic pulmonary patterns, nodules, and subtle parenchymal abnormalities. Barium esophagography is used to assess mucosal abnormalities and the length and diameter of esophageal strictures. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior in providing valuable information in select patients, especially in evaluation of cardiac and gastrointestinal system involvement. Many patients require a multimodality imaging approach to enable diagnosis, guide treatment, and assess treatment response. Knowledge of the clinical features and imaging findings of the spectrum of EADs involving the lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract permits optimal patient care. PMID:26963455

  6. Elevated absolute monocyte count predicts unfavorable outcomes in patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Qiong; Liang, Jin-Hua; Wu, Jia-Zhu; Wang, Li; Qu, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Huang, Dong-Ping; Fan, Lei; Li, Jian-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the prognostic significance of the absolute monocyte count (AMC) in peripheral blood in patients with newly diagnosed angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL). AMC was performed in 73 therapy-naive patients with AITL in 2 institutions during 2008-2015, and higher AMC was observed in those with extranodal sites >1, bone marrow involvement, high lactate dehydrogenase level, the EBV infection, no response to treatment and high IPI, PIT, PIAI score group. The best AMC cut-off level at diagnosis was 0.8 × 10(9)/L and the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 64% for patients with low AMC group (≤ 0.8 × 10(9)/L) compared to 10% in high AMC group (>0.8 × 10(9)/L) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that elevated AMC remained an adverse prognostic parameter. Our results suggest that AMC is an independent prognostic parameter for OS in patients with AITL, and AMC >0.8 × 10(9)/L can routinely be used to identify high-risk patients with unfavorable survival.

  7. Initial Characterization of Unequal-Length, Low-Background Proportional Counters for Absolute Gas-Counting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily K.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen; Williams, Richard M.

    2013-08-31

    Abstract. Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., 37Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counters (ULBPC) designs and now operate in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of OFHC copper components for use in an above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates, gas gain, energy resolution, and shielding considerations. These results will be presented along with uncertainty estimates of future absolute gas counting measurements.

  8. Prognostic significance of the absolute monocyte counts in lung cancer patients with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Go, Se-Il; Kim, Rock Bum; Song, Haa-Na; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Un Seok; Choi, Hye Jung; Jo, Wonyong; Lee, Seung Jun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Seok-Hyun; Kang, Jung-Hun; Lee, Gyeong-Won

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the clinical significance of the absolute monocyte count (AMC) as a predictor of the response to anticoagulation and survival in lung cancer patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We retrospectively reviewed 1707 patients with pathologically proven lung cancer who visited the hospital between July 2008 and May 2014. Among them, the clinical data of patients newly diagnosed with VTE and treated with anticoagulation were compared between the low and high AMC groups according to the median value of AMC (640/μL) at the time of VTE diagnosis. The incidence of VTE was 7.9 % during the study period. Most of the patients had non-small-cell lung cancer (82.1 %), stage IV (64.2 %), and pulmonary thromboembolism (76.1 %) and were incidentally diagnosed with VTE (76.9 %). The patients' characteristics and laboratory values were not significantly different between the low and high AMC groups. Among patients available for evaluation of the response to anticoagulation, the high AMC group was significantly more refractory to anticoagulation than the low AMC group (no response to anticoagulation, 21.7 vs. 6.8 %, respectively; p = 0.044). Additionally, the high AMC group showed worse overall survival (OS) than the low AMC group (median, 9.6 vs. 5.9 months; p = 0.038). On multivariate analysis, high AMC, low albumin, and advanced stage were independent poor prognostic factors for OS. High AMC is associated with refractoriness to anticoagulation and poor prognosis in lung cancer patients with VTE.

  9. Absolute monocyte count predicts overall survival in mantle cell lymphomas: correlation with tumour-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Koh, Young Wha; Shin, Su-Jin; Park, Chansik; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2014-12-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by a variable clinical course in which patients can experience indolent disease or frequent relapses despite a good initial response to conventional therapy. Risk stratification of MCL is most frequently performed using the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI). Recent studies indicate that the peripheral blood absolute monocyte count (AMC) and tumour-associated macrophages may reflect the state of the tumour microenvironment in lymphomas. The significance of AMC and tumour-associated macrophages in the clinical course of MCL is unknown. The prognostic impact of the AMC, of CD68 expression and of CD163 expression was retrospectively examined in 103 MCL samples using the receiver operating characteristic curved. Patients with an AMC ≥ 375 cells/μL at diagnosis were more likely to present with advanced-stage disease (p = 0.026), leukocytosis (p < 0.001), lymphocytosis (p = 0.01) and granulocytosis (p = 0.003). On univariate analysis, a high AMC (≥375 cells/μL) correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.01). Neither CD68 nor CD163 expression was significantly associated with either OS or event-free survival. Multivariate analysis showed that a high AMC was a prognostic factor for OS, independent of the MIPI [hazards ratio (HR), 1.811; 95% confidence interval, 1.018-3.223; p = 0.043]. This study demonstrates that the AMC at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for OS in MCL, which suggests the possibility that AMC may be used in addition to the MIPI to predict outcome in patients with MCL.

  10. Peripheral blood eosinophils: a surrogate marker for airway eosinophilia in stable COPD

    PubMed Central

    Negewo, Netsanet A; McDonald, Vanessa M; Baines, Katherine J; Wark, Peter AB; Simpson, Jodie L; Jones, Paul W; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sputum eosinophilia occurs in approximately one-third of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and can predict exacerbation risk and response to corticosteroid treatments. Sputum induction, however, requires expertise, may not always be successful, and does not provide point-of-care results. Easily applicable diagnostic markers that can predict sputum eosinophilia in stable COPD patients have the potential to progress COPD management. This study investigated the correlation and predictive relationship between peripheral blood and sputum eosinophils. It also examined the repeatability of blood eosinophil counts. Methods Stable COPD patients (n=141) were classified as eosinophilic or noneosinophilic based on their sputum cell counts (≥3%), and a cross-sectional analysis was conducted comparing their demographics, clinical characteristics, and blood cell counts. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the predictive ability of blood eosinophils for sputum eosinophilia. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine the repeatability of blood eosinophil counts. Results Blood eosinophil counts were significantly higher in patients with sputum eosinophilia (n=45) compared to those without (0.3×109/L vs 0.15×109/L; P<0.0001). Blood eosinophils correlated with both the percentage (ρ=0.535; P<0.0001) and number of sputum eosinophils (ρ=0.473; P<0.0001). Absolute blood eosinophil count was predictive of sputum eosinophilia (area under the curve =0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.67–0.84; P<0.0001). At a threshold of ≥0.3×109/L (specificity =76%, sensitivity =60%, and positive likelihood ratio =2.5), peripheral blood eosinophil counts enabled identification of the presence or absence of sputum eosinophilia in 71% of the cases. A threshold of ≥0.4×109/L had similar classifying ability but better specificity (91.7%) and higher positive likelihood ratio (3.7). In contrast, ≥0.2×109/L

  11. Leukemia -- Eosinophilic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... Platelets that help the blood to clot About leukemia Types of leukemia are named after the specific ...

  12. Absolute monocyte count trichotomizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia into high risk patients with immune dysregulation, disease progression and poor survival.

    PubMed

    Herishanu, Yair; Kay, Sigi; Sarid, Nadav; Kohan, Pedram; Braunstein, Rony; Rotman, Rachel; Deutsch, Varda; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan; Naparstek, Elizabeth; Perry, Chava; Katz, Ben-Zion

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral absolute monocyte count (AMC) has been reported to correlate with clinical outcome in different types of cancers. This association may relate to alteration in circulating monocytic subpopulations and tumor infiltrating macrophages. In this study we evaluated the clinical significance of peripheral AMC in 80 treatment naive patients with CLL. Measurement of AMC was based on direct morphological enumeration, due to our findings that complete blood count data may yield incorrect monocytes enumeration values in CLL. The median AMC in patients with CLL was within normal limits, however the AMC range exceeded the values of healthy individuals. The AMC trichotomized patients into 3 distinct sub-groups with different characteristics and outcomes. High AMC patients were younger and had higher absolute lymphocytes count, while patients with low AMC had prominent immune dysregulation (lower serum IgA levels, susceptibility to infections and a tendency for positive direct anti-globulin test). The low and high AMC patients had a shorter time to treatment compared to the intermediates AMC subgroups, whereas low AMC was associated with increased mortality caused by infectious complications. In conclusion, AMC quantification during the disease course classifies CLL patients into subgroups with unique clinical features and outcomes.

  13. Initial characterization of unequal-length, low-background proportional counters for absolute gas-counting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Overman, C. T.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-08-01

    Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., 37Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counter designs and now operate in PNNL's shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity copper components for use in a shielded above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates, gas gain, and energy resolution. These results will be presented along with a shielding study for the above-ground cave.

  14. Initial characterization of unequal-length, low-background proportional counters for absolute gas-counting applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Overman, C. T.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-08-08

    Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., {sup 37}Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counter designs and now operate in PNNL's shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity copper components for use in a shielded above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates, gas gain, and energy resolution. These results will be presented along with a shielding study for the above-ground cave.

  15. Eosinophilic Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Akuthota, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This review starts with discussions of several infectious causes of eosinophilic pneumonia, which are almost exclusively parasitic in nature. Pulmonary infections due specifically to Ascaris, hookworms, Strongyloides, Paragonimus, filariasis, and Toxocara are considered in detail. The discussion then moves to noninfectious causes of eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration, including allergic sensitization to Aspergillus, acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonias, Churg-Strauss syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndromes, and pulmonary eosinophilia due to exposure to specific medications or toxins. PMID:23034324

  16. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  17. The association of forced expiratory volume in one second and forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity, peak expiratory flow parameters, and blood eosinophil counts in exercise-induced bronchospasm in children with mild asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tahan, Fulya; Gungor, Hatice Eke

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which describes acute airway narrowing that occurs as a result of exercise, is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is the most commonly used spirometric test in the diagnosis of EIB in exercise challenge in asthma. Other parameters such as forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity (FEF50%) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) are used less often in the diagnosis of EIB. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of FEV1 and FEF50%, PEF parameters, blood eosinophil counts in EIB in children with mild asthma. Methods Sixty-seven children (male: 39, female: 28) with mild asthma were included in this study. Pulmonary functions were assessed before and at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after exercise. The values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, PEF, and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated in EIB in children with mild asthma. Results There was a positive correlation between FEV1 with FEF50% and PEF values (p<0.05; FEF50%, r=0.68; PEF, r=0.65). Also, a positive correlation was found between blood eosinophil counts and the values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, and PEF (p<0.05; FEV1, r=0.54; FEF50%, r=0.42; PEF, r=0.26). In addition to these correlations, in the exercise negative group for FEV1, the FEF50% and PEF values decreased more than the cutoff values in 3, and 2 patients, respectively. Conclusion According to the presented study, eosinophil may play a major role in the severity of EIB in mild asthma. FEF50% and PEF values can decrease in response to exercise without changes in FEV1 in mild asthmatic patients. PMID:25938074

  18. Prognostic Implication of the Absolute Lymphocyte to Absolute Monocyte Count Ratio in Patients With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine or Equivalent Regimens.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P; Dimopoulou, Maria N; Angelopoulou, Maria K; Petevi, Kyriaki; Pangalis, Gerassimos A; Moschogiannis, Maria; Dimou, Maria; Boutsikas, George; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros; Gainaru, Gabriella; Plata, Eleni; Flevari, Pagona; Koutsi, Katerina; Papageorgiou, Loula; Telonis, Vassilios; Tsaftaridis, Panayiotis; Sachanas, Sotirios; Yiakoumis, Xanthoula; Tsirkinidis, Pantelis; Viniou, Nora-Athina; Siakantaris, Marina P; Variami, Eleni; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Meletis, John; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Konstantopoulos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Low absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) to absolute monocyte count (AMC) ratio (ALC/AMC) is an independent prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but different cutoffs (1.1, 1.5, and 2.9) have been applied. We aimed to validate the prognostic significance of ALC/AMC in 537 homogenously treated (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine or equivalents ± radiotherapy) classical HL patients at various cutoffs. The median ALC/AMC was 2.24 (0.44-20.50). The median AMC was 0.653 × 10(9)/L (0.050-2.070). Lower ALC/AMC was associated with established markers of adverse prognosis. In total, 477 (89%), 418 (78%), and 189 (35%) patients had an ALC/AMC ratio of ≥1.1, ≥1.5, and ≥2.9; respectively; 20% had monocytosis (≥0.9 × 10(9)/L). Ten-year time to progression (TTP) was 77% versus 55% for patients with ALC/AMC ≥1.1 and <1.1 (p = .0002), 76% versus 68% for ALC/AMC ≥1.5 and <1.5 (p = .049), 77% versus 73% for ALC/AMC ≥2.9 and <2.9 (p = .35), and 79% versus 70% for ALC/AMC ≥2.24 and <2.24 (p = .08), respectively. In stages ΙΑ/ΙΙΑ and in patients ≥60 years old, ALC/AMC had no significant effect on TTP. In advanced stages, ALC/AMC was significant only at the cutoff of 1.1 (10-year TTP 67% vs. 48%; p = .016). In younger, advanced-stage patients, the differences were more pronounced. In multivariate analysis of TTP, ALC/AMC < 1.1 (p = .007) and stage IV (p < .001) were independent prognostic factors; ALC/AMC was independent of International Prognostic Score in another model. ALC/AMC was more predictive of overall survival than TTP. At the cutoff of 1.1, ALC/AMC had independent prognostic value in multivariate analysis. However, the prognostically inferior group comprised only 11% of patients. Further research is needed prior to the widespread use of this promising marker. PMID:26921291

  19. Prognostic Implication of the Absolute Lymphocyte to Absolute Monocyte Count Ratio in Patients With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine or Equivalent Regimens.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P; Dimopoulou, Maria N; Angelopoulou, Maria K; Petevi, Kyriaki; Pangalis, Gerassimos A; Moschogiannis, Maria; Dimou, Maria; Boutsikas, George; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros; Gainaru, Gabriella; Plata, Eleni; Flevari, Pagona; Koutsi, Katerina; Papageorgiou, Loula; Telonis, Vassilios; Tsaftaridis, Panayiotis; Sachanas, Sotirios; Yiakoumis, Xanthoula; Tsirkinidis, Pantelis; Viniou, Nora-Athina; Siakantaris, Marina P; Variami, Eleni; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Meletis, John; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Konstantopoulos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Low absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) to absolute monocyte count (AMC) ratio (ALC/AMC) is an independent prognostic factor in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but different cutoffs (1.1, 1.5, and 2.9) have been applied. We aimed to validate the prognostic significance of ALC/AMC in 537 homogenously treated (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine or equivalents ± radiotherapy) classical HL patients at various cutoffs. The median ALC/AMC was 2.24 (0.44-20.50). The median AMC was 0.653 × 10(9)/L (0.050-2.070). Lower ALC/AMC was associated with established markers of adverse prognosis. In total, 477 (89%), 418 (78%), and 189 (35%) patients had an ALC/AMC ratio of ≥1.1, ≥1.5, and ≥2.9; respectively; 20% had monocytosis (≥0.9 × 10(9)/L). Ten-year time to progression (TTP) was 77% versus 55% for patients with ALC/AMC ≥1.1 and <1.1 (p = .0002), 76% versus 68% for ALC/AMC ≥1.5 and <1.5 (p = .049), 77% versus 73% for ALC/AMC ≥2.9 and <2.9 (p = .35), and 79% versus 70% for ALC/AMC ≥2.24 and <2.24 (p = .08), respectively. In stages ΙΑ/ΙΙΑ and in patients ≥60 years old, ALC/AMC had no significant effect on TTP. In advanced stages, ALC/AMC was significant only at the cutoff of 1.1 (10-year TTP 67% vs. 48%; p = .016). In younger, advanced-stage patients, the differences were more pronounced. In multivariate analysis of TTP, ALC/AMC < 1.1 (p = .007) and stage IV (p < .001) were independent prognostic factors; ALC/AMC was independent of International Prognostic Score in another model. ALC/AMC was more predictive of overall survival than TTP. At the cutoff of 1.1, ALC/AMC had independent prognostic value in multivariate analysis. However, the prognostically inferior group comprised only 11% of patients. Further research is needed prior to the widespread use of this promising marker.

  20. An improved method to visualize eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Rubio, C A; Glaessgen, A

    2006-01-01

    We previously found in Giemsa-stained colorectal sections from IBD patients that eosinophilic granulocytes turned fluorescent when excited with indirect fluorescent light, while other inflammatory cells were non-fluorescent. We now studied with that method, the frequency of eosinophilic granulocytes in sections from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE). Cell counting was done in consecutive sections stained with Giemsa stain using indirect fluorescence light (G-IFL setting) and with hematoxylin-eosin using transmitted light (HE-TL setting) in 5 cases of EE and in 10 consecutive cases of reflux esophagitis (RE) grade 2. In EE 45.0 eosinophils/case (range 39-51) were recorded with the G-IFL setting but only 33.4 eosinophils/case (range 28-39) with the HE-TL setting (p < 0.05). In RE cases, 3 eosinophils/case (range 2-4) were found with the G-IFL setting and 2 eosinophil/case (range 1-3) with the HE-TL setting. The G-IFL method is not only more sensitive in detecting eosinophils than the conventional HE-TL method but also quicker, since a differential cell counting is not necessary. PMID:17091778

  1. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... EGIDs Eosinophilic Fasciitis Eosinophilic Pneumonia Eosinophilic Cystitis Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome Resources For Patients ...

  2. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis with Eosinophilic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall and variable gastrointestinal manifestations. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for EG when faced with gastrointestinal symptoms and peripheral eosinophilia to avoid incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatments. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain and a laparoscopic appendectomy performed for a presumed diagnosis of an acute appendicitis. However, the procedure revealed bowel edema and a moderate amount of ascites without evidence of a suppurative appendicitis. Postoperatively, she showed persistent and progressive eosinophilia, exudative eosinophilic ascites, eosinophilic infiltration of the resected appendix wall, and eosinophilic infiltration of gastroduodenal mucosa. A punch biopsy of the abdominal skin also revealed inflammation with marked eosinophilic infiltration of the skin. She recovered after the treatment with a low dose of steroid for the EG with eosinophilic dermatitis. EG with eosinophilic dermatitis has not been reported yet and is considered fortuitous in this case. PMID:20046530

  3. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur) and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001); correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001); negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001), reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive

  4. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  5. Successful Chemotherapy Following Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma and Multi-organ Dysfunction with Infiltration of Eosinophils: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Sup; Park, Lee Chun; Shin, Seong Hoon; Lee, Sang Uk; Chang, Hee Kyung; Huh, Bang; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Kim, Mi Hyang; Kim, Yang Soo

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Peripheral blood eosinophilia is defined as an absolute eosinophil count of ≥0.5×10(9)/L. Eosinophilia is classified into primary or clonal eosinophilia, secondary eosinophilia, and idiopathic categories including idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Both hematopoietic and solid neoplasms may be associated with peripheral blood eosinophilia, but multiple myeloma is rarely associated with eosinophilia. We now report the case of a 31-year-old man with multiple myeloma associated with marked eosinophilia who developed multiple organ dysfunction with infiltration of eosinophils. He recovered after treatment with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation.

  6. Prognostic Impact of Absolute Lymphocyte Counts at the End of Remission Induction in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Campbell, Patrick; Zhou, Yinmei; Sandlund, John T.; Jeha, Sima; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Inaba, Hiroto; Bhojwani, Deepa; Relling, Mary V.; Howard, Scott C.; Campana, Dario; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2013-01-01

    Background Absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) during treatment have been associated with outcome in children and adults with hematologic malignancies. However, the impact of ALC relative to that of other prognostic factors on the outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated in recent trials is unknown. Methods Outcomes of 399 patients ≤ 18 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL who were enrolled in the Total Therapy XV study at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital were analyzed according to ALC at the end of remission induction therapy. Results ALC ≥ 500 cell/μL was significantly more prevalent among patients with B-lineage ALL, favorable presenting features and in those who achieved minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity on day 43 of treatment. Both overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were superior among patients with higher ALC, but only the association with OS was statistically significant in a univariate analysis. In multivariable analyses, ALC was not a significant predictor of outcome after controlling for age, leukocyte count, lineage, risk group, and MRD at the end of induction (p > 0.1 for all comparisons). However, among MRD-negative patients, those with low ALC had a 5-year OS of 84.2% ± 8.9% versus 97.3 ± 1.0 for patients with higher ALC (P = .036). Conclusion ALC at the end of induction is related to favorable presenting features and good initial treatment response but does not independently predict outcome in the context of contemporary, MRD-guided, therapy. PMID:23456849

  7. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Anand R; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized in adults. The diagnosis is based on the presence of both typical symptoms and pathologic findings on esophageal biopsy. Patients usually present with dysphagia, food impaction and/or reflux-like symptoms, and biopsy of the esophagus shows more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. In addition, it is essential to exclude the presence of known causes of tissue eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, infections, malignancy, collagen vascular diseases, hypersensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. There are no standardized protocols for the therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis. A variety of therapeutic approaches including acid suppression, dietary modifications, topical corticosteroids and endoscopic dilation can be used alone or in combination. PMID:19115464

  8. Digital encoding of cellular mRNAs enabling precise and absolute gene expression measurement by single-molecule counting.

    PubMed

    Fu, Glenn K; Wilhelmy, Julie; Stern, David; Fan, H Christina; Fodor, Stephen P A

    2014-03-18

    We present a new approach for the sensitive detection and accurate quantitation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcripts in single cells. First, the entire population of mRNAs is encoded with molecular barcodes during reverse transcription. After amplification of the gene targets of interest, molecular barcodes are counted by sequencing or scored on a simple hybridization detector to reveal the number of molecules in the starting sample. Since absolute quantities are measured, calibration to standards is unnecessary, and many of the relative quantitation challenges such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias are avoided. We apply the method to gene expression analysis of minute sample quantities and demonstrate precise measurements with sensitivity down to sub single-cell levels. The method is an easy, single-tube, end point assay utilizing standard thermal cyclers and PCR reagents. Accurate and precise measurements are obtained without any need for cycle-to-cycle intensity-based real-time monitoring or physical partitioning into multiple reactions (e.g., digital PCR). Further, since all mRNA molecules are encoded with molecular barcodes, amplification can be used to generate more material for multiple measurements and technical replicates can be carried out on limited samples. The method is particularly useful for small sample quantities, such as single-cell experiments. Digital encoding of cellular content preserves true abundance levels and overcomes distortions introduced by amplification.

  9. Digital Encoding of Cellular mRNAs Enabling Precise and Absolute Gene Expression Measurement by Single-Molecule Counting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a new approach for the sensitive detection and accurate quantitation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcripts in single cells. First, the entire population of mRNAs is encoded with molecular barcodes during reverse transcription. After amplification of the gene targets of interest, molecular barcodes are counted by sequencing or scored on a simple hybridization detector to reveal the number of molecules in the starting sample. Since absolute quantities are measured, calibration to standards is unnecessary, and many of the relative quantitation challenges such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bias are avoided. We apply the method to gene expression analysis of minute sample quantities and demonstrate precise measurements with sensitivity down to sub single-cell levels. The method is an easy, single-tube, end point assay utilizing standard thermal cyclers and PCR reagents. Accurate and precise measurements are obtained without any need for cycle-to-cycle intensity-based real-time monitoring or physical partitioning into multiple reactions (e.g., digital PCR). Further, since all mRNA molecules are encoded with molecular barcodes, amplification can be used to generate more material for multiple measurements and technical replicates can be carried out on limited samples. The method is particularly useful for small sample quantities, such as single-cell experiments. Digital encoding of cellular content preserves true abundance levels and overcomes distortions introduced by amplification. PMID:24579851

  10. Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Bancil, Aaron S; Hewett, Rhys; Hayat, Jamal O; Poullis, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the oesophagus, characterized by symptoms of dysphagia or food bolus obstruction. Diagnosis is supported by typical histological findings. This article covers pertinent aspects of the disease, pathogenic explanations and treatment options. PMID:27388380

  11. Gallium-67 pulmonary uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Morais, J.; Carrier, L.; Gariepy, G.; Le Bel, L.; Chartrand, R.; Picard, D.

    1988-01-01

    Eosinophilic pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on the findings on chest x-ray, white blood count, and transbronchial biopsy. After reporting a case of Ga-67 lung uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia, its histopathology is discussed and the mechanisms of Ga-67 uptake by inflammatory lesions are reviewed.

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Saurabh; Baruah, Bhaskar Jyoti; Makharia, Govind; Ahuja, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity characterised by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilia on esophageal mucosal biopsies in the absence of other causes of esophageal eosinophilia. It is a chronic inflammatory condition of esophagus often characterized by refractory reflux symptoms in children and dysphagia in adults. It occurs as a result of Th2 inflammatory response to environmental triggers (food antigens) in genetically predisposed individuals. The diagnostic criteria include symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, esophageal eosinophilia (> 15/hpf), and a PPI trial (persistent eosinophilia after 8 weeks of PPI). Mainstay of treatment at present is topical steroids and dietary therapy. Maintenance treatment should be considered to prevent long term complications. PMID:27522734

  13. Evaluation of the FACSPresto, a New Point of Care Device for the Enumeration of CD4% and Absolute CD4+ T Cell Counts in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Makadzange, Azure Tariro; Bogezi, Carola; Boyd, Kathryn; Gumbo, Anesu; Mukura, Dorinda; Matubu, Allen; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Enumeration of CD4+ T lymphocytes is important for pre-ART disease staging and screening for opportunistic infections, however access to CD4 testing in resource limited settings is poor. Point of care (POC) technologies can facilitate improved access to CD4 testing. We evaluated the analytical performance of a novel POC device the FACSPresto compared to the FACSCalibur as a reference standard and to the PIMA, a POC device in widespread use in sub-Saharan Africa. Method Specimens were obtained from 253 HIV infected adults. Venous blood samples were analyzed on the FACSPresto and the FACSCalibur, in a subset of 41 samples additional analysis was done on the PIMA. Results The absolute CD4 count results obtained on the FACSPresto were comparable to those on the FACSCalibur with low absolute (9.5cells/μl) and relative bias (3.2%). Bias in CD4% values was also low (1.06%) with a relative bias of 4.9%. The sensitivity was lower at a CD4 count threshold of ≤350cells/μl compared with ≤500cells/μl (84.9% vs. 92.8%) resulting in a high upward misclassification rate at low CD4 counts. Specificity at thresholds of ≤350cells/μl and ≤500cells/μl were 96.6% and 96.8% respectively. The PIMA had a high absolute (-68.6cells/μl) and relative bias (-10.5%) when compared with the FACSCalibur. At thresholds of ≤350cells/μl and ≤500cells/μl the sensitivity was 100% and 95.5% respectively; specificity was 85.7% and 84.2% respectively. The coefficients of repeatability were 4.13%, 5.29% and 9.8% respectively. Discussion The analytic performance of the FACSPresto against the reference standard was very good with better agreement and precision than the PIMA. The FACSPresto had comparable sensitivity at a threshold of 500 cells/μl and better specificity than the PIMA. However the FACSPresto showed reduced sensitivity at low CD4 count thresholds. Conclusion The FACSPresto can be reliably used as a POC device for enumerating absolute CD4 count and CD4% values

  14. β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis.

    PubMed

    Mogilevski, Tamara; Nickless, David; Hume, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma presented with a 2-week history of watery diarrhoea and marked peripheral eosinophilia in the setting of recent use of cephalexin. His colonoscopy revealed patchy colitis. Biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic colitis. Two months later he received a course of amoxicillin resulting in recurrence of peripheral eosinophilia. Given the time-frame of β-lactam administration to symptom onset and elimination of all other precipitating causes, he was diagnosed with β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis. The patient's symptoms resolved and peripheral eosinophil count decreased with no specific treatment. Eosinophilic colitis is a rare heterogeneous condition, the pathogenesis of which is likely to be an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It can be secondary to a helminthic infection or a drug reaction and has been associated with ulcerative colitis. If secondary causes of eosinophilic colitis have been excluded, the mainstay of treatment is with corticosteroids. PMID:26106168

  15. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    PubMed

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  16. Targeted absolute quantification of intact proteins by reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, charge reduced electrospray, and condensation particle counting.

    PubMed

    Adou, Kouame; Johnston, Murray V; Dykins, John L

    2012-08-21

    A novel approach involving the use of reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS), charge reduced electrospray (CRES), and condensation particle counting (CPC) for the absolute quantification of intact proteins in liquid solutions is introduced. Under analysis conditions optimized for the quantification of select proteins within their predetermined linear ranges, a set of at least five protein standards with molecular weights (MW) spanning the dynamic ranges of both a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS and a suitably selected RPLC column is used to generate a calibration curve of CPC detection efficiency (DE) as a function of the square root of MW. Next, the sample of interest is analyzed, and from the MS-generated MW data, the DE of each target protein is determined from the calibration curve. On the basis of MW, DE, and number concentration (molecules/unit volume), absolute quantification is achieved for each protein of interest. Application of this approach to the absolute quantification of cytochrome C (as target compound) in a commercial protein mixture is demonstrated with a deviation of 8%, a coefficient of variation (CV) of 5%, and a quantification limit of 432 fmol. For nontarget components of the mixture (ribonuclease A, holotransferrin, and apomyoglobin), the percent deviation from the stated concentrations and the CV varied from 0.20 to 23 and from 4.1 to 18, respectively. Performance of the method was further assessed by analyzing a laboratory quality control mixture comprising 0.33 μM of cytochrome C. The calculated value was 0.34 (CV: 5.1%). Universal in essence, the new technique holds strong promise for the absolute quantification of select proteins in liquid samples under conditions of good peak resolution and stable baseline.

  17. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Clinical measurement of eosinophil numbers in eosinophilic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2014-01-01

    Cytological examination of conjunctival scrapings is a valuable technique in differentiating various types of conjunctivitis. Brush conjunctival cytology is easy to use, and it may show a rich cell sample also from the deeper conjunctival layers. It is atraumatic and suitable for tarsal conjunctival cytology. The Papanicolaou staining can be used for examination of epithelial cells and inflammatory cells. The semiquantitative counting method is rapid to use and gives some information about the severity and nature of the inflammation. Our modified method identifies the presence of eosinophils which are the hallmark both in allergic conjunctivitis and in non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC). NAEC is quite common affecting in most cases middle-aged or older people with the majority being women. NAEC is often connected with dry eye which in many cases can be seen in conjunctival cytology.

  20. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  1. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  2. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis : Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Shih, H-M; Bair, M-J; Chen, H-L; Lin, I-T

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease which belongs to primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (primary EGIDs), characterized by an accumulation of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is strongly associated with atopy and allergy. The clinical presentations vary depending on the site and depth of eosinophilic intestinal infiltration. Radiology pictures may show irregular thickening of the folds, but these findings can also be present in other conditions like inflammatory bowel disease and lymphoma. The endoscopic appearance is also nonspecific. The definite diagnosis requires biopsy for histological evidence of GI eosinophilic infiltration and clinicians make the diagnosis in correlation with and by exclusion of other possible causes of eosinophilic infiltration. Because EGE is a rare disease, the treatment is based on limited case reports and clinicians' experience. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. The prognosis of EGE is relatively good when patients receive timely and proper treatment. PMID:27382945

  3. Low absolute lymphocyte count and addition of rituximab confer high risk for interstitial pneumonia in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Liu, Chun-Yu; Pai, Jih-Tung; Hong, Ying-Chung; Teng, Hao-Wei; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chao, Ta-Chung; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2011-10-01

    Several small-scale studies have reported pulmonary toxicity among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, though whether the use of rituximab predisposes to interstitial pneumonia (IP) remains unclear. This retrospective study was intended to identify the characteristics and risk factors of IP in patients with DLBCL. Between 2000 and 2009, 529 consecutive patients with DLBCL receiving first-line tri-weekly COP- or CHOP-based chemotherapy with or without rituximab were enrolled as subjects. IP was defined as diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrates found on computed tomography scans in conjunction with respiratory symptoms. IP was observed in 26 patients (4.9%), six of whom were confirmed with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The median number of chemotherapy courses before IP was four cycles. Using multivariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count less than 1×10(9)/l at diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.75, p=0.014] and the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy (OR 4.56, p=0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for IP. In conclusion, the incidence of IP is increased in patients with DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Specific subgroups with lymphopenia at diagnosis may justify close scrutiny to detect pulmonary complications. PMID:21647583

  4. iNKT cell frequency in peripheral blood of Caucasian children and adolescent: the absolute iNKT cell count is stable from birth to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bienemann, K; Iouannidou, K; Schoenberg, K; Krux, F; Reuther, S; Feyen, O; Bienemann, K; Schuster, F; Uhrberg, M; Laws, H-J; Borkhardt, A

    2011-10-01

    Human invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are a unique population of T cells that express a semi-invariantly rearranged T cell receptor (TCR) and are involved in a variety of immunoregulatory processes. We assessed the frequency of peripheral blood iNKT cells in 64 healthy Caucasian children from 7 months to 18 years of age and five cord blood samples by flow cytometry. iNKT cells were measured as CD3(+) cells co-expressing TCRVα24 and TCRVβ11 and using the monoclonal antibody 6B11, which recognizes specifically their invariant TCR rearrangement. The absolute number of iNKT cells ranged from 86 to 10,499 (CD3(+) /TCRVα24(+) / TCRVβ11(+)) and 233 to 11,167 (CD3(+) /6B11(+)) iNKT cells per millilitre of blood. This range is stable from birth to adulthood. The relative iNKT cell count was found to be 0.003-0.71% (CD3(+) /TCRVα24/TCRVβ11) and 0.019-0.776% (CD3/6B11) of peripheral blood T cells and shows only a slight increase with age.

  5. Effect of initial absolute monocyte count on survival outcome of patients with de novo non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianhua; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Junqing; Gao, Shenmeng; Ye, Haige; Sun, Lan; Chen, Yi; Yu, Kang; Xing, Chong-Yun

    2016-11-01

    Increased absolute monocyte count (AMC) at presentation has recently been associated with clinical outcome in different types of hematological malignancies. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of AMC on survival in 193 adult patients with de novo non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The median AMC for all patients at diagnosis was 0.26 × 10(9)/L, with 41.4, 31.1 and 27.5% of patients showed low (<0.12 × 10(9)/L), normal (0.12-0.80 × 10(9)/L), and high AMC (>0.80 × 10(9)/L), respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that high AMC appeared as a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0055), but not for disease free survival (DFS) (p = 0.1195). On multivariate analysis, initial high AMC remained an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio 2.01, p = 0.017). Our results suggest that AMC at diagnosis, which provides additional prognostic information independently from conventional factors related to patient clinical characteristics or tumor biological features, could be a novel prognostic marker for AML.

  6. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a challenge to diagnose and treat.

    PubMed

    Phaw, Naw April; Tsai, Her Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The patient presented with bloody diarrhoea, and crampy abdominal pains. She was diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) after the finding of persistently high peripheral eosinophil counts and histology of endoscopic biopsies. She responded to steroids but became dependent on it and her symptoms recurred on steroid tapering. There was little improvement with alternative treatment such as budesonides, azathioprine and montelukast. Surprisingly her symptoms improved significantly after she was treated with clarithromycin for chest infection and she was continued on clarithromycin. Her eosinophil counts fell dramatically and follow-up CT (thorax, abdomen and pelvic) scan showed the mucosal thickening had improved. She became completely free of the symptoms since she was on clarithromycin and her eosinophils counts fell within the normal range during the follow-up. PMID:27613263

  7. [Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Vivero, F; Ciocchini, C; Gandini, M J; Wehbe, L

    2012-03-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is part of Pulmonary Eosinophilic Syndroms. It is presented a 33-years old man, Asmathic, with dry cough, fever, night sweats and fatigue of several weeks. The chest X-ray showed opacity in the right hemithorax. He was treated with antibiotics without response. A chest TC showed multifocal involvement. The patient refused bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) so treatment antituberculostatic was started. Despite treatment the symptoms worsened. The Chest X-ray showed migration of the infiltrates and the blood smear marked eosinophilia. Finally, bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out and it showed a high percentage of eosinophils (over 50%). The patient was treated with inmmunosuppresive doses of corticosteroids with excellent response. The blood smear in Nonresolving pneumonia is key to consider eosinophilic pneumonia, an uncommon pathology but amenable to treatment.

  8. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. The differential count measures the percentages of each type of leukocyte present. WBC's are composed of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, ...

  9. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    PubMed

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal. PMID:26568697

  10. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: an update.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; Arias, Angel

    2012-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is characterized by dense eosinophilic inflammation of one or several digestive tract sections. The symptoms include abdominal pain, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea. Biopsy samples taken during endoscopic examination allows the diagnosis of the disease. An infiltration of >30 eosinophils per high-power field in at least five high-power fields, exhibiting signs of eosinophilic degranulation and extending to the muscularis mucosa or submucosa are all histological indications of EGE. EGE is traditionally classified into three forms depending on the depth of inflammation in the wall (mucosal, muscular or serosal). This, together with the digestive tract segments involved, determines the clinical presentation. The natural history of EGE includes three different evolutionary patterns, since patients may suffer a single outbreak, a recurrent course or even chronic disease. Corticosteroids are the most frequently used therapy for EGE; dietary treatments should be also considered. Surgery has been limited to solving obstruction and small bowel perforation.

  11. Eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Chrystalle Katte; Esposito, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis is an unfamiliar cause of acute myocardial ischemia. Most commonly, it presents as a left-sided chest pain or sudden death in middle-aged women with no traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease. Because the abrupt onset leaves almost no time for intervention, the symptoms readily lead to death, and most cases are diagnosed at necropsy. Dissection of the coronary artery wall with resultant occlusion of the lumen, which commonly affects the left anterior descending artery, is a consistent gross finding. An inflammatory infiltrate, which is predominantly composed of eosinophils in the tunica adventitia and tunica media and is often accompanied by a hematoma in between these 2 layers, is observed histologically. The etiology remains unclear, but an increase in the activity of eosinophils because of hormonal interactions during pregnancy has been suggested. Interplay of hormones is thought to culminate in the release of histolytic agents by the eosinophils, which initiate the dissection process. Currently, there is no specific treatment for eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, but cyclophosphamide and prednisone have shown positive results in the treatment of spontaneous coronary artery dissection with unspecified periadventitial inflammation. Percutaneous coronary procedures have also resulted in favorable outcomes in a subset of patients. Because of the high, sudden death rate in eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, deciphering the underlying pathophysiology of this almost invariably fatal disease remains both a challenge and a key to developing screening methods that will allow timely detection and thus treatment.

  12. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Parmley, R T; Crist, W M; Roper, M; Takagi, M; Austin, R L

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multipole microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment. PMID:7306702

  13. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  14. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  15. Eosinophilic pancreatitis and increased eosinophils in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Susan C; Leach, Steven; Yeo, Charles J; Cameron, John L; Murakata, Linda A; Boitnott, John K; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Hruban, Ralph H

    2003-03-01

    Prominent eosinophilic infiltrates are an unusual finding in the pancreas. Eosinophilic pancreatitis is one rare etiology of pancreatic eosinophilia, but other described causes of eosinophilic infiltrates have also included pancreatic allograft rejection, pancreatic pseudocyst, lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, and histiocytosis X. In this study we describe the clinicopathologic features of three new cases of eosinophilic pancreatitis and conduct a retrospective 18-year institutional review of the myriad disease processes associated with pancreatic eosinophilia. In the files of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, <1% of all pancreatic specimens had been noted to show increased numbers of eosinophils. Eosinophilic pancreatitis itself was a rare etiology for pancreatic eosinophilia, with only one in-house case over the 18-year study period and two additional referral cases. Other disease processes associated with prominent eosinophilic infiltrates were more common and included pancreatic allograft rejection (14 cases), LPSP (5 of 24 total LPSP cases evaluated), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (4 cases), and systemic mastocytosis (1 case). Patients with eosinophilic pancreatitis showed two distinct histologic patterns: 1) a diffuse periductal, acinar, and septal eosinophilic infiltrate with eosinophilic phlebitis and arteritis; and 2) localized intense eosinophilic infiltrates associated with pseudocyst formation. All three patients with eosinophilic pancreatitis had peripheral eosinophilia, and all had multiorgan involvement. One patient with LPSP also had marked peripheral eosinophilia, and 5 of 24 LPSP cases demonstrated prominent eosinophilic infiltrates in the gallbladder, biliary tree, and/or duodenum. Notably, not all of these patients with LPSP with prominent eosinophils in other organs had increased eosinophils in the pancreas itself. These results emphasize the infrequent nature of pancreatic eosinophilia and

  16. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  17. Classification of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases is based on morphological evaluation with regard to localization and density of eosinophil infiltration of the mucosa and/or deeper parts of the oesophagus, stomach, and bowel in biopsy or resection specimens. As with eosinophils in any tissue, in the majority of diseases they are probably a sequel of acute inflammation and do not indicate any specific disease. Eosinophil morphology includes intact cells with bilobated nuclei and eosinophil granules in the cytoplasm and extracellular tissue following activation/degranulation. There is no fixed number of eosinophils that can be used as a cut-off criterion to define disease. Associated histopathological features observed in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease depend on the site of manifestation and primary disease. Eosinophils are typically increased in allergy-associated colitis in adults and allergic proctocolitis in infants, eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic oesophagitis. Their presence can also suggest a drug-induced eosinophilia or the presence of a parasitic infection. In general, eosinophils are increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are seen in reflux oesophagitis, coeliac disease, and microscopic and infectious colitis. Eosinophils may be a feature of polyarteriitis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome, and can accompany connective-tissue disease as well as malignant lymphomas and adenocarcinomas of gastrointestinal mucosa. PMID:18492564

  18. Eosinophilic Drug Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Merin; Khan, David A

    2016-04-01

    While peripheral or tissue eosinophilia may certainly characterize drug eruptions, this feature is hardly pathognomonic for a medication-induced etiology. While delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions with prominent eosinophilic recruitment have been typically classified as type IVb reactions, their pathophysiology is now known to be more complex. Eosinophilic drug reactions have a diversity of presentations and may be benign and self-limited to severe and life-threatening. The extent of clinical involvement is also heterogeneous, ranging from isolated peripheral eosinophilia or single organ involvement (most often the skin and lung) to systemic disease affecting multiple organs, classically exemplified by drug-reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). The spectrum of implicated medications in the causation of DRESS is ever expanding, and multiple factors including drug metabolites, specific HLA alleles, herpes viruses, and immune system activation have been implicated in pathogenesis. Due to this complex interplay of various factors, diagnostic workup in terms of skin and laboratory testing has not been validated. Similarly, the lack of controlled trials limits treatment options. This review also describes other localized as well as systemic manifestations of eosinophilic disease induced by various medication classes, including their individual pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Given the multitude of clinical patterns associated with eosinophilic drug allergy, the diagnosis can be challenging. Considerable deficits in our knowledge of these presentations remain, but the potential for severe reactions should be borne in mind in order to facilitate diagnosis and institute appropriate management. PMID:26006718

  19. Eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman syndrome).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Sueli; Brotas, Arles; Lamy, Fabrício; Lisboa, Flávia; Lago, Eduardo; Azulay, David; Cuzzi, Tulia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of eosinophilic fasciitis, or Shulman syndrome, in a 35-year-old man and discuss its clinical and histopathologic aspects, as well as its relationship to scleroderma. Although controversial, the tendency is to set Shulman syndrome apart from all other sclerodermiform states. PMID:15916220

  20. Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic asthma: a US perspective

    PubMed Central

    Walford, Hannah H; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic inflammation in asthma although several noninvasive biomarkers, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide and periostin, are emerging as potential surrogates. As novel therapies and biologic agents become increasingly available, there is an increased need for specific phenotype-directed treatment strategies. Greater recognition and understanding of the unique immunopathology of this asthma phenotype has important implications for management of the disease and the potential to improve patient outcomes. The present review provides a summary of the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic asthma. PMID:24748808

  1. The early history of the eosinophil.

    PubMed

    Kay, A B

    2015-03-01

    In 1879 Paul Ehrlich published his technique for staining blood films and his method for differential blood cell counting using coal tar dyes and mentions the eosinophil for the first time. Eosin is a bright red synthetic dye produced by the action of bromine on fluorescein and stains basic proteins due to its acidic nature. It was discovered in 1874 by Heinrich Caro, Director of the German chemical company Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik. Ehrlich introduced the term 'eosinophil' to describe cells with granules (which he called alpha-granules) having an affinity for eosin and other acid dyes. He also observed black-staining, indulinophilic, beta-granules in bone marrow-derived eosinophils, which were probably immature crystalloid granules in eosinophil myelocytes. Ehrlich described the features of the alpha-granule and the cell's distribution in various species and tissues. He speculated correctly that the alpha-granule contents were secretory products and described several causes of eosinophilia including asthma, various skin diseases, helminths and reactions to medications. However, the cell was almost certainly observed by others before Ehrlich. In 1846 Thomas Wharton Jones (1808-1891) described 'granule blood cells' in the lamprey, frog, fowl, horse, elephant and man. He 'borrowed' the term granule cell from Julius Vogel (1814-1880) who had observed similar cells in inflammatory exudates. Vogel in turn was aware of the work of the Gottlieb (Théophile) Gluge (1812-1898) who used the term 'compound inflammatory globules' to describe cells in pus and serum. Almost 20 years before Ehrlich developed his staining methods, Max Johann Sigismund Schultze (1825-1874) performed functional experiments on coarse granular cells using a warm stage microscopic technique and showed they had amoeboid movement and phagocytic abilities. Although these early investigators recognised distinct granular cells Ehrlich's use of stains was a landmark contribution, which heralded

  2. Mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia with bone marrow infiltration: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunjian; Luo, Ling; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia has been rarely reported. We reported a case of mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia in a 56-year-old female who took mesalazine without a prescription for suspected ulcerative colitis. She had an elevated eosinophil count in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Eosinophil infiltration was also noted in bone marrow aspirates. Chest radiograph and computed tomography demonstrated bilateral upper lung predominant infiltrates and spirometry showed a restrictive ventilatory defect with a reduced diffusion capacity. The patient recovered after cessation of mesalazine therapy. Mesalazine-induced lung damage should be considered in patients who develop unexplained respiratory symptoms while taking this agent. PMID:27366075

  3. Eosinophilic granuloma: MRI manifestations.

    PubMed

    Beltran, J; Aparisi, F; Bonmati, L M; Rosenberg, Z S; Present, D; Steiner, G C

    1993-01-01

    The appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 16 cases of pathologically proven eosinophilic granuloma were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with the radiographic appearance of the lesion. The most common MR appearance (ten cases) was a focal lesion, surrounded by an extensive, ill-defined bone marrow and soft tissue reaction with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, considered to represent bone marrow and soft tissue edema (the flare phenomenon). The MRI manifestations of eosinophilic granuloma, especially during the early stages, are nonspecific, and may stimulate an aggressive lesion such as osteomyelitis or Ewings sarcoma, or other benign bone tumors such as osteoid osteoma or chondroblastoma. PMID:8480200

  4. Blood Eosinophil Levels in Newborns with Severe Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia Treated with Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Banu; Beken, Serdar; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Dilli, Dilek; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Newborns who suffer from jaundice and/or receive phototherapy (PT) are at a higher risk of developing asthma. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between bilirubin and peripheral eosinophil counts in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia needing PT. Methods: In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed on 306 newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia with gestational age ≥35 weeks (Group 1) and the control group consisted of 295 age and gender-matched newborns (Group 2). Total serum bilirubin, hemoglobin, albumin, leucocyte and eosinophil counts before and after PT were recorded from medical charts. Findings : All the patients in Group 1 received phototherapy and 77 (25.2%) of them needed exchange transfusion (ET). Before receiving PT, the patients in Group 1 had lower levels of Hb and higher levels of total serum bilirubin and lymphocytes than those in Group 2 although there was no statistically significant difference with regard to peripheral eosinophil counts. Eosinophils were detected to be numerically lower in Group 1. Higher bilirubin subgroups had also lower eosinophil counts. The patients in Group 1 had lower levels of Hb, leucocyte, albumin and higher levels of eosinophil following PT. Conclusion: Peripheral eosinophil count may be affected by bilirubin levels and/or phototherapy. There is a need for further clinical research based on different models. PMID:25562019

  5. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: update 2012].

    PubMed

    Jo, Yunju

    2012-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) with adults, as a new disease emerging during the last decade, is a clinicopathologic disorder of the esophagus characterized by a dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration and typical esophageal symptoms. As numerous studies about EoE had been reported during last several years, updated consensus of EoE was reported in July 2011. The conceptual definition of EoE is coming. EoE is defined as a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominat inflammation. Other important addition is genotyping feature that implicates thymic stromal lymphopoietin genes or filagrrin as EoE susceptibility genes. The majority of patients has the concurrent allergic disease, especially food or aeroallergen sensitization. Main therapeutic options include topical steroids and dietary modification. Recent issues of EoE include a new concept for proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia that it should be excluded to diagnose EoE.

  6. Does eosinophilic COPD exacerbation have a better patient outcome than non-eosinophilic in the intensive care unit?

    PubMed Central

    Saltürk, Cüneyt; Karakurt, Zuhal; Adiguzel, Nalan; Kargin, Feyza; Sari, Rabia; Celik, M Emin; Takir, Huriye Berk; Tuncay, Eylem; Sogukpinar, Ozlem; Ciftaslan, Nezihe; Mocin, Ozlem; Gungor, Gokay; Oztas, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    Background COPD exacerbations requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission have a major impact on morbidity and mortality. Only 10%–25% of COPD exacerbations are eosinophilic. Aim To assess whether eosinophilic COPD exacerbations have better outcomes than non-eosinophilic COPD exacerbations in the ICU. Methods This retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in a thoracic, surgery-level III respiratory ICU of a tertiary teaching hospital for chest diseases from 2013 to 2014. Subjects previously diagnosed with COPD and who were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure were included. Data were collected electronically from the hospital database. Subjects’ characteristics, complete blood count parameters, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), delta NLR (admission minus discharge), C-reactive protein (CRP) on admission to and discharge from ICU, length of ICU stay, and mortality were recorded. COPD subjects were grouped according to eosinophil levels (>2% or ≤2%) (group 1, eosinophilic; group 2, non-eosinophilic). These groups were compared with the recorded data. Results Over the study period, 647 eligible COPD subjects were enrolled (62 [40.3% female] in group 1 and 585 [33.5% female] in group 2). Group 2 had significantly higher C-reactive protein, neutrophils, NLR, delta NLR, and hemoglobin, but a lower lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet count than group 1, on admission to and discharge from the ICU. Median (interquartile range) length of ICU stay and mortality in the ICU in groups 1 and 2 were 4 days (2–7 days) vs 6 days (3–9 days) (P<0.002), and 12.9% vs 24.9% (P<0.034), respectively. Conclusion COPD exacerbations with acute respiratory failure requiring ICU admission had a better outcome with a peripheral eosinophil level >2%. NLR and peripheral eosinophilia may be helpful indicators for steroid and antibiotic management. PMID:26392758

  7. Eosinophilic pancreatitis: Three case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, LIN; FU, PENG; DONG, XIANGHUI; QI, JIPING; ZHU, HONG

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic pancreatitis (EP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis characterized by localized or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the pancreas and elevated serum immunoglobulin E levels. EP is difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer on the basis of clinical symptoms and the results of auxiliary examination alone. A retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics and laboratory, imaging, and pathology results of 3 patients with EP, who were initially diagnosed with pancreatic malignancy, was performed. EP is an allergic disease with non-specific clinical manifestations that is difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer based exclusively on clinical symptoms and auxiliary examination, resulting in the need for invasive procedures to confirm the diagnosis. An increase in the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood and pathological examination are essential for the diagnosis of EP. PMID:27073662

  8. Eosinophil alveolitis in two patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brix, Ninna; Rasmussen, Finn; Poletti, Venerino; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is typically characterized by a neutrophil inflammatory pattern and to a lesser extent (<25%) a mild eosinophil alveolitis. We here present two patients with a definite usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (HRCT) which demonstrated unusually high eosinophil counts in the BALF (40% and 51%). Based on HRCT, lack of response to steroids and the disease course they were both diagnosed as IPF after a multidisciplinary team discussion. This report discusses the diagnostic and etiological considerations of a coexisting UIP pattern and an eosinophil alveolitis. We conclude that these cases illustrate that high level BALF eosinophilia (40-50%) may occur among patients with IPF. PMID:27625983

  9. Eosinophilic esophagitis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Redd, Matthew; Schey, Ron

    2013-03-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new entity with a significant amount of increased recognition over the last decade. The mainstay treatments of EoE are designed to eliminate the causative allergens or to reduce their effects on the esophageal mucosa. Common treatments include dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, systemic and topical corticosteroids, and endoscopic treatments. As the pathogenesis of EoE is explored, new and novel treatments are being studied that target specific pathways and chemokines identified in as precipitating agents of EoE. This is a rapidly evolving field with significant ongoing research and clinical studies. Our review will therefore focus on current and novel treatment approaches to the disease.

  10. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B.; MacDonald, Jennifer E.; Kwaan, Mary R.; Shepela, Christopher; Madoff, Robert; Jessurun, Jose; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal). The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders). Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults) presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48) months. PMID:21837236

  11. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with esophageal involvement.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, J W; Sheahan, D G; Behar, J

    1977-06-01

    A patient with a lifelong history of asthma and hay fever was investigated because of symptoms of esophageal spasm. Esophageal biopsies revealed elongated papillae and basal zone hyperplasia of the epithelial layer with eosinophilic infiltration of the lamina propria and muscularis mucosae. There was no evidence of reflux. Small bowel biopsies revealed a flat mucosal pattern with absent or blunted villi, tall columar surface epithelium, and eosinophilic infiltration of the lamina propria. He did not respond to a gluten-free diet. This patient is thought to have eosinophilic gatroenteritis with esophageal involvement, the first such case reported.

  12. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a New York City firefighter exposed to World Trade Center dust.

    PubMed

    Rom, William N; Weiden, Michael; Garcia, Roberto; Yie, Ting An; Vathesatogkit, Pratan; Tse, Doris B; McGuinness, Georgeann; Roggli, Victor; Prezant, David

    2002-09-15

    We report a sentinel case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a firefighter exposed to high concentrations of World Trade Center dust during the rescue effort from September 11 to 24. The firefighter presented with a Pa(O2) of 53 mm Hg and responded to oxygen and corticosteroids. Computed tomography scan showed patchy ground glass density, thickened bronchial walls, and bilateral pleural effusions. Bronchoalveolar lavage recovered 70% eosinophils, with only 1% eosinophils in peripheral blood. Eosinophils were not degranulated and increased levels of interleukin-5 were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum. Mineralogic analysis counted 305 commercial asbestos fibers/10(6) macrophages including those with high aspect ratios, and significant quantities of fly ash and degraded fibrous glass. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare consequence of acute high dust exposure. World Trade Center dust consists of large particle-size silicates, but fly ash and asbestos fibers may be found in bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

  13. Eosinophilic myocarditis in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis.

    PubMed Central

    Cookston, M.; Stober, M.; Kayes, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    In humans, chronic eosinophilia has been associated clinically with endomyocardial fibrosis and myocardial damage. Mice infected with Toxocara canis have a marked eosinophilia, and develop eosinophil-rich granulomatous lesions in the soft tissues of the body, especially the lungs, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. Few reports have described myocardial lesions associated with T. canis infections in mice. We examined the hearts of CBA/J mice killed at weekly intervals over an 8-week period for evidence of myocardial damage that might be attributable to eosinophils. Total white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were obtained during this period, and revealed a peak white blood cell count of approximately 28,000 cells/mm3 at day 7 after infection and a peak eosinophil count of approximately 4,000 cells/mm3 at day 14 after infection. Myocardial lesions in the ventricular wall began as focal infiltrates of eosinophils and histiocytes, then progressed into granulomata containing necrotic debris. Collagen deposition was noted by day 21 after infection. By day 42 after infection, the lesions had contracted greatly because of a loss of cellularity, and consisted mainly of fibroblasts and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Myocyte damage, characterized by increased eosinophilia and necrosis, was observed. T. canis-infected CBA/J mice thus offer a useful model to study eosinophil-dependent myocardial damage. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2349964

  14. Eosinophilic myocarditis associated with eosinophilic pneumonia and eosinophilia following antibiotic and narcotic analgesic treatment.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Aziz İnan; Deniz, Ali; Tangalay, Mustafa; Karaaslan, Muhammet Buğra; Bağır Kılıç, Emine

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) is a rare form of myocarditis that usually presents with heart failure due to eosinophilic infiltration. EM is often a component of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). HES is a rare disorder characterized by persistent, marked eosinophilia combined with organ system dysfunction. A 38-year-old man was admitted to emergency services with left inguinal pain and fever, and was hospitalized with diagnosis of nephrolithiasis and urinary tract infection. Intravenous antibiotic therapy of 3 grams meropenem per day and analgesic of 50 mg pethidine per day were administered. Typical angina pectoris and dyspnea developed approximately 24 hours after treatment. Rash on the chest, and diminished bilateral lung sounds and rales were observed. Nonspecific changes were present on electrocardiogram. Laboratory analysis showed progressively increasing levels of cardiac biomarkers and eosinophilia. Peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspiration, and biopsy demonstrated eosinophilia. Chest x-ray revealed diffuse, bilateral interstitial and reticulonodular infiltrates. Transthoracic echocardiography showed thickened left ventricle. Coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries. EM was suspected, endomyocardial biopsy was performed, and pathologic specimen confirmed the diagnosis. Corticosteroid treatment was initiated, and within 1 day, angina pectoris and dyspnea had dramatically reduced, and cardiac biomarkers and eosinophil count had decreased. Normal chest x-ray was observed after 72 hours. The patient was discharged with steroid treatment. PMID:27665334

  15. Eosinophilic ascites: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hesham; Joseph, Moby

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic ascites is a rare feature of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We would like to highlight this increasingly recognised diagnosis in a case of unexplained ascites. We present a challenging case of a woman aged 25 years who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, generalised abdominal pain and swelling 8-week following delivery of her first baby. Her symptoms were primarily aggravated by eating, and she had also noticed postprandial itching and self-limiting generalised rash. She had a strong history of atopy. Physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and distension with shifting dullness. Urticarial skin rash was noted on the face, neck, chest and abdomen. Routine biochemistry was normal apart from peripheral eosinophilia. Imaging confirmed moderate ascites. Diagnostic paracentesis showed exudative ascites with numerous eosinophils. Histology of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract showed infiltration of the oesophageogastroduodenal and rectosigmoid mucosa with eosinophils. The patient significantly improved following a course of steroids and six-food elimination diet. PMID:27600059

  16. Pathergy in atypical eosinophilic pustular folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pai-Jui; Huang, Chien-Jen; Wu, Meng-Tse

    2005-03-01

    A 15-year-old, unmarried female presented to our dermatology department for an intensely pruritic skin rash that had appeared abruptly 3 days earlier. She had a remarkable medical history for a case of allergic rhinitis and several attacks of asthma in her early childhood. The condition waxed and waned initially but had improved in recent years. Physical examination revealed several erythematous plaques, papules studded with scattered pustules having diameters less than 0.3 mm. Conspicuous scratch marks had caused erythematous wheal-like indurations also studded with pustules in a linear distribution across the waist, forearms (Fig. 1), and back (Fig. 2). Discrete papulopustules were present on the face, nape and neck. The patient was otherwise healthy. There were no other symptoms such as fever, malaise, weakness, or lymphadenopathy Laboratory results were normal for hepatic and renal functions, serum electrolytes, glucose, protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (8 mm/h), and C-reactive protein (0.355 mg/l). A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody screen test was negative. Serum was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 IgG (in low titers), but negative for HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM. White blood cell count revealed leukocytosis (11.2 x 10(3)/l), with a differential count of 68% neutrophils, 27% lymphocytes, and 8% eosinophils. Serum IgA, IgG, and IgM were within normal limits, but the IgE level was elevated (677 mg/dl). Cultures from peripheral blood and pustules were negative. A Tzank smear performed on the pustules showed no multinucleated giant cells. Fungal testing of skin scrapings from the initial lesion site gave negative results. Routine stool tests, including common pathogen and parasite screens, were negative, and urinalysis results were unremarkable. A biopsy specimen obtained from a skin pustule showed subcorneal eosinophilic and neutrophilic pustules in the follicular infundibulum with marked spongiosis of the follicular epithelium

  17. Olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis.

    PubMed

    Evison, Matthew; Holme, Jayne; Alaloul, Mohamed; Doran, Helen; Bishop, Paul; Booton, Richard; Chaudhry, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    An elderly patient, with a history of depression with psychosis, presented with breathlessness, a right exudative pleural effusion and a peripheral eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was eosinophil-rich (10% of leucocytes). Olanzapine therapy had been commenced 12 months previously. There was a family history of TB and the patient was of African origin. A full diagnostic work-up ensued including computed tomography of the thorax and local anaesthetic thoracoscopy. The pleura was unremarkable on CT and displayed bland smooth thickening at visual inspection during thoracoscopy. Pleural biopsies demonstrated chronic inflammation with eosinophils but no evidence of granulomatous inflammation or malignancy. Pleural tissue culture did not yield mycobacteria. A diagnosis of olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis was suspected and the pleural disease resolved with withdrawal of olanzapine. Eosinophilic pleural fluid is not a marker of non-malignant aetiology and eosinophilic pleural effusions require a careful and systematic diagnostic work-up. This is the second case report to identify olanzapine as a causative agent in eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:26029571

  18. Characterization of the relationship between dose and blood eosinophil response following subcutaneous administration of mepolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Pouliquen, Isabelle J.; Kornmann, Oliver; Barton, Sharon V.; Price, Jeffrey A.; Ortega, Hector G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mepolizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks human IL-5 from binding to the IL-5 receptor, which is mainly expressed on eosinophils. Eosinophils are key cells in the inflammatory cascade of various diseases, including asthma. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship between exposure of mepolizumab subcutaneous (SC) administration and blood eosinophil reduction compared with intravenous (IV) administration in adult subjects with asthma. Methods: In this multi-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, repeat-dose study, 70 adult subjects received one of four possible treatment regimens: mepolizumab 12.5, 125, or 250 mg SC or 75 mg IV. In addition to analyzing the dose and PK/PD relationship, absolute bioavailability, safety, tolerability, and incidence of anti-mepolizumab antibodies were evaluated. Results: Blood eosinophil levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner with the lowest (12.5 mg) dose clearly differentiating from the other doses. A non-linear inhibition Imax model based on blood eosinophil levels at week 12 identified that the SC doses providing 50% and 90% of maximal blood eosinophil inhibition were 11 mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.19 – 16.85) and 99 mg (95% CI: 47 – 152), respectively. The route of administration did not affect the exposure-response relationship. The estimated mepolizumab SC absolute bioavailability (arm) was 74% (90% CI: 54 – 102%). The safety profile of mepolizumab was favorable. Conclusions: A dose-dependent reduction in blood eosinophils across all mepolizumab doses investigated was observed. The subcutaneous absolute bioavailability was 74%. The route of administration did not affect the mepolizumab exposure eosinophil response relationship. PMID:26445140

  19. Clinical profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Huib; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B.; Eichhorn, Edwin; Reitsma, Bennie H.; Bel, Elisabeth H.D.; ten Brinke, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma is increasingly recognised as a severe and difficult-to-treat subtype of asthma. In clinical practice, early recognition of patients with this asthma subtype is important because it may have treatment implications. Therefore, physicians need to know the distinct characteristics of this asthma phenotype. The objective of the present study was to determine the characteristic profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma. 130 patients with adult-onset (>18 years of age) asthma and high blood eosinophil counts (≥0.3×109 L−1) were compared with 361 adult-onset asthma patients with low (<0.3×109 L−1) blood eosinophils. Measurements included a series of clinical, functional and imaging parameters. Patients with high blood eosinophils were more often male, had less well controlled asthma and higher exacerbation rates, despite the use of higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids. They had higher levels of total IgE without more sensitisation to common inhaled allergens. In addition, these patients had worse lung function, and more often showed fixed airflow limitation, air trapping, nasal polyposis and abnormalities on sinus computed tomography scanning. Chronic rhinosinusitis, air trapping and male sex were three independent factors associated with blood eosinophilia (adjusted OR 3.8 (95% CI 1.7–8.1), 3.0 (95% CI 1.1–8.1) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.4), respectively). Patients with adult-onset asthma with elevated blood eosinophils exhibit a distinct profile, which can readily be recognised in clinical practice. PMID:27730197

  20. Eosinophils versus Neutrophils in Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Bass, David A.; Szejda, Pamela

    1979-01-01

    Eosinophil leukocytes have been reported to have a major role in host defense against invasive, migratory phases of helminth infestations, yet the relative larvicidal abilities of eosinophils and neutrophils have not been thoroughly examined. This study examined the killing of newborn (migratory phase) larvae of Trichinella spiralis during incubation by human granulocytes in vitro. The assay employed cultue of larvae with cells, sera, and reagents in microtiter wells with direct counting of surviving larvae after incubation. Killed larvae appeared to be lysed. Verification of the microplate assay was obtained by demonstrating complete loss of infectivity of larvae incubated with leukocytes and immune serum. In the presence of optimal immune serum concentrations, purified neutrophils or eosinophils achieved ≥95% killing of larvae at cell:larva ratios of 2,000:1 or greater. Fresh normal serum prompted slight (19%) killing by leukocytes at a cell:larva ratio of 9,000:1. Cells plus heat-inactivated normal serum and all sera preparations in the absence of leukocytes killed <8% of the larvae. The activity of immune serum was opsonic. Cells adhered to larvae that had been preincubated in immune serum, and immunofluorescent studies indicated that such preopsonized larvae were coated with immunoglobulin (Ig)G. However, preopsonized larvae lost opsonic activity and surface IgG during incubation for 3 h in medium lacking immune serum. The rate of killing was dependent on the cell:larva ratio; at high leukocyte concentrations (4,200:1), 99% were killed within 7 h; at lower cell:larva ratios, killing increased steadily during a 20-h incubation period. Killing was inhibited by 20 μg catalase, 5 μg/ml cytochalasin B, or 5μM colchicine, but was unchanged by superoxide dismutase and was enhanced by azide or cyanide. Leukocytes from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, lacking ability to mount a normal oxidative response, demonstrated a markedly suppressed larvicidal

  1. Lung-resident eosinophils represent a distinct regulatory eosinophil subset.

    PubMed

    Mesnil, Claire; Raulier, Stéfanie; Paulissen, Geneviève; Xiao, Xue; Birrell, Mark A; Pirottin, Dimitri; Janss, Thibaut; Starkl, Philipp; Ramery, Eve; Henket, Monique; Schleich, Florence N; Radermecker, Marc; Thielemans, Kris; Gillet, Laurent; Thiry, Marc; Belvisi, Maria G; Louis, Renaud; Desmet, Christophe; Marichal, Thomas; Bureau, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Increases in eosinophil numbers are associated with infection and allergic diseases, including asthma, but there is also evidence that eosinophils contribute to homeostatic immune processes. In mice, the normal lung contains resident eosinophils (rEos), but their function has not been characterized. Here, we have reported that steady-state pulmonary rEos are IL-5-independent parenchymal Siglec-FintCD62L+CD101lo cells with a ring-shaped nucleus. During house dust mite-induced airway allergy, rEos features remained unchanged, and rEos were accompanied by recruited inflammatory eosinophils (iEos), which were defined as IL-5-dependent peribronchial Siglec-FhiCD62L-CD101hi cells with a segmented nucleus. Gene expression analyses revealed a more regulatory profile for rEos than for iEos, and correspondingly, mice lacking lung rEos showed an increase in Th2 cell responses to inhaled allergens. Such elevation of Th2 responses was linked to the ability of rEos, but not iEos, to inhibit the maturation, and therefore the pro-Th2 function, of allergen-loaded DCs. Finally, we determined that the parenchymal rEos found in nonasthmatic human lungs (Siglec-8+CD62L+IL-3Rlo cells) were phenotypically distinct from the iEos isolated from the sputa of eosinophilic asthmatic patients (Siglec-8+CD62LloIL-3Rhi cells), suggesting that our findings in mice are relevant to humans. In conclusion, our data define lung rEos as a distinct eosinophil subset with key homeostatic functions. PMID:27548519

  2. Pathogenesis of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Said Ahmad; Ishinaga, Hajime; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is considered a refractory and intractable disease. Patients with ECRS present with thick mucus production, long-term nasal congestion, loss of sense of smell, and intermittent acute exacerbations secondary to bacterial infections. Despite medical and surgical interventions, there is a high rate of recurrence with significant impairment to quality of life. The recent increasing prevalence of ECRS in south Asian countries and the strong tendency of ECRS to reoccur after surgery should be considered. The majority of cases need repeat surgery, and histological examinations of these cases show eosinophilic-dominant inflammation. The degradation and accumulation of eosinophils, release of cytokines, and mucus secretion have important roles in the pathogenesis of ECRS. ECRS differs from non-ECRS, in which eosinophils are not involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, and also in terms of many clinical characteristics, blood examination and nasal polyp histological findings, clinical features of the disease after surgery, efficacy of medications, and computed tomography findings. This review describes the clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment of ECRS as well as its pathophysiology and the role of eosinophils, mucus, cytokines, and other mediators in the pathogenesis of ECRS. PMID:27053925

  3. Major Basic Protein from Eosinophils and Myeloperoxidase from Neutrophils Are Required for Protective Immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis in Mice ▿

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Amy E.; Hess, Jessica A.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Lok, James B.; Lee, James J.; Abraham, David

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils and neutrophils contribute to larval killing during the primary immune response, and neutrophils are effector cells in the secondary response to Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms used by eosinophils and neutrophils to control infections with S. stercoralis. Using mice deficient in the eosinophil granule products major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), it was determined that eosinophils kill the larvae through an MBP-dependent mechanism in the primary immune response if other effector cells are absent. Infecting PHIL mice, which are eosinophil deficient, with S. stercoralis resulted in development of primary and secondary immune responses that were similar to those of wild-type mice, suggesting that eosinophils are not an absolute requirement for larval killing or development of secondary immunity. Treating PHIL mice with a neutrophil-depleting antibody resulted in a significant impairment in larval killing. Naïve and immunized mice with neutrophils deficient in myeloperoxidase (MPO) infected with S. stercoralis had significantly decreased larval killing. It was concluded that there is redundancy in the primary immune response, with eosinophils killing the larvae through an MBP-dependent mechanism and neutrophils killing the worms through an MPO-dependent mechanism. Eosinophils are not required for the development or function of secondary immunity, but MPO from neutrophils is required for protective secondary immunity. PMID:21482685

  4. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  5. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Adolescent Patients Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients Basics Overview Eosinophilic esophagitis also known as ( ... children may have vomiting and abdominal pain, and adolescents may complain of the feeling of food getting ...

  6. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  7. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report.

    PubMed

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  8. Eosinophilic pneumonia induced by daptomycin.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Anstead, Michael I; Kuhn, Robert J

    2007-04-01

    We present a case of drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia resulting from intravenous daptomycin being used as therapy for recurrent methicillin-sensitive Staphlococcus aureus endocarditis. The patient developed hypoxic respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Daptomycin therapy was discontinued immediately, and the patient improved significantly after the administration of intravenous corticosteroids allowing for extubation 3 days later.

  9. Volatile organic compounds discriminate between eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Florence N; Dallinga, Jan W; Henket, Monique; Wouters, Emiel F M; Louis, Renaud; Van Schooten, Frederik J

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation associated oxidative stress leads to peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids thereby generating volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The integrative analysis of the total amount of VOCs released by eosinophils and neutrophils in vitro enables the search for those compounds that discriminates between various inflammatory conditions. The approach comprises isolating eosinophils and neutrophils from 30 ml of blood of healthy non-smoking volunteers by gradient centrifugation, using lymphoprep. Eosinophils are separated from neutrophils by immunomagnetic cell separation using anti-CD16. Cells are activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and VOCs from the headspace are collected at time 0', 30', 60' and 90' by introduction of ultra-pure nitrogen in the closed flasks at a flow rate of 200 ml min(-1) during 10 min. The gases are trapped onto a sorption tube and analyzed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectometry (GC-TOF-MS) in order to identify VOCs released in the headspace by activated neutrophils and eosinophils. Eosinophils and neutrophils were isolated from 26 healthy non-smoking volunteers. The average absolute number of eosinophils and neutrophils upon isolation was 3.5  ×  10(6) and 19.4  ×  10(6), respectively. The volatome in headspace consisted of 2116 compounds and those compounds present in at least 8% of the samples (1123 compounds) were used for further discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis showed that two VOCs were able to distinguish between eosinophilic and neutrophilic cultures in the unactivated state with 100% correct classification of the entire data set and upon cross validation while five VOCs were able to discriminate between activated eosinophils and neutrophils with 96% correct classification in the original set and upon cross-validation. Analysis of VOCs seems to be a very promising approach in identifying eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation but it needs further development

  10. Volatile organic compounds discriminate between eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Florence N; Dallinga, Jan W; Henket, Monique; Wouters, Emiel F M; Louis, Renaud; Van Schooten, Frederik J

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation associated oxidative stress leads to peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids thereby generating volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The integrative analysis of the total amount of VOCs released by eosinophils and neutrophils in vitro enables the search for those compounds that discriminates between various inflammatory conditions. The approach comprises isolating eosinophils and neutrophils from 30 ml of blood of healthy non-smoking volunteers by gradient centrifugation, using lymphoprep. Eosinophils are separated from neutrophils by immunomagnetic cell separation using anti-CD16. Cells are activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and VOCs from the headspace are collected at time 0', 30', 60' and 90' by introduction of ultra-pure nitrogen in the closed flasks at a flow rate of 200 ml min(-1) during 10 min. The gases are trapped onto a sorption tube and analyzed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectometry (GC-TOF-MS) in order to identify VOCs released in the headspace by activated neutrophils and eosinophils. Eosinophils and neutrophils were isolated from 26 healthy non-smoking volunteers. The average absolute number of eosinophils and neutrophils upon isolation was 3.5  ×  10(6) and 19.4  ×  10(6), respectively. The volatome in headspace consisted of 2116 compounds and those compounds present in at least 8% of the samples (1123 compounds) were used for further discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis showed that two VOCs were able to distinguish between eosinophilic and neutrophilic cultures in the unactivated state with 100% correct classification of the entire data set and upon cross validation while five VOCs were able to discriminate between activated eosinophils and neutrophils with 96% correct classification in the original set and upon cross-validation. Analysis of VOCs seems to be a very promising approach in identifying eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation but it needs further development

  11. Eosinophilic annular erythema: a subset of Wells' syndrome or a distinct entity?

    PubMed

    Howes, Renae; Girgis, Laila; Kossard, Steven

    2008-08-01

    A 52-year-old woman with a 6-year history of a persistent non-pruritic cutaneous annular eruption, forming polycyclic and arcuate plaques that commenced as erythematous papules and nodules, is presented. Lethargy and arthralgia were associated symptoms. We have followed this patient for the last 3 years, and during this period she has continued to have a florid annular eruption of unknown cause. Laboratory tests, including an eosinophil count, examination of stool samples for parasites, and a computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, failed to detect any abnormalities. Skin biopsies demonstrated a superficial to deep cellular infiltrate consisting of numerous eosinophils, with lymphocytes and isolated neutrophils. Eosinophilic dust, flame figures and granulomatous inflammation were not seen. In addition, strands of mucin were present through the dermis, and prominent basal vacuolar change was evident at the dermoepidermal junction; these features may represent new findings that help define a distinct form of eosinophilic annular erythema. PMID:18638225

  12. Familial eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis in a mother and daughter

    PubMed Central

    Harmanci, Koray; Anil, Hulya; Kocak, Abdulkadir; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri

    2014-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl was admitted to our unit with weight loss, dyspnoea, arthralgia and sinusitis. Her medical history was noteworthy for bronchial asthma and she required systemic steroid therapy. Her mother had a history of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Laboratory tests revealed excessive eosinophilia and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation. The assay for peripheral antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies was negative. Histopathological examination of lung biopsy revealed EGPA. The patient was treated with methylpredinosolone; her eosinophil count normalised and she began to improve clinically and radiographically. There is no genetic factor to influence susceptibility to this disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of familial EGPA disease in the literature, with a mother and daughter both being affected. EGPA disease should be kept in mind in a patient with uncontrolled asthma and eosinophilia with a positive family history for EGPA. PMID:25368130

  13. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  14. [Eosinophilic oesophagitis in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mikhaleva, L M; Barkhina, T G; Golovanova, V E; Shchegoleva, N N; Gracheva, N A

    2012-01-01

    Combination of bronchial asthma and gastrointestinal pathology is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Clinical symptoms of this condition are highly diversified and gastrointestinal diseases play an important role in exacerbation of bronchial asthma. The prevalence of allergic diseases has recently become rampant. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is worth of special attention because its histological criteria, unlike clinical ones, are well defined. They include chronic immune antigen-mediated inflammatory oesophageal disease with pronounced intraepithelial eosinophilic infiltration and clinical symptoms resulting from oesophageal dysfunction that resemble manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease but fail to respond to antireflux and antacid therapy. Many specific and practical aspects of the problem remain to be elucidated. The poor awareness of clinicians of this disease hampers its adequate diagnostics and treatment. In order to revise and optimize the former diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm., an interdisciplinary expert group was set up in 2010 constituted by specialists of the American College of Gastroenterology, American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, and Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Results of the work of this group together with the literature data on eosinophilic esopahgitis are discussed in the present review. PMID:23516863

  15. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  16. Eosinophilic esophagitis in an octogenarian

    PubMed Central

    Trifan, Anca; Stoica, Oana; Chihaia, Catalin-Alexandru; Danciu, Mihai; Stanciu, Carol; Singeap, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by a marked eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophageal mucosa. What was once considered a rare disease has nowadays become one of the most frequent esophageal diseases in the Western countries, occupying a place just next to the gastroesophageal reflux disease. EoE etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown, although most studies consider that allergic and genetic factors play the most important role. Methods: We report the case of EoE in an elderly male (octogenarian), giving a brief review of the current data related to epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Results: Dysphagia to solid foods was the leading symptom, and endoscopic findings included white exudates, longitudinal furrows, and concentric mucosal rings, all suggestive for EoE. Diagnosis relied on histological findings in esophageal mucosal biopsies (>30 eosinophils per high power field). He was treated with topical steroids for 8 weeks, symptoms improved gradually and the patient remained in remission at the 8-month follow-up. Conclusion: This case emphasizes that EoE may occur in very old patients and gastroenterologists should have a high index of suspicion of this disorder in any elderly with dysphagia and endoscopic relevant features. PMID:27741150

  17. Analysis of Gastric and Duodenal Eosinophils in Children with Abdominal Pain Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders According to Rome III Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran; Lee, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (AP-FGID) is common in children and adults. However, the mechanism of AP-FGID is not clearly known. Recently, micro-inflammation, especially eosinophilia in the gastrointestinal tract, was suggested in the pathophysiology of AP-FGID in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric and duodenal eosinophilia with pediatric AP-FGID. Methods In total, 105 pediatric patients with AP-FGID were recruited and classified into 4 subgroups based on the Rome III criteria. Eosinophil counts in the gastric and duodenal tissues of children with AP-FGID were compared to those from normal pathology references or those of children with Helicobacter pylori infection. Tissue eosinophil counts were also compared among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Results Eosinophil counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with AP-FGID than normal reference values. Duodenal eosinophil counts were higher in children with AP-FGID, but not significantly when compared with normal reference values. There were no significant differences in eosinophil counts of the stomach or duodenum among the 4 subtypes of AP-FGID. Eosinophils counts in the gastric antrum and body were significantly higher in children with H. pylori infection than in those with AP-FGID. Duodenal eosinophilia was prominent in cases of H. pylori infection, but not statistically significant when compared with AP-FGID. Conclusions Our study revealed that gastric eosinophilia is associated with AP-FGID in children, regardless of the subtype of functional abdominal pain. This suggests some contribution of gastrointestinal eosinophils in the development of pediatric AP-FGID. PMID:27053514

  18. Eosinophilic Fasciitis: A Rare Skin Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Servy, Amandine; Clérici, Thierry; Malines, Caroline; Le Parc, Jean-Marie; Côté, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (Schulman's syndrome) is a rare disease with specific clinical symptoms such as the groove sign which facilitate diagnosis. We report a typical case of eosinophilic fasciitis in an otherwise healthy 49-year-old man who presented with “prayer and groove signs”. Histological analysis showed sclerosis and eosinophilic infiltration of the fascia. The patient was successfully treated with systemic corticotherapy and Cyclosporine. A short review of the clinicopathological features of the lesions is presented. PMID:21151540

  19. Evaluation of Histologic Cutpoints for Treatment Response in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, W. Asher; Cotton, Cary C.; Green, Daniel J.; Hughes, Julia T.; Woosley, John T.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim No consensus exists on the definition of successful treatment in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The aim of this study was to identify the optimal histologic cutpoint to define successful treatment of EoE by assessing rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study utilizing the University of North Carolina EoE Clinicopathologic Database between 2006 and 2013. Rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement were determined, as were post-treatment eosinophil counts. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated for symptomatic and endoscopic response at several possible eosinophil count cutpoints (eos/hpf). Predictors of response were also assessed. Results Of 224 treatments in 199 patients, 76% were associated with symptomatic improvement, 68% with endoscopic improvement, and 60% with both. Of treatments that resulted in a post-treatment count of <15 eos/hpf, 90% were associated with an endoscopic response, 88% with a symptomatic response, and 81% with both symptomatic and endoscopic responses. Using a <15 eos/hpf threshold, the area under the curves (AUCs) were 0.70, 0.78, and 0.75 for symptomatic, endoscopic, and symptomatic/endoscopic responses, respectively. Lower histologic cut-points did not result in a substantial gain in response, but decreased the AUC. Conclusion In this large cohort of EoE patients, rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement were generally associated with histologic improvement. A histologic cutoff for treatment response of <15 eos/hpf may balance clinical outcomes and test performance. PMID:27110513

  20. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  1. Eosinophils: changing perspectives in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Foster, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils have been traditionally perceived as largely end-stage, cytotoxic effector cells. Recent studies have profoundly altered this simplistic view of eosinophils and their function. New insights into the molecular basis of development, trafficking and degranulation of eosinophils have provided a better understanding of the role of these cells in promoting homeostasis through their immunomodulatory functions. Likewise, recent developments have generated a more sophisticated view of how eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of disease, including asthma and primary hypereosinophilic syndromes, and also a more complete appreciation of their activities in parasitic infection. PMID:23154224

  2. Eosinophilic granuloma of the capital femoral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Goto, Takahiro; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Ogura, Koichi; Imanishi, Jungo; Hozumi, Takahiro; Funata, Nobuaki

    2011-05-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma occurs almost exclusively in the diaphysis or metaphysis, when tubular bones are affected. The investigators present an extremely rare case of eosinophilic granuloma arising at the epiphysis of the femoral head in an 8-year-old boy. Plain radiographs and computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion, suggesting chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. However, the findings on magnetic resonance images were different from typical features of chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. The lesion was curetted. Histological diagnosis was eosinophilic granuloma. Differential diagnoses of a radiolucent lesion at the epiphysis in a child should include, though quite rare, eosinophilic granuloma.

  3. Roles of integrin activation in eosinophil function and the eosinophilic inflammation of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Barthel, Steven R.; Johansson, Mats W.; McNamee, Dawn M.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of asthma. Integrins are highly versatile cellular receptors that regulate extravasation of eosinophils from the postcapillary segment of the bronchial circulation to the airway wall and airspace. Such movement into the asthmatic lung is described as a sequential, multistep paradigm, whereby integrins on circulating eosinophils become activated, eosinophils tether in flow and roll on bronchial endothelial cells, integrins on rolling eosinophils become further activated as a result of exposure to cytokines, eosinophils arrest firmly to adhesive ligands on activated endothelium, and eosinophils transmigrate to the airway in response to chemoattractants. Eosinophils express seven integrin heterodimeric adhesion molecules: alpha4beta1 (CD49d/29), alpha6beta1 (CD49f/29), alphaMbeta2 (CD11b/18), alphaLbeta2 (CD11a/18), alphaXbeta2 (CD11c/18), alphaDbeta2 (CD11d/18), and alpha4beta7 (CD49d/beta7). The role of these integrins in eosinophil recruitment has been elucidated by major advances in the understanding of integrin structure, integrin function, and modulators of integrins. Such findings have been facilitated by cellular experiments of eosinophils in vitro, studies of allergic asthma in humans and animal models in vivo, and crystal structures of integrins. Here, we elaborate on how integrins cooperate to mediate eosinophil movement to the asthmatic airway. Antagonists that target integrins or the effectors that regulate integrins of eosinophils represent potentially promising therapies in the treatment of asthma. PMID:17906117

  4. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

    PubMed

    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment.

  5. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

    PubMed

    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment. PMID:21776882

  6. Eosinophilic myocarditis: characteristics, diagnostics and outcomes of a rare condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, T K M; Watson, T; Pemberton, J; Pemberton, L; Lowe, B; Ellis, C; Kingston, N; Ruygrok, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare and potentially fatal condition characterised by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltration of myocardium. We report seven consecutive cases of eosinophilic myocarditis at our centre and discuss the important characteristics, investigation and management of this disease. PMID:27633471

  7. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  8. Dietary treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Nirmala; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence supports impaired epithelial barrier function as the key initial event in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and other allergic diseases. Symptom resolution, histologic remission, and prevention of both disease and treatment-related complications are the goals of treatment. Successful dietary treatments include elemental, empirical elimination and allergy test directed diets. Dietary therapy with exclusive elemental diet offers the best response. Cow's milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut/tree nut, and fish/shellfish are the 6 food antigens most likely to induce esophageal inflammation.

  9. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal Disorders: Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases, Celiac Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, and Parasitic Infections.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil's role in health and disease. The normal GI tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa, raising the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. However, data from clinical studies associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases, prompting concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. We present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance.

  10. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of anti-interleukin-5 treatment in the management of refractory eosinophilic asthma.

    PubMed

    Hilvering, Bart; Xue, Luzheng; Pavord, Ian D

    2015-08-01

    Two recent phase III trials in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma have shown that anti-interleukin 5 (IL-5) therapy with mepolizumab reduces the frequency of asthma attacks, improves symptoms and allows patients to reduce oral glucocorticoid use without loss of control of asthma. An earlier large 616 patient Dose Ranging Efficacy And safety with Mepolizumab in severe asthma (DREAM) study had shown that the only variables associated with treatment efficacy were a prior history of asthma attacks and the peripheral blood eosinophil count. The link between blood eosinophil counts and treatment efficacy is biologically obvious given that IL-5 has a pivotal role in eosinophil production, proliferation and chemotaxis. It is also clinically relevant as the blood eosinophil count is routinely measured and thus readily available in patients with asthma. Recognition of the link between airway or blood eosinophilia and treatment response was also important in the clinical testing of the alternative IL-5 blocker, such as reslizumab, which is currently being evaluated in a phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) after having shown to improve lung function, improve symptom score and reduce sputum eosinophilia in a smaller phase IIb study. In addition, benralizumab, an IL-5α receptor blocker, has shown good effects in a phase IIb RCT with patients with severe asthma that had sputum eosinophilia and more recently in a phase IIa trial with patients with eosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore anti-IL-5 treatment seems generally effective in eosinophilic asthma, either assessed by blood or airway eosinophilia. This factor together with the impressive clinical efficacy and good safety profile make anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab, reslizumab) and benralizumab (anti-IL-5 receptor α) very promising drugs for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma, a subgroup that is in desperate need of better treatments.

  11. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1–5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively. PMID:22242941

  12. Eosinophilic alveolitis in immunologic interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, D; Pesci, A; Bertorelli, G

    1990-01-01

    To analyze the role of eosinophils in alveolitis due to immunological interstitial lung disorders, 568 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 537 patients affected by 13 types of interstitial lung disease involving immunologic mechanisms were considered. An arbitrary cut-off of 4% of eosinophils in BAL was assumed. In five (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), amiodarone-induced pneumonitis (AIP), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS)) out of the thirteen groups we took into consideration, the level of eosinophils was greater than 4%. In CEP and CSS in particular, the arbitrary cut-off of 4% was greatly exceeded (28.9% +/- 27.4, p less than 0.01 and 33.6% +/- 14.5, p less than 0.01, respectively). In the same two groups the increase of eosinophils in BAL was isolated with a direct correlation to the number of eosinophils in blood. By contrast, the increase of eosinophils in BAL of IPF, AIP and ABPA was of lesser extent (4.7% +/- 5.7 p less than 0.01, 5.0% +/- 3.0 p less than 0.01 and 6.1% +/- 10.4 p less than 0.01, respectively) and was accompanied by an increase of neutrophils in IPF, of lymphocytes in AIP and both in ABPA. These patterns are generally defined as "mixed alveolitis." On the basis of these data we conclude that the term "eosinophilic alveolitis" should be reserved for CEP and CSS.

  13. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-05-01

    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1-5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively.

  14. Longitudinal perspective on managing refractory eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, John; Mehrzad, Raman; Hundal, Navneet Virk; Alejos, Alexandra; Hesterberg, Paul E; Katz, Aubrey J; Yuan, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background One third of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) do not achieve histological remission with standard medical or dietary treatment. The outcome of these patients undergoing various rescue treatments is not known and whether these patients constitute a distinct subset remains unclear. Objective To analyze EoE treatment outcomes in a predominantly pediatric population, including after initial treatment failure (rescue treatment) for differences in outcomes and clinical presentation. Methods We identified 100 serial cases of confirmed EoE from our REDCap® database established at Massachusetts General Hospital starting from January 2007. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, treatment regimens, endoscopic findings, skin testing results, food triggers and clinical outcome of various rescue treatment strategies were presented. We defined clinical response as histological remission with peak eosinophil count of at least 6 biopsies less than 10 per high power field. RESULTS Ninety-seven EoE patients underwent initial treatments. Eighty-one elected dietary treatment (7 elemental diet, 54 multiple food elimination diet, and 20 milk-free diet and 16 elected medical treatment (15 swallowed fluticasone and 1 budesonide). Initial response rate to dietary and medical treatment was 67% (54/81) and 56% (9/16) respectively. Of the 34 who failed initial treatment, 24 of them elected various second treatment regimens (3 medical therapy, 2 milk-free diet, 14 multiple food elimination diet and 5 elemental diet) and 54% (13/24) achieved histological remission. Eight of the remaining 11 who failed second treatment underwent additional treatments and 2 ultimately achieved histological remission. The overall response rate by intention-to-treat analysis increased from 65% (63/97) with initial treatment to 78% (76/97) with rescue treatment, and further to 80% (78/97) with multiple rescue treatments. On a per-protocol basis, the overall response rate was 93% (78/84); however

  15. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

  16. Eosinophilic ascites: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shefali; Vohra, Sandeep; Rawat, Sangeeta; Kashyap, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge. The mainstay of diagnosis is peripheral hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-rich ascitic fluid on diagnostic paracentesis. Oral steroid therapy is usually the first line of treatment with dramatic response. Due to a propensity for relapse, steroid-sparing therapy should be considered for relapses of EGE. We report a case of subserosal EGE with diagnostic clinical features and treatment response and review the current strategy in the management of eosinophilic ascites. PMID:27721930

  17. Eosinophil-Associated Processes Underlie Differences in Clinical Presentation of Loiasis Between Temporary Residents and Those Indigenous to Loa-Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Jesica A.; Metenou, Simon; Makiya, Michelle A.; Taylar-Williams, Cheryl A.; Law, Melissa A.; Klion, Amy D.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Loa loa has emerged as an important public health problem due to the occurrence of immune-mediated severe posttreatment reactions following ivermectin distribution. Also thought to be immune-mediated are the dramatic differences seen in clinical presentation between infected temporary residents (TR) and individuals native to endemic regions (END). Methods. All patients diagnosed with loiasis at the National Institutes of Health between 1976 and 2012 were included. Patients enrolled in the study underwent a baseline clinical and laboratory evaluation and had serum collected and stored. Stored pretreatment serum was used to measure filaria-specific antibody responses, eosinophil-related cytokines, and eosinophil granule proteins. Results. Loa loa infection in TR was characterized by the presence of Calabar swelling (in 82% of subjects), markedly elevated eosinophil counts, and increased filaria-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels; these findings were thought to reflect an unmodulated immune response. In contrast, END showed strong evidence for immune tolerance to the parasite, with high levels of circulating microfilariae, few clinical symptoms, and diminished filaria-specific IgG. The striking elevation in eosinophil counts among the TR group was accompanied by increased eosinophil granule protein levels (associated with eosinophil activation and degranulation) as well as elevated levels of eosinophil-associated cytokines. Conclusions. These data support the hypothesis that differing eosinophil-associated responses to the parasite may be responsible for the marked differences in clinical presentations between TR and END populations with loiasis. PMID:25234520

  18. Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection.

  19. Eosinophil ETosis and DNA Traps: a New Look at Eosinophilic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Honda, Kohei; Hirokawa, Makoto; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2016-07-01

    The traditional paradigm of eosinophils as end-stage damaging cells has mainly relied on their release of cytotoxic proteins. Cytokine-induced cell survival and secretion of granular contents from tissue-dwelling eosinophil are thought to be important mechanisms for eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, although the occurrence of cytolysis and its products (i.e., free extracellular granules) has been observed in affected lesions. Recent evidence indicates that activated eosinophils can exhibit a non-apoptotic cell death pathway, namely extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) that mediates the eosinophil cytolytic degranulation. Here, we discuss the current concept of eosinophil ETosis which provides a new look at eosinophilic inflammation. Lessons from eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis revealed that ETosis-derived DNA traps, composed of stable web-like chromatin, contribute to the properties of highly viscous eosinophilic mucin and impairments in its clearance. Intact granules entrapped in DNA traps are causing long-lasting inflammation but also might have immunoregulatory roles. Eosinophils possess a way to have post-postmortem impacts on innate immunity, local immune response, sterile inflammation, and tissue damage. PMID:27393701

  20. Eosinophil crystalloid granules: structure, function, and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Valdirene S.; Weller, Peter F.; Neves, Josiane S.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophils are granulocytes associated with host defense against parasitic helminths with allergic conditions and more recently, with immunoregulatory responses. Eosinophils are distinguished from leukocytes by their dominant population of cytoplasmic crystalloid (also termed secretory, specific, or secondary) granules that contain robust stores of diverse, preformed cationic proteins. Here, we provide an update on our knowledge about the unique and complex structure of human eosinophil crystalloid granules. We discuss their significance as rich sites of a variety of receptors and review our own recent research findings and those of others that highlight discoveries concerning the function of intracellular receptors and their potential implications in cell signaling. Special focus is provided on how eosinophils might use these intracellular receptors as mechanisms to secrete, selectively and rapidly, cytokines or chemokines and enable cell-free extracellular eosinophil granules to function as independent secretory structures. Potential roles of cell-free eosinophil granules as immune players in the absence of intact eosinophils will also be discussed. PMID:22672875

  1. Quantitative analysis of eosinophils in acute graft-versus-host disease compared with drug hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Joshua; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2010-02-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), if not detected and treated early, is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs), the most frequent clinical and histopathological mimickers of early aGVHD, are often still distinguished from aGVHD by the presence of eosinophils within the inflammatory infiltrate on skin biopsy. Distinguishing these entities is important because the delay of appropriate treatment of aGVHD may lead to advanced stages of the disease process with a poor prognosis. To determine whether the existence or amount of eosinophilic infiltrate could be used to differentiate these entities, we employed a quantitative method of analyzing eosinophils in skin biopsies of rashes from patients with aGVHD and DHR. Eosinophils were counted in 50 high-power fields (HPFs) in skin biopsies of patients with clinical grade >or=2 aGVHD (+aGVHD), with clinical grade <2 aGVHD (-aGVHD), and those with clinical DHR (+DHR). The average number of eosinophils per 10 HPFs (ave. eos/10 HPFs) increased throughout each group. The ave. eos/10 HPFs in +DHR was significantly different from both aGVHD groups (P < 0.001). The specificity to completely rule out aGVHD did not reach 100% until 16.0 ave. eos/10 HPFs was observed. There is a significant difference between the numbers of eosinophils found in differentiating DHR from aGVHD, but a very high number (>16.0 ave. eos/10 HPFs) is necessary to rule out aGVHD completely. Therefore, a quantitative analysis of eosinophils in all biopsies to rule out aGVHD would be of limited value and should only be considered in those biopsies with significant eosinophilia.

  2. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Maurici, Rosemeri; Trevisol, Daisson José; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emílio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating parameters before and after prednisone use, including values for sputum eosinophils, sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and sputum IL-5-with or without values for post-bronchodilator FEV1-with corresponding 95% CIs or with sufficient data for calculation. The independent variables were the use, dose, and duration of prednisone treatment. The outcomes evaluated were sputum eosinophils, IL-5, and ECP, as well as post-bronchodilator FEV1. RESULTS: The pooled analysis of the pre- vs. post-treatment data revealed a significant mean reduction in sputum eosinophils (↓8.18%; 95% CI: 7.69-8.67; p < 0.001), sputum IL-5 (↓83.64 pg/mL; 95% CI: 52.45-114.83; p < 0.001), and sputum ECP (↓267.60 µg/L; 95% CI: 244.57-290.63; p < 0.0001), as well as a significant mean increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1 (↑8.09%; 95% CI: 5.35-10.83; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic bronchitis, treatment with prednisone caused a significant reduction in sputum eosinophil counts, as well as in the sputum levels of IL-5 and ECP. This reduction in the inflammatory response was accompanied by a significant increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1. PMID:25410844

  3. Esophageal Microbiome in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. Kirk; Fang, Rui; Wagner, Brandie D.; Choe, Ha Na; Kelly, Caleb J.; Schroeder, Shauna; Moore, Wendy; Stevens, Mark J.; Yeckes, Alyson; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F.; Zalewski, Angelika; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Henry, Lauren N.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Robertson, Charles E.; Leung, Donald Y.; Pace, Norman R.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Fillon, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis. Design In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST). Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease. Results Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects. Conclusions Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD. PMID:26020633

  4. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  5. A Curious Case of Proximal Muscle Weakness with Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    PubMed Central

    DeLima, Marianne; Shah, Jaimin; Aung, Win

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is part of a rare disorder, eosinophilic myopathies (EM), which is a form of polymyositis characterized by the presence of eosinophils in muscle biopsy sections and occasionally blood eosinophilia. Herein, we are presenting an interesting case of eosinophilic polymyositis presenting with muscle pain with no other organ systems involved. PMID:27703830

  6. Eosinophilic follicular reaction induced by Demodex folliculorum mite: a different disease from eosinophilic folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Marco, V; Escutia-Muñoz, B; Botella-Estrada, R

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is an idiopathic dermatitis included in the spectrum of eosinophilic pustular follicular reactions. Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as contributing to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated EF, but it has not been described outside this context. We present an immunocompetent 65-year-old white man with a 5-year history of recurrent pruritic erythematous and oedematous lesions on his face, neck and scalp. Histopathologically, an eosinophilic microabcess with Demodex folliculorum mite within a pilosebaceous follicle was seen, and considered the causal agent. There were also accumulations of eosinophil granules on collagen bundles, and flame figure formations in the dermis. We believe that 'eosinophilic follicular reaction' is an appropriate term to describe this case of EF induced by D. folliculorum and thus distinguish it from the idiopathic form of EF. Moreover, this case suggests that D. folliculorum can sometimes induce an eosinophilic immune reaction. PMID:25623943

  7. Platelet-activating factor induces eosinophil peroxidase release from purified human eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Kroegel, C; Yukawa, T; Dent, G; Chanez, P; Chung, K F; Barnes, P J

    1988-01-01

    The degranulation response of purified human eosinophils to platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been studied. PAF induced release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and beta-glucuronidase from highly purified human eosinophils with an EC50 of 0.9 nM. The order of release was comparable with that induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The new specific PAF antagonist 3-[4-(2-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-H-thieno[3,2-f] [1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3a][1,4]-diazepin-2-yl](4-morpholinyl)- 1-propane-one (WEB 2086) inhibited the PAF-induced enzyme release by human eosinophils in a dose-dependent manner. The viability of eosinophils were unaffected both by PAF and WEB 2086. The results suggest that PAF may amplify allergic and inflammatory reactions by release of preformed proteins from eosinophil granules. PMID:3410498

  8. [A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Kai, Naoko; Shirai, Ryo; Hirata, Norio; Iwata, Atsuko; Umeki, Kenji; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kishi, Kenji; Tokimatsu, Issei; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2009-03-01

    A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia is described. A 32-year-old woman was previously admitted to another hospital because of acute onset of dyspnea accompanied by cough and fever. Chest X-ray films revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs two days after her symptoms occurred. Her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 13% eosinophils and transbronchial lung biopsy specimen also showed many eosinophils infiltrating in the lesions of the bronchial submucosa and alveolar septa. No infectious causes or related drugs were found. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed, and her condition improved gradually without steroid treatment. Because she recovered clinically and radiologically, she was discharged from hospital. Half a month later she was treated with Nicolase because of pharyngitis. She was admitted to the hospital again because of dyspnea, cough and fever three days after commencing to take Nicolase. Chest X-ray films also revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs with pleural effusion, and her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 37% eosinophils. When the drug lymphocyte stimulation test was performed, it was positive for Nicolase. Therefore drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed. This is a very rare case of Nicolase (serrapeptase)-induced eosinophilic pneumonia after recovering from acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

  9. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Barbie, David A; Mangi, Abeel A; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with an obscure etiology, although associations with allergy, the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, and connective tissue disease have been reported. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who presented with refractory nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Imaging studies were significant for bowel wall thickening and ascites, while laboratory studies revealed a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), a positive anti-double stranded (DS) DNA antibody, low complement, and proteinuria. Exploratory laparotomy with gastric and small bowel biopsies established the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In addition, the patient met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Previous studies have described eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with scleroderma, polymyositis, or dermatomyositis. This is the first report to our knowledge of an individual with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:15492606

  10. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A W; Cruise, K M; Mitchell, G F; Watt, S M

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 X 10(7) eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where necessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10(8) eosinophils (purity > 95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 X 10(4) cells/minute, purity > 99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (bwtween 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation by using 125I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3 alpha, 6 alpha-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights > 50,000). No 125I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). PMID:7409032

  11. Counting carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  12. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  13. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  14. The Clinical Significance of Eosinophils in the Amniotic Fluid in Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, ROBERTO; KUSANOVIC, JUAN PEDRO; GOMEZ, RICARDO; LAMONT, RONALD; BYTAUTIENE, EGLE; GARFIELD, ROBERT E.; MITTAL, POOJA; HASSAN, SONIA S.; YEO, LAMI

    2012-01-01

    Objective White blood cells are not traditionally considered to be normally present in amniotic fluid. This study was conducted after the observation that a patient with preterm labor and intact membranes had eosinophils as a predominant cell in the amniotic fluid, and had an episode of asthma during the index pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine whether women presenting with preterm labor with eosinophils in the amniotic fluid had a different outcome than those without eosinophils as the predominant white blood cell in the amniotic cavity. Methods This retrospective case-control study included women who presented with preterm labor and intact membranes between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation. Patients underwent an amniocentesis shortly after admission for the assessment of the microbiologic status of the amniotic cavity and/or fetal lung maturity. Amniotic fluid was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as genital mycoplasmas. Cytologic studies included amniotic fluid white blood cell count and differential, which was performed on cytocentrifuged specimens. Patients with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and/or a white blood cell count >20 cells/mm3 were excluded from the study. Cases were defined as women in whom the differential contained >20% of eosinophils. Controls were selected among women with an amniotic fluid eosinophil count ≤20% and matched for gestational age at amniocentesis. The analysis was conducted with non-parametric statistics. Results The study population consisted of 10 cases and 50 controls. Gestational age and cervical dilatation at admission were similar in both groups. Cases had a lower gestational age at delivery than controls [34.6 weeks, inter-quartile range (IQR) 32–37.3 weeks vs. 38.0 weeks, IQR 35–40 weeks, respectively; p=0.018]. The prevalence of preterm delivery ≤35 weeks was higher among patients who had >20% eosinophils than in the control group [50% (5/10) vs. 18% (9/50), respectively; p

  15. [Eosinophilic esophagitis--pathogenesis, clinical presentation and therapeutic management].

    PubMed

    von Arnim, U; Mönkemüller, K; Malfertheiner, P; Straumann, A

    2007-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a relatively new, chronic, TH 2-type allergic inflammation of the esophagus. EE occurs more frequently in men. Allergic diseases such as asthma or atopic dermatitis are present in 50-70 % of patients or their relatives. In adults, the most common presenting symptom of EE is dysphagia, with or without food bolus impaction. Endoscopic findings of EE include mucosal furrows, corrugated or concentric rings or ridges in the esophagus ("feline esophagus"), with or without tiny whitish exudates. The diagnosis is confirmed by the observation of high counts of eosinophils in the esophageal epithelium (at least 24 /HPF). The cornerstones of medical therapy are either topical or systemic corticosteroids. Additional therapies included leukotriene receptor antagonists (montelukast) and IL-5 blockers (Mepolizumab). Complications of EE such as esophageal strictures should be carefully dilated using either bougies or a balloon. Currently it is still not known whether the late complications of EE can be prevented by the use of anti-inflammatory agents and this can only be demonstrated through further long-term follow-up studies.

  16. Post-translational Tyrosine Nitration of Eosinophil Granule Toxins Mediated by Eosinophil Peroxidase*

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Martina; Petre, Alina; Youhnovski, Nikolay; Prömm, Franziska; Schirle, Markus; Schumm, Michael; Pero, Ralph S.; Doyle, Alfred; Checkel, James; Kita, Hirohito; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Acharya, K. Ravi; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Schwarz, Heinz; Tsutsui, Masato; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Bellon, Gabriel; Lee, James J.; Przybylski, Michael; Döring, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Nitration of tyrosine residues has been observed during various acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism of tyrosine nitration and the nature of the proteins that become tyrosine nitrated during inflammation remain unclear. Here we show that eosinophils but not other cell types including neutrophils contain nitrotyrosine-positive proteins in specific granules. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the human eosinophil toxins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), major basic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and the respective murine toxins, are post-translationally modified by nitration at tyrosine residues during cell maturation. High resolution affinity-mass spectrometry identified specific single nitration sites at Tyr349 in EPO and Tyr33 in both ECP and EDN. ECP and EDN crystal structures revealed and EPO structure modeling suggested that the nitrated tyrosine residues in the toxins are surface exposed. Studies in EPO-/-, gp91phox-/-, and NOS-/- mice revealed that tyrosine nitration of these toxins is mediated by EPO in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and minute amounts of NOx. Tyrosine nitration of eosinophil granule toxins occurs during maturation of eosinophils, independent of inflammation. These results provide evidence that post-translational tyrosine nitration is unique to eosinophils. PMID:18694936

  17. Smoking, allergy, and the differential white blood cell count.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R G; Gross, E; Joyce, H; Holland, F; Pride, N B

    1985-01-01

    Dutch workers have proposed that people with asthma and those smokers who develop chronic airflow obstruction share a common allergic constitution. To study whether smoking itself is associated with indicators of allergy, we have examined 237 men aged 51-61 years (120 smokers, 73 ex-smokers, and 44 non-smokers) who were recruited to a long term study of lung function in 1974, at which time men with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were excluded. Smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers did not differ in personal or family history of allergic disease, but the prevalence of positive responses to skinprick tests was greater in ex-smokers (59%) than in the other two groups (33% and 34%). In men with negative responses to skinprick tests total serum IgE was greater in smokers (log10 mean 1.41 IU/ml) and in ex-smokers (log10 mean 1.53 IU/ml) than in non-smokers (log10 mean 1.12 IU/ml). In men with positive skin test responses serum IgE was similar in the three groups (log10 mean ranging from 1.68 to 1.78 IU/ml). Geometric mean total white cell counts in the peripheral blood were higher in smokers (7.34 X 10(9)/l) than in non-smokers (5.82 X 10(9)/l); the value in ex-smokers (6.16 X 10(9)/l) was intermediate. Absolute blood eosinophil counts were increased in smokers disproportionately to the increase in total white cell count. Thus smoking is associated with small increases in some markers of allergy. These changes are probably acquired after the onset of smoking but sequential studies are required to amplify these cross sectional observations. Smokers whose skin test responses are positive appear more likely to give up smoking. PMID:3969651

  18. Diagnostic Approach to Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Jorda, Merce; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Context Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC, acquired cystic disease–associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high). PMID:25357116

  19. Eosinophil-Mediated Tissue Inflammatory Responses in Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Min, Duk-Young

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic leukocytes function in host protection against parasitic worms. In turn, helminthic parasites harbor specific molecules to evade or paralyze eosinophil-associated host immune responses; these molecules facilitate the migration and survival of parasitic helminths in vivo. This competition between eosinophil and worm leads to stable equilibria between them. An understanding of such dynamic host-eosinophil interactions will help us to uncover mechanisms of cross talk between host and parasite in helminth infection. In this review, we examine recent findings regarding the innate immune responses of eosinophils to helminthic parasites, and discuss the implications of these findings in terms of eosinophil-mediated tissue inflammation in helminth infection. PMID:19885328

  20. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: a novel treatment using Montelukast

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, S E A; Lewis, C J; Bronder, C S; Morris, C D; Armstrong, G R; Whittam, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a rarely diagnosed condition involving eosinophil infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa and creating significant symptoms of dysphagia. Failure to diagnose this disorder relates to reluctance to biopsy an apparently normal oesophagus. This is essential for histological diagnosis. To date, treatment success has been achieved only with corticosteroids. We describe here the use of an eosinophil stabilising agent Montelukast for the symptomatic relief of these patients. Patients and methods: Twelve patients have been identified with this condition in our unit since 1995, after thorough investigation of their dysphagia. We commenced eight of these patients on the leukotriene receptor antagonist Montelukast to symptomatically improve their swallowing while avoiding the use of long term corticosteroids. Results: Many of these patients had been previously misdiagnosed, and therefore inappropriately and unsuccessfully treated for an extensive period prior to referral to our unit. All patients were unresponsive to acid suppression therapy alone but showed improvement in their swallowing on Montelukast. Six of eight reported complete subjective improvement, five patients remaining completely asymptomatic on a maintenance regimen. Conclusions: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a disease that is often misdiagnosed due to lack of awareness and reluctance of clinicians to biopsy an apparently normal oesophagus in dysphagic patients, and therefore obtain a histological diagnosis. Investigation of these patients adds further evidence to this condition being a separate pathological state from gastro-oesophageal reflux and eosinophilic enteritis. Montelukast has been found to be of significant help in the symptomatic control of these patients while avoiding long term corticosteroids use. PMID:12524397

  1. Respiratory Viruses and Eosinophils: exploring the connections

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we consider the role played by eosinophilic leukocytes in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of respiratory virus infection. The vast majority of the available information on this topic focuses on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; Family Paramyxoviridae, genus Pneumovirus), an important pediatric pathogen that infects infants worldwide. There is no vaccine currently available for RSV. A formalininactivated RSV vaccine used in a trial in the 1960s elicited immunopathology in response to natural RSV infection; this has been modeled experimentally, primarily in inbred mice and cotton rats. Eosinophils are recruited to the lung tissue in response to formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine antigens in humans and in experimental models, but they may or may not be involved in promoting the severe clinical sequelae observed. Pulmonary eosinophilia elicited in response to primary RSV infection has also been explored; this response is particularly evident in the youngest human infants and in neonatal mouse models. Although pulmonary eosinophilia is nearly always perceived in a negative light, the specific role played by virus-elicited eosinophils - negative, positive or neutral bystander - remain unclear. Lastly, we consider the data that focus on the role of eosinophils in promoting virus clearance and antiviral host defense, and conclude with a recent study that explores the role of eosinophils themselves as targets of virus infection. (215 words) PMID:19375458

  2. Human Eosinophils Express the High Affinity IgE Receptor, FcεRI, in Bullous Pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Messingham, Kelly N.; Holahan, Heather M.; Frydman, Alexandra S.; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE≥400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  3. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Messingham, Kelly N; Holahan, Heather M; Frydman, Alexandra S; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils. PMID:25255430

  4. Managing eosinophilic esophagitis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nisha A; Albert, Dustin M; Hall, Noah M; Moawad, Fouad J

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and progressive immune-mediated condition defined by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Therapies consist of anti-eosinophilic medications and specialized diets aimed to decrease the progression of EoE and alleviate its symptoms, namely, dysphagia and food impaction. Assessing response to therapy remains challenging, as treatment end points are not well defined and currently consist of clinical, histologic, and endoscopic features. Newer validated measures may help standardize treatment end points. Emerging data support the use of maintenance therapy, which may reduce disease progression. Optimal dosages, delivery techniques, and duration of treatment need to be determined. When features of fibrostenosis develop, esophageal dilation is a safe and effective adjunctive strategy for improving symptoms. In EoE cases refractory to conventional treatments, newer therapies targeting inflammatory mediators and cytokines are on the horizon. PMID:27695356

  5. Managing eosinophilic esophagitis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nisha A; Albert, Dustin M; Hall, Noah M; Moawad, Fouad J

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and progressive immune-mediated condition defined by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Therapies consist of anti-eosinophilic medications and specialized diets aimed to decrease the progression of EoE and alleviate its symptoms, namely, dysphagia and food impaction. Assessing response to therapy remains challenging, as treatment end points are not well defined and currently consist of clinical, histologic, and endoscopic features. Newer validated measures may help standardize treatment end points. Emerging data support the use of maintenance therapy, which may reduce disease progression. Optimal dosages, delivery techniques, and duration of treatment need to be determined. When features of fibrostenosis develop, esophageal dilation is a safe and effective adjunctive strategy for improving symptoms. In EoE cases refractory to conventional treatments, newer therapies targeting inflammatory mediators and cytokines are on the horizon.

  6. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with multiple gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Otowa, Yasunori; Mitsutsuji, Masaaki; Urade, Takeshi; Chono, Teruhiro; Morimoto, Haruki; Yokoyama, Kunio; Hirata, Kenro; Kawamura, Shiro; Shimada, Etsuji; Fujita, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an inflammation of the digestive tract that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. There are no specific symptoms, and are related to the layer in which eosinophilic infiltration is observed. A 69-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of general malaise, diarrhea, and dysgeusia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed reddish elevated lesions that were edematous all over the gastric mucosa. In addition, three tumors were also observed. The biopsies of the reddish elevated mucosa revealed eosinophilic infiltration and tubular adenocarcinoma from the tumors. Colonoscopy showed abnormal reddish elevated mucosa. The biopsies from the reddish elevated mucosa showed eosinophilic infiltration. From the abdominal contrast computed tomography scan, tumor stain was seen in the anterior wall of the gastric body. No ascites, intestinal wall thickening, or lymph node swelling were found. A slight elevation in the serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), 480 IU/ml, was found from the laboratory test results; other laboratory results were within normal limits including the number of peripheral eosinophils. No specific allergen was found from the multiple antigen simultaneous test and from the skin patch test. The parasitic immunodiagnosis was negative. He was diagnosed with EG associated with gastric cancer and underwent total gastrectomy, regional lymph node dissection with reconstruction by a Roux-en-Y method. He was prescribed prednisolone after the operation and showed a good clinical response. There are many case reports on EG, but none of them were associated with cancer. We encountered a case of EG associated with multiple gastric cancer; the patient underwent total gastrectomy.

  7. [FEATURES OF TREATMENT OF EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Horodylovska, M I

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of probiotic L. reuteri into the complex therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis significantly affect the outcomes of children--there was significant decrease in the number of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosa of children. PMID:26118052

  8. Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity associated with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Nkanyezi N; Asarch, Adam; VanBeek, Marta; Swick, Brian L

    2013-06-01

    Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity is not classically associated with prominent tissue eosinophilia. We present a case of acute methotrexate toxicity associated with pancytopenia and mucocutaneous erosion with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. A 79-year-old male, with a history of psoriasis vulgaris on methotrexate therapy, presented with blisters of the oral mucosa, groin, sacrum, and extremities after daily consumption of methotrexate. Examination revealed blisters and erosions localized to psoriatic plaques, the perineum, and the oral mucosa. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated pancytopenia, megaloblastic anemia, and elevated liver function tests. A skin biopsy of an eroded plaque revealed psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia with epidermal erosion, parakeratosis, and loss of the granular cell layer. There was an underlying band-like lymphoid infiltrate with interface dermatitis, dyskeratotic keratinocytes, and numerous eosinophils. Direct immunofluorescence studies were negative for the deposition of immunoreactants. Methotrexate was held, and the patient received leucovorin resulting in improvement of blood counts and cutaneous lesions. The histopathologic changes associated with acute mucocutaneous toxicity have been described as pauci-inflammatory erosions associated with dyskeratotic keratinocytes to interface dermatitis with necrotic keratinocytes and occasionally associated eosinophils. Although these changes are most often superimposed on psoriatic plaques, they have been reported to occur on normal skin. Therefore, the differential diagnosis may include lichen planus, a lichenoid drug eruption, or a fixed drug eruption, and given the presence of mucosal ulceration, incipient pemphigus vulgaris or paraneoplastic pemphigus vulgaris. This case illustrates that acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity may be associated with both interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. PMID:23221488

  9. Mepolizumab in the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma.

    PubMed

    Fainardi, Valentina; Pisi, Giovanna; Chetta, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    IL-5 is crucial in the pathogenesis and evolution of eosinophilic asthma. Mepolizumab is a high-affinity humanized monoclonal antibody of the IgG1/k subtype that inhibits the binding of IL-5 to its receptor expressed on eosinophils, thereby inducing significant reduction in eosinophil circulation, as well as asthma exacerbations and corticosteroid treatment. This review deals with the currently available studies of mepolizumab in the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.

  10. Natural killer cells regulate eosinophilic inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Heui; Choi, Go Eun; Lee, Bong-Jae; Kwon, Seog Woon; Lee, Seung-Hyo; Kim, Hun Sik; Jang, Yong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils play a major pathologic role in the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Dysregulated production of prostaglandin (PG), particularly PGD2, is considered to be an important contributing factor to eosinophilic inflammation in CRS primarily through proinflammatory and chemotactic effects on eosinophils. Here, we provide evidence that PGD2 can promote eosinophilic inflammation through a suppression of Natural killer (NK) cell effector function and NK cell-mediated eosinophil regulation. Eosinophil apoptosis mediated by NK cells was significantly decreased in CRS patients compared with healthy controls. This decrease was associated with NK cell dysfunction and eosinophilic inflammation. Tissue eosinophils were positively correlated with blood eosinophils in CRS patients. In a murine model of CRS, NK cell depletion caused an exacerbation of blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic inflammation in the sinonasal tissue. PGD2 and its metabolite, but not PGE2 and a panel of cytokines including TGF-β, were increased in CRS patients compared with controls. Effector functions of NK cells were potently suppressed by PGD2-dependent, rather than PGE2-dependent, pathway in controls and CRS patients. Thus, our results suggest decreased NK cell-mediated eosinophil regulation, possibly through an increased level of PGD2, as a previously unrecognized link between PG dysregulation and eosinophilic inflammation in CRS. PMID:27271931

  11. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  12. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal disorders- eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The gastrointestinal tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil’s role in health and disease. The normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa in varying numbers. This latter fact raises the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. In contrast, a number of clinical studies provide a wealth of data that associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases; these findings prompt concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. In this article we present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance. PMID:26209893

  13. Pulmonary eosinophilic gramuloma in a child.

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, G; Gad, A; Godfrey, S

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma in a 3-year-old child is described. She presented with a pneumothorax and typical radiological changes and the diagnosis was confirmed by lung biopsy. There was no objective evidence of improvement after radiotherapy when lung function was assessed by gamma scans. She died suddenly while abroad. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1008587

  14. Oral eosinophilic granuloma in Siberian husky dogs.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R; Stannard, A A; Pulley, L T; Nelson, V G

    1980-10-15

    Oral eosinophilic granuloma in 6 young Siberian Husky dogs was characterized by involvement of lateral and ventral surfaces of the tongue. Histologically, the major change was degenerated (necrobiotic) collagen. Although the cause of the disease is unknown, hereditary and immunologic factors are implicated in the pathogenesis.

  15. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  16. Acute Eosinophilic Myocarditis and Hyper IgE in HIV Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Thawabi, Mohammad; Habib, Mirette; Shaaban, Hamid; Shamoon, Fayez

    2014-01-01

    Context: Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare cause of myocarditis. It is manifested histopathologically by diffuse or focal myocardial inflammation with eosinophilic infiltration, often in association with peripheral blood eosinophilia. Patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), especially those with lower CD4 counts, can occasionally have hyperimmunoglobulinemia E (Hyper IgE) and eosinophilia. Case Report: We report a case of a 29-year-old patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who had a persistent elevation of eosinophil counts and elevated IgE levels for a year prior to admission. He was presented to our emergency department with chest pain and laboratory tests revealed peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated troponins. Coronary angiogram showed nonobstructive coronary artery disease. He then underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging which was consistent with an infiltrative myocarditis. After being put on steroid therapy, his peripheral eosinophilia resolved and his cardiac symptoms improved. Conclusion: Our case highlights that eosinophilia and Hyper IgE in HIV patients has the potential to contribute to end-organ damage. PMID:25077083

  17. Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S; Halapi, Eva; Helgadottir, Anna; Sulem, Patrick; Jonsdottir, Gudrun M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Helgadottir, Hafdis; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Williams, Carolyn; Hui, Jennie; Beilby, John; Warrington, Nicole M; James, Alan; Palmer, Lyle J; Koppelman, Gerard H; Heinzmann, Andrea; Krueger, Marcus; Boezen, H Marike; Wheatley, Amanda; Altmuller, Janine; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Uh, Soo-Taek; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Jonsdottir, Brynja; Gislason, David; Park, Choon-Sik; Rasmussen, Linda M; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Hansen, Jakob W; Backer, Vibeke; Werge, Thomas; Janson, Christer; Jönsson, Ulla-Britt; Ng, Maggie C Y; Chan, Juliana; So, Wing Yee; Ma, Ronald; Shah, Svati H; Granger, Christopher B; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Levey, Allan I; Vaccarino, Viola; Reilly, Muredach P; Rader, Daniel J; Williams, Michael J A; van Rij, Andre M; Jones, Gregory T; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Malerba, Giovanni; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Boner, Attilio; Pescollderungg, Lydia; Girelli, Domenico; Olivieri, Oliviero; Martinelli, Nicola; Ludviksson, Bjorn R; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Arnar, David; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Deichmann, Klaus; Thompson, Philip J; Wjst, Matthias; Hall, Ian P; Postma, Dirkje S; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gulcher, Jeffrey; Kong, Augustine; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2009-03-01

    Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in blood of 9,392 Icelanders. The most significant SNPs were studied further in 12,118 Europeans and 5,212 East Asians. SNPs at 2q12 (rs1420101), 2q13 (rs12619285), 3q21 (rs4857855), 5q31 (rs4143832) and 12q24 (rs3184504) reached genome-wide significance (P = 5.3 x 10(-14), 5.4 x 10(-10), 8.6 x 10(-17), 1.2 x 10(-10) and 6.5 x 10(-19), respectively). A SNP at IL1RL1 associated with asthma (P = 5.5 x 10(-12)) in a collection of ten different populations (7,996 cases and 44,890 controls). SNPs at WDR36, IL33 and MYB that showed suggestive association with eosinophil counts were also associated with atopic asthma (P = 4.2 x 10(-6), 2.2 x 10(-5) and 2.4 x 10(-4), respectively). We also found that a nonsynonymous SNP at 12q24, in SH2B3, associated significantly (P = 8.6 x 10(-8)) with myocardial infarction in six different populations (6,650 cases and 40,621 controls).

  18. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  19. Eosinophil-rich syphilis: a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Gabriela; Bennett, Dan; Piliang, Melissa P

    2015-08-01

    The differential diagnosis for eosinophil-rich skin lesions often includes a drug reaction, allergic contact dermatitis and rarely, response to a helminth infection. However, many unrelated entities, such as infections, neoplasms and inflammatory dermatoses, can have a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate. Syphilis is classically associated with plasma cells, but other patterns of inflammation have been reported, including ulcerative, granulomatous and eosinophil-rich. Classic teaching might indicate that the presence of eosinophils argues against a diagnosis of syphilis. We present four cases of secondary syphilis with increased eosinophils, ranging from 8 to >200 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields (×400 magnification). Patient 1 had lesions on the penis and scrotum, with greater than 200 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. Patient 2 had lesions on the back, with 150 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. Patient 3 had lesions on the bilateral arms, with 8 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. Patient 4 had lesions involving the anus, with 17 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. These cases highlight that the presence of an eosinophil-rich infiltrate on skin biopsy should not exclude syphilis from the differential diagnosis.

  20. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27067058

  1. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Stephen P.; McMillan, Sarah J.; Colbert, Jeff D.; Lawrence, Rachel A.; Watts, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a “cytoprotectant” that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. Video Abstract PMID:27067058

  2. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  3. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis: Case Report and Review in Search for Diagnostic Key Points

    PubMed Central

    López-Medina, Guillermo; Gallo, Manuel; Prado, Alejandro; Vicuña-Honorato, Iliana; Castillo Díaz de León, Roxana

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is considered an uncommon disease with a low incidence rate that remains as a diagnostic challenge for the clinician, in spite of the fact that seventy years have passed since its original description. Hereby we present the case of a 29-year-old male without history of allergies who was evaluated for unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, without relevant findings on physical examination and presenting an initial complete blood count (CBC) with severe eosinophilia. The patient was evaluated and the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed by histopathological findings. The relevance of the case resides in highlighting the lack of guidelines or consensus for histological diagnosis being virtually the only one available. To a similar extent, treatment evidence is based on case series with a reasonable number of patients and case reports. PMID:26075112

  4. Increase of nitrosative stress in patients with eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in asthma and reflects the degree of airway inflammation. The alveolar NO concentration (Calv) in interstitial pneumonia is reported to be increased. However, it remains unknown whether NO production is increased and nitrosative stress occurs in eosinophilic pneumonia (EP). We hypothesized that nitrosative stress markers including Calv, inducible type of NO synthase (iNOS), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), are upregulated in EP. Methods Exhaled NO including fractional exhaled NO (FENO) and Calv was measured in ten healthy subjects, 13 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 13 patients with EP. iNOS expression and 3-NT formation were assessed by immunocytochemistory in BALf cells. The exhaled NO, lung function, and systemic inflammatory markers of the EP patients were investigated after corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Results The Calv levels in the EP group (14.4 ± 2.0 ppb) were significantly higher than those in the healthy subjects (5.1 ± 0.6 ppb, p < 0.01) and the IPF groups (6.3 ± 0.6 ppb, p < 0.01) as well as the FENO and the corrected Calv levels (all p < 0.01). More iNOS and 3-NT positive cells were observed in the EP group compared to the healthy subject and IPF patient. The Calv levels had significant positive correlations with both iNOS (r = 0.858, p < 0.05) and 3-NT positive cells (r = 0.924, p < 0.01). Corticosteroid treatment significantly reduced both the FENO (p < 0.05) and the Calv levels (p < 0.01). The magnitude of reduction in the Calv levels had a significant positive correlation with the peripheral blood eosinophil counts (r = 0.802, p < 0.05). Conclusions These results suggested that excessive nitrosative stress occurred in EP and that Calv could be a marker of the disease activity. PMID:21679473

  5. A randomised controlled trial of small particle inhaled steroids in refractory eosinophilic asthma (SPIRA)

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, David; Anderson, John; Reynolds, Catherine; Meakin, Garry; Bailey, Helen; Pavord, Ian; Shaw, Dominick; Harrison, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients with refractory asthma have evidence of uncontrolled eosinophilic inflammation in the distal airways. While traditional formulations of inhaled steroids settle predominantly in the large airways, newer formulations with an extra-fine particle size have a more peripheral pattern of deposition. Specifically treating distal airway inflammation may improve asthma control. Methods 30 patients with refractory asthma despite high dose inhaled corticosteroids were identified as having persistent airway eosinophilia. Following 2 weeks of prednisolone 30 mg, patients demonstrating an improvement in asthma control were randomised to receive either ciclesonide 320 µg twice daily or placebo in addition to usual maintenance therapy for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was sputum eosinophil count at week 8. Alveolar nitric oxide was measured as a marker of distal airway inflammation. Results There was continued suppression of differential sputum eosinophil counts with ciclesonide (median 2.3%) but not placebo (median 4.5%) though the between-group difference was not significant. When patients who had changed their maintenance prednisolone dose during the trial were excluded the difference between groups was significant (1.4% vs 4.5%, p=0.028). Though alveolar nitric oxide decreased with ciclesonide the value did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions These data demonstrate that patients with ongoing eosinophilic inflammation are not truly refractory, and that suppression of airway eosinophilia may be maintained with additional inhaled corticosteroid. Further work is needed with a focus on patient-orientated outcome measures such as exacerbation rate, with additional tests of small airway function. Trial registration number NCT01171365. Protocol available at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25858909

  6. Successful treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis with dapsone.

    PubMed

    Coelho de Sousa, Virgínia; Laureano Oliveira, André; Cardoso, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of recurrent episodes of pruritic cellulitis-like erythematous plaques, mostly located on the limbs. Simultaneously, fever, malaise and peripheral eosinophilia were noted. The clinical diagnosis of eosinophilic cellulitis (also known as Well's syndrome) was supported by the histopathological finding of typical "flame figures". Treatment with dapsone was initiated at a dose of 50 mg per day. After one year of follow-up the patient was relapse-free. Eosinophilic cellulitis is an uncommon, recurrent inflammatory skin disease. The management is often a challenge, due to the frequent need for long-term therapy. Dapsone is an effective and safe treatment option. PMID:27617724

  7. GWAS identifies four novel eosinophilic esophagitis loci.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Patrick M A; Wang, Mei-Lun; Cianferoni, Antonella; Aceves, Seema; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Nadeau, Kari; Bredenoord, Albert J; Furuta, Glenn T; Spergel, Jonathan M; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-11-19

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disorder characterized by infiltration of the oesophagus with eosinophils. We had previously reported association of the TSLP/WDR36 locus with EoE. Here we report genome-wide significant associations at four additional loci; c11orf30 and STAT6, which have been previously associated with both atopic and autoimmune diseases, and two EoE-specific loci, ANKRD27 that regulates the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes to epidermal melanocytes and CAPN14, that encodes a calpain whose expression is highly enriched in the oesophagus. The identification of five EoE loci, not only expands our aetiological understanding of the disease but may also represent new therapeutic targets to treat the most debilitating aspect of EoE, oesophageal inflammation and remodelling.

  8. Eosinophilic prostatitis and prostatic specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Miller, P D; Holmes, S A; Christmas, T J; Kirby, R S

    1992-01-01

    Eosinophilic prostatitis is a rare form of abacterial prostatitis with uncertain aetiology. Its clinical presentation, like other types of abacterial prostatitis, commonly mimics carcinoma of the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of prostatitis but histological confirmation is necessary. Prostatic specific antigen has been widely used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostatic carcinoma. High levels of this antigen (greater than 30 micrograms/l) have been claimed to be highly specific for prostate cancer, although lesser elevations may also occur in patients with large benign prostate glands and in bacterial prostatitis. We report 3 patients with histologically proven eosinophilic prostatitis and high levels of prostatic specific antigen. This diagnosis may closely mimic carcinoma of the prostate and must be excluded by histological examination of biopsy material before treatment for presumed prostate carcinoma is initiated.

  9. Women Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.

    2014-11-01

    I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?

  10. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  11. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  12. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia following recent cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Lokendra K; Jha, Kunal Kishor

    2016-01-01

    In this report we describe the case of an 18 year old female who presented with fever, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Chest X-ray revealed diffuse bilateral infiltrates and eosinophilia was reported from her broncholaveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. She started smoking 3 weeks prior to the onset of symptoms and based on her clinical presentation, BAL findings and dramatic improvement, acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) was diagnosed. PMID:27642564

  13. Eyelid eosinophilic granuloma in a Siberian husky.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, A; Cornegliani, L; Portigliotti, L

    2005-01-01

    Canine eosinophilic granuloma (CEG) is a rare skin disease of unknown origin. It has been reported in Siberian huskies, Cavalier King Charles spaniels and occasionally in other breeds. The lesions comprise nodules or plaques, mostly localised in the oral cavity. A case of a single cutaneous nodular lesion of CEG on the eyelid of a Siberian husky is described. Complete remission was achieved with oral glucocorticoid treatment.

  14. [Prognostic value of absolute monocyte count in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Szerafin, László; Jakó, János; Riskó, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    Bevezetés: Az alacsony perifériás lymphocyta- és magas monocytaszám kedvezőtlen prognózisra utal különböző típusú lymphomákban és egyéb daganatos megbetegedésekben. Krónikus lymphoid leukaemiában azonban az abszolút monocytaszám prognosztikus értékéről csak kevés adat ismert. Célkitűzés: A szerzők krónikus lymphoid leukaemiás betegeik diagnóziskor mért abszolút monocytaszámának hatását vizsgálták a kezelésig eltelt időre és a túlélésre. Módszer: 2005. január 1. és 2012. december 31. között diagnosztizált 223 krónikus lymphoid leukaemiás beteg adatait rögzítették. Értékelték a kezelést igénylő betegek arányát, a kezelésig eltelt idő és a túlélés relatív kockázatát, valamint a halálokokat a Rai-stádiumtól függően, a CD38-, ZAP-70-pozitivitásnak és az abszolút monocytaszámnak megfelelően. Eredmények: Rai 0, I., II., III. és IV. stádiumban a betegek 21,1%-a, 57,4%-a, 88,9%-a, 88,9%-a és 100%-a, CD38-, illetve ZAP-70-pozitivitás esetén a betegek 61,9%-a, illetve 60,8%-a, továbbá, ha az abszolút monocytaszámuk <0,25 G/l, 0,25–0,75 G/l és >0,75 G/l volt, akkor a betegek 76,9%-a, 21,2%-a és 66,2%-a szorult kezelésre. A kezelés elkezdéséig tartó medián idő, illetve a túlélés medián ideje a monocytaszámtól függően 19,5, 65 és 35,5 hónap, illetve 41,5, 65 és 49,5 hónap volt. A kezelésmegkezdés szükségességének relatív kockázata, RR = 1,62 (p<0,01) volt a 0,25 G/l alatti vagy 0,75 G/l feletti és a 0,25–0,75 G/l abszolút monocytaszámú betegek összehasonlításakor, míg a túlélésé RR = 2,41 (p<0,01) volt, ha a 0,25 G/l alatti és feletti abszolút monocytaszámú betegeket hasonlították össze. A relatív kockázatok Rai 0 stádiumú betegekben vizsgálva is szignifikánsak maradtak. A fő halálokok alacsony abszolút monocytaszám esetén fertőzések (41,7%) és a krónikus lymphoid leukaemia (58,3%), míg közepes és magas monocytaszámnál elsősorban egyéb daganatok (25,9% és 35,3%) és egyéb kórokok (48,1% és 11,8%) voltak. Következtetések: Az alacsony és a magas abszolút monocytaszámú betegek kezeléséig eltelt időtartam rövidebb, mint a köztes alcsoportba tartozóké. Az alacsony abszolút monocytaszám – a fertőzéses szövődmények és a krónikus lymphoid leukaemia miatt – megnövekedett halálozással társul. Az abszolút monocytaszám Rai 0 stádiumban is többlet prognosztikus információt tud adni. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(15), 592–597.

  15. A spectrum of hypereosinophilic syndromes exemplified by six cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, M

    1981-03-01

    Of six cats with eosinophilic enteritis, two had lesions confined to the intestinal tract, and four had varied disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of other organs. The lesions in these cats are similar to those of the hypereosinophilic syndrome in man. A feline hypereosinophilic syndrome is proposed, consisting of eosinophilic enteritis, disseminated eosinophilic disease, and eosinophilic leukemia. PMID:7467078

  16. Absolute neutrophil values in malignant patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Madu, A J; Ibegbulam, O G; Ocheni, S; Madu, K A; Aguwa, E N

    2011-01-01

    A total of eighty patients with various malignancies seen between September 2008 and April 2009 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria, had their absolute neutrophil counts, done at Days 0 and 12 of the first cycle of their various chemotherapeutic regimens. They were adult patients who had been diagnosed of various malignancies, consisting of Breast cancer 36 (45%), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8 (10%), Hodgkin's lymphoma 13 (16.25%), Colorectal carcinoma 6 (7.5%), Multiple myeloma 7 (8.75%), Cervical carcinoma 1 (1.25%) and other malignancies 9 (11.25%), Manual counting of absolute neutrophil count was done using Turks solution and improved Neubauer counting chamber and Galen 2000 Olympus microscope. The socio demographic data of the patients were assessed from a questionnaire. There were 27 males (33.75%) and 53 females (66.25%). Their ages ranged from 18 - 80 years with a median of 45 years. The mean absolute neutrophil count of the respondents pre-and post chemotherapy was 3.7 +/- 2.1 x 10(9)/L and 2.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(9)/L respectively. There were significant differences in both the absolute neutrophil count (p=0.00) compared to the pre-chemotherapy values. Chemotherapeutic combinations containing cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin were observed to cause significant reduction in absolute neutrophil.

  17. Case report of unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis in a Vietnamese woman.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Rodney S; Brown, Alan N

    2009-02-01

    Symmetric skin thickening of the limbs with deep fascial inflammation is the hallmark of eosinophilic fasciitis. We describe a woman who presented with unilateral progressive skin thickening. Examination of a full-thickness skin biopsy revealed an inflammatory process and fascial changes consistent with eosinophilic fasciitis. In contrast to other scleroderma mimics, eosinophilic fasciitis generally responds rapidly to glucocorticoid therapy. It is possible that unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis is under-recognized and can easily be misdiagnosed as another scleroderma variant if a full-thickness biopsy is not reviewed by a dermatopathologist. Recognition of this subtype of eosinophilic fasciitis is important given the profound differences in prognosis of eosinophilic fasciitis and other scleroderma variants.

  18. Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Andreev, Darja; Oeser, Katharina; Krljanac, Branislav; Hueber, Axel; Kleyer, Arnd; Voehringer, David; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Th2–eosinophil immune responses are well known for mediating host defence against helminths. Herein we describe a function of Th2–eosinophil responses in counteracting the development of arthritis. In two independent models of arthritis, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection leads to Th2 and eosinophil accumulation in the joints associated with robust inhibition of arthritis and protection from bone loss. Mechanistically, this protective effect is dependent on IL-4/IL-13-induced STAT6 pathway. Furthermore, we show that eosinophils play a central role in the modulation of arthritis probably through the increase of anti-inflammatory macrophages into arthritic joints. The presence of these pathways in human disease is confirmed by detection of GATA3-positive cells and eosinophils in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these results demonstrate that eosinophils and helminth-induced activation of the Th2 pathway axis effectively mitigate the course of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:27273006

  19. Association between serum mercury concentration and leukocyte differential count in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hong; Lee, Keun-Hwa; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sook; Lee, Jaechun; Kang, Ju Wan

    2015-03-01

    There have been a number of animal studies on the immunological effects of mercury. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of mercury in children. We investigated the association between serum mercury and leukocyte differential count in Korean children. The relationship between mercury and leukocyte differential count (segment, lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil, and eosinophil counts) was analyzed by multivariate linear analysis adjusted for sex, BMI, parental smoking, lead, cadmium, and allergic sensitization in 311 children. Mercury showed a positive correlation with lymphocyte count (coefficient 113.8, 95% confidence interval 26.7-200.9). However, mercury was not associated with total leukocyte, segment, monocyte, basophil, or eosinophil count. Mercury was associated with the increased of lymphocyte count in Korean children. Further studies will be required to ascertain the clinical significance of this association.

  20. Basophil count in neonates is not suitable for atopy predictivity.

    PubMed

    Calbi, M; Giacchetti, L; Coppola, A; Triggiani, M

    1996-01-01

    Basophil granulocytes and their mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. We evaluated basophil count, blood histamine content, eosinophil count and serum total IgE levels in one hundred-thirteen healthy newborns at birth. 102 children were prospectively studied with a follow up to 18 months of age for development of atopic disorders. No difference was found in newborns with biparental family history of atopy (FHA) in comparison with newborns with monoparental FHA and with newborns without FHA. Children who developed atopic disorders had neonatal basophil counts higher than those who did not develop atopic symptoms (p = 0.03). No significant correlation was found between basophil and eosinophil counts (rs = 0.013), between basophil count and serum total IgE levels (rs = 0.012) and between basophil count and blood histamine content. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of basophil count for allergy up to 18 months of age was only 33% and 27%, respectively. Our data indicate that an increased basophil count at birth is not associated with FHA and is not a good predictive marker of atopy.

  1. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  2. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  3. [Chronic eosinophilic pneumopathy in a black African patient].

    PubMed

    Brancaleone, P; Roy, T; Fally, P; Dorzée, J; Fastrez, J; Castelain, T; d'Odemont, J P

    1998-02-01

    The authors report a case of a black African patient who suffers from a chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. In view of the lack of precise reporting in the literature of such a case in black Africans, the initial difficulty of strictly excluding a parasitologic etiology is discussed. From the comparison of paraclinical and clinical data with those of the literature, the authors emphasize the close relationship between asthma and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and the role of alveolar eosinophils in the physiopathology of that illness.

  4. Nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshinari; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Shin, Seung-Heon; Ponikau, Jens U; Kita, Hirohito

    2005-10-15

    Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. In this study we investigated whether human eosinophils have an innate immune response to certain fungal organisms. We incubated human eosinophils with extracts from seven environmental airborne fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia spicifera, and Penicillium notatum). Alternaria and Penicillium induced calcium-dependent exocytosis (e.g., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release) in eosinophils from normal individuals. Alternaria also strongly induced other activation events in eosinophils, including increases in intracellular calcium concentration, cell surface expression of CD63 and CD11b, and production of IL-8. Other fungi did not induce eosinophil degranulation, and Alternaria did not induce neutrophil activation, suggesting specificity for fungal species and cell type. The Alternaria-induced eosinophil degranulation was pertussis toxin sensitive and desensitized by preincubating cells with G protein-coupled receptor agonists, platelet-activating factor, or FMLP. The eosinophil-stimulating activity in Alternaria extract was highly heat labile and had an M(r) of approximately 60 kDa. Thus, eosinophils, but not neutrophils, possess G protein-dependent cellular activation machinery that directly responds to an Alternaria protein product(s). This innate response by eosinophils to certain environmental fungi may be important in host defense and in the exacerbation of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases.

  5. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance. PMID:21841404

  6. Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans. PMID:10811853

  7. Diagnosing Eosinophilic Colitis: Histopathological Pattern or Nosological Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Alan W. H.

    2012-01-01

    Reports of  “eosinophilic colitis”—raised colonic mucosal eosinophil density in patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms—have increased markedly over the last fifteen years, though it remains a rarity. There is no consensus over its diagnosis and management, and uncertainty is compounded by the use of the same term to describe an idiopathic increase in colonic eosinophils and an eosinophilic inflammatory reaction to known aetiological agents such as parasites or drugs. In patients with histologically proven colonic eosinophilia, it is important to seek out underlying causes and careful clinicopathological correlation is advised. Because of the variability of eosinophil density in the normal colon, it is recommended that histological reports of colonic eosinophilia include a quantitative morphometric assessment of eosinophil density, preferably across several sites. Few reported cases of “eosinophilic colitis” meet these criteria. As no correlation has been shown between colonic eosinophil density and symptoms in older children or adults, it is suggested that treatment should be directed towards alleviation of symptoms and response to treatment assessed clinically rather than by histological estimates of intramucosal eosinophils. PMID:24278727

  8. Intrathecal synthesis of IgE in children with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Docal, Barbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa; Hernández, Hermes Fundora; Barroso, Jesús Callol; Sanchez-Martinez, Consuelo

    2008-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by the helminth Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is an emerging infectious disease in America. The objective of this paper was to determine if the intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin E is produced during the acute phase of the disease. Methods Thirteen patients, mean age 4.5 years were studied; a diagnostic lumbar puncture was performed and serum samples taken. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was quantified by nephelometry. Control patients had other infections or other neurological diseases. Results The mean cell count in the CSF was 500 × 10-6 cells/L and of these 23% were eosinophils. In blood the eosinophils were 13%. The chief symptoms of the patients were migraine, vomiting and fever and 50% presented some meningeal signs. IgE intrathecal synthesis analyzed by the corresponding quotient diagram (Reibergram) was observed in all patients. No intrathecal IgE synthesis was seen in control patients. Conclusion Intrathecal synthesis of IgE demonstrates the participation of this immunoglobulin in the destruction of the third stage larvae of the parasite in the CSF. The test should be considered in our environment as a tool to aid diagnosis. PMID:19032790

  9. Eosinophilic esophagitis in a developing country: is it different from developed countries?

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Semaan, Toufic; El Hag, Imad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective. Despite the extensive reporting of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) from industrialized developed countries, reports from developing countries are rare. The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and endoscopic features of EoE and response to therapy in children and adults from a developing country, Saudi Arabia. Methods. We identified patients diagnosed with EoE in our center from 2004 to 2011. EoE was defined as esophageal mucosal infiltration with a peak eosinophil count ≥15 eosinophils/high-powered field. Results. Forty-five patients were diagnosed with EoE (37 children and 8 adults; 36 males; median age 10.5 years, range from 1-37 years). Feeding difficulty, vomiting/regurgitation, and failure to thrive predominated in young children, whereas dysphagia and food impactions predominated in older children and adults. Allergy testing revealed food sensitization in 12 of 15 patients (80%); 3 responded to elemental formula, while 8 failed to respond to dietary manipulation after the allergy testing. Thirty-nine patients achieved remission by swallowed inhaled fluticasone. The majority of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms upon the discontinuation of fluticasone. Conclusion. Our data indicate that EoE is increasingly recognized in Saudi Arabia and show many similarities to data from North America and Europe.

  10. Comparison of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients requiring hospital admission to treat eosinophilic and neutrophilic exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye Seon; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Sung Kyoung; Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Haak; Yoon, Hyung Kyu; Ahn, Joong Hyun; Kim, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with eosinophilic and neutrophilic COPD exacerbations requiring hospital admission. Patients and methods This was a retrospective multicenter study performed between January 2010 and December 2014. In all, 1,688 COPD patients admitted via the outpatient clinics or emergency departments of six university hospitals were enrolled. The patients were grouped by complete blood counts: eosinophilic group, >2% peripheral blood eosinophils, and neutrophilic group, >65% peripheral blood neutrophils or >11,000 leukocytes/mL. The patients with radiographic evidence of pneumonia at the time of admission, those with lung cancer, those admitted for treatment of other medical problems, and those who chronically used steroids were excluded. Results A total of 605 patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbations (177 eosinophilic and 380 neutrophilic) were included. Pulmonary functions, including the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity, were better in patients with eosinophilic exacerbations. Treatment outcomes, including the rate of admission to the intensive care unit and mortality, were poorer in patients with neutrophilic exacerbations (4.5% vs 12.4%, P=0.004; 1.1% vs 4.5%, P=0.043, respectively). Congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR] =3.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28–9.01) and neutrophilic exacerbation (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.21–6.52) were independent risk factors for intensive care unit admission. Conclusion COPD patients with neutrophilic exacerbations experienced worse clinical outcomes than did those with eosinophilic exacerbations. The peripheral blood eosinophil count may be a useful predictor of clinical progress during hospitalization of COPD patients with acute exacerbations. PMID:27757029

  11. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  12. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  13. Targeting AMCase reduces esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of egg induced eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Youn; Rosenthal, Peter; Miller, Marina; Pham, Alexa; Aceves, Seema; Sakuda, Shohei; Broide, David H

    2014-01-01

    Studies of AMCase inhibition in mouse models of lung eosinophilic inflammation have produced conflicting results with some studies demonstrating inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and others not. No studies have investigated the role of AMCase inhibition in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We have used a mouse model of egg (OVA) induced EoE to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with allosamidin reduced eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in EoE. Administration of intra-esophageal OVA for 6 weeks to BALB/c mice induced increased levels of esophageal eosinophils, mast cells, and features of esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, basal zone hyperplasia, deposition of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin). Administration of intraperitoneal (ip) allosamidin to BALB/c mice significantly inhibited AMCase enzymatic activity in the esophagus. Pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with ip allosamidin inhibited both OVA induced increases in esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and OVA induced esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, epithelial basal zone hyperplasia, extracellular matrix deposition of fibronectin). This inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus by ip allosamidin was associated with reduced eotaxin-1 expression in the esophagus. Oral allosamidin inhibited eosinophilic inflammation in the epithelium but did not inhibit esophageal remodeling. These studies suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase results in inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in a mouse model of egg induced EoE partially through effects in the esophagus on reducing chemokines (i.e. eotaxin-1) implicated in the pathogenesis of EoE. PMID:24239745

  14. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce eosinophilic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Liang; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hau-Inh; Liao, Huang-Shen; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2015-10-30

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used in industry. The metal composition of PM2.5 might contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. To investigate the effects of ZnO NPs on allergic airway inflammation, mice were first exposed to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg) or to a combination of ZnO NPs and chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA) by oropharyngeal aspiration on day 0 and day 7 and then were sacrificed 5 days later. The subsequent time course of airway inflammation in the mice after ZnO NPs exposure was evaluated on days 1, 7, and 14. To further determine the role of zinc ions, ZnCl2 was also administered. The inflammatory cell count, cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology were examined. We found significant neutrophilia after exposure to high-dose ZnO NPs on day 1 and significant eosinophilia in the BALF at 7 days. However, the expression levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 increased significantly after 24h of exposure to only ZnO NPs and then decreased gradually. These results suggested that ZnO NPs could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in the absence of allergens.

  15. Role of advanced diagnostics for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), diagnostic tests aid in the identification of pathophysiologic consequences and accurate detection of the disease. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classifies and grades the severity of the five major endoscopically identified esophageal features of EoE (edema, rings, exudates, furrows and strictures). The EREFS may be useful in the evaluation of disease severity and as an objective outcome of response to therapy. pH monitoring identifies the presence of abnormal degrees of acid exposure in the esophagus that characterizes gastroesophageal reflux disease. The presence of acid reflux, however, does not indicate that the reflux is responsible for esophageal eosinophilia. Esophageal manometry has not demonstrated a characteristic abnormality with sufficient sensitivity to make the test of diagnostic value in clinical practice. On the other hand, manometric characteristics of esophageal pressurization and longitudinal muscle dysfunction may help identify important pathophysiologic consequences of EoE. Esophageal impedance testing has demonstrated increased baseline mucosal impedance that correlates with increased epithelial permeability in EoE. Reduced mucosal integrity may provide intraluminal allergens access to antigen-presenting cells, serving as an early event in the pathogenesis of EoE. The functional luminal impedance probe (FLIP) provides quantitative assessment of esophageal mural compliance, a physiologic correlate of remodeling in EoE. Studies using FLIP have associated reductions in esophageal distensibility in EoE with the important outcome of food impaction risk. Finally, confocal endomicroscopy, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and novel eosinophil-enhancing contrast agents are emerging methods that may allow for in vivo visualization of esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, thereby improving the detection and understanding of this emerging disease. PMID:24603385

  16. Outbreak of eosinophilic meningitis associated with drinking raw vegetable juice in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Huang, Chun-Kai; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Eng-Rin; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2004-08-01

    The most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis is the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis a parasite that is endemic in the southeast Asian and Pacific regions. Outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis associated with drinking raw vegetable juice are rarely reported, even in regions of endemic infection. We performed a cohort study among Taiwanese with eosinophilic meningitis who drank raw vegetable juice within three months of the onset of the outbreak. Clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, and outcomes were prospectively followed. Five native Taiwanese met the case definition of eosinophilic meningitis. Specific antibodies to A. cantonensis were detected in the serum of five of the patients and in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of four of the patients. Central nervous system manifestations included headache (n = 5 [100%]), Brudzinski's sign/stiff neck (n = 5 [100%]), hyperesthesia/paresthesias (n = 5 [100%]), and cranial nerve palsy (n = 1 [20%]). Laboratory findings included peripheral (n = 5 [100%]) and CSF eosinophilia (n = 4 [80%]), transient increases in the white blood cell count (n = 1 [20%]), and in serum levels of creatine kinase (n = 1 [20%]). Meningeal enhancement, as well as high signal intensity, at the subcortical white matter on T2 weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery images were observed on magnetic resonance imaging in four patients. There were three episodes of relapse during treatment and all resolved with after a lumbar puncture and/or administration of steroids. At the 12-month follow up, all five patients had recovered without neurologic sequelae. Risk factors identification showed that consumption of raw vegetable juice was associated with illness (Pearson correlation test r = 0.867, P = 0.01). There was association between the presence of raw vegetable juice and CSF eosinophilia (Spearman's correlation test r = 0.816, P = 0.004).

  17. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An update

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Monjur

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a worldwide chronic allergic disease of the esophagus. In the last decade, there is an epidemic of this entity in the western world. Mostly seen in children and young adults, patients present with dysphagia or food impaction in the emergency room. Characteristic endoscopic findings, esophageal eosinophilia and non-responsiveness to proton pump inhibitors help make the diagnosis. Avoidance of food allergens, administration of steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and dilation of the esophagus are the mainstays of treatment. Investigations are ongoing for mucosal healing and optimum maintenance treatment. PMID:27158535

  18. Reversible Severe Eosinophilic Endomyocardial Fibrosis During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pineton de Chambrun, Marc; Charron, Philippe; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Cluzel, Philippe; Haroche, Julien; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel; Amoura, Zahir; Aubart, Fleur Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a condition of unknown origin characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. Cardiac involvement is rare and threatening accounting for 33% to 43% of death in HES. Management of pregnant patients with HES is challenging and have rarely been reported, particularly in the setting of heart failure. We here report on the case of a 29-year-old woman with HES who developed severe endomyocardial fibrosis with heart failure during pregnancy. Outcome was favorable under treatment with prednisone and azathioprine. This case illustrates a favorable outcome of endomyocardial fibrosis during pregnancy. PMID:26266372

  19. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  20. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  1. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. PMID:25950805

  2. Current Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis 2015.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilic infiltrate (≥15/hpf) in the esophageal epithelium and the absence of other potential causes of eosinophilia. The prevalence is increasing and is the most common cause of solid food dysphagia in children and young adults. This article will review the diagnosis and management of EoE based on consensus conferences, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis and highlights seminal studies in our evolving treatment of this disease. However, all answers are not available and I will remark about the lessons learned in my clinical practice seeing EoE patients over the last 25 years. The complicated etiology of the complaint of dysphagia in EoE patients will be reviewed. The importance of utilizing endoscopy, biopsies, and barium esophagram to help define the 2 phenotypes (inflammatory, fibrostenosis) of EoE will be highlighted. The controversy about PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia will be discussed and contrasted with idiopathic EoE. Finally, the 3 treatment options for EoE (drugs, diet, dilation) will be reviewed in detail and a useful clinical management algorithm presented.

  3. Eosinophilic esophagitis: From pathophysiology to treatment

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Esposito, Dario; Pesce, Marcella; Cuomo, Rosario; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune disease, characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophagus, leading to bolus impaction and reflux-like symptoms. Traditionally considered a pediatric disease, the number of adult patients with EoE is continuously increasing, with a relatively higher incidence in western countries. Dysphagia and food impaction represent the main symptoms complained by patients, but gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms may also be present. Esophageal biopsies are mandatory for the diagnosis of EoE, though clinical manifestations and proton pump inhibitors responsiveness must be taken into consideration. The higher prevalence of EoE in patients suffering from atopic diseases suggests a common background with allergy, however both the etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Elimination diets are considered the first-line therapy in children, but this approach appears less effective in adults patients, who often require steroids; despite medical treatments, EoE is complicated in some cases by esophageal stricture and stenosis, that require additional endoscopic treatments. This review summarizes the evidence on EoE pathophysiology and illustrates the safety and efficacy of the most recent medical and endoscopic treatments. PMID:26600973

  4. Pulmonary cavity due to chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with arsenicosis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Saha, K; Jash, D; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent.

  5. Pulmonary cavity due to chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with arsenicosis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Saha, K; Jash, D; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent. PMID:23279770

  6. Killing of Plasmodium falciparum by eosinophil secretory products.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, L S; Taverne, J; Tai, P C; Spry, C J; Targett, G A; Playfair, J H

    1987-01-01

    The multiplication of two strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture, as measured by [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by granule proteins secreted by purified eosinophils obtained from patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Morphological examination revealed the presence of abnormal parasites inside erythrocytes, indicating that they were killed in situ, and the later stages of the developmental cycle were found to be most susceptible to these toxic effects. A monoclonal antibody against eosinophil cationic protein partially blocked the inhibitory effect, suggesting that it was caused by more than one of the eosinophil granule proteins. Thus some of the antimalarial effects of molecules such as the tumor necrosis factor, which activates eosinophils, may be mediated through the enhanced production of eosinophil secretion products. PMID:3549562

  7. Dietary Elimination Therapy is an Effective Option for Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, W. Asher; Jerath, Maya R.; Sperry, Sarah L. W.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated disorder. Food elimination is an established treatment for children, but data in adults are limited. We aimed to determine the response of adults with EoE to dietary therapy. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using the University of North Carolina EoE database from 2006–2012. Subjects were ≥18 years, had EoE by consensus guidelines, and had undergone dietary therapy either with targeted or six-food elimination (SFED). Outcomes were symptomatic, endoscopic, and histologic improvement. Demographic, endoscopic, symptomatic, and laboratory predictors of response to dietary therapy were assessed. Results Of 31 adults who underwent dietary therapy (mean age 36 years; 48% male; 90% white; mean baseline eosinophil count 78 eos/hpf), 22 had targeted and 9 had SFED. Symptoms improved in 71% (68% in targeted, 78% in SFED) and endoscopic appearance improved in 54% (53% in targeted, 56% in SFED). After dietary therapy, the mean eosinophil count decreased to 43 eos/hpf (p=0.009). Eleven subjects (39%) responded with <15 eos/hpf (32% in targeted and 56% in SFED; p=0.41). No clinical, endoscopic, or histologic factors predicted response to dietary therapy. Of the 11 responders, 9 underwent food reintroduction to identify trigger(s), and 4 (44%) reacted to dairy, 4 (44%) to eggs, 2 (22%) to wheat, 1 (11%) to shellfish, 1 (11%) to legumes, and 1 (11%) to nuts. Conclusions Dietary elimination is a successful treatment modality for adults with EoE. Further research should emphasize which factors can predict effective dietary therapy. PMID:24440337

  8. An uncommon presentation of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare and potentially fatal disease if not readily diagnosed. Cerebral involvement is extremely rare and clinical presentation as hemorrhagic stroke is even rarer. Case presentation A 58-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our medical unit because of a computed tomography-diagnosed hemorrhagic stroke with right-sided hemiparesis and fever. A chest computed tomography scan also revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary infiltrates; coronary artery, and carotid and left vertebral artery calcifications were also observed. Empiric antimicrobial therapy with cephalosporins was promptly undertaken; low-molecular-weight heparin was introduced as prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism. Over the following days, magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a regression of the hemorrhagic framework, also revealing hypoxic areas consistent with acute ischemic lesions. With a computed tomography scan showing a worsening of his pulmonary framework, antimicrobial therapy was modified and corticosteroids were introduced. A new blood cell count revealed further increased leukocytosis (17.49×103μL), characterized by a surprising rise of eosinophilic cells (32.8%). Angiography of the coronary arteries found diffuse dilatations with severe signs of endothelial damage. Such an unexpected framework induced a strong suspicion that the stroke was the expression of a systemic vasculitis, which had triggered his cerebral, coronary, and pulmonary frameworks. The search for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was positive for perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis was diagnosed. Explaining to the patient the rarity of his disease, and what the most typical presentations of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis were, he revealed that before admission he had had scalp injuries, in the nuchal region, and had taken corticosteroids as self-medication, with subsequent

  9. A study on blood eosinophil level and ventilatory pulmonary function of the workers exposed to storage grain dust.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Mahata, A; Kundu, S; Alam, J; Das, S; Roychowdhury, A

    2007-01-01

    The workers engaged in storage grain handling are exposed to storage grain dust and suffer from different respiratory symptoms like, cough wheezing, chest tightness, eye and nasal irritations. It has been reported abroad and the present study results noted that the grain handlers have allergic symptoms like redness of eyes, itching, sneezing, skin rash, breathlessness and decrement of pulmonary function test values. According to their nature of job, the workers of storage grain godowns were divided into four categories i.e., load handling worker (LHW), ancillary, quality control and depot administration workers. The pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the differential count of leucocytes were carried out among the workers by standard technique. Decrement of pulmonary function test values was noted with the increment of blood eosinophil level.The PFT results were presented according to the blood eosinophil level. The decrement of mean PFT values were noticed as the blood level of eosinophil gradually increased from, up to -4%, >4-10% and above 10%. The maximum numbers of workers in different job categories are belonged to >4 -10% of eosinophil level. The percentage figure of workers in different departments were LHW 48.38%, (n=45), ancillary 38.88%, (n=7), quality control 54.54% (n=6) and depot administration workers 47.05% (n=16) are belonged to that range. Among the total workers the higher figure was found >4-10% ranges 47.43% (n=74) workers. The allergic manifestations like redness, itchiness and watering of eyes, sneezing, cough, breathless etc. are reported. These workers have blood eosinophil level and low pulmonary function test values. The respiratory impairments among the workers are restrictive, obstructive and combined restrictive and obstructive type.

  10. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hariman, Richard; Patel, Payal; Strouse, Jennifer; Collins, Michael P.; Rosenthal, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α. PMID:27293946

  11. A case of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Manabu; Onchi, Miyako; Ozaki, Masakazu

    2013-03-01

    Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia was diagnosed in an 8-month-old Scottish fold that had a primary gastrointestinal mass involving the stomach, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Histopathologically, the most characteristic feature of this mass was granulation tissue with eosinophil infiltration and hyperplasia of sclerosing collagen fiber. Immunohistochemically, large spindle-shaped cells were positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin. This case emphasizes the importance of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia as a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplastic lesions such as osteosarcoma and mast cell tumor in cats. PMID:23723568

  12. Eosinophil granule cationic proteins regulate the classical pathway of complement.

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, J M; Edens, R E; Bell, C S; Gleich, G J

    1995-01-01

    Major basic protein, the primary constituent of eosinophil granules, regulates the alternative and classical pathways of complement. Major basic protein and other eosinophil granule cationic proteins, which are important in mediating tissue damage in allergic disease, regulate the alternative pathway by interfering with C3b interaction with factor B to assemble an alternative pathway C3 convertase. In the present study, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, as well as major basic protein, were examined for capacity to regulate the classical pathway. Eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein inhibited formation of cell-bound classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a), causing 50% inhibition of complement-mediated lysis at about 0.19, 0.75 and 0.5 micrograms/10(7) cellular intermediates, respectively. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin had no activity on this pathway of complement. The eosinophil granule proteins were examined for activity on the formation of the membrane attack complex. Major basic protein and eosinophil cationic protein had no activity on terminal lysis. In contrast, eosinophil peroxidase inhibited lysis of EAC1,4b,2a,3b,5b, but had only minimal activity on later events in complement lysis. These polycations were then examined to determine the site(s) at which they regulated the early classical pathway. Eosinophil granule polycationic proteins: (1) reduced the Zmax at all time points but had only minimal effect on the Tmax during the formation of the classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a); (2) inhibited formation of EAC1,4b,2a proportional to C4 but independent of C2 concentration; (3) inhibited fluid phase formation of C1,4b,2a, as reflected by a decrease in C1-induced consumption of C2 over time; and (4) inhibited C1 activity over time without a direct effect on either C4 or C2. These observations suggest that polycations regulate the early classical pathway by

  13. An Overview of the Diagnosis and Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Manish B; Moawad, Fouad J

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. The diagnosis requires esophageal biopsies demonstrating at least 15 eosinophils per high-powered field following a course of high-dose proton pump inhibitors. Management of EoE consists of the three Ds: drugs, dietary therapy, and esophageal dilation. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of EoE to include the role of emerging therapies. PMID:26986655

  14. Disseminated eosinophilic disease resembling idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in a dog.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Perl, S; Markovics, A

    2001-09-29

    True idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome has been described in human beings and cats, but not in dogs. The syndrome is characterised by prolonged unexplained peripheral mature eosinophilia, the infiltration of many organs by eosinophils, organ dysfunction and a fatal outcome. This paper describes an idiopathic disseminated eosinophilic disease in a dog involving various organs, manly the heart and the lungs, accompanied by a leukemoid eosinophilic response, and a fatal outcome. The histopathological findings included the infiltration of the myocardium, lung parenchyma, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and skeletal muscles with eosiniphils. PMID:11601516

  15. Eosinophilic myenteric ganglionitis is associated with functional intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Schäppi, M G; Smith, V V; Milla, P J; Lindley, K J

    2003-05-01

    The diagnostic features and clinical course of three children (aged 1 month to 15 years) with severe functional intestinal obstruction and inflammation of the colonic lamina propria and myenteric plexus are described. The myenteric inflammatory infiltrate was eosinophil predominant with none of the immunological characteristics of lymphocytic ganglionitis. Neurones in the myenteric ganglia expressed the potent eosinophil chemoattractant interleukin 5. None responded to dietary exclusion but all three responded symptomatically to immunosuppression/anti-inflammatory treatments. Eosinophilic ganglionitis is associated with a pseudo-obstructive syndrome which is amenable to anti-inflammatory treatment.

  16. Measurement of Disintegration Rates and Absolute {gamma}-ray Intensities

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Daniel J.; Griffin, Henry C.

    2006-03-13

    The majority of practical radioactive materials decay by modes that include {gamma}-ray emission. For questions of 'how much' or 'how pure', one must know the absolute intensities of the major radiations. We are using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) to measurements of disintegration rates, coupled with {gamma}-ray spectroscopy to measure absolute {gamma}-ray emission probabilities. Described is a study of the 227Th chain yielding absolute {gamma}-ray intensities with {approx}0.5% accuracy and information on LSC efficiencies.

  17. Eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice and serum eosinophil cationic protein levels in Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Selim A; Tekin, Isak Ozel; Numanoglu, Gamze; Borazan, Ali; Ustundag, Yucel

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori is one of the main causes of gastroduodenal diseases, such as chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. It has been shown that eosinophils increase in the stomach in H. pylori infection. Eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) is a cytotoxic molecule secreted by the activated eosinophils. However, there are no sufficient data about the role of ECP in H. pylori infection and its effect on ulcer development. In this study we investigated the gastric eosinophilic infiltration, gastric juice and serum ECP levels in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer associated with H. pylori. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four H. pylori-positive and 20 H. pylori-negative patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy after admitting with dyspeptic complaints were enrolled in the study. Twenty-one of the H. pylori-positive patients had gastric ulcer while 23 patients had none. During endoscopy, multiple gastric biopsies and juices were taken. In gastric biopsies, H. pylori and eosinophilic infiltration were assessed. Additionally, gastric juice and serum ECP levels were measured. RESULTS: Eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice ECP levels, and gastric juice/serum ECP ratios in the H. pylori-positive group were greater than in the H. pylori-negative group (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference regarding serum ECP levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). When H. pylori-positive patients were compared with regard to gastric ulcer presence, however, there was no significant difference in gastric eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice ECP levels, serum ECP levels, and gastric juice/serum ECP ratios (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that eosinophils and eosinophil-released ECP may contribute to inflammatory changes seen in chronic gastritis, whereas there is no proof that they play a role in ulcer development. PMID:15770055

  18. Helminthotoxic capacity of eosinophils in case of eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, N H; Makhlouf, S A; Fahmy, I A; Maklad, K M; Makhlouf, M A; el-Hosieny, L M

    1992-04-01

    Helminthotoxic effect of eosinophils on schistosomula of S. mansoni was studied in thirty patients with peripheral eosinophilia of different causes. Ten cases presented with parasitic infections and twenty cases were parasite free. Twenty healthy persons with normal blood picture were tested as a control group. The adherence assay test of eosinophils and the assay of cell mediated damage of eosinophils to schistosomula were used. The percentages of the adherence and the toxic effect of eosinophils were the same for each group. They were 85.1% in the parasitic group, 85.45% in the non parasitic with other causes group and 13.9% in the control group. The difference was statistically highly significant (P less than 0.001). PMID:1578172

  19. Sudden death due to eosinophilic endomyocardial diseases: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Turan, Arzu Akcay; Karayel, Ferah; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ozdes, Taskin; Yilmaz, Eyyup; Pakis, Isil

    2008-12-01

    Eosinophils are associated with various disorders, such as allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, parasitic diseases, connective tissue diseases, certain neoplastic diseases (Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas, and carcinomas), and various immune deficiency states. Eosinophils can infiltrate any tissue and can cause tissue damage. Heart, has been demonstrated to be the most extensively involved and toxicity of eosinophils is well-established on cardiac tissue. We describe 3 cases with extensive eosinophilic infiltration without endomyocardial fibrosis. All patients died after a short clinical course with rapidly progressive heart failure. Bronchial asthma, hydatid disease and drug reaction were considered as possible etiologies of eosinophilia in case 1 and case 2. Case 3 was considered to fall into the "idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome" in which no underlying causes for eosinophilia could be identified.

  20. Eosinophilic venulitis of colon presenting as ileocecal mass.

    PubMed

    Forouhar, Faripour; Rustagi, Tarun; Lamea, Leela

    2011-01-01

    Reports of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon causing obstruction are few. It is even less common to find associated extensive intestinal venulitis, which is similar to and lumped together with so called Mesenteric Inflammatory Veno-Occlusive Disease (MIVOD) or Self-Limited Intestinal Venulitis. Eosinophilic necrotizing lymphadenitis, such as what we report here, has never been reported in association with this disease. A 41-year-old female presented with cramping lower abdominal pain, hematochezia, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed the presence of the mass and thickening of the illeocecal wall. Endoscopy confirmed a cecal mass with surface ulceration suggestive of cecal adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent right hemicolectomy with the clinical and radiologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Microscopic examination of the resected bowel showed an ulcerated mass in the cecum composed of markedly edematous tissue showing transmural eosinophilic infiltration and extensive eosinophilic and lymphocytic venulitis with and without thrombosis. This was associated with a necrotizing lymphadenitis.

  1. Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

  2. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  3. Azithromycin for the treatment of eosinophilic nasal polyposis: Clinical and histologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borges Crosara, Paulo Fernando Tormin; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; dos Reis, Diego Carlos; Rodrigues, Danilo Santana; Nunes, Flavio Barbosa; Guimarães, Roberto Eustáquio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Macrolides used as immunomodulators are a promising tool for chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Eosinophilic nasal polyposis (ENP) is still considered a disease that is difficult to control with the currently standardized treatments. Objectives: To evaluate prolonged treatment with low-dose azithromycin for ENP based on clinical and histopathologic variables. Methods: The present investigation was a self-paired case study of 33 patients with ENP. A comparison was performed between patients before and after treatment with azithromycin for 8 weeks. The patients were subjected to clinical examinations, staging (three-dimensional imaging by endoscopy), application of the questionnaire, and biopsy of nasal polyps at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Results: The treatment yielded a clinical improvement regarding the two variables studied: polyposis staging (69.7%) and questionnaire (57.6%). We did not find significant differences in the inflammatory pattern and in the percentage or absolute number of eosinophils per field between samples obtained before and after the treatment (p > 0.05). There was no difference between the answers obtained from groups with and without asthma and/or aspirin intolerance (p > 0.3). The patients with advanced initial staging exhibited lower subjective improvement index and staging reduction (p = 0.031 and p = 0.012, respectively). Conclusion: Based on this study, azithromycin may be considered as another therapeutic option for ENP. However, further studies are necessary to define the real mechanism of action involved. PMID:27465667

  4. Eosinophilic bodies in pyloric and Brunner's gland cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, C A; Hirota, T; Itabashi, M; Jacobsson, B; Lignelid, H

    1992-01-01

    A previously unreported cell phenotype occurred in the pyloric and Brunner glands in two gastrectomy specimens. The cells were characterised by homogeneous, eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm. The eosinophilic material had an abnormally strong reactivity for Cystatin C, a protein found recently in the normal secretion of pyloric and Brunner's gland cells. The reason for the apparent cytoplasmic accumulation of cystatin C in the two patients described remains unclear. Images PMID:1479043

  5. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEUTROPHILS AND EOSINOPHILS GRANULES IN SAPPHIRE MINKS].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Kizhina, A G; Ilyukha, V A

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that sapphire minks have abnormality of subcellular structure of blood and bone marrow neutrophils and eosinophils. The abnormality consists in forming of abnormal "giant" granules. The si- ze and the number of abnormal granules significantly change during maturation of leucocytes in bone marrow. We have found differences between abnormal granules forming in neutrophils and eosinophils that depend on the maturing stage and the cells life cycle duration as well as morphofunctional features of these granulocytes. PMID:26863773

  6. Prominent Vascular and Perivascular Eosinophilic Infiltrates Heralding CNS Mycosis Fungoides.

    PubMed

    Schowinsky, Jeffrey; Leppert, Michelle; Ney, Douglas; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K

    2015-10-01

    Brain parenchymal involvement of mycosis fungoides (MF) is very rare. This study reports a patient with known cutaneous MF (under treatment) who presented with a CNS syndrome and multiple brain lesions. Brain biopsy demonstrated massive eosinophilic infiltrates but no MF cells. Despite treatment, new lesions developed and the patient died. At autopsy, there was massive involvement MF cells, suggesting that the eosinophilic infiltrates presaged the severe involvement of the CNS by MF. PMID:26352990

  7. Concomitant herpetic and eosinophilic esophagitis--a causality dilemma.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, P; Almeida, N; Cipriano, M A; Gouveia, H; Sofia, C

    2012-09-01

    Eosinophilic and herpetic esophagitis are listed as independent causes of dysphagia, especially in young adult males. However, herpetic esophagitis rarely affects immunocompetent individuals. We report the case of a young, not immunocompromised patient, admitted because of severe dysphagia secondary to herpes simplex virus esophagitis. After complete resolution, an endoscopic and histologic reevaluation established the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. The potential association between the two conditions is discussed.

  8. Pattern of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration in patients with achalasia and response to Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Cools-Lartigue, J; Chang, S-Y; Mckendy, K; Mayrand, S; Marcus, V; Fried, G M; Ferri, L E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is now recognized as a common cause of dysphagia. Eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus has also been associated with other conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the incidence, pattern, and clinical significance of eosinophilic infiltration in achalasia are poorly documented. We sought to characterize this histological finding in patients undergoing Heller myotomy (HM) for achalasia. Ninety-six patients undergoing laparoscopic HM for primary achalasia between 1999 and 2008 were identified from a prospective database. Serial mid and distal per-endoscopic esophageal biopsies taken from patients before and after surgery were assessed for the presence of elevated intraepithelial eosinophils (EIEs). Slides from patients with reports suggestive of EIE were reviewed independently by two pathologists, and the highest eosinophil count/high-power field (eos/hpf) was recorded. Dysphagia scores (0 = none to 5 = severe dysphagia), GERD health-related quality of life scores (0 = best to 45 = worst), and 24-hour pH results were compared before and 3 months after surgery. We related the highest eos to the symptoms and response to HM. Data are presented as median (range). Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test determined significance, *P < 0.05. Of 96 patients with achalasia, 50 had undergone pre-HM biopsies revealing EIE in 17/50 (34%), with a median of 3 eos/hpf (1-21). Two patients were found to have superimposed esophageal candidiasis. One patient met the pathologic criteria for EoE. Twenty-five of 50 (50%) postoperative biopsies demonstrated a median of 5 eos/hpf (1-62) for a total of 28/50 patients (56%) with EIE in either the preoperative or postoperative period. Four patients (8%) met the pathologic criteria for EoE, and two demonstrated persistent esophageal candidiasis. A decrease in eosinophils was found in 6/28 patients (21%) from 3/hpf (1-21) to 0.5/hpf (0-4). Increase in eosinophils was found in

  9. Clinical application of autologous technetium-99m-labelled eosinophils to detect focal eosinophilic inflammation in the lung.

    PubMed

    Loutsios, Chrystalla; Farahi, Neda; Simmonds, Rosalind; Cullum, Ian; Gillett, Daniel; Solanki, Chandra; Solanki, Kishor; Buscombe, John; Condliffe, Alison M; Peters, A Mike; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2015-11-01

    The detection of focal eosinophilic inflammation by non-invasive means may aid the diagnosis and follow-up of a variety of pulmonary pathologies. All current methods of detection involve invasive sampling, which may be contraindicated or too high-risk to be performed safely. The use of injected autologous technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labelled eosinophils coupled to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been demonstrated to localise eosinophilic inflammation in the lungs of a patient with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. Here, we report on the utility of this technique to detect active eosinophilic inflammation in a patient with focal lung inflammation where a biopsy was contraindicated.

  10. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  11. The genetic basis of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Patrick M A; March, Michael; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by destructive responses of the immune system to environmental allergens, including food, on the human esophagus. EoE is now reported as a major cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in children and adults and the incidence is reported to be on the increase. It is known that EoE has a high degree of heritability, with a majority of the phenotypic variation believed to be genetic in origin as shown by genetic epidemiology studies of twins and families. Prior to 2010, there were no known genetic risk factors for the disease. Three GWAS have since been published identifying 5 loci which influence risk for EoE in both children and adults. The information gained from GWAS has been of value in elucidating the pathways involved, such as IL4/STAT6, and more unexpected pathways such as epithelial apical transport and wound healing. We will review the results of the EoE GWAS and the known associated genes, concluding with a discussion of some future directions for genetic studies in EoE. PMID:26552769

  12. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Mycoplasma arginini Infection

    PubMed Central

    Silló, Pálma; Pintér, Dóra; Ostorházi, Eszter; Mazán, Mercedes; Wikonkál, Norbert; Pónyai, Katinka; Volokhov, Dmitriy V.; Chizhikov, Vladimir E.; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) with generalized sclerodermiform skin lesions developed over a 19-month period in a previously healthy 23-year-old man. Although we confirmed EF by skin histology and laboratory tests, the recurrent fevers and the clinical observation of sclerotic prepuce with urethritis indicated further bacteriological analysis by conventional microbiological and DNA-based tests. Urethra cultures were positive for an arginine-hydrolyzing mycoplasma and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The patient also had serum IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based qualitative detection. Mycoplasma arginini was isolated from two independent venous blood serum samples and was identified by conventional microbiological tests and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes (GenBank sequence accession numbers HM179555 and HM179556, respectively). M. arginini genomic DNA also was detected by species-specific PCR in the skin lesion biopsy sample. Treatment with corticosteroids and long-term courses of selected antibiotics led to remission of skin symptoms and normalization of laboratory values. This report provides the first evidence of EF associated with mycoplasma infection and the second report of human infection with M. arginini and therefore suggests that this mycoplasma infection might have contributed to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:22189109

  13. Redox thermodynamics of lactoperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Vlasits, Jutta; Banerjee, Srijib; Furtmüller, Paul G; Sola, Marco; Obinger, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are important constituents of the innate immune system of mammals. These heme enzymes belong to the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily and catalyze the oxidation of thiocyanate, bromide and nitrite to hypothiocyanate, hypobromous acid and nitrogen dioxide that are toxic for invading pathogens. In order to gain a better understanding of the observed differences in substrate specificity and oxidation capacity in relation to heme and protein structure, a comprehensive spectro-electrochemical investigation was performed. The reduction potential (E degrees ') of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of EPO and LPO was determined to be -126mV and -176mV, respectively (25 degrees C, pH 7.0). Variable temperature experiments show that EPO and LPO feature different reduction thermodynamics. In particular, reduction of ferric EPO is enthalpically and entropically disfavored, whereas in LPO the entropic term, which selectively stabilizes the oxidized form, prevails on the enthalpic term that favors reduction of Fe(III). The data are discussed with respect to the architecture of the heme cavity and the substrate channel. Comparison with published data for myeloperoxidase demonstrates the effect of heme to protein linkages and heme distortion on the redox chemistry of mammalian peroxidases and in consequence on the enzymatic properties of these physiologically important oxidoreductases.

  14. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in apparently healthy Japanese.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Kawai, Ryu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between leukocyte subtype counts and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia. Logistic regressions using hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia as a dependent variable and total leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts as an independent variable were calculated adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), smoking, drinking, and physical activity in apparently healthy Japanese men (1,803) and women (1,150). The odds ratio (OR) of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, and lymphocyte counts, the OR of hypertriglyceridemia for total leukocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significant in men, and the OR of hyper-LDL cholesterolemia, for lymphocyte count, and the OR of hypo-HDL cholesterolemia for eosinophil count were significant in women. Lymphocyte count was significantly associated with hyper-LDL cholesterolemia independently of hs-CRP in apparently healthy Japanese. PMID:21655904

  15. T-cell count

    MedlinePlus

    Thymus derived lymphocyte count; T-lymphocyte count; T cell count ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful ...

  16. Accumulation of eosinophils and T-lymphocytes in the lungs after exposure to pinewood dust.

    PubMed

    Gripenbäck, S; Lundgren, L; Eklund, A; Lidén, C; Skare, L; Tornling, G; Grunewald, J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust within the woodworking industry has been shown to cause a variety of respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular effects in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood from healthy individuals exposed to pinewood dust. Eleven healthy volunteers were exposed to pinewood dust for 1 h in a whole-body exposure chamber. BAL fluid and blood cells were differentially counted and the expression of activation, adhesion and subset markers on alveolar macrophages and T-lymphocytes was determined 2-6 weeks before and 20 h after the exposure. Following pinewood dust exposure, the total BAL fluid cell concentration increased from 81.4 (64.1-97.5) x 10(6) cells x L(-1) (median (interquartile range)) to 195.3 (154.6-341.2) x 10(6) cells x L(-1). The BAL fluid T-lymphocyte concentration increased from 3.8% (3.5-6.5%) to 7.6% (4.9-11.2%), and BAL fluid eosinophil concentration from 0.0% (0.0-0.2%) to 1.8% (0.6-3.5%). Inhalation of pinewood dust leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airways of healthy individuals. The increase in numbers of eosinophils, T-lymphocytes and mast cells, i.e. cells of crucial importance to airway inflammation, in the lungs may be related to the increased risk of developing respiratory disorders among woodworkers.

  17. An essential role for Rab27a GTPase in eosinophil exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, John Dongil; Willetts, Lian; Ochkur, Sergei; Srivastava, Nutan; Hamburg, Rudolf; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Seabra, Miguel C.; Lee, James J.; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophil degranulation has been implicated in inflammatory processes associated with allergic asthma. Rab27a, a Rab-related GTPase, is a regulatory intracellular signaling molecule expressed in human eosinophils. We postulated that Rab27a regulates eosinophil degranulation. We investigated the role of Rab27a in eosinophil degranulation within the context of airway inflammation. Rab27a expression and localization in eosinophils were investigated by using subcellular fractionation combined with Western blot analysis, and the results were confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis of Rab27a and the granule membrane marker CD63. To determine the function of eosinophil Rab27a, we used Ashen mice, a strain of Rab27a-deficient animals. Ashen eosinophils were tested for degranulation in response to PAF and calcium ionophore by measuring released EPX activity. Airway EPX release was also determined by intratracheal injection of eosinophils into mice lacking EPX. Rab27a immunoreactivity colocalized with eosinophil crystalloid granules, as determined by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence analysis. PAF induced eosinophil degranulation in correlation with redistribution of Rab27a+ structures, some of which colocalized with CD63+ crystalloid granules at the cell membrane. Eosinophils from mice had significantly reduced EPX release compared with normal WT eosinophils, both in vitro and in vivo. In mouse models, Ashen mice demonstrated reduced EPX release in BAL fluid. These findings suggest that Rab27a has a key role in eosinophil degranulation. Furthermore, these findings have implications for Rab27a-dependent eosinophil degranulation in airway inflammation. PMID:23986549

  18. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  19. Advances in Clinical Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Liacouras, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    EoE is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsies, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and PPI-REE. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (current incidence of 1/10,000 new cases per year and prevalence of 0.5-1/1,000 cases per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and non-directed empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenostic complications of EoE. There are number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment endpoints, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines—EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  20. EP4 receptor stimulation down-regulates human eosinophil function.

    PubMed

    Luschnig-Schratl, Petra; Sturm, Eva M; Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Marsche, Gunther; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Samberger, Claudia; Lang-Loidolt, Doris; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Lippe, Irmgard Th; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2011-11-01

    Accumulation of eosinophils in tissue is a hallmark of allergic inflammation. Here we observed that a selective agonist of the PGE(2) receptor EP4, ONO AE1-329, potently attenuated the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils, upregulation of the adhesion molecule CD11b and the production of reactive oxygen species. These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of cytoskeletal rearrangement and Ca(2+) mobilization. The involvement of the EP4 receptor was substantiated by a selective EP4 antagonist, which reversed the inhibitory effects of PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist. Selective kinase inhibitors revealed that the inhibitory effect of EP4 stimulation on eosinophil migration depended upon activation of PI 3-kinase and PKC, but not cAMP. Finally, we found that EP4 receptors are expressed by human eosinophils, and are also present on infiltrating leukocytes in inflamed human nasal mucosa. These data indicate that EP4 agonists might be a novel therapeutic option in eosinophilic diseases.

  1. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause

    PubMed Central

    Shibazaki, Shunichi; Eguchi, Shunsuke; Endo, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Tadamasa; Araki, Makoto; Gu, Yoshiaki; Imai, Taku; Asano, Kouji; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole. PMID:27123346

  2. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with EoE depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect. PMID:26855813

  3. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with EoE depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect. PMID:26855813

  4. Disruption of Fas Receptor Signaling by Nitric Oxide in Eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Hebestreit, Holger; Dibbert, Birgit; Balatti, Ivo; Braun, Doris; Schapowal, Andreas; Blaser, Kurt; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that Fas ligand–Fas receptor interactions are involved in the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis and that dysfunctions in this system could contribute to the accumulation of these cells in allergic and asthmatic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) specifically prevents Fas receptor–mediated apoptosis in freshly isolated human eosinophils. In contrast, rapid acceleration of eosinophil apoptosis by activation of the Fas receptor occurs in the presence of eosinophil hematopoietins. Analysis of the intracellular mechanisms revealed that NO disrupts Fas receptor–mediated signaling events at the level of, or proximal to, Jun kinase (JNK), but distal to sphingomyelinase (SMase) activation and ceramide generation. In addition, activation of SMase occurs downstream of an interleukin 1 converting enzyme–like (ICE-like) protease(s) that is not blocked by NO. However, NO prevents activation of a protease that targets lamin B1. These findings suggest a role for an additional NO-sensitive apoptotic signaling pathway that amplifies the proteolytic cascade initialized by activation of the Fas receptor. Therefore, NO concentrations within allergic inflammatory sites may be important in determining whether an eosinophil survives or undergoes apoptosis upon Fas ligand stimulation. PMID:9449721

  5. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause.

    PubMed

    Shibazaki, Shunichi; Eguchi, Shunsuke; Endo, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Tadamasa; Araki, Makoto; Gu, Yoshiaki; Imai, Taku; Asano, Kouji; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole. PMID:27123346

  6. Activated mouse eosinophils protect against lethal respiratory virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Percopo, Caroline M.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Luo, Janice L.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are recruited to the airways as a prominent feature of the asthmatic inflammatory response where they are broadly perceived as promoting pathophysiology. Respiratory virus infections exacerbate established asthma; however, the role of eosinophils and the nature of their interactions with respiratory viruses remain uncertain. To explore these questions, we established acute infection with the rodent pneumovirus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), in 3 distinct mouse models of Th2 cytokine–driven asthmatic inflammation. We found that eosinophils recruited to the airways of otherwise naïve mice in response to Aspergillus fumigatus, but not ovalbumin sensitization and challenge, are activated by and degranulate specifically in response to PVM infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated eosinophils from both Aspergillus antigen and cytokine-driven asthma models are profoundly antiviral and promote survival in response to an otherwise lethal PVM infection. Thus, although activated eosinophils within a Th2-polarized inflammatory response may have pathophysiologic features, they are also efficient and effective mediators of antiviral host defense. PMID:24297871

  7. Mast cell and eosinophils in the wall of the gut and eosinophils in the blood stream during Toxocara vitulorum infection of the water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Neves, Maria F; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma A; Castro, Alessandra M M G

    2003-04-01

    Toxocara vitulorum is a pathogenic nematode from the small intestine of very young buffalo calves. To understand the development of the inflammatory responses in the wall of the gut, samples of tissues were removed from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of buffalo calves naturally infected with T. vitulorum during the beginning of the infection, at the peak of egg output, as well as during the periods of rejection of the worms and post-rejection. Two additional control groups of uninfected calves (by anti-helminthic therapy of their mothers and after the birth) were also necropsied on days 30 and 50 after birth. Blood samples were fortnightly collected from birth to 174 days post-birth. Blood smears were prepared and stained with Giemsa for eosinophils. The parasitological status of buffalo calves was evaluated through weekly fecal egg counts (EPG) from 1 to 106 days after birth, which revealed that T. vitulorum egg shedding started on day 11, reached the peak of the infection on day 49 and finally expelled the parasites between days 50 and 85 after birth. In the infected buffalo calves, the mast cell population increased significantly, by two-fold in the mucosa (villus-crypt unit (VCU)) of the duodenum and four-fold in the proximal jejunum; but these increases were statistically significant only at the peak of the infection. Although mast cell numbers increased in the mucosa of the ileum as well as in both the submucosal and muscle tissues of the duodenum, proximal jejunum and ileum, the data was not significantly different from the controls. Eosinophil numbers increased in the mucosa of the duodenum (two-five times higher than the control) and proximal jejunum (three-five-fold) during the period of the infection (beginning, peak and rejection). The relative numbers of eosinophils increased in the blood stream from the second to the seventh week. In conclusion, T. vitulorum infection elicited mastocytosis and tissue eosinophilia in the duodenum and proximal jejunum

  8. Disease associations in eosinophilic oesophagitis and oesophageal eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic infiltration into oesophageal tissue, typical of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), has been described in several other conditions, including infections, hypersensitivity, and other autoimmune disorders. Since its description, EoE has been associated with an increasing number of diseases also characterized by tissue infiltration, including eosinophilic gastroenteritis and Crohn's disease. While an association between EoE and coeliac disease was previously reported, it is not supported by recent research. In contrast, EoE seems to be common in patients with a history of congenital oesophageal atresia, leading to hypotheses linking both disorders. The prevalence of EoE has also been shown to be eight times higher in patients with connective tissue disorders (CTDs), which has led to the proposal of an EoE-CTD phenotype, although this requires further assessment. This paper reviews the evidence of EoE's associations with several disorders, defining the common bases from an epidemiological, clinical, molecular and genetic perspective whenever possible.

  9. A chronic eosinophilic pneumonia case with long exposure to isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Funda; Sak, Zafer Hasan Ali; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Gencer, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a disease with unknown etiology, characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia and abnormal eosinophil accumulation in the lungs. A 43-year-old male with 30 years history of exposure to isocyanates was admitted with the complaint of sputum, cough, progressive dyspnoea, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed bilaterally decreased breath sounds and extensive rales. On laboratory analysis; leukocytosis (12.3 10(3)/proportional variant L), hypereosinophilia (30%), elevated CRP and RF (1000 IU/ml), and IgE levels (1160 IU/ml) in the serum were observed. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed reticulonodular pattern at both lung fields. Pulmonary function tests assumed a restrictive pattern and a low diffusing capacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a marked eosinophilia (50%). Transbronchial lung biopsy indicated eosinophilic pneumonia. In this case we aimed to describe a rare case of CEP probably caused by exposure to isocyanate.

  10. Recent Progress in the Research of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishimura, Norihisa; Oshima, Naoki; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Jiao, Di Jin; Ishihara, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroenteritis are allergic gastrointestinal diseases mainly caused by food allergens. The number of patients with EoE is rapidly increasing in both Western and Asian countries. Basic knowledge of these diseases has mainly come from studies of EoE and Th2 type allergic reactions, including IL-5, IL-13, and IL-15, thymic stromal protein, and eotaxin 3, which are considered to have important roles. For a diagnosis of EoE, endoscopic abnormalities and histological confirmation of dense eosinophile infiltration in the esophageal epithelial layer are important, in addition to identifying dysphagia symptoms. As for eosinophilic gastroenteritis, blood test findings are more useful and the role of an endoscopic examination is reduced. For both diseases, the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori is lower than in healthy controls. Glucocorticoid administration is standard treatment for these diseases, while proton pump inhibitors are frequently effective for EoE. PMID:26789117

  11. Eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue--Case report.

    PubMed

    Didona, Dario; Paolino, Giovanni; Donati, Michele; Didona, Biagio; Calvieri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is a rare, self-limiting, chronic and benign lesion of unknown pathogenesis that affects the oral mucosa. We present the case of a 65 year-old Caucasian female with a five month history of a painful ulcer on the lateral side of her tongue. The ulcer was not adhered to the underlying structures and there was no evidence of regional lymph node involvement. Laboratory examinations and X-rays revealed no abnormalities. Topical treatments had been performed without any improvement. Histopathological examination showed an ulcerated surface and mixed inflammatory infiltrate with several eosinophils extending into the mucosa and submucosa. No cellular atypia was observed. Based on the patient-s history and mucosal biopsy, a final diagnosis of eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa was made. PMID:26312683

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children with esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, J; Tobias, V; Sugo, E; Varjavandi, V; Lemberg, D; Day, A; Bohane, T; Ledder, O; Jiwane, A; Adams, S; Henry, G; Dilley, A; Shi, E; Krishnan, U

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has only rarely been reported in esophageal atresia (EA) patients. A retrospective case analysis of all EA patients born at our center between January 1999 and April 2012 was performed. A total of 113 of patients were identified; 10 patients were excluded as a result of inadequate data. Eighteen patients (17%) were diagnosed with EoE. The average number of eosinophilis was 30/high-power field (HPF) (19/HPF-80/HPF). The median age for diagnosis of EoE was 1 year and 6 months (8 months-8 years and 7 months). Children with EoE had a significantly greater incidence of reflux symptoms, dysphagia, tracheomalacia, and 'hypoxic spells' (P < 0.05). EoE patients also underwent significantly more surgery including fundoplication and aortopexy when compared with those without EoE (P < 0.0001). Although the incidence of gastrostomy was greater in the EoE group (33% vs. 13%), this was not statistically significant. Half of the EoE patients had a coexisting atopic condition at time of diagnosis. The commonest condition was asthma 7/18 (38%) followed by specific food allergy 6/18 (33%). EoE was treated in 11 patients with either swallowed fluticasone or budesonide slurry. All improved clinically. Histologically, five had complete resolution and six had partial improvement. Six children with EoE were treated with acid suppression alone. All improved clinically, and 5/6 had subsequent histological resolution. One child who received acid suppression and an exclusion diet also improved. Seven patients (38%) had an esophageal stricture at time of EoE diagnosis. Five were dilated at time of the initial endoscopy, prior to the diagnosis of EoE being available. Two patients had resolution of their strictures on medical treatment of their EoE alone and did not require further dilatation. EoE was seen in 17% of children with EA in this study. EoE should be considered in EA patients with persistent symptoms on standard reflux treatment, increasing

  13. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (<10 eosinophils/high-power field [HPF], 11/25 cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs.

  14. Role of Eosinophil Granulocytes in Allergic Airway Inflammation Endotypes.

    PubMed

    Amin, K; Janson, C; Bystrom, J

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes are intriguing members of the innate immunity system that have been considered important defenders during parasitic diseases as well as culprits during allergy-associated inflammatory diseases. Novel studies have, however, found new homoeostasis-maintaining roles for the cell. Recent clinical trials blocking different Th2 cytokines have uncovered that asthma is heterogeneous entity and forms different characteristic endotypes. Although eosinophils are present in allergic asthma with early onset, the cells may not be essential for the pathology. The cells are, however, likely disease causing in asthma with a late onset, which is often associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Assessment of eosinophilia, fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and periostin are markers that have emerged useful in assessing and monitoring asthma severity and endotype. Current scientific knowledge suggests that eosinophils are recruited by the inflammatory environment, activated by the innate interleukin (IL)-33 and prevented from apoptosis by both lymphocytes and innate immune cells such as type two innate immune cells. Eosinophils contain four specific granule proteins that exhibit an array of toxic and immune-modulatory activates. The granule proteins can be released by different mechanisms. Additionally, eosinophils contain a number of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators as well as radical oxygen species that might contribute to the disease both by the recruitment of other cells and the direct damage to supporting cells, leading to exacerbations and tissue fibrosis. This review aimed to outline current knowledge how eosinophils are recruited, activated and mediate damage to tissues and therapies used to control the cells. PMID:27167590

  15. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features.

    PubMed

    Gelain, Maria Elena; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Bertazzolo, Walter; Zaccolo, Maurizia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2006-12-01

    A 3-year-old, male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. The cat was moderately dehydrated, had pale, slightly icteric, mucous membranes, oral ulcerations, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive. CBC results obtained at initial presentation included severe normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis (>100,000/microL) with 77% eosinophils. After 15 days of treatment with prednisone and doxycycline, the cat had persistent severe nonregenerative anemia (HCT 3.4%), thrombocytopenia (28,000/microL), and extreme eosinophilia (total eosinophils, 123.1 x 10(3)/microL; segmented 103.0 x 10(3)/microL; immature 20.1 X 10(3)/microL). Cytologic examination of aspirates from bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen revealed a predominance of mature and immature eosinophils, many with dysplastic changes. The M:E ratio was 96.4. On histopathologic examination, multiple organs were infiltrated by eosinophilic granulocytes. Neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and were negative for myeloperoxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. On flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD11b and CD14. These findings were consistent with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat associated with naturally acquired FeLV infection, in which flow cytometry was used to characterize the neoplastic cells. PMID:17123254

  16. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors on eosinophils. Binding and functional studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, T.; Ukena, D.; Kroegel, C.; Chanez, P.; Dent, G.; Chung, K.F.; Barnes, P.J. )

    1990-06-01

    We have studied the binding characteristics and functional effects of beta-adrenoceptors on human and guinea pig eosinophils. We determined the binding of the beta-antagonist radioligand (125I)pindolol (IPIN) to intact eosinophils obtained from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs and from blood of patients with eosinophilia. Specific binding was saturable, and Scatchard analysis showed a single binding site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 24.6 pM and maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 7,166 per cell. ICI 118,551, a beta 2-selective antagonist, inhibited IPIN binding with a Ki value of 0.28 nM and was approximately 5,000-fold more effective than the beta 1-selective antagonist, atenolol. Isoproterenol increased cAMP levels about 5.5-fold above basal levels (EC50 = 25 microM); albuterol, a beta 2-agonist, behaved as a partial agonist with a maximal stimulation of 80%. Binding to human eosinophils gave similar results with a Kd of 25.3 pM and a Bmax corresponding to 4,333 sites per cell. Incubation of both human and guinea pig eosinophils with opsonized zymosan (2 mg/ml) or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) resulted in superoxide anion generation and the release of eosinophil peroxidase; albuterol (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) had no inhibitory effect on the release of these products. Thus, eosinophils from patients with eosinophilia and from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs possess beta-receptors of the beta 2-subtype that are coupled to adenylate cyclase; however, these receptors do not modulate oxidative metabolism or degranulation. The possible therapeutic consequences of these observations to asthma are discussed.

  17. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  18. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  19. Altered Eosinophil Proteome in a Patient with Hypereosinophilia from Acute Fascioliasis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Christof; Burnham, Jason P.; White, A. Clinton; Pazdrak, Konrad; Sanchez, Cesar; Watanabe, Luis Carlos; Kurosky, Alexander; Montes, Martín

    2011-01-01

    We used comparative proteomics to analyze eosinophils from a patient with hypereosinophilia due to fascioliasis. Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that the eosinophil proteome was significantly altered compared to those of healthy controls. PMID:21955624

  20. [Basophil count of the newborn is not useful in prediction of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Calbi, M; Giacchetti, L; Coppola, A; Triggiani, M

    1996-01-01

    Basophil granulocytes and their mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. We evaluated basophil count, blood histamine content, eosinophil count and serum total IgE levels in one hundred-thirteen healthy newborns at birth. 108 children were prospectively studied with a follow-up to 18 months of age for development of topic disorders. No difference was found in newborns with biparental family history of atopy (FHA) in comparison with newborns with monoparental FHA and with newborns without FHA. Children who developed atopic disorders had neonatal basophil count higher than those who did not develop atopic symptoms (p = 0.03). No significant correlation was found between basophil and eosinophil counts (r = 0.013), between basophil count and serum total IgE levels (r = 0.012) and between basophil count and blood histamine content. Positive predictive value and sensitivity of basophil count for allergy up to 18 months of age was respectively only 33% and 27%. Our data indicate that an increased basophil count at birth is not associated with FHA and is not a good predictive marker of atopy.

  1. Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils

    SciTech Connect

    Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P. )

    1991-09-01

    The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 {times} 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 {plus minus} 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 {plus minus} 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 {plus minus} 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 {plus minus} 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of (3H)LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 {plus minus} 0.14 and 18.14 {plus minus} 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 {times} 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 {times} 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions.

  2. Case of invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma mimicking chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Beom, Jong Wook; Lee, Jong Hoo

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mucinous carcinoma is difficult to distinguish from other lung diseases; therefore, confirmation of the diagnosis may be delayed. A 64-year-old woman was admitted with a six-month history of cough, febrile sensation, and shortness of breath, with worsening symptoms. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed bilateral homogenous ground-glass opacities and consolidation with subpleural predominance. The percentage of eosinophils in the serum and induced sputum was elevated and a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was established. Despite administration of a systemic steroid, she did not rapidly respond. We performed a percutaneous needle biopsy and finally confirmed invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. PMID:26766997

  3. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon

    2016-01-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  4. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon; Park, Ki-Jong

    2016-06-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis as paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with ganglioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Prader, S; Spalinger, J; Caduff, J; Hürlimann, S; Rischewski, J

    2015-05-01

    A 16-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive despite sufficient caloric intake, hypersalivation, abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea and blepharitis. An eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was diagnosed by esophageal biopsy. Dietary restrictions and topical steroid treatment lead to no improvement. Further diagnostic work-up revealed an intrathoracal, paraspinal ganglioneuroblastoma. After operative extirpation of the tumour, all initial symptoms resolved. An esophageal control biopsy 4 weeks after tumour resection was normal. This is the first report of eosinophilic esophagitis as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with a malignant disease other than a carcinoma. PMID:25985452

  6. Recent advances in the recognition and management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Eustace, Gregory; Gui, Xianyong; Iacucci, Marietta

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and recognition of eosinophilic esophagitis is increasing. Pathophysiological understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis is improving and an immunological reaction to ingested food is likely to play a significant role. Patients present with dysphagia and food bolus obstruction. Both histological and endoscopic criteria have been developed and validated. Dietary therapy, topical steroid therapy, proton pump inhibitors and endoscopic dilation are the main approaches to therapy; however, novel targeted therapies are being developed. Among the food items commonly implicated are wheat, dairy, nuts, soy, shellfish and eggs. A multidisciplinary approach to management in dedicated clinics may yield the best results.

  7. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  8. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  9. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, R Brian; Noble, James M; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Delapaz, Robert; Wright, Clinton B

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases. A 39-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left-sided weakness. Laboratory evaluation showed an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but otherwise unremarkable serologies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral-enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over two weeks without residual deficits. Eighteen months later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings showed involvement of territories different from those in her first episode. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrinoid necrosis without granulomas. She improved when treated with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient’s primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. PMID:21686608

  10. Eosinophilic meningitis: cause of a chronic pain syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, P D; Corbett, A J; Pryor, D S; Garrick, R

    1990-01-01

    Three tourists developed eosinophilic meningitis after visiting the Fijian Islands. Two had a severe and long lasting illness with chronic intractable pain. In one patient electrophysiological studies and MRI scan of the brain were abnormal and provided evidence of both radicular and cerebral parenchymal involvement by the most likely causative agent, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Images PMID:2246659

  11. Unraveling the complexity of lipid body organelles in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Melo, Rossana C N; Weller, Peter F

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-rich organelles are common in many cell types. In cells, such as adipocytes, these organelles are termed LDs, whereas in other cells, such as leukocytes, they are called LBs. The study of leukocyte LBs has attracted attention as a result of their association with human diseases. In leukocytes, such as eosinophils, LB accumulation has been documented extensively during inflammatory conditions. In these cells, LBs are linked to the regulation of immune responses by compartmentalization of several proteins and lipids involved in the control and biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). However, it has been unclear how diverse proteins, including membrane-associated enzymes involved in eicosanoid formation, incorporate into LBs, especially if the internal content of LBs is assumed to consist solely of stores of neutral lipids, as present within adipocyte LDs. Studies of the formation, function, and ultrastructure of LBs in eosinophils have been providing insights pertinent to LBs in other leukocytes. Here, we review current knowledge of the composition and function of leukocyte LBs as provided by studies of human eosinophil LBs, including recognitions of the internal architecture of eosinophil LBs based on 3D electron tomographic analyses.

  12. The oesophageal string test: a novel, minimally invasive method measures mucosal inflammation in eosinophilic oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kagalwalla, Amir F; Lee, James J; Alumkal, Preeth; Maybruck, Brian T; Fillon, Sophie; Masterson, Joanne C; Ochkur, Sergei; Protheroe, Cheryl; Moore, Wendy; Pan, Zhaoxing; Amsden, Katie; Robinson, Zachary; Capocelli, Kelley; Mukkada, Vince; Atkins, Dan; Fleischer, David; Hosford, Lindsay; Kwatia, Mark A; Schroeder, Shauna; Kelly, Caleb; Lovell, Mark; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Ackerman, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Eosinophil predominant inflammation characterises histological features of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). Endoscopy with biopsy is currently the only method to assess oesophageal mucosal inflammation in EoE. We hypothesised that measurements of luminal eosinophil-derived proteins would correlate with oesophageal mucosal inflammation in children with EoE. Design The Enterotest diagnostic device was used to develop an oesophageal string test (EST) as a minimally invasive clinical device. EST samples and oesophageal mucosal biopsies were obtained from children undergoing upper endoscopy for clinically defined indications. Eosinophil-derived proteins including eosinophil secondary granule proteins (major basic protein-1, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil peroxidase) and Charcot–Leyden crystal protein/galectin-10 were measured by ELISA in luminal effluents eluted from ESTs and extracts of mucosal biopsies. Results ESTs were performed in 41 children with active EoE (n=14), EoE in remission (n=8), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (n=4) and controls with normal oesophagus (n=15). EST measurement of eosinophil-derived protein biomarkers significantly distinguished between children with active EoE, treated EoE in remission, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and normal oesophagus. Levels of luminal eosinophil-derived proteins in EST samples significantly correlated with peak and mean oesophageal eosinophils/high power field (HPF), eosinophil peroxidase indices and levels of the same eosinophil-derived proteins in extracts of oesophageal biopsies. Conclusions The presence of eosinophil-derived proteins in luminal secretions is reflective of mucosal inflammation in children with EoE. The EST is a novel, minimally invasive device for measuring oesophageal eosinophilic inflammation in children with EoE. PMID:22895393

  13. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, R B; Noble, J M; Vonsattel, J P; Delapaz, R; Wright, C B

    2007-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases; presentation in an isolated CNS distribution is rare. We present a case of eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. Case report A 39‐year‐old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution (located in the borough of Queens, New York, USA; no academic affiliation) in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left‐sided weakness and numbness. Laboratory evaluation showed increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but an otherwise unremarkable serological investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral‐enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over 2 weeks without residual deficit. After 18 months, later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings involving territories different from those in her first episode. Again, the CSF protein level was high. She had a raised C reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates of medium‐sized leptomeningeal arteries without granulomas. She improved, without recurrence, when treated with a prolonged course of corticosteroids. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first case of non‐granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient's primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. Spontaneous resolution and recurrence of her syndrome is an unusual feature of the typical CNS vasculitis and may suggest an environmental epitope with immune reaction as the cause. PMID:16926236

  14. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  15. First-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse cytokine-afforded eosinophil survival by enhancing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hasala, Hannele; Moilanen, Eeva; Janka-Junttila, Mirkka; Giembycz, Mark A; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    Antihistamines or histamine H1-receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat a variety of allergic symptoms. Eosinophils are considered to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of allergy. Reduced eosinophil apoptosis is thought to be an important element in the formation of eosinophilia in allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine on constitutive eosinophil apoptosis and on interleukin (IL)-5-afforded eosinophil survival. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating the effects of antihistamines on eosinophil apoptosis was evaluated also. Apoptosis of isolated human eosinophils was assessed by measuring the relative DNA content of propidium iodide-stained cells and confirmed by morphological analysis. The activity of JNK was measured by Western blotting. Antihistamines were found to reverse the survival-prolonging effect of IL-5 in eosinophils by enhancing apoptosis. JNK was found to be activated slowly during diphenhydramine-induced eosinophil apoptosis. An inhibitor peptide specific for JNK, L-JNKI1 (JNK peptide inhibitor 1, L-stereoisomer), inhibited diphenhydramine-mediated eosinophil apoptosis. Our results suggest that first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival and that the enhanced apoptosis by antihistamines is mediated through activation of JNK. Thus, reversal of IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival may contribute to the antiallergic actions of diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine.

  16. Specific pollen allergen activates eosinophils of the patient with chronic allergic contact urticaria.

    PubMed

    Panaszek, B; Małolepszy, J; Kuryszko, J; Litwa, M

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of eosinophils in an unique case of a young man with atopy manifested as chronic pollen contact urticaria. In order to reveal the role of eosinophils in that case, the study was performed by means of monoclonal antibodies EG2 and chemiluminescence. In addition, comparative electron microscopic study of peripheral blood and skin infiltrating eosinophils were performed for which the name ultrastructural morphometric analysis of intracytoplasmic eosinophil granules has been proposed. The results indicated, that 40% of peripheral blood eosinophils were activated spontaneously and they were more active than those in skin infiltrates. Specific pollen allergen caused activation of 100% of peripheral blood eosinophils. The study suggests presence of a systemic pattern of eosinophil activation in atopy. PMID:7487362

  17. The Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Space - Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    1987-09-01

    The need for absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors will continue to increase as new generations of space sensors are developed. A reflectance -based in-flight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of the sensor. This procedure uses ground-based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of five calibrations of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). For the 12 measurements made in TM bands 1-3, the RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean is (+OR-) 1.9%, and for measurements in the IR, TM bands 4,5, and 7, the value is (+OR-) 3.4%. The RMS variation for all 23 measurements is (+OR-) 2.8%. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of three calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible, (HRV), sensors. The ratio, HRV-2/HRV-1, of absolute calibration coefficients compared very well with ratios of histogrammed data obtained when the cameras simultaneously imaged the same ground site. Bands PA, B1 and B3 agreed to within 3%, while band B2 showed a 7% difference. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft -based radiometer data. This procedure was applied on four dates with two different surface conditions per date. A strong correlation, R('2) = .996, was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low-flying aircraft

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis prevalence in an adult population undergoing upper endoscopy in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz-Patiño, E; Ruíz Juárez, I; Meixueiro Daza, A; Grube Pagola, P; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Remes-Troche, J M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) prevalence fluctuates according to the population studied and varies from 0.4% in an open population to 6.5% in subjects with esophageal symptoms. Even though this entity has been described in North American and European populations, it is still considered an 'unusual' condition in Latin America. The study aimed to determine EoE prevalence in patients undergoing elective endoscopy in a tertiary referral center in southeastern Mexico. Consecutive patients were evaluated that had been referred to the Medical and Biological Research Institute, Veracruz, Mexico, for upper endoscopy due to gastrointestinal symptoms. Demographic variables and symptoms were analyzed in all the cases. Eight mucosal biopsies of the esophagus (four proximal and four distal) were obtained and were reviewed by a blinded pathologist. Histological diagnosis was established when the mean eosinophil count at a large magnification was ≥15. A total of 235 subjects (137 women, 51.16 years) were evaluated, and EoE prevalence was 1.7% (4/235 95% confidence interval 0.2-3.6%). In all four cases, pH test were normal. Among patients with histological diagnosis of EoE, a greater number of patients with a past history of asthma (50% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.04) and a tendency for a greater frequency of dysphagia (50% vs. 25%, P = 0.10). There were no differences in the endoscopic findings (rings, grooves, plaques, or stricture) when compared with the patients presenting with erosive esophagitis. EoE prevalence among patients undergoing upper endoscopy from southeastern Mexico was 1.7%, which can be regarded as intermediate to low.

  19. The Development of a Sensitive and Specific ELISA for Mouse Eosinophil Peroxidase: Assessment of Eosinophil Degranulation Ex Vivo and in Models of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ochkur, Sergei I.; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Colbert, Dana; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of eosinophilic disorders are often part of preclinical studies investigating the underlying biological mechanisms of disease pathology. The presence of extracellular eosinophil granule proteins in affected tissues is a well established and specific marker of eosinophil activation in both patients and mouse models of human disease. Unfortunately, assessments of granule proteins in the mouse have been limited by the availability of specific antibodies and a reliance on assays of released enzymatic activities that are often neither sensitive nor eosinophil specific. The ability to immunologically detect and quantify the presence of a mouse eosinophil granule protein in biological fluids and/or tissue extracts was achieved by the generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for eosinophil peroxidase (EPX). This strategy identified unique pairs of antibodies with high avidity to the target protein and led to the development of a unique sandwich ELISA for the detection of EPX. Full factorial design was used to develop this ELISA, generating an assay that is eosinophil-specific and nearly 10 times more sensitive than traditional OPD-based detection methods of peroxidase activity. The added sensitivity afforded by this novel assay was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several setting, including bronchoalveolar fluid from OVA sensitized/challenged mice (an animal model of asthma), serum samples derived from peripheral blood recovered from the tail vasculature, and from purified mouse eosinophils stimulated ex vivo with platelet activating factor (PAF) and PAF + ionomycin. This ability to assess mouse eosinophil degranulation represents a specific, sensitive, and reproducible assay that fulfills a critical need in studies of eosinophil-associated pathologies in mice. PMID:22019643

  20. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  1. Trans-basement membrane migration of eosinophils induced by LPS-stimulated neutrophils from human peripheral blood in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Fuyumi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Noguchi, Toru; Araki, Ryuichiro; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Soma, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In the airways of severe asthmatics, an increase of neutrophils and eosinophils is often observed despite high-dose corticosteroid therapy. We previously reported that interleukin-8-stimulated neutrophils induced trans-basement membrane migration (TBM) of eosinophils, suggesting the link between neutrophils and eosinophils. Concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the airway increase in severe asthma. As neutrophils express Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and can release chemoattractants for eosinophils, we investigated whether LPS-stimulated neutrophils modify eosinophil TBM. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and severe asthmatics. Eosinophil TBM was examined using a modified Boyden's chamber technique. Eosinophils were added to the upper compartment, and neutrophils and LPS were added to the lower compartment. Migrated eosinophils were measured by eosinophil peroxidase assays. LPS-stimulated neutrophils induced eosinophil TBM (about 10-fold increase), although LPS or neutrophils alone did not. A leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist, a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist or an anti-TLR4 antibody decreased eosinophil TBM enhanced by LPS-stimulated neutrophils by almost half. Neutrophils from severe asthmatics induced eosinophil TBM and lower concentrations of LPS augmented neutrophil-induced eosinophil TBM. These results suggest that the combination of neutrophils and LPS leads eosinophils to accumulate in the airways, possibly involved the pathogenesis of severe asthma. PMID:27730145

  2. A sensitive high throughput ELISA for human eosinophil peroxidase: a specific assay to quantify eosinophil degranulation from patient-derived sources.

    PubMed

    Ochkur, Sergei I; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Jarjour, Nizar N; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P; Furuta, Glenn T; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-10-31

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings.

  3. Interaction of eosinophils with endothelial cells is modulated by prostaglandin EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Bálint, Zoltán; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Sturm, Eva M; Schicho, Rudolf; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2011-08-01

    Eosinophil extravasation across the endothelium is a key feature of allergic inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of PGE(2) and its receptor, E-type prostanoid receptor (EP)-4, in the regulation of eosinophil interaction with human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. PGE(2) and the EP4 receptor agonist ONO AE1-329 significantly reduced eotaxin-induced eosinophil adhesion to fibronectin, and formation of filamentous actin and gelsolin-rich adhesive structures. These inhibitory effects were reversed by a selective EP4 receptor antagonist, ONO AE3-208. PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist prevented the activation and cell-surface clustering of β2 integrins, and L-selectin shedding of eosinophils. Under physiological flow conditions, eosinophils that were treated with the EP4 agonist showed reduced adhesion to endothelial monolayers upon stimulation with eotaxin, as well as after TNF-α-induced activation of the endothelial cells. Selective activation of EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors did not alter eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells, whereas the EP4 antagonist prevented PGE(2) from decreasing eosinophil adhesion. Finally, eosinophil transmigration across thrombin- and TNF-α-activated endothelial cells was effectively reduced by the EP4 agonist. These data suggest that PGE(2) -EP4 signaling might be protective against allergic responses by inhibiting the interaction of eosinophils with the endothelium and might hence be a useful therapeutic option for controlling inappropriate eosinophil infiltration.

  4. Small intestinal eosinophils regulate Th17 cells by producing IL-1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Reiko; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Min Seong; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Areum; Yun, Chang Ho; Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, You-Me; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jung, YunJae; Surh, Charles D.; Miyasaka, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils play proinflammatory roles in helminth infections and allergic diseases. Under steady-state conditions, eosinophils are abundantly found in the small intestinal lamina propria, but their physiological function is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small intestine were markedly increased in the ΔdblGATA-1 mice lacking eosinophils, and an inverse correlation was observed between the number of eosinophils and that of Th17 cells in the small intestine of wild-type mice. In addition, small intestinal eosinophils suppressed the in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells, as well as IL-17 production by small intestinal CD4+ T cells. Unlike other small intestinal immune cells or circulating eosinophils, we found that small intestinal eosinophils have a unique ability to constitutively secrete high levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β. Moreover, small intestinal eosinophils isolated from IL-1Ra−deficient mice failed to suppress Th17 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that small intestinal eosinophils play a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by regulating Th17 cells via production of IL-1Ra. PMID:26951334

  5. Cooperation between interleukin-5 and the chemokine eotaxin to induce eosinophil accumulation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were designed to study the effect of systemically administered IL-5 on local eosinophil accumulation induced by the intradermal injection of the chemokine eotaxin in the guinea pig. Intravenous interleukin-5 (IL-5) stimulated a rapid and dramatic increase in the numbers of accumulating eosinophils induced by i.d.- injected eotaxin and, for comparison, leukotriene B4. The numbers of locally accumulating eosinophils correlated directly with a rapid increase in circulating eosinophils: circulating eosinophil numbers were 13-fold higher 1 h after intravenous IL-5 (18.3 pmol/kg). This increase in circulating cells corresponded with a reduction in the number of displaceable eosinophils recovered after flushing out the femur bone marrow cavity. Intradermal IL-5, at the doses tested, did not induce significant eosinophil accumulation. We propose that these experiments simulate important early features of the tissue response to local allergen exposure in a sensitized individual, with eosinophil chemoattractant chemokines having an important local role in eosinophil recruitment from blood microvessels, and IL-5 facilitating this process by acting remotely as a hormone to stimulate the release into the circulation of a rapidly mobilizable pool of bone marrow eosinophils. This action of IL-5 would be complementary to the other established activities of IL-5 that operate over a longer time course. PMID:7561691

  6. [Differencial diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease -- eosinophilic esophagitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Franzius, M; Stolte, M; Porschen, R

    2005-04-01

    We report on a 22-year-old man with dysphagia and repeated bolus impaction in the esophagus for 10 years. Bolus impactions were frequently mobilised using an endoscope. At endoscopy, esophagitis IV degrees was described. After treatment with omeprazol there was no improvement. The patient was submitted to our hospital for fundoplication. pH-metry demonstrated an increased reflux. At endoscopy of the esophagus, we found red stripes which did not show the typical appearance of erosions. Manometry and X-ray films of the esophagus did not reveal any pathological findings. In combination with anamnesis, symptoms, and endoscopy, the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis was documented by histology. After administration of oral corticosteroids a rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms was observed. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis should be kept in mind in patients with chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux persisting despite medical therapy, pathological pH-metry and repeated bolus impactions.

  7. Eosinophilic fasciitis in South Africa. A report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Forman, M B; Lewin, J R; Gear, A J; Solomon, L

    1981-04-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis was first described by Shulman in 1974 and is characterized by oedema of the extremities, peripheral eosinophilia, hypergammaglobulinaemia and inflammation of the deep fascia. The condition has not been previously reported in South Africa. We describe 2 cases seen at the Rheumatology Clinic of the Johannesburg Hospital recently. The most striking clinical features were the marked palmar fascial thickening and oedema of the hands and feet. The latter is said to be uncommon in this syndrome and mimicked the early changes of scleroderma. Furthermore, blood eosinophilia may also occur in scleroderma. Our patients illustrated the extremely variable laboratory features in this disorder. In accordance with previous findings in the literature, visceral involvement was absent in our cases. We suggest that in patients without Raynaud's phenomenon who present with scleroderma-like changes of the distal extremities, a diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis should be excluded by a full-thickness biopsy.

  8. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: The "Not-So-Rare" Disease.

    PubMed

    Goh, Vi Lier

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively newly described disorder with increasing incidence. Patients with EoE may present at all ages from childhood through adulthood. Presenting symptoms may vary from feeding refusal, gagging, and/or vomiting in the younger population, dysphagia, chest pain, and abdominal pain in adolescents, as well as emergent food impactions. However, there are strict diagnostic criteria that must be met to make the diagnosis. Specifically, the diagnosis of EoE requires at least 15 eosinophils per high-powered field in the esophageal biopsies and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction after other causes, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, have been ruled out. Common treatments include diet modifications and/or topical corticosteroids. PMID:26878186

  9. Eosinophilic pleuritis due to sparganum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Chang, You-Jin; Eom, Keeseon; Park, Jung-Gi; Lee, Ki-Man; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; An, Jin-Young

    2014-10-01

    Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  10. Emphysematous Eosinophilic Lymphangitis in the Ruminal Submucosa of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ohfuji, S

    2015-11-01

    Twenty cattle (14 Holstein-Friesian, 3 Japanese Black, 3 Aberdeen Angus) ranging in age from 3 months to 8 years exhibited, at slaughter, emphysematous thickening of the ruminal submucosa owing to the appearance of numerous, contiguous, small gas bubbles. Microscopic changes in the ruminal submucosa consisted of (1) multiple cystic (emphysematous) lymphangiectasis that was frequently lined or occluded by granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates including macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, and eosinophils; (2) intralymphatic phagocytosis by macrophages and giant cells of eosinophils that showed positive labeling with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay; and (3) an inflammatory infiltrate extending from the area of lymphangitis into surrounding tissue, as well as edema, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibroplasia, or capillary proliferation throughout the lesional submucosa. In addition, 15 (75%) of the cattle had globular leukocyte infiltrates in the mucosal epithelia of the rumen.

  11. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Pyrethroid Exposure & Change In Smoking Habit!

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Kevin; Klair, Jagpal Singh; Johnsrud, Andrew; Meena, Nikhil K

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP) in a 29-year-old white woman with recent use of a'flea bomb' (containing pyrethroids) at home while remaining indoors, about 48 hours prior to presentation, and recent change in smoking habit (restarted 2 weeks prior after quitting for 10 years). She presented with two days of worsening fever, shortness of breath, productive cough, developed hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. She required a PEEP of 20 and 100% FiO2 to maintain oxygenation. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed 36% Eosinophils. She was given IV steroids with dramatic clinical and radiological improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report associating AEP with pyrethroid exposure. PMID:27434983

  12. Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Patient with Bronchial Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Arindom; Al-Ismaili, Suad; Ramadhan, Fatma A.; Al-Wardi, Talal H. M.; Al-Salmi, Quasem; Al-Hashami, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary myiasis is an unusual form of myiasis in humans and has been recently identified as a cause of eosinophilic pneumonia. We report the case of a 13-year-old Omani boy who presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in October 2014 with respiratory distress. Bronchial aspirates revealed features of eosinophilic pneumonia. Possible larvae identified in the cytology report, a high immunoglobulin E level and the patient history all indicated bronchial myiasis. The patient was treated with steroids and ventilation and has since been disease-free with no long-term side-effects. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of bronchial myiasis in Oman. PMID:26629385

  13. Eosinophilic pleuritis due to sparganum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Chang, You-Jin; Eom, Keeseon; Park, Jung-Gi; Lee, Ki-Man; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; An, Jin-Young

    2014-10-01

    Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:25352705

  14. A rare cause of chronic dysphagia: eosinophilic esophagitis†

    PubMed Central

    Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan; Tatar, Zeynep; Erbil, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is attributable to environmental factors, allergens and several immunological causes. The most typical symptoms include dysphagia and sensation of food impingement in the retrosternal area. Although its clinical features resemble those of gastroesophageal reflux, proton pump inhibitors are not effective for its treatment. The diagnosis of EE is dependent on the pathological detection of eosinophilic infiltration in esophageal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated a patient who applied to our clinic with complaints of long-term difficulty in swallowing, sensation of food sticking while eating and weight loss; the patient was diagnosed with EE, following biochemical, radiological, endoscopic and pathological assessments and was treated with steroids. The results show that EE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with dysphagia and food impingement in the retrosternal area, and the diagnosis should be confirmed through multiple esophageal biopsies. PMID:25249002

  15. A rare cause of chronic dysphagia: eosinophilic esophagitis†.

    PubMed

    Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan; Tatar, Zeynep; Erbil, Yesim

    2014-09-23

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is attributable to environmental factors, allergens and several immunological causes. The most typical symptoms include dysphagia and sensation of food impingement in the retrosternal area. Although its clinical features resemble those of gastroesophageal reflux, proton pump inhibitors are not effective for its treatment. The diagnosis of EE is dependent on the pathological detection of eosinophilic infiltration in esophageal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated a patient who applied to our clinic with complaints of long-term difficulty in swallowing, sensation of food sticking while eating and weight loss; the patient was diagnosed with EE, following biochemical, radiological, endoscopic and pathological assessments and was treated with steroids. The results show that EE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with dysphagia and food impingement in the retrosternal area, and the diagnosis should be confirmed through multiple esophageal biopsies.

  16. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Won Jung; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity. PMID:22563277

  17. T-helper 2 Cytokines, Transforming Growth Factor β1, and Eosinophil Products Induce Fibrogenesis and Alter Muscle Motility in Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Nonevski, Ilche; Ma, Jie; Ouyang, Zhufeng; West, Gail; Protheroe, Cheryl; DePetris, Giovanni; Schirbel, Anja; Lapinski, James; Goldblum, John; Bonfield, Tracey; Lopez, Rocio; Harnett, Karen; Lee, James; Hirano, Ikuo; Falk, Gary; Biancani, Piero; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) often become dysphagic from the combination of organ fibrosis and motor abnormalities. We investigated mechanisms of dysphagia, assessing the response of human esophageal fibroblasts (HEF), muscle cells (HEMC), and esophageal muscle strips to eosinophil-derived products. METHODS Biopsies were collected via endoscopy from the upper, middle and lower thirds of the esophagus of 18 patients with EoE and 21 individuals undergoing endoscopy for other reasons (controls). Primary cultures of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells were derived from 12 freshly resected human esophagectomy specimens. Eosinophil distribution was investigated by histologic analyses of full-thickness esophageal tissue. Active secretion of EoE-related mediators was assessed from medium underlying mucosal biopsy cultures. We quantified production of fibronectin and collagen I by HEF and HEMC in response to eosinophil products. We also measured expression of ICAM1 and VCAM1 by, and adhesion of human eosinophils to, HEF and HEMC. Eosinophil products were tested in an esophageal muscle contraction assay. RESULTS Activated eosinophils were present in all esophageal layers. Significantly higher concentrations of eosinophil-related mediators were spontaneously secreted in mucosal biopsies from patients with EoE than controls. Exposure of HEF and HEMC to increasing concentrations of eosinophil products or co-culture with eosinophils caused HEF and HEMC to increase secretion of fibronectin and collagen I; this was inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAKP) signaling. Eosinophil binding to HEF and HEMC increased following incubation of mesenchymal cells with eosinophil-derived products, and decreased following blockade of TGFβ1 and p38MAPK blockade. Eosinophil products reduced electrical field-induced contraction of esophageal muscle strips, but not acetylcholine

  18. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group.

  19. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group. PMID:27610357

  20. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Thirumazhisai; Prabhakar, Gautham; Schwartz, Alan; Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep; Berman, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group. PMID:27610357

  1. Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis and Concomitant Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, Michael A; Garg, Ankit; Ro, Brandon; Wang, Christopher; Yang, Tony T C; Plener, Ian S; Grin, Andrea; Colak, Errol; Grover, Samir C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is an idiopathic benign chronic disease characterized by flask-like outpouchings of the esophageal wall. It is unknown whether there is a genuine association between EIPD and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Aims. To investigate a possible relationship between EIPD and EoE. Methods. Patients with radiographic or endoscopic evidence of pseudodiverticulosis were identified from the database at a single academic center. Cases were analyzed in three areas: clinical information, endoscopic findings, and course. Results. Sixteen cases of esophageal pseudodiverticulosis were identified. Five patients had histologic evidence of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients with EoE had pseudodiverticula in the mid-to-distal esophagus while those with EIPD had pseudodiverticula predominantly in the proximal esophagus (p < 0.001). EoE with pseudodiverticulosis occurred in younger patients (p < 0.019). Food bolus obstructions were more common in patients with EoE and pseudodiverticulosis than in EIPD (p < 0.034). Conclusions. This is the first case series supporting a potential association between EoE and pseudodiverticulosis. We also identify characteristic features of pseudodiverticulosis that may raise clinical suspicion of underlying eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:27648438

  2. Eosinophilic Cystitis: A Rare Cause of Nocturnal Enuresis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Ozcan; Akand, Murat; Gul, Murat; Karabagli, Pinar; Goktas, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare and poorly understood inflammatory condition, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of all layers of the bladder wall, which mimics bladder tumors. EC may present with symptoms such as increased urination frequency, dysuria, gross/microscopic hematuria, suprapubic pain and urinary retention. Case Presentation We present a 17-year-old male patient, who was continent night and day in his childhood, and was admitted to our clinic for complaints of hematuria and nocturnal enuresis for the past six months. His history and physical examination were unremarkable, and routine hematological and biochemical tests were normal. Cystoscopy revealed a 4 × 3 cm erythematous, polypoidal, solid lesion on the bladder dome. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed transitional epithelium with stromal edema, where diffuse, dense infiltration of lamina propria by eosinophils and lymphocytes was also seen. According to these findings, a histopathological diagnosis of EC was made, and the patient was treated with corticosteroids, antimicrobial agents and antihistamines. His symptoms dramatically improved and nocturnal enuresis also recovered after treatment. Conclusions Although it is a rare entity, EC should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dysuria, hematuria and any kind of acquired voiding dysfunction, including frequency, pollakiuria and incontinence.

  3. Role of biologics in severe eosinophilic asthma - focus on reslizumab.

    PubMed

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Vatrella, Alessandro; Busceti, Maria Teresa; Gallelli, Luca; Preianò, Mariaimmacolata; Lombardo, Nicola; Terracciano, Rosa; Maselli, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of the heterogeneous phenotypic stratification of asthmatic population, many patients are characterized by moderate-to-severe eosinophilic asthma, not adequately controlled by relatively high dosages of inhaled and even oral corticosteroids. Therefore, these subjects can obtain significant therapeutic benefits by additional biologic treatments targeting interleukin-5 (IL-5), given the key pathogenic role played by this cytokine in maturation, activation, proliferation, and survival of eosinophils. In particular, reslizumab is a humanized anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody that has been found to be an effective and safe add-on therapy, capable of decreasing asthma exacerbations and significantly improving disease control and lung function in patients experiencing persistent allergic or nonallergic eosinophilic asthma, despite the regular use of moderate-to-high doses of inhaled corticosteroids. These important therapeutic effects of reslizumab, demonstrated by several controlled clinical trials, have led to the recent approval by US Food and Drug Administration of its use, together with other antiasthma medications, for the maintenance treatment of patients suffering from severe uncontrolled asthma. PMID:27445482

  4. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Allison J; Hitt, Stacy L; Stier, Michael A; Houser, Laura M

    2015-10-01

    Background Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM) is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1) myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2) myocyte necrosis and eventually (3) fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM. PMID:26495174

  5. Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis and Concomitant Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Scaffidi, Michael A.; Garg, Ankit; Ro, Brandon; Wang, Christopher; Yang, Tony T. C.; Plener, Ian S.; Grin, Andrea; Colak, Errol

    2016-01-01

    Background. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is an idiopathic benign chronic disease characterized by flask-like outpouchings of the esophageal wall. It is unknown whether there is a genuine association between EIPD and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Aims. To investigate a possible relationship between EIPD and EoE. Methods. Patients with radiographic or endoscopic evidence of pseudodiverticulosis were identified from the database at a single academic center. Cases were analyzed in three areas: clinical information, endoscopic findings, and course. Results. Sixteen cases of esophageal pseudodiverticulosis were identified. Five patients had histologic evidence of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients with EoE had pseudodiverticula in the mid-to-distal esophagus while those with EIPD had pseudodiverticula predominantly in the proximal esophagus (p < 0.001). EoE with pseudodiverticulosis occurred in younger patients (p < 0.019). Food bolus obstructions were more common in patients with EoE and pseudodiverticulosis than in EIPD (p < 0.034). Conclusions. This is the first case series supporting a potential association between EoE and pseudodiverticulosis. We also identify characteristic features of pseudodiverticulosis that may raise clinical suspicion of underlying eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:27648438

  6. Clinical Implications and Pathogenesis of Esophageal Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Ikuo; Aceves, Seema S.

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), remodeling changes are manifest histologically in both the epithelium as well as in the subepithelium where lamina propria (LP) fibrosis, expansion of the muscularis propria and increased vascularity occur. The major clinical symptoms and complications of EoE are largely consequences of esophageal remodeling. Important mediators of the process include IL-5, IL-13, TGFβ1, mast cells, fibroblasts and eosinophils. Methods to detect remodeling effects include upper endoscopy, histopathology, barium esophagram, endoscopic ultrasonography, esophageal manometry, and functional luminal imaging. These modalities provide evidence of organ dysfunction that include focal and diffuse esophageal strictures, expansion of the mucosa and subepithelium, esophageal motor abnormalities and reduced esophageal distensibility. Complications of food impaction and perforations of the esophageal wall have been associated with reduction in esophageal caliber and increased esophageal mural stiffness. The therapeutic benefits of topical corticosteroids and elimination diet therapy in resolving mucosal eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus are evident. Available therapies, however, have demonstrated variable ability to reverse existing remodeling changes of the esophagus. Systemic therapies that include novel, targeted biologic agents have the potential of addressing subepithelial remodeling. Esophageal dilation remains a useful, adjunctive therapeutic maneuver in symptomatic adults with esophageal stricture. As novel treatments emerge, it is essential that therapeutic endpoints account for the fundamental contributions of esophageal remodeling to overall disease activity. PMID:24813517

  7. Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis and Concomitant Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Scaffidi, Michael A.; Garg, Ankit; Ro, Brandon; Wang, Christopher; Yang, Tony T. C.; Plener, Ian S.; Grin, Andrea; Colak, Errol

    2016-01-01

    Background. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is an idiopathic benign chronic disease characterized by flask-like outpouchings of the esophageal wall. It is unknown whether there is a genuine association between EIPD and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Aims. To investigate a possible relationship between EIPD and EoE. Methods. Patients with radiographic or endoscopic evidence of pseudodiverticulosis were identified from the database at a single academic center. Cases were analyzed in three areas: clinical information, endoscopic findings, and course. Results. Sixteen cases of esophageal pseudodiverticulosis were identified. Five patients had histologic evidence of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients with EoE had pseudodiverticula in the mid-to-distal esophagus while those with EIPD had pseudodiverticula predominantly in the proximal esophagus (p < 0.001). EoE with pseudodiverticulosis occurred in younger patients (p < 0.019). Food bolus obstructions were more common in patients with EoE and pseudodiverticulosis than in EIPD (p < 0.034). Conclusions. This is the first case series supporting a potential association between EoE and pseudodiverticulosis. We also identify characteristic features of pseudodiverticulosis that may raise clinical suspicion of underlying eosinophilic esophagitis.

  8. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  9. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  10. CSF cell count

    MedlinePlus

    The normal white blood cell count is between 0 and 5. The normal red blood cell count is 0. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about ... use different measurements or may test different specimens.

  11. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  12. [Acute myocardial infarction as Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg Strauss syndrome) initial presentation].

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Wahinuddin; Seung, Ong Ping; Noor, Sabariah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare primary vasculitic disease characterized by hypereosinophilia, late onset asthma and extravascular eosinophil granulomas. We report a case presented initially with acute myocardial infarction which later only proceed with asthma, skin manifestations and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory parameters showed hypereosinohpilia with negative perinuclear pattern of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA). Skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration while coronary angiography was normal. The patient's symptoms improved with IV methylprednisolone, pulse cyclophosphamide and azathioprine.

  13. [Acute myocardial infarction as Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg Strauss syndrome) initial presentation].

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Wahinuddin; Seung, Ong Ping; Noor, Sabariah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare primary vasculitic disease characterized by hypereosinophilia, late onset asthma and extravascular eosinophil granulomas. We report a case presented initially with acute myocardial infarction which later only proceed with asthma, skin manifestations and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory parameters showed hypereosinohpilia with negative perinuclear pattern of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA). Skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration while coronary angiography was normal. The patient's symptoms improved with IV methylprednisolone, pulse cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. PMID:25627304

  14. [A case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis accompanied with fasciitis of the extremities].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tomoharu; Yamade, Mihoko; Matsushita, Naoya; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Terai, Tomohiro; Uotani, Takahiro; Takayanagi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Kodaira, Chise; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Furuta, Takahisa; Sugimoto, Ken; Osawa, Satoshi; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro

    2011-03-01

    We encountered a very rare case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis accompanied with fasciitis of the extremities. The patient was a 28-year-old woman with epigastralgia, eosinophilia plus leukocytosis, massive pleural effusion and ascites, and thickening of the walls of the intestine. Increase of the eosinophilic fraction in her ascites led to a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. She soon developed resting pain in all limbs and MRI revealed fasciitis. Prednisolone was effective in treating both gastroenteritis and fasciitis. PMID:21389666

  15. Eosinophils in the 1990s: new perspectives on their role in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Wardlaw, A J

    1994-08-01

    Eosinophils are characterized by their unique crystalloid granules that contain four basic proteins--MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO. The cell has many common features with neutrophils but, unlike that cell type, eosinophils utilize VLA-4/VCAM-1 as an adherence pathway and have a number of other receptors not shared by neutrophils. These include recognition units for IgE (distinct from CD23), and receptors for IL-5, IL-3 and RANTES. Following stimulation with a variety of agents, eosinophils preferentially elaborate LTC4 as the major 5-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid and produce substantial amounts of PAF. Of particular interest is the ability of eosinophils to synthesize a number of cytokines. Thus eosinophils have marked pro-inflammatory potential. There is now convincing evidence that eosinophilia is T-cell dependent. The Th2-type cell, which selectively secretes IL-5 and IL-4, seems particularly involved. IL-5, IL-3 and GM-CSF are required for eosinophil maturation, and cause activation and prolonged survival of the mature cell. IL-5 is unique in that it promotes terminal differentiation of the committed eosinophil precursor and in vivo in mice appears to be sufficient on its own for eosinophil growth from uncommited stem cells. IL-4 selectively upregulates VCAM-1 expression on endothelial cells thus augmenting VLA-4-dependent eosinophil adhesion. The role of eosinophils in disease is complex but in general their numbers are increased in helminthic parasitic disease and atopic allergy and asthma. Eosinophil products can produce many of the pathological features of asthma, and helminthic larvae coated with immunoglobulin or complement are particularly susceptible to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity. Eosinopenia is often related to acute inflammation or stress. PMID:7937446

  16. Forearm compartment syndrome as a result of eosinophilic fasciitis: case report.

    PubMed

    Alolabi, Bashar; Lesieur, Martin; Smilovici, Brian; Koo, Kevin; El Bahtimi, Reem; Jenkinson, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon scleroderma-like connective tissue disease, usually characterized by symmetrical and painful swelling and induration of the skin and thickened fascia infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils. A middle-aged woman with follicular lymphoma being treated with chemotherapy presented with acute onset atraumatic forearm swelling and severe pain. The history, physical examination, and pressure measurements were consistent with compartment syndrome. Intraoperative biopsy of the forearm fascia confirmed eosinophilic fasciitis.

  17. Sputum eosinophils from asthmatics express ICAM-1 and HLA-DR.

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, T T; Braunstein, J B; Walker, C; Blaser, K; Bruijnzeel, P L; Virchow, J C; Virchow, C

    1991-01-01

    Sputum from symptomatic asthmatics is a rich source of eosinophils from the respiratory tract. Following liquefaction of sputum with dithioerythritol (DTE), a cell suspension for indirect double immunofluorescence with flow cytometry was obtained. Eosinophils were identified using anti-CD9 fluorescein conjugate, and particular surface markers measured with the relevant mouse MoAb followed by goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin phycoerythrin conjugate. Blood and sputum eosinophil surface markers were determined in parallel from asthmatics not receiving steroid therapy. Sputum eosinophils were found to have considerably elevated levels of CD11b, a reflection of eosinophil activation. Sputum but not blood eosinophils were found to express ICAM-1 (nine out of 11 cases) and HLA-DR (eight out of 11 cases). Furthermore, following culture of normal blood eosinophils with pooled T cell supernatants, ICAM-1 and HLA-DR could be induced in vitro. The induction of eosinophil adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and HLA-DR may influence eosinophil localization and function in asthma. PMID:1682072

  18. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Barnig, Cindy; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach–in a limited number of patients and controls—to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology. PMID:26524763

  19. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease.

  20. A Player and Coordinator: The Versatile Roles of Eosinophils in the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hai; Liao, Wei; Wang, Ling; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils have traditionally been associated with allergic diseases and parasite infection. Research advances in the recent decades have brought evolutionary changes in our understanding of eosinophil biology and its roles in immunity. It is currently recognized that eosinophils play multiple roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. As effector cells in innate immunity, eosinophils exert a pro-inflammatory and destructive role in the Th2 immune response associated with allergic inflammation or parasite infection. Eosinophils can also be recruited by danger signals released by pathogen infections or tissue injury, inducing host defense against parasitic, fungal, bacterial or viral infection or promoting tissue repair and remodeling. Eosinophils also serve as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in response to allergen challenge or helminth infection, and, meanwhile, are known to function as a versatile coordinator that actively regulates or interacts with various immune cells including T lymphocytes and dendritic cells. More roles of eosinophils implicated in immunity have been proposed including in immune homeostasis, allograft rejection, and anti-tumor immunity. Eosinophil interactions with structural cells are also implicated in the mechanisms in allergic inflammation and in Helicobacter pylori gastritis. These multifaceted roles of eosinophils as both players and coordinators in immune system are discussed in this review. PMID:27226792

  1. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  2. Comparison of histochemical methods for murine eosinophil detection in a RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model

    PubMed Central

    Meyerholz, David K.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Castilow, Elaine M.; Varga, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of histochemical detection of eosinophils in fixed murine tissue is lacking. Five histochemical methods previously reported for eosinophil detection were quantitatively and qualitatively compared in an established murine RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model. Nonspecific neutrophil staining was evaluated in tissue sections of neutrophilic soft tissue lesions and bone marrow from respective animals. Eosinophils had granular red to orange-red cytoplasmic staining, depending on the method, whereas neutrophils had, when stained, a more homogenous cytoplasmic pattern. Nonspecific background staining of similar coloration was variably seen in arterial walls and erythrocytes. Astra Blue/Vital New Red, Congo Red, Luna, Modified Hematoxylin & Eosin, and Sirius Red techniques were all effective in detecting increased eosinophil recruitment compared to controls; however, differences in eosinophil quantification significantly varied between techniques. Astra Blue/Vital New Red had the best specificity for differentiating eosinophils and neutrophils, but had a reduced ability to enumerate eosinophils and was the most time intensive. The Luna stain had excessive non specific staining of tissues and a reduced enumeration of infiltrating eosinophils making it suboptimal. For multiple parameters such as eosinophil detection, specificity, and contrast with background tissues, the Sirius Red followed by Congo Red and Modified Hematoxylin & Eosin methods were useful, each with their own staining qualities. PMID:19181630

  3. A Diagnostic Algorithm for Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Initially Diagnosed as Lumbar Disc Hernia or Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: Personal Experience and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kosei; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Kota; Sato, Masaki; Arino, Yusuke; Mikami, Yoji

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a rare systemic vasculitis and is difficult to diagnose. EGPA has a number of symptoms including peripheral dysesthesia caused by mononeuropathy multiplex, which is similar to radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis. Therefore, EGPA patients with mononeuropathy multiplex often visit orthopedic clinics, but orthopedic doctors and spine neurosurgeons have limited experience in diagnosing EGPA because of its rarity. We report a consecutive series of patients who were initially diagnosed as having lumbar disc hernia or lumbar spinal stenosis by at least 2 medical institutions from March 2006 to April 2013 but whose final diagnosis was EGPA. All patients had past histories of asthma or eosinophilic pneumonia, and four out of five had peripheral edema. Laboratory data showed abnormally increased eosinophil counts, and nerve conduction studies of all patients revealed axonal damage patterns. All patients recovered from paralysis to a functional level after high-dose steroid treatment. We shortened the duration of diagnosis from 49 days to one day by adopting a diagnostic algorithm after experiencing the first case. PMID:27549670

  4. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  5. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  6. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  7. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  8. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  9. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  10. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  11. [A mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of nedocromil; inhibition of both adhesion molecule expression on eosinophils and endothelial cells, and eosinophil chemotactic activities].

    PubMed

    Okada, T; Sagara, H; Nakano, Y; Hiyama, T; Fukuda, T

    1999-12-01

    The accumulation of eosinophils in the airway is one of the characteristics seen in patients with bronchial asthma. One of the newly developed anti-asthma drugs (controller), nedocromil sodium (nedocromil) is known to suppress the influx of eosinophils into allergic lesions. However, little is known about this mechanism. Therefore, in this report we investigated the effects of nedocromil on Mac-1 expression on PAF-stimulated eosinophils, and adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells stimulated by either IL-1 beta or IL-4. We also investigated the eosinophil chemotaxis. A significant suppression of the Mac-1 expression on PAF-induced eosinophils was observed at both concentrations of 10(-5) and 10(-7) M of nedocromil. The expression of adhesion molecules, particularly ICAM-1 and E-selectin, on IL-1 beta-stimulated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) was significantly suppressed at these concentrations, whereas the VCAM-1 expression was not changed. No significant suppression of VCAM-1 expression on IL-4-stimulated HUVEC was observed, although there was a tendency of suppression at these concentrations. On the other hand, the expression of the E-selectin molecule was significantly suppressed by nedocromil even under resting (non-stimulated) condition. PAF-induced eosinophil chemotactic activities were also suppressed at these concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that nedocromil suppressed the influx of eosinophils to inflammatory lesions by inhibiting not only the expression of the Mac-1 on eosinophils and of E-selectin and ICAM-1 molecules on HUVEC, but also the eosinophil chemotactic activities.

  12. Successful early diagnosis and treatment in a case of Toxocara canis-induced eosinophilic myocarditis with eosinophil-rich pericardial effusion.

    PubMed

    Sangen, Hideto; Tanabe, Jun; Takano, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Fulminant myocarditis can become fatal if left untreated. Treatments for most types of myocarditis, including mechanical support, are limited. However, immediate systemic corticosteroids are known to be effective against eosinophilic myocarditis; therefore, prompt diagnosis of this disease is crucial. Unfortunately, the standard diagnostic tool for myocarditis, endomyocardial biopsy, does not provide immediate histopathological findings. Thus, a rapid diagnostic tool for identifying types of myocarditis is urgently required. We report here the first case of Toxocara canis-induced eosinophilic fulminant myocarditis which was diagnosed based on eosinophil-rich pericardial effusion where the patient recovered with early corticosteroid therapy. PMID:26338242

  13. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  14. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  15. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy: the diagnostic dilemma of a recurrent biliary stricture. Should surgery be offered for all?

    PubMed Central

    Seow-En, Isaac; Chiow, Adrian Kah Heng; Tan, Siong San; Poh, Wee Teng

    2014-01-01

    A 63-year-old man presented with the initial diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice. CT of the abdomen revealed an oedematous pancreas and dilated common bile duct (CBD), without gallstones. After failure of initial retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a percutaneous biliary catheter was inserted with good drainage. Subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a 2 cm distal CBD stricture. A biliary stent was inserted past the stricture. Biopsy of the stricture, brush cytology of the bile duct and fine needle aspiration of pancreatic head under endoscopic ultrasound guidance were negative for malignancy. Autoimmune screen was negative as well. However, the patient represented with cholangitis requiring repeat ERCP and insertion of a second biliary stent. He finally underwent cholecystectomy with excision of the distal CBD and Roux-En-Y hepaticojejunostomy. Histology revealed diffuse eosinophilic cholecystitis and cholangitis. A retrospective review of the blood results showed persistent eosinophilia in full blood count measurements from presentation and persisting throughout the treatment period. PMID:24390967

  16. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A and B inhibit human and mice eosinophil chemotaxis and adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Squebola-Cola, Dalize M; De Mello, Glaucia C; Anhê, Gabriel F; Condino-Neto, Antonio; DeSouza, Ivani A; Antunes, Edson

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus aggravates the allergic eosinophilic inflammation. We hypothesized that Staphylococcus aureus-derived enterotoxins directly affect eosinophil functions. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of Staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB) on human and mice eosinophil chemotaxis and adhesion in vitro, focusing on p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Eosinophil chemotaxis was evaluated using a microchemotaxis chamber, whereas adhesion was performed in VCAM-1 and ICAM-1-coated plates. Measurement of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) levels were monitored by flow cytometry and fluorogenic calcium-binding dye, respectively. Prior incubation (30 to 240 min) of human blood eosinophils with SEA (0.5 to 3 ng/ml) significantly reduced eotaxin-, PAF- and RANTES-induced chemotaxis (P<0.05). Likewise, SEB (1 ng/ml, 30 min) significantly reduced eotaxin-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis (P<0.05). The reduction of eotaxin-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis by SEA and SEB was prevented by anti-MHC monoclonal antibody (1 μg/ml). In addition, SEA and SEB nearly suppressed the eotaxin-induced human eosinophil adhesion in ICAM-1- and VCAM-1-coated plates. SEA and SEB prevented the increases of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and Ca(2+) levels in eotaxin-activated human eosinophils. In separate protocols, we evaluated the effects of SEA on chemotaxis and adhesion of eosinophils obtained from mice bone marrow. SEA (10 ng/ml) significantly reduced the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis along with cell adhesion to both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1-coated plates (P<0.05). In conclusion, the inhibition by SEA and SEB of eosinophil functions (chemotaxis and adhesion) are associated with reductions of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization.

  17. Chloride Channel 3 Channels in the Activation and Migration of Human Blood Eosinophils in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is responsible for respiratory burst in immune cells. Chloride channel 3 (CLC3) has been linked to the respiratory burst in eosinophils and neutrophils. The effect of cytokines and the involvement of CLC3 in the regulation of NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and on cytokine-mediated migration of eosinophils are not known. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated from healthy individuals and from individuals with asthma by negative selection. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of NADPH oxidases in eosinophils. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement was done with flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, eotaxin, and CLC3 blockers. CLC3 dependence of eosinophils in TGF-β– and eotaxin-induced migration was also examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, dual oxidase (DUOX) 1, and DUOX2 were detected in blood eosinophils, with very low expression of NOX1, NOX3, and NOX5 and no NOX4 mRNA. The level of NOX2 mRNA transcripts increased with disease severity in the eosinophils of subjects with asthma compared with healthy nonatopic volunteers. Change in granularity and size in eosinophils, but no change in intracellular ROS, was observed with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PMA, TGF-β, and eotaxin used the CLC3-dependent pathway to increase superoxide radicals. TGF-β and eotaxin induced CLC3-dependent chemotaxis of eosinophils. These findings support the requirement of CLC3 in the activation and migration of human blood eosinophils and may provide a potential novel therapeutic target to regulate eosinophil hyperactivity in allergic airway inflammation in asthma. PMID:25514499

  18. Chronic Cough and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Uncommon Association

    PubMed Central

    Orizio, Paolo; Cinquini, Massimo; Minetti, Stefano; Alberti, Daniele; Paolo, Camilla Di; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Torri, Fabio; Crispino, Paola; Facchetti, Susanna; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bassotti, Gabrio; Tosoni, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of children, usually with gastrointestinal symptoms, is diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and a particular subset of these patients complains of airway manifestations. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with chronic dry cough in whom EE was found after a first diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to pathological 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Traditional allergologic tests were negative, while patch tests were diagnostic for cow's milk allergy. We discuss the intriguing relationship between GERD and EE and the use of patch test for the allergologic screening of patients. PMID:21960955

  19. Extrapulmonary thoracic restriction (hidebound chest) complicating eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Chalker, R B; Dickey, B F; Rosenthal, N C; Simms, R W

    1991-11-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is an unusual disorder characterized by diffuse skin thickening and induration due to inflammation within the deep fascia; visceral involvement is generally mild or absent. A patient with biopsy-proved EF developed progressive respiratory limitation. Physical examination revealed marked induration of the thoracic integument with a severely limited chest wall excursion. Total lung capacity was 62 percent of predicted with a normal corrected Dco and maximal inspiratory force; a chest computed tomogram with thin sections showed no evidence of parenchymal lung disease. Extrapulmonary thoracic restriction ("hidebound chest") has not been previously reported to complicate EF.

  20. Evaluation of the child who has eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Philip E

    2009-02-01

    Children who have eosinophilic esophagitis require comprehensive evaluation before treatment and ongoing assessment during treatment. When completed at the appropriate times and under well-controlled circumstances, investigation yields the correct diagnosis, assures recognition of sequelae or recurrence of the inflammation, or confirms whether therapy has been effective. Proper management of each child depends on compulsive follow-up until all of the therapeutic goals have been achieved and the child is on a stable regimen without esophageal inflammation. This article summarizes the issues facing the patient and the physician during this process.

  1. Reversible Severe Eosinophilic Endomyocardial Fibrosis During Pregnancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pineton de Chambrun, Marc; Charron, Philippe; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Cluzel, Philippe; Haroche, Julien; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel; Amoura, Zahir; Aubart, Fleur Cohen

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a condition of unknown origin characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. Cardiac involvement is rare and threatening accounting for 33% to 43% of death in HES. Management of pregnant patients with HES is challenging and have rarely been reported, particularly in the setting of heart failure.We here report on the case of a 29-year-old woman with HES who developed severe endomyocardial fibrosis with heart failure during pregnancy. Outcome was favorable under treatment with prednisone and azathioprine.This case illustrates a favorable outcome of endomyocardial fibrosis during pregnancy. PMID:26266372

  2. Myopathy and eosinophilic pneumonia coincidentally induced by treatment with daptomycin.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Hasegawa, Kou; Asano, Kikuko; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Kosuke; Nada, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eri; Waseda, Koichi; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Otsuka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old man with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome) concurrently suffered from myopathy and eosinophilic pneumonia shortly after receiving daptomycin (DAP) for right-sided infective endocarditis. The simultaneous occurrence of these phenomena in relation to DAP therapy has not been previously well described. An allergic reaction was suspected as a possible etiology of these DAP-related complications. This case highlights the need for close observation in order to detect both musculoskeletal and respiratory disorders from the start of DAP therapy. Physicians should pay more attention to this new drug, which is expected to be frequently used in various clinical settings. PMID:25758082

  3. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  4. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  5. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

  6. In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

  7. Recovery of absolute threshold with UVA-induced retinal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Henton, W.W.; Sykes, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    A within-trial psychophysical procedure tracked the initial loss and subsequent recovery of visual thresholds in albino rats exposed to ultraviolet light at 350 nanometers and 0.4 milliwatts per square centimeter. Absolute thresholds increased up to 5 log units immediately following the 15 hour ultraviolet exposure, with a daily recovery of 1-2 log to asymptotic thresholds over a 7-day post-exposure period. The corresponding retinal damage on Day 1 included extensive vesiculation of the photoreceptor outer segments, vacuolation of the inner segments, and pyknosis of cell nuclei. The total number of photoreceptor nuclei and outer segments was unchanged relative to control eyes through post-exposure Day 3. Both nuclei and outer segment counts then consistently decreased 15-20 percent between Days 3-7. The two-stage loss of photoreceptors but daily recovery of absolute thresholds again suggests a significant dissociation of retinal structure and psychophysical function in light-induced ocular pathology.

  8. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  9. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  10. Functional Analysis of Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 in Human Eosinophils: Implications in Metabolic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Yasunori; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takeda, Masahide; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Mami; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Itoga, Masamichi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system. PMID:25790291

  11. IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Y; Wen, T; Mingler, MK; Caldwell, JM; Wang, YH; Chaplin, DD; Lee, EH; Jang, MH; Woo, SY; Seoh, JY; Miyasaka, M; Rothenberg, ME

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double–deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3–deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial composition, and promote the development of Peyer’s patches. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed reduced expression of mediators of secretory IgA production, including intestinal interleukin 1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase, lymphotoxin (LT) α, and LT-β, and reduced levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t–positive (ROR-γt+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) while maintaining normal levels of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), BAFF (B cell–activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family), and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β). GI eosinophils expressed a relatively high level of IL-1β, and IL-1β–deficient mice manifested the altered gene expression profiles observed in eosinophil-deficient mice and decreased levels of IgA+ cells and ROR-γt+ ILCs. On the basis of these collective data, we propose that eosinophils are required for homeostatic intestinal immune responses including IgA production and that their affect is mediated via IL-1β in the small intestine. PMID:25563499

  12. Eosinophilic pleural effusion due to Spirometra mansoni spargana: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Quan; Ouyang, Jin-Sheng; Li, Jian-Min; Yang, Li; Li, Yu-Ping; Chen, Cheng-Shui

    2015-05-01

    A 36-year-old female presented with an eosinophilic pleural effusion. The eosinophilic pleural effusion was considered to have been caused by a parasitic infection. Spirometra mansoni spargana was confirmed by semi-rigid thoracoscopy. About 2 months after treatment with praziquantel for 3 days, the pleural effusion had disappeared on the chest roentgenogram.

  13. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth. PMID:26720604

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human eotaxin receptor expressed selectively on eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The chemokine eotaxin is unusual in that it appears to be a highly specific chemoattractant for eosinophils. Ligand-binding studies with radiolabeled eotaxin demonstrated a receptor on eosinophils distinct from the known chemokine receptors CKR-1 and -2. The distinct eotaxin binding site on human eosinophils also bound RANTES (regulated on activation T expressed and secreted) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)3. We have now isolated a cDNA from eosinophils, termed CKR-3, with significant sequence similarity to other well characterized chemokine receptors. Cells transfected with CKR-3 cDNA bound radiolabeled eotaxin specifically and with high affinity, comparable to the binding affinity observed with eosinophils. This receptor also bound RANTES and MCP-3 with high affinity, but not other CC or CXC chemokines. Furthermore, receptor transfectants generated in a murine B cell lymphoma cell line migrated in transwell chemotaxis assays to eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-3, but not to any other chemokines. A monoclonal antibody recognizing CKR-3 was used to show that eosinophils, but not other leukocyte types, expressed this receptor. This pattern of expression was confirmed by Northern blot with RNA from highly purified leukocyte subsets. The restricted expression of CKR-3 on eosinophils and the fidelity of eotaxin binding to CKR-3, provides a potential mechanism for the selective recruitment and migration of eosinophils within tissues. PMID:8676064

  15. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: role of eosinophils in the neurotoxic syndrome (Gordon-like phenomenon).

    PubMed

    Perez, O; Capron, M; Lastre, M; Venge, P; Khalife, J; Capron, A

    1989-05-01

    The role of eosinophils in the pathophysiology of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections was investigated in nonpermissive (guinea pig) and permissive (rat) hosts. Neurological symptoms similar to the Gordon phenomenon (ataxia, tremor, paralysis) together with a loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum were observed after intracraneal injection of human eosinophil extracts or after infection with A. cantonensis, only in guinea pigs and not in rats. Blood eosinophilia as well as eosinophil numbers present in the cerebellum and in the cerebrospinal fluid were higher in guinea pigs than in rats, at all times after infection with A. cantonensis. Increased levels of cytotoxicity toward L3 larvae in vitro were obtained in the presence of guinea pig eosinophils and IgE antibodies, rather than with the corresponding rat effector system. The detection of one eosinophil granule component, the eosinophil peroxidase, in the cerebrospinal fluid from infected guinea pigs but not from rats suggested that in nonpermissive hosts, neurological disorders, similar to the previously described Gordon phenomenon, might be due to eosinophil neurotoxins released after interaction of eosinophils with the parasites.

  16. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10–40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a sputum eosinophilia is associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and tailored strategies aimed to normalize sputum eosinophils reduce exacerbation frequency and severity. Advances in our understanding of the multistep paradigm of eosinophil recruitment to the airway, and the consequence of eosinophilic inflammation, has led to the development of new therapies to target these molecular pathways. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of eosinophilic trafficking, the tools to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma and COPD during stable disease and exacerbations and review current and novel anti-eosinophilic treatments. PMID:26770668

  17. [Some modern views of the role of the eosinophils in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma and a new method of detecting eosinophils in the bronchial secretion].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Lipcheva, N; Kis'ova, K

    1976-01-01

    A review of certain contemporary opinions of eosinophil function in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma is presented in this report. Phagocytosis and processing of the complexes antigenantibody, histamine inhibition and a histamine elimination elimination by a specific inhibitor, isolated from eosinophilis (EDI), stimulation of prostaglandines E release, which also inhibit histamine and have a bronchial dilataion effect. The new method is recommended for eosinophil detection in sputa based on the fluorescent principle as faster and more efficient.

  18. A Sensitive High Throughput ELISA for Human Eosinophil Peroxidase: A Specific Assay to Quantify Eosinophil Degranulation from Patient-derived Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ochkur, Sergei I.; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M.; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A.; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings. PMID:22750539

  19. Multisite Comparison of CD4 and CD8 T-Lymphocyte Counting by Single- versus Multiple-Platform Methodologies: Evaluation of Beckman Coulter Flow-Count Fluorospheres and the tetraONE System

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Keith A.; O'Gorman, Maurice R. G.; Spritzler, John; Wilkening, Cynthia L.; Sabath, Daniel E.; Helm, Karen; Campbell, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    New analytic methods that permit absolute CD4 and CD8 T-cell determinations to be performed entirely on the flow cytometer have the potential for improving assay precision and accuracy. In a multisite trial, we compared two different single-platform assay methods with a predicate two-color assay in which the absolute lymphocyte count was derived by conventional hematology. A two-color method employing lymphocyte light scatter gating and Beckman Coulter Flow-Count fluorospheres for absolute counting produced within-laboratory precision equivalent to that of the two-color predicate method, as measured by coefficient of variation of replicate measurements. The fully automated Beckman Coulter tetraONE System four-color assay employing CD45 lymphocyte gating, automated analysis, and absolute counting by fluorospheres resulted in a small but significant improvement in the within-laboratory precision of CD4 and CD8 cell counts and percentages suggesting that the CD45 lymphocyte gating and automated analysis might have contributed to the improved performance. Both the two-color method employing Flow-Count fluorospheres and the four-color tetraONE System provided significant and substantial improvements in between-laboratory precision of absolute counts. In some laboratories, absolute counts obtained by the single-platform methods showed small but consistent differences relative to the predicate method. Comparison of each laboratory's absolute counts with the five-laboratory median value suggested that these differences resulted from a bias in the absolute lymphocyte count obtained from the hematology instrument in some laboratories. These results demonstrate the potential for single-platform assay methods to improve within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision of CD4 and CD8 T-cell determinations compared with conventional assay methods. PMID:10799444

  20. Update on Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis and Its Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Ana Cristina Arámburu; Yoshimura, Kentaro

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is caused by a variety of helminthic infections. These worm-specific infections are named after the causative worm genera, the most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Worm parasites enter an organism through ingestion of contaminated water or an intermediate host and can eventually affect the central nervous system (CNS). These infections are potentially serious events leading to sequelae or death, and diagnosis depends on currently limited molecular methods. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible, while images and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment usually requires the concomitant administration of corticoids and anthelminthic drugs, yet new compounds and their extensive and detailed clinical evaluation are much needed. Eosinophilia in fluids may be detected in other infectious and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic disease, drug use, and prosthesis reactions. Thus, distinctive identification of eosinophils in fluids is a necessary component in the etiologic diagnosis of CNS infections. PMID:19366917

  1. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

  2. Treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Räßler, F; Lukács, J; Elsner, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) is a rare inflammatory skin disease defined by erythematous, tender, sometimes urticarial plaques, possibly with vesicles and bullae, and granulomatous eosinophilic infiltrates in the dermis. Usually the disease has a benign course with spontaneous remission within a few weeks. Nevertheless, recurrences are quite frequent and may occur for several years. The objective of this study was to review the so far reported treatment options for Wells syndrome in a systematic manner. This systematic review is based on a search on Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register for English and German articles from 1970 to 2015. Advices on the treatment of Wells syndrome are limited predominately to case reports or to small case series. There are no randomized controlled trials, and control groups are missing. A variety of treatment options for Wells syndrome were reported including topical and systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, cyclosporine, dapsone, azathioprine, griseofulvin, doxycycline, minocycline, antimalarial medications, oral tacrolimus/topical tacrolimus, sulfasalazine, interferon alpha and gamma, TNF alpha inhibitors, colchicine and PUVA therapy. As well-designed, randomized controlled trials are missing, no guidelines for the treatment of this disease can be given. Due to the small number of patients and the frequent misdiagnosis of this clinical entity, the aim of this systematic overview is to call attention to this rare condition and to help clinicians to diagnose and treat Wells syndrome effectively. Due to the good prognosis and tendency to resolve, systemic treatment should be limited to cases resistant to local therapy or with widespread lesions. PMID:27357601

  3. Recent discoveries and emerging therapeutics in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Aakash; Cheng, Edaire

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-mediated disease culminating in severe eosinophilic inflammation and dysfunction of the esophagus. This chronic disorder of the esophagus causes significant morbidity, poor quality of life, and complications involving fibrosis and esophageal remodeling. Overlapping features between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pose great challenges to differentiating the two conditions, although the two disorders are not mutually exclusive. Recent findings suggest that the confounding condition proton pump inhibitor - responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) is likely a subset of EoE. Since PPIs have therapeutic properties that can benefit EoE, PPIs should be considered as a therapeutic option for EoE rather than a diagnostic screen to differentiate GERD, PPI-REE, and EoE. Other current treatments include dietary therapy, corticosteroids, and dilation. Immunomodulators and biologic agents might have therapeutic value, and larger trials are needed to assess efficacy and safety. Understanding the pathophysiology of EoE is critical to the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:26855809

  4. Molecular, genetic, and cellular bases for treating eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Marc E

    2015-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE, particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-β, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity; strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal-specific genetic risk variants; and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine-mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy.

  5. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

  6. IL-5 in post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schandené, L; Namias, B; Crusiaux, A; Lybin, M; Devos, R; Velu, T; Capel, P; Bellens, R; Goldman, M

    1993-01-01

    Thoracic trauma or pneumothorax can result in pleural fluid eosinophilia. In this study we investigated the role of the eosinophilopoietic cytokine IL-5 in three cases of post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPE). Using a specific immunoenzymatic assay, significant levels of IL-5 were found in EPE (range 100-3000 pg/ml), while IL-5 was undetectable (< 25 pg/ml) in corresponding serum samples and in non-eosinophilic pleural fluids. IL-5 present in pleural fluids was found bioactive in a proliferative assay using a mouse CTLL-2 cell line transfected with the cDNA corresponding to the alpha chain of the human IL-5 receptor. Using a reverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we found IL-5 mRNA expression within pleural mononuclear cells from patients with EPE, but not in corresponding peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), confirming that IL-5 is synthesized locally in the pleural cavity. In the two cases in which pleural CD4+ cells were purified, these cells were identified as the major source of IL-5. Taken together, these data indicate that the development of post-traumatic EPE is related to a local secretion of IL-5 by CD4+ cells present in the pleural cavity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8100745

  7. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  8. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  9. Glucocorticosteroid-sensitive inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in an adolescent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder is a rare inflammatory bladder disease. The etiology and pathophysiology of this condition are still unclear. Few case reports have described inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in adults or children. Although benign, this disease is occasionally clinically aggressive and locally invasive, thus open surgical removal or complete transurethral resection is recommended. Case presentation We present the case of a biopsy-proven inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in a previously healthy 16-year-old male adolescent with 2-month history of frequent micturition and dysuria with no significant apparent causative factors. The tumor regressed after a 6-week course of glucocorticosteroids. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, our case is a rare case of inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder treated with complete conservative management. Due to its glucocorticosteroid-sensitive nature, we postulate that this disease belongs to a subgroup of eosinophilic disorders. PMID:20062774

  10. Photon counting digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  11. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Methods Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21–80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Results Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10−9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. Conclusion This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease. PMID:26540111

  12. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review.

  13. Novel CLC3 transcript variants in blood eosinophils and increased CLC3 expression in nasal lavage and blood eosinophils of asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilia is a characteristic feature of allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. Chloride channel-3 (CLC3) in eosinophils has been associated with superoxide generation and respiratory burst. The CLC3 gene may produce multiple transcript variants through alternative splicing. However, the presence of CLC3 variants in human eosinophils is unknown. We examined the expression of CLC3 transcript variants in peripheral blood eosinophils of allergic asthmatics and healthy individuals. Potential of these obligatory dimers to form homo- or hetero-dimers was examined in HEK293 cells co-transfected with CLC3b-GFP and CLC3e-RFP. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood by negative selection. Expression of CLC3 and CLC3 transcript variants was examined by qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Confocal micrographs were analyzed with Image J software. Higher levels of novel transcript variants of CLC3 (CLC3b and CLC3e) were found in peripheral blood eosinophils of asthmatics compared to healthy non-atopic subjects. We also found higher CLC3 protein expression in the blood and nasal lavage eosinophils of asthmatics than healthy subjects. Both membranous and intracellular CLC3 expression were observed. Also, we found the presence of both homodimers and heterodimers of CLC3b-GFP and CLC3e-RFP in HEK293 cells. Higher and differential expression of novel CLC3 transcript variants in mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe asthmatic eosinophils suggest their critical role in allergic asthma. Membranous and intracellular (granular) expression of CLC3 in nasal lavage and peripheral blood eosinophils suggest their involvement in the activation and migration of eosinophils in allergic asthma. Moreover, homo- and hetero-dimerization of these transcript variants may change the channel properties to exhibit these states. Presence of CLC3 variants may serve as a biomarker in allergic asthma and additional knowledge of interaction between CLC3 transcript variants and their

  14. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  15. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  16. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  17. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  18. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  19. Counting Tech Prep Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the problems surrounding the counting of tech prep students. Suggests that one problem is the lack of a single definition for the term "tech prep." Suggests that if it is to be evaluated as a program, it needs more resources. (JOW)

  20. Accounting for What Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.; Ferran, Joan E.; Martin, Katharine Y.

    2003-01-01

    No Child Left Behind legislation makes it clear that outside evaluators determine what gets taught in the classroom. It is important to ensure they measure what truly counts in school. This fact is poignantly and sadly true for the under funded, poorly resourced, "low performing" schools that may be hammered by administration accountants in the…

  1. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  2. A method for the detection of eosinophilic granulocytes in colonoscopic biopsies from IBD patients.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulocytes were found to be autofluorescent when Giemsa-stained sections were stimulated with indirect light fluorescence (ILF). The frequency of autofluorescent eosinophils was assessed in areas with diffuse and focal inflammation in 76 consecutive colonoscopic biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD = 32), ulcerative colitis (UC = 30), and collagenous colitis (CC = 7). All IBD cases had moderate to severe pancolitis. In areas with diffuse inflammation, severe eosinophilia was recorded in 39.6% or in 38 of 96 high power fields investigated in patients affected by CD, and in 3.3% or in 3 of 90 high power fields examined in patients with UC. In areas with focal inflammation, the mean percentage of eosinophils in CD was 57% (range 44-70%), and 9% in UC (range 6-26%). No focal inflammation was present in CC. In the submucosa of some CD patients, a large number of autofluorescent eosinophils and many autofluorescent cell-free granules were seen. It was inferred that these autofluorescent granules had been released from eosinophils, and that the eosinophilic granulocytes from which these granules had originated were no longer discernible. Focal eosinophilic mucosal infiltration in CD is more common than epithelioid cell granulomas, and emerges as an important parameter in the histologic differential diagnosis between colonic CD and UC. PMID:12812315

  3. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Ayesha; Choksi, Vivek; Chu, Andrew; Mankodi, Dhruti; Shaharyar, Sameer; O'Brien, Keith; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis. PMID:26229703

  4. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Ayesha; Choksi, Vivek; Chu, Andrew; Mankodi, Dhruti; Shaharyar, Sameer; O'Brien, Keith; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis. PMID:26229703

  5. Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic and Collagenous), Eosinophilic Colitis, and Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, M. Sophia; Alimi, Yewande

    2015-01-01

    Multiple tests are needed to diagnose a patient with noninfectious diarrhea. Some patients will be mistakenly labeled as diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) because of nonspecific computed tomographic scans and grossly normal endoscopic findings. It is crucial to understand other less common pathologies to avoid these instances of misdiagnosis. This article focuses on microscopic colitis (MC), eosinophilic colitis (EC), and celiac disease. MC is an inflammatory condition of the colon that presents with two subtypes, only to be differentiated by histology. EC is a rare chronic inflammatory process. Depending on the extent of the disease, it can present with mild diarrhea, malabsorption, or at its worst, cause obstruction and perforation. Celiac disease affects the small bowel, but interestingly can present similarly to colitis. Both MC and EC respond to oral budesonide. Patients with celiac disease improve on gluten-free diets. These treatments are distinctly different from typical IBS-D care plans. PMID:26034409

  6. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with glyphosate-surfactant exposure.

    PubMed

    De Raadt, Wanda M; Wijnen, Petal A; Bast, Aalt; Bekers, Otto; Drent, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a female patient who developed acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) after recent onset of smoking and exposure to glyphosate-surfactant.The additional exposure associated with the recent start of smoking may have contributed to the development and/or severity of AEP.A clinical relapse after re-challenge four years later both with smoking and glyphosate-surfactant made the association highly likely.Respiratory distress is a factor of poor outcome and mortality after ingestion of glyphosate-surfactant.This case highlights the importance of a thorough exposure history e.g., possible occupational and environmental exposures together with drug-intake.Genotyping should be considered in cases of severe unexplained pulmonary damage. PMID:26278698

  7. Characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis murine models using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Aneesh; Noti, Mario; Wojno, Elia D. Tait; Artis, David; Zhou, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies using murine models are critical for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying immune-mediated disorders such as Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this study, an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system capable of providing three-dimensional images with axial and transverse resolutions of 5 µm and 10 µm, respectively, was utilized to obtain esophageal images from a murine model of EoE-like disease ex vivo. Structural changes in the esophagus of wild-type (Tslpr+/+) and mutant (Tslpr−/−) mice with EoE-like disease were quantitatively evaluated and food impaction sites in the esophagus of diseased mice were monitored using OCT. Here, the capability of OCT as a label-free imaging tool devoid of tissue-processing artifacts to effectively characterize murine EoE-like disease models has been demonstrated. PMID:24575353

  8. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Another Atopy-Related Alopecia Areata Trigger?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Piliang, Melissa

    2015-11-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is associated with atopy in 10-22% of patients, twice the prevalence in the general population. Patients can present with concomitant atopic dermatitis, hay fever, asthma, and even allergies to dust mites. In many cases, severity and flares of these atopic diatheses correlate with severity of AA. Herein we present a patient with AA affected by contemporaneous eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). EoE is a recently recognized allergic disorder, mediated by eosiniphils and histamine. It is characterized by esophageal dysfunction and intraepithelial microabscesses. We propose that EoE be considered as a condition falling within the realm of atopic diseases, and a potential trigger of AA in affected patients.

  9. Ultrastructural features of eosinophilic oesophagitis: impact of treatment on desmosomes

    PubMed Central

    Capocelli, Kelley E; Fernando, Shahan D; Menard-Katcher, Calies; Furuta, Glenn T; Masterson, Joanne C; Wartchow, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Aims A growing body of evidence suggests a role for altered epithelial barrier function in the pathophysiology of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), but few have described the epithelial structure during inflammation. The purpose of this study was to define ultrastructural features of active, inactive EoE and control subject’s oesophageal epithelia. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of EoE. Mucosal pinch biopsies were obtained from the distal oesophagus and processed for routine histology and electron microscopic assessment. Clinical features of enrolled subjects were analysed and subjects were divided into four groups: normal, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), inactive EoE and active EoE. Representative photomicrographs of the basal and superficial epithelia were reviewed for abnormalities. Desmosomes were quantified on the surface of epithelia three to four prickle-cell layers above the basal layer. Results Twenty-nine paediatric cases (ages 2–18 years) were enrolled in the study. We observed a significant decrease in the number of desmosomes per cell (DPC) of subjects with active EoE compared with inactive EoE, GERD and normal epithelia. With respect to DPC, no significant differences were found between inactive EoE compared with GERD or normal subjects. Additional ultrastructural features observed included epithelial microplicae and evidence of eosinophil transmigration, degranulation, and sombrero formation. Conclusions Consistent with clinical and molecular findings, our ultrastructural data provide support for an altered oesophageal barrier in paediatric cases with active EoE, which may improve following treatment. PMID:25359789

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis: updated consensus recommendations for children and adults.

    PubMed

    Liacouras, Chris A; Furuta, Glenn T; Hirano, Ikuo; Atkins, Dan; Attwood, Stephen E; Bonis, Peter A; Burks, A Wesley; Chehade, Mirna; Collins, Margaret H; Dellon, Evan S; Dohil, Ranjan; Falk, Gary W; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Katzka, David A; Lucendo, Alfredo J; Markowitz, Jonathan E; Noel, Richard J; Odze, Robert D; Putnam, Philip E; Richter, Joel E; Romero, Yvonne; Ruchelli, Eduardo; Sampson, Hugh A; Schoepfer, Alain; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Sicherer, Scott H; Spechler, Stuart; Spergel, Jonathan M; Straumann, Alex; Wershil, Barry K; Rothenberg, Marc E; Aceves, Seema S

    2011-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition of increasing recognition and prevalence. In 2007, a consensus recommendation provided clinical and histopathologic guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of EoE; however, only a minority of physicians use the 2007 guidelines, which require fulfillment of both histologic and clinical features. Since 2007, the number of EoE publications has doubled, providing new disease insight. Accordingly, a panel of 33 physicians with expertise in pediatric and adult allergy/immunology, gastroenterology, and pathology conducted a systematic review of the EoE literature (since September 2006) using electronic databases. Based on the literature review and expertise of the panel, information and recommendations were provided in each of the following areas of EoE: diagnostics, genetics, allergy testing, therapeutics, and disease complications. Because accumulating animal and human data have provided evidence that EoE appears to be an antigen-driven immunologic process that involves multiple pathogenic pathways, a new conceptual definition is proposed highlighting that EoE represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The diagnostic guidelines continue to define EoE as an isolated chronic disorder of the esophagus diagnosed by the need of both clinical and pathologic features. Patients commonly have high rates of concurrent allergic diatheses, especially food sensitization, compared with the general population. Proved therapeutic options include chronic dietary elimination, topical corticosteroids, and esophageal dilation. Important additions since 2007 include genetic underpinnings that implicate EoE susceptibility caused by polymorphisms in the thymic stromal lymphopoietin protein gene and the description of a new potential disease phenotype, proton pump inhibitor

  11. Blood eosinophils and inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-2 agonist efficacy in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Pavord, Ian D; Lettis, Sally; Locantore, Nicholas; Pascoe, Steve; Jones, Paul W; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Barnes, Neil C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We performed a review of studies of fluticasone propionate (FP)/salmeterol (SAL) (combination inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)) in patients with COPD, which measured baseline (pretreatment) blood eosinophil levels, to test whether blood eosinophil levels ≥2% were associated with a greater reduction in exacerbation rates with ICS therapy. Methods Three studies of ≥1-year duration met the inclusion criteria. Moderate and severe exacerbation rates were analysed according to baseline blood eosinophil levels (<2% vs ≥2%). At baseline, 57–75% of patients had ≥2% blood eosinophils. Changes in FEV1 and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores were compared by eosinophil level. Results For patients with ≥2% eosinophils, FP/SAL was associated with significant reductions in exacerbation rates versus tiotropium (INSPIRE: n=719, rate ratio (RR)=0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.92, p=0.006) and versus placebo (TRISTAN: n=1049, RR=0.63, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.79, p<0.001). No significant difference was seen in the <2% eosinophil subgroup in either study (INSPIRE: n=550, RR=1.18, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.51, p=0.186; TRISTAN: n=354, RR=0.99, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.47, p=0.957, respectively). In SCO30002 (n=373), no significant effects were observed (FP or FP/SAL vs placebo). No relationship was observed in any study between eosinophil subgroup and treatment effect on FEV1 and SGRQ. Discussion Baseline blood eosinophil levels may represent an informative marker for exacerbation reduction with ICS/LABA in patients with COPD and a history of moderate/severe exacerbations. PMID:26585525

  12. Histamine induces cytoskeletal changes in human eosinophils via the H(4) receptor.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Karen F; Williams, Timothy J; Conroy, Dolores M

    2003-11-01

    1. Histamine (0.004-2 microm) induced a concentration-dependent shape change of human eosinophils, but not of neutrophils or basophils, detected as an increase in forward scatter (FSC) in the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter (GAFS) assay. 2. The histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was completely abolished by thioperamide (10 microm), an H3/H4 receptor antagonist, but was not inhibited by pyrilamine or cimetidine (10 microm), H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, respectively. The H4 receptor agonists, clobenpropit and clozapine (0.004-2 microm), which are also H3 receptor antagonists, both induced eosinophil shape change, which was inhibited by thioperamide (10 microm). The H3/H4 receptor agonists, imetit, R-alpha-methyl histamine and N-alpha-methyl histamine (0.004-2 microm) also induced eosinophil shape change. 3. Histamine induced actin polymerisation (0.015-10 microm), intracellular calcium mobilisation (10-100 microm) and a significant upregulation of expression of the cell adhesion molecule CD11b (0.004-10 microm) in eosinophils, all of which were inhibited by thioperamide (10-100 microm). In addition, the H4 receptor agonist/H3 receptor antagonist clozapine (20 microm) stimulated a rise in intracellular calcium in eosinophils. 4. Activation of H4 receptors by histamine (1 microm) primed eosinophils for increased chemotactic responses to eotaxin, but histamine (0.1-10 microm) did not directly induce chemotaxis of eosinophils. 5. Pertussis toxin (1 microg ml-1) inhibited shape change and actin polymerisation responses induced by histamine showing that these effects are mediated by coupling to a Galphai/o G-protein. 6. This study demonstrates that human eosinophils express functional H4 receptors and may provide a novel target for allergic disease therapy.

  13. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection.

  14. Measurement of Absolute Carbon Isotope Ratios: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. S.; Giacomo, J. A.; Dueker, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    An accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) produced absolute isotope ratio measurements for 14C/13C as tested against >500 samples of NIST SRM-4990-C (OxII 14C standard) to an accuracy of 2.2±0.6‰ over a period of one year with measurements made to 1% counting statistics. The spectrometer is not maximized for 13C/12C, but measured ∂13C to 0.4±0.1‰ accuracy, with known methods for improvement. An AMS produces elemental anions from a sputter ion source and includes a charge-changing collision in a gas cell to isolate the rare 14C from the common isotopes and molecular isobars. Both these physical processes have been modeled to determine the parameters providing such absolute measures. Neutral resonant ionization in a cesium plasma produces mass-independent ionization, while velocity dependent charge-state distributions in gas collisions produce relative ion beam intensities that are linear in mass at specific collision energies. The mechanisms are not specific to carbon isotopes, but stand alone absolute IRMS (AIR-MS) instruments have not yet been made. Aside from the obvious applications in metrology, AIR-MS is particularly valuable in coupled separatory MS because no internal or external standards are required. Sample definition processes can be compared, even if no exact standard reference sample exists. Isotope dilution measurements do not require standards matching the dilution end-points and can be made over an extended, even extrapolated, range.

  15. A Rare Case of Ibuprofen-Induced Eosinophilic Meningitis in a 13-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sharad; Gupta, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepak; Bansal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is based on clinical manifestations and microscopic identification of eosinophils present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is caused by a variety of helminthic infections with most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Many case reports are there in which parasites have been found responsible, but there are rare reports of CSF eosinophilia associated with the use of drugs. We report a case of drug-induced (ibuprofen) eosinophilic meningitis in a healthy female who presented to us with severe headache and improved dramatically after drug withdrawal. PMID:24596473

  16. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  17. CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bolus, W. Reid; Gutierrez, Dario A.; Kennedy, Arion J.; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K.; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2−/− AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2−/− mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2−/− bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2−/− mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2−/− mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation. PMID:25934927

  18. Agonist Activation of F-Actin-Mediated Eosinophil Shape Change and Mediator Release Is Dependent on Rac2

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Paige; Willetts, Lian; Kim, John D.; Lo, Andrea N.; Lam, Bon; MacLean, Emily I.; Moqbel, Redwan; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Zimmermann, Nives

    2011-01-01

    Background Tissue recruitment and activation of eosinophils contribute to allergic symptoms by causing airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Shape changes and mediator release in eosinophils may be regulated by mammalian Rho-related guanosine triphosphatases. Of these, Rac2 is essential for F-actin formation as a central process underlying cell motility, exocytosis, and respiratory burst in neutrophils, while the role of Rac2 in eosinophils is unknown. We set out to determine the role of Rac2 in eosinophil mediator release and F-actin-dependent shape change in response to chemotactic stimuli. Methods Rac2-deficient eosinophils from CD2-IL-5 transgenic mice crossed with rac2 gene knockout animals were examined for their ability to release superoxide through respiratory burst or eosinophil peroxidase by degranulation. Eosinophil shape change and actin polymerization were also assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy following stimulation with eotaxin-2 or platelet-activating factor. Results Eosinophils from wild-type mice displayed inducible superoxide release, but at a small fraction (4–5%) of human eosinophils. Rac2-deficient eosinophils showed significantly less superoxide release (p < 0.05, 26% less than wild type). Eosinophils lacking Rac2 had diminished degranulation (p < 0.05, 62% less eosinophil peroxidase) and shape changes in response to eotaxin-2 or platelet-activating factor (with 68 and 49% less F-actin formation, respectively; p < 0.02) compared with wild-type cells. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Rac2 is an important regulator of eosinophil function by contributing to superoxide production, granule protein release, and eosinophil shape change. Our findings suggest that Rho guanosine triphosphatases are key regulators of cellular inflammation in allergy and asthma. PMID:21576984

  19. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  20. Expect the Unexpected: A Case of Isolated Eosinophilic Meningitis in Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sick, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young police officer suffering from headache without other neurological symptoms caused by isolated eosinophilic meningitis, which resulted from an infection with Toxocara cati, along with a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25535488

  1. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  2. EOSINOPHIL INFLUX TO THE NASAL AIRWAY FOLLOWING LOCAL, LOW-LEVEL LPS CHALLENGE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent obervations show that atopic asthmatic subjects have increased sensitivity to respirable endotoxin (or LPS) compared with normal persons. In vitro studies demonstrate that LPS enchances eosinophil survival. These obervations suggest that the effects of inhal...

  3. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children.

  4. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  5. Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Lindo, John F.; Waugh, Cecilia; Hall, John; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Ashley, Deanna; Sullivan, James J.; Bishop, Henry S.; Robinson, David G.; Holtz, Timothy; Robinson, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infection in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is likely to cause human cases of eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:11927033

  6. An unusual cause of terminal hematuria in a child: Eosinophilic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Özdoğan, Elif Bahat; Arslansoyu Çamlar, Seçil; Bilen, Sevcan; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; Tıraş, Şükran; Cansu, Ayşegül; Özoran, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the bladder; it rarely occurs in children. Patients typically show irritative urination symptoms frequently, with a possible need for urgency, alongside dysuria, gross haematuria, suprapubic pain and painful urination. Sometimes bladder mass accumulation with the possibility of malignancy is also observed. We present an 8-year-old male patient who gained admission for terminal hematuria and discuss the management of eosinophilic cystitis. PMID:25485018

  7. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies.

  8. Human eosinophils express, relative to other circulating leukocytes, large amounts of secretory 14-kD phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Blom, M; Tool, A T; Wever, P C; Wolbink, G J; Brouwer, M C; Calafat, J; Egesten, A; Knol, E F; Hack, C E; Roos, D; Verhoeven, A J

    1998-04-15

    Human eosinophils perform several functions dependent on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, most notably the synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4). Several forms of PLA2 have been identified in mammalian cells. In the present study, the 14-kD, secretory form of PLA2 was detected in human eosinophils by immunocytochemical staining with the specific monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 4A1. In contrast, preparations of neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and basophils did not show detectable staining. With two MoAbs in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), large amounts of sPLA2 were detected in lysates of eosinophils, that were 20-fold to 100-fold higher than in the other circulating leukocytes (ie, neutrophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes). In addition, with a commercially available sPLA2 activity assay kit, we were able to show high activity of sPLA2 in human eosinophils relative to neutrophils. Investigations at the ultrastructural level showed that sPLA2 in eosinophils is mainly located in specific granules. Immunoelectron microscopy also visualized sPLA2 within phagosomes after addition of opsonized particles to the eosinophils. However, sPLA2 was not detected in the cell-free supernatants of activated eosinophils, in contrast to eosinophil-cationic protein (ECP), which colocalizes with sPLA2 in resting eosinophils. These findings warrant further studies into the role of sPLA2 in eosinophil function.

  9. CD34 is required for infiltration of eosinophils into the colon and pathology associated with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Steven; Wohlfarth, Carolin; Gold, Matthew; Zbytnuik, Lori; Hughes, Michael R; McNagny, Kelly M

    2010-09-01

    Eosinophil migration into the gut and the release of granular mediators plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis. We recently demonstrated that eosinophil migration into the lung requires cell surface expression of the sialomucin CD34 on mast cells and eosinophils in an asthma model. Based on these findings, we investigated a similar role for CD34 in the migration of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells into the colon as well as explored the effects of CD34 ablation on disease development in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of ulcerative colitis. Our findings demonstrate decreased disease severity in dextran sulfate sodium-treated Cd34(-/-) mice, as assessed by weight loss, diarrhea, bleeding, colon shortening and tissue pathology, compared with wild-type controls. CD34 was predominantly expressed on eosinophils within inflamed colon tissues, and Cd34(-/-) animals exhibited drastically reduced colon eosinophil infiltration. Using chimeric animals, we demonstrated that decreased disease pathology resulted from loss of CD34 from bone marrow-derived cells and that eosinophilia in Cd34(-/-)IL5(Tg) animals was sufficient to overcome protection from disease. In addition, we demonstrated a decrease in peripheral blood eosinophil numbers following dextran sulfate sodium treatment. These findings demonstrate that CD34 was expressed on colon-infiltrating eosinophils and played a role in eosinophil migration. Further, our findings suggest CD34 is required for efficient eosinophil migration, but not proliferation or expansion, in the development of ulcerative colitis.

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis: perspectives of adult and pediatric gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    King, Jeremy; Khan, Seema

    2010-04-01

    To survey pediatric (PGI) and adult gastroenterologists (AGI) regarding their perceptions about the etiology, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and to assess whether differences in the clinical approach to EoE exist between these subspecialists. A 21-item survey related to EoE was emailed to PGI who subscribe to the PEDSGI Bulletin Board, and to two AGI per Electoral College vote in the US, randomly selected from each state. The survey was voluntary, and consent was assumed based on survey submission. The responses were submitted anonymously and results compiled in a secure Web site. A total of 249 physicians from across the globe responded to the survey, 68% of whom were PGI. The majority of respondents worked primarily in an academic institution or teaching hospital. Respondents revealed diagnosing an average of six cases (median 8, range 0-30) of EoE in the past 6 months. Ninety-two percent of AGI who see a patient with dysphagia and suspected EoE proceed to endoscopy with biopsies, compared to only 54% of PGI (P < 0.05); 38% of PGI would first perform an upper GI study. Both subspecialties agreed that biopsies of the proximal and distal esophagus are needed to make a definitive diagnosis of EoE. Fifty-eight percent PGI and 44% AGI defined EoE as an eosinophilic density of > or =20 per high power field (hpf) in esophageal biopsies. Seventy-seven percent of PGI but only 16% of AGI reported routine referral of patients for food allergy evaluation (P < 0.05). While 77% PGI and 91% of AGI would rely on a symptom-based follow-up, 27% PGI versus 9% AGI follow patients with biopsies according to a pre-determined schedule and another 38% repeat biopsies as needed, versus 15% AGI. This survey exposes a few inconsistencies among gastroenterologists in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with EoE. The currently available practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of EoE are largely based on retrospective studies and

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: perspectives of adult and pediatric gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    King, Jeremy; Khan, Seema

    2010-04-01

    To survey pediatric (PGI) and adult gastroenterologists (AGI) regarding their perceptions about the etiology, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and to assess whether differences in the clinical approach to EoE exist between these subspecialists. A 21-item survey related to EoE was emailed to PGI who subscribe to the PEDSGI Bulletin Board, and to two AGI per Electoral College vote in the US, randomly selected from each state. The survey was voluntary, and consent was assumed based on survey submission. The responses were submitted anonymously and results compiled in a secure Web site. A total of 249 physicians from across the globe responded to the survey, 68% of whom were PGI. The majority of respondents worked primarily in an academic institution or teaching hospital. Respondents revealed diagnosing an average of six cases (median 8, range 0-30) of EoE in the past 6 months. Ninety-two percent of AGI who see a patient with dysphagia and suspected EoE proceed to endoscopy with biopsies, compared to only 54% of PGI (P < 0.05); 38% of PGI would first perform an upper GI study. Both subspecialties agreed that biopsies of the proximal and distal esophagus are needed to make a definitive diagnosis of EoE. Fifty-eight percent PGI and 44% AGI defined EoE as an eosinophilic density of > or =20 per high power field (hpf) in esophageal biopsies. Seventy-seven percent of PGI but only 16% of AGI reported routine referral of patients for food allergy evaluation (P < 0.05). While 77% PGI and 91% of AGI would rely on a symptom-based follow-up, 27% PGI versus 9% AGI follow patients with biopsies according to a pre-determined schedule and another 38% repeat biopsies as needed, versus 15% AGI. This survey exposes a few inconsistencies among gastroenterologists in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with EoE. The currently available practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of EoE are largely based on retrospective studies and

  12. Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

  13. Toxicity of Eosinophil MBP Is Repressed by Intracellular Crystallization and Promoted by Extracellular Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Soragni, Alice; Yousefi, Shida; Stoeckle, Christina; Soriaga, Angela B.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Radonjic-Hoesli, Susanne; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Cascio, Duilio; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Riek, Roland; Eisenberg, David; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Eosinophils are white blood cells that function in innate immunity and participate in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Their secretory granules contain four cytotoxic proteins, including the eosinophil major basic protein (MBP-1). How MBP-1 toxicity is controlled within the eosinophil itself and activated upon extracellular release is unknown. Here we show how intragranular MBP-1 nanocrystals restrain toxicity, enabling its safe storage, and characterize them with an X-ray-free electron laser. Following eosinophil activation, MBP-1 toxicity is triggered by granule acidification, followed by extracellular aggregation, which mediates the damage to pathogens and host cells. Larger non-toxic amyloid plaques are also present in tissues of eosinophilic patients in a feedback mechanism that likely limits tissue damage under pathological conditions of MBP-1 oversecretion. Our results suggest that MBP-1 aggregation is important for innate immunity and immunopathology mediated by eosinophils and clarify how its polymorphic self-association pathways regulate toxicity intra- and extracellularly. PMID:25728769

  14. Catapult-like release of mitochondrial DNA by eosinophils contributes to antibacterial defense.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Shida; Gold, Jeffrey A; Andina, Nicola; Lee, James J; Kelly, Ann M; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Straumann, Alex; Reichenbach, Janine; Gleich, Gerald J; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2008-09-01

    Although eosinophils are considered useful in defense mechanisms against parasites, their exact function in innate immunity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of eosinophils within the gastrointestinal immune system. We show here that lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria activates interleukin-5 (IL-5)- or interferon-gamma-primed eosinophils to release mitochondrial DNA in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner, but independent of eosinophil death. Notably, the process of DNA release occurs rapidly in a catapult-like manner--in less than one second. In the extracellular space, the mitochondrial DNA and the granule proteins form extracellular structures able to bind and kill bacteria both in vitro and under inflammatory conditions in vivo. Moreover, after cecal ligation and puncture, Il5-transgenic but not wild-type mice show intestinal eosinophil infiltration and extracellular DNA deposition in association with protection against microbial sepsis. These data suggest a previously undescribed mechanism of eosinophil-mediated innate immune responses that might be crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier function after inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage, preventing the host from uncontrolled invasion of bacteria.

  15. [Eosinophilic colitis. A report of two cases with non conventional treatment].

    PubMed

    Rosas Vargas, Miguel A; Moncayo Coello, Vivian; García Cárdenas, Eustorgio; Valencia Mayoral, Pedro; Sienra Monge, Juan José Luis; del Río Navarro, Blanca E

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is a rare entity of unknown etiology characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis includes histopathological infiltration of more than 20 eosinophils in colon. It is frequently associated with milk hypersensitivity and, less usual, with other foods and increased IgE. Histopthological appearance of eosinophil mediators has been observed in the gut. It is sometimes related to the degree of infiltration of eosinophils in the gut as well as to the disease severity. There is not an established treatment for this entity, although systemic steroids have been used with certain efficacy. However, there is a recurrence of the symptoms when the therapy stops, besides the well known side effects of the long-term use of steroids. Cromolyn inhibits mast cell degranulation and prevents liberation of mediators. It is successful in certain cases, specially the severe ones. However, it is not available for its use in our country. Ketotifen, as last resource in our patients with bad response to habitual treatment and restriction diet, was used. Although its use is controversial, we consider that stabilizing mast cell membrane with subsequent inhibition of degranulation and recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation, would also restrain histamine liberation and blockage of H1 receptors, which would diminish local damage induced by eosinophils. Nonetheless ketotifen mechanism of action is unknown, our patients improved after treatment with this drug.

  16. Human eosinophils - potential pharmacological model applied in human histamine H4 receptor research.

    PubMed

    Grosicki, Marek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors are well known for their immunomodulatory role in inflammation. In this review we describe the role of histamine and histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils. In the first part of article we provide short summary of histamine and histamine receptors role in physiology and histamine related therapeutics used in clinics. We briefly describe the human histamine receptor H4 and its ligands, as well as human eosinophils. In the second part of the review we provide detailed description of known histamine effects on eosinophils including: intracellular calcium concentration flux, actin polymerization, cellular shape change, upregulation of adhesion proteins and cellular chemotaxis. We provide proofs that these effects are mainly connected with the activation of histamine H4 receptor. When examining experimental data we discuss the controversial results and limitations of the studies performed on isolated eosinophils. In conclusion we believe that studies on histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils can provide interesting new biomarkers that can be used in clinical studies of histamine receptors, that in future might result in the development of new strategies in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma or allergy, in which eosinophils are involved.

  17. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  18. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  19. Preschoolers' Success at Coding Absolute Size Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James

    1980-01-01

    Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and absolute sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that absolute coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)

  20. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  1. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  2. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  3. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  4. Counting RG flows

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence | will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerfulmore » enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.« less

  5. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  6. The Long-term Clinical Course of Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Uozumi, Ryuji; Tada, Mami; Kagiyama, Naho; Takaku, Yotaro; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Yutaka; Morita, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The long-term clinical course and prognosis of patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) including factors predictive of the relapse of CEP have not been fully investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate these issues. Methods We retrospectively investigated the rate of relapse and prognosis in 73 patients diagnosed as having CEP. Results Systemic corticosteroid therapy was administered at a prednisolone dose of 29.4±7.6 mg/day. During a median follow-up period of 1,939 days, 27 patients suffered from relapse of CEP. Two patients developed steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and 1 patient developed pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis. Five patients died; however, none died of CEP. A history of smoking was the only independent negative risk factor for relapse of CEP [hazard ratio, 0.37 (0.14-0.98)]. Conclusion Patients with CEP frequently relapse. During the follow-up, metabolic and infectious complications under prolonged corticosteroid therapy are problematic. A history of smoking was a negative factor for predicting the risk of CEP relapse. PMID:27580536

  7. Food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis: what do we do?

    PubMed

    Chehade, Mirna; Aceves, Seema S; Furuta, Glenn T; Fleischer, David M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by foods and possibly environmental allergens. Common conditions that mimic EoE include gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. These need to be excluded before confirming the diagnosis of EoE. Identification of food triggers for EoE using standard allergy tests remains challenging. Dietary therapy for EoE so far consists of test-directed elimination of foods, empiric elimination of common food allergens, or exclusive feeding of amino acid-based formulas, with variable success. No FDA-approved medications yet exist for EoE. Topical corticosteroids to the esophagus are being used. EoE is a chronic disease; therefore, long-term therapy seems to be necessary to avoid potential long-term complications such as esophageal remodeling and strictures. Optimal long-term therapies and follow-ups are still not established; therefore, discussion with patients and families regarding the choice of therapy is important to ensure the best possible outcomes from a medical and social standpoint. In this article, we discuss all the above issues in detail by using a hypothetical case; highlighting in a stepwise manner what is known with respect to diagnosis, work-up, and management of EoE; and discussing gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed in the future. PMID:25577614

  8. Clinical features of Eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Miehlke, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) may affect humans at any age with a predominance for Caucasian males. The clinical manifestation of EoE varies depending on the patient's age. Infants and young children may primarily present with unspecific symptoms such as feeding problems, vomiting and abdominal pain. In adolescents and adults, dysphagia and food impactation become the predominant symptoms. EoE should also be considered in cases of refractory heartburn in both children and adults. Concomitant allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as peripheral eosinophilia and elevated total serum IgE values are common in pediatric and adult EoE patients. EoE seems to be primarily a food antigen-driven disease, whereas in adults, aeroallergen sensitization may dominate. Endoscopic features of EoE include mucosal edema, furrows, exudates, corrugated rings, strictures, and the so-called crepe paper sign. There appears to be a shift from an inflammatory-predominant phenotype in young childhood towards a more fibrotic phenotype in adolescents and adults. Long-term follow studies suggest that EoE is a chronic and potentially progressive disease causing recurring dysphagia in the majority of cases. The prevalence of strictures significantly increases with the duration of untreated disease, stressing the importance of early diagnosis and consequent treatment of EoE. PMID:26552773

  9. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A relevant entity for the otolaryngologist.

    PubMed

    Górriz-Gil, Carmen; Villarreal, Ithzel M; Álvarez-Montero, Óscar; Rodríguez-Valiente, Antonio; Magaz, Marta; García-Berrocal, José R

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognised pathologic entity whose prevalence has risen significantly since it was first described. Its diagnosis represents a challenge for different medical specialties, among which ENT specialists play an important role. Clinical suspicion in a patient with recurrent food impaction or a child with eating disorders and history of hypersensitivity constitutes the first warning sign of a possible EE. The purpose of this review is to highlight EE as a possible differential diagnosis in patients with deglutition disorders and describe the possible clinical symptoms that should alert the ENT specialist to perform appropriate diagnostic tests and procedures. The transnasal esophagoscopy, performed in-office by the ENT, is ideal for reducing possible underdiagnosed cases. Given the fact that an ENT specialist will evaluate a great many patients with deglutition disorders, it is paramount for possible EE cases to be suspected and recognised so that a correct multidisciplinary approach involving not only ENT specialists but also paediatricians, gastroenterologists, allergologists and pathologists can be established. Identifying the dietary component responsible for the esophageal inflammation and removing that food from the patient's diet is the key in the treatment of this immune-mediated disease.

  10. Clara cells drive eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S S; Ehmke, M; Marsh, L M; Dietze, J; Dudda, J C; Conrad, M L; Renz, H; Nockher, W A

    2012-02-01

    Development of allergic asthma is a complex process involving immune, neuronal and tissue cells. In the lung, Clara cells represent a major part of the "immunomodulatory barrier" of the airway epithelium. To understand the contribution of these cells to the inflammatory outcome of asthma, disease development was assessed using an adjuvant-free ovalbumin model. Mice were sensitised with subcutaneous injections of 10 μg endotoxin-free ovalbumin in conjunction with naphthalene-induced Clara cell depletion. Clara epithelial cell depletion in the lung strongly reduced eosinophil influx, which correlated with decreased eotaxin levels and, moreover, diminished the T-helper cell type 2 inflammatory response, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13. In contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness was increased. Further investigation revealed Clara cells as the principal source of eotaxin in the lung. These findings are the first to show that Clara airway epithelial cells substantially contribute to the infiltration of eotaxin-responsive CCR3+ immune cells and augment the allergic immune response in the lung. The present study identifies Clara cells as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory lung diseases such as allergic asthma.

  11. Finger stiffness or edema as presenting symptoms of eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Shikino, Kiyoshi; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the clinical features and finger symptoms of eosinophilic fasciitis (EF), we reviewed five patients with EF. The chief complaint was pain, edema and/or stiffness of the extremities. The distal extremities were affected in all patients, and there was also proximal involvement in one patient. One patient had asymmetrical symptoms. All four patients with upper limb involvement had limited range of motion of the wrist joints, and three of them complained of finger symptoms. Two of these three patients showed slight non-pitting edema of the hands, and the other one had subcutaneous induration of the forearm. All four patients with lower limb symptoms had limited range of motion of the ankle joints, and two showed edema or induration of the legs. Inflammatory changes in the joints were not detected in any of the patients. Two patients displayed neither objective induration nor edema, and two patients had muscle tenderness. In conclusion, finger symptoms of patients with EF might be caused by fasciitis of the forearms, which leads to dysfunction of the long finger flexors and extensors as well as slight edema of hands. Limited range of motion of wrist and/or ankle joints indicates sensitively distal muscle dysfunction caused by fasciitis.

  12. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    SciTech Connect

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B.; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F.; Melo, Rossana C.N.

    2015-10-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  13. IL-4 Engagement of the Type I IL-4 Receptor Complex Enhances Mouse Eosinophil Migration to Eotaxin-1 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Nicola M.; Gwinn, William M.; Donnelly, Raymond P.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that IL-4Rα expression on a myeloid cell type was responsible for enhancement of Th2-driven eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Subsequently, we have shown that IL-4 signaling through type I IL-4 receptors on monocytes/macrophages strongly induced activation of the IRS-2 pathway and a subset of genes characteristic of alternatively activated macrophages. The direct effect(s) of IL-4 and IL-13 on mouse eosinophils are not clear. The goal of this study was determine the effect of IL-4 and IL-13 on mouse eosinophil function. Methods Standard Transwell chemotaxis assay was used to assay migration of mouse eosinophils and signal transduction was assessed by Western blotting. Results Here we determined that (i) mouse eosinophils express both type I and type II IL-4 receptors, (ii) in contrast to human eosinophils, mouse eosinophils do not chemotax to IL-4 or IL-13 although (iii) pre-treatment with IL-4 but not IL-13 enhanced migration to eotaxin-1. This IL-4-mediated enhancement was dependent on type I IL-4 receptor expression: γC-deficient eosinophils did not show enhancement of migratory capacity when pre-treated with IL-4. In addition, mouse eosinophils responded to IL-4 with the robust tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT6 and IRS-2, while IL-13-induced responses were considerably weaker. Conclusions The presence of IL-4 in combination with eotaxin-1 in the allergic inflammatory milieu could potentiate infiltration of eosinophils into the lungs. Therapies that block IL-4 and chemokine receptors on eosinophils might be more effective clinically in reducing eosinophilic lung inflammation. PMID:22761864

  14. Differential leukocyte counts in "dourado", Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840, from the Mogi-Guaçu River, Pirassununga, SP.

    PubMed

    Ranzani-Paiva, M J; Rodrigues, E L; Veiga, M L; Eiras, A C; Campos, B E

    2003-08-01

    From August, 1996 to December, 1997, 293 of "dourado" specimens, Salminus maxillosus (Valencienes, 1840), of various sizes, were caught in Mogi-Guaçu River, Emas Falls, for hematologic studies. Total weight (Wt in g) and length (Lt in cm) were taken for each individual animal. Smears were prepared from blood samples and utilized for differential leukocyte counts (lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, special granulocytic cell and immature cells). The mean percentages of leukocytes were determined according to sex and stage of gonadal maturation (immature, in maturation, mature, spent and resting). Significant differences between male and female occurred only for the special granulocytic cell. In analyzing the leukocyte profile during gonadal development, only female showed significant differences in mean percentages of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils.

  15. Effect of antenatal dexamethasone on neonatal leukocyte count.

    PubMed

    Zachman, R D; Bauer, C R; Boehm, J; Korones, S B; Rigatto, H; Rao, A V

    1988-01-01

    The leukocyte count and differential white blood cell count during the first hour of life was determined in 164 neonates born of mothers receiving antenatal steroids and compared to 171 neonates of mothers randomly assigned to a placebo group. A leukemoid reaction (greater than 40,000 WBC/mm3) was seen only once each in the neonates born of placebo or steroid treated mothers. In addition, maternal steroid treatment had no general effect, except in a small subgroup of neonates born 3 to 7 days after the mother had been treated with 20 mg dexamethasone, where the total leukocyte and the absolute neutrophil counts were higher than the placebo group and other subgroups. PMID:3057139

  16. Workshop Report from the NIH Taskforce on the Research Needs of Eosinophil-Associated Diseases (TREAD)

    PubMed Central

    Bochner, Bruce S.; Book, Wendy; Busse, William W.; Butterfield, Joseph; Furuta, Glenn T.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Klion, Amy D.; Lee, James J.; Leiferman, Kristin M.; Minnicozzi, Michael; Moqbel, Redwan; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wechsler, Michael E.; Weller, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are blood cells that are often found in high numbers in the tissues of allergic conditions and helminthic parasite infections. The pathophysiological roles that eosinophils may serve in other human ‘eosinophil-associated’ diseases remain obscure. Objective NIH Institutes and the Office of Disease Prevention assembled an international taskforce of clinical and basic scientists with the charge to propose and prioritize unmet research needs in eosinophil-associated diseases. Methods The taskforce used an organ system approach to dissect out the different and common themes of eosinophil cell involvement in these diseases. In early 2012, a draft document was circulated for review. The document was amended and the prioritizations were set at a NIH-organized workshop in June 2012. Results The taskforce identified significant research needs. These needs cross disease entities but some are disease-specific. There are substantial shortcomings to the various preclinical animal models, as well as significant gaps in our epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic knowledge. The taskforce recognized that recent efforts by patient advocacy groups have played instrumental roles in improving the identification and characterization of these disorders. However, communication amongst the eosinophil interested communities, e.g., governmental funding and regulatory agencies, and industry and clinician scientists need to be more comprehensive. Conclusions Significant efforts are required to address our knowledge gaps in order to improve the outcomes of eosinophil-associated diseases. NIH Institutes, other federal agencies, lay organizations and the pharmaceutical industry should consider the taskforce’s recommendations in their future research activities. PMID:22935587

  17. Increased Duodenal Eosinophil Degranulation in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lijun; Shen, Jinhua; Kim, John J.; Yu, Yunxian; Ma, Liqin; Dai, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder diagnosed by symptom-based criteria. It has been said that duodenal immune activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of FD. The primary aims of the study were to compare the total number of duodenal eosinophil and evaluate the eosinophil degranulation rate, number of duodenal degranulated eosinophil and mast cell between patients with FD and healthy subjects. We enrolled 96 patients with FD and 24 healthy controls at Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital. The total number of eosinophil was comparable in the second portion of duodenum (D2) and duodenal bulb (D1) between patients with FD and healthy controls (all P > 0.05). Significant higher eosinophil degranulation positive rate in D2 (P = 0.003) and a trend towards higher in D1 (P = 0.084) were observed in patients with FD compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the number of duodenal degranulated eosinophil in patients with FD were significantly increased than healthy controls in D1(9.8 ± 6.3 vs 2.9 ± 2.1 per HPF, P = 0.0002) and a trend towards increase in D2 (10.7 ± 7.7 vs 5.3 ± 0.9 per HPF, P = 0.077), respectively. However, degranulated mast cells in patients with FD were almost same with healthy controls. Increased eosinophils degranulation in duodenum play an important role in pathogenesis of FD. PMID:27708358

  18. IL-33-Induced Cytokine Secretion and Survival of Mouse Eosinophils Is Promoted by Autocrine GM-CSF

    PubMed Central

    Willebrand, Ralf; Voehringer, David

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are major effector cells during allergic responses and helminth infections. Recent studies further highlight eosinophils as important players in many other biological processes. Therefore it is important to understand how these cells can be modulated in terms of survival and effector function. In the present study we investigated how eosinophils respond to the alarmin IL-33. We show that IL-33 promotes eosinophil survival in a ST2- and MyD88-dependent manner. IL-33-mediated protection from apoptosis was dependent on autocrine GM-CSF release. In addition, GM-CSF increased the IL-33-induced secretion of IL-4 and IL-13 from eosinophils. Unexpectedly, this effect was further enhanced by cross-linking of Siglec-F, a proposed inhibitory and apopotosis-inducing receptor on eosinophils. Co-culture experiments with eosinophils and macrophages revealed that the IL-33-induced release of IL-4 and IL-13 from eosinophils was required for differentiation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). The differentiation of AAMs could be further increased in the presence of GM-CSF. These results indicate that cross-talk between Siglec-F and the receptors for IL-33, LPS and GM-CSF plays an important role for efficient secretion of IL-4 and IL-13. Deciphering the molecular details of this cross-talk could lead to the development of new therapeutic option to treat eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:27690378

  19. Primary activity standardization of ⁹⁹Tc by three different absolute methods.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Paulo A L; da Silva, Carlos J; Moreira, Denise S; Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Lopes, Ricardo T

    2014-05-01

    The activity concentration of a solution of (99)Tc was absolutely determined by liquid scintillation measurements based on the triple-to double-coincidence ratio method (TDCR) and compared with the results given by 4πβ(LS)-γ(NaI) live-timed anticoincidence (with extending dead-time) and classical 4πβ(PC)-γ(NaI) coincidence counting systems based on using (60)Co as the efficiency-tracing radionuclide. The results of anticoincidence and coincidence counting are, respectively, 0.18% and 0.66% higher than the result from TDCR measurements, but they are consistent within uncertainties. PMID:24365467

  20. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  1. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  2. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  3. Safety of dilation in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Ally, M R; Dias, J; Veerappan, G R; Maydonovitch, C L; Wong, R K; Moawad, F J

    2013-04-01

    Esophageal dilation is an effective therapy for dysphagia in patients with stenosing eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Historically, there have been significant concerns of increased perforation rates when dilating EoE patients. More recent studies suggest that improved techniques and increased awareness have decreased complication rates. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of dilation in our population of EoE patients. A retrospective review of all adult EoE patients enrolled in a registry from 2006 to 2010 was performed. All patients who underwent esophageal dilation during this time period were identified and included in the analysis. Our hospital inpatient/outpatient medical records, radiology reports, and endoscopy reports were searched for evidence of any complication following dilation. Perforation, hemorrhage, and hospitalization were identified as a major complication, and chest pain was considered a minor complication. One hundred and ninety-six patients (41 years [12]; mean age [standard deviation], 80% white, 85% male) were identified. In this cohort, 54 patients (28%) underwent 66 total dilations (seven patients underwent two dilations, one patient underwent three dilations, and one patient underwent four dilations). Three dilation techniques were used (Maloney [24], Savary [29] and through-the-scope [13]). There were no major complications encountered. Chest pain was noted in two patients (4%). There were no endoscopic features (rings, furrows, plaques) associated with any complication. Type of dilator, size of dilator, number of prior dilations, and age of patient were also not associated with complications. Endoscopic dilation using a variety of dilators can be safely performed with minimal complications in patients with EoE.

  4. Molecular Diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis by Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ting; Stucke, Emily M.; Grotjan, Tommie M.; Kemme, Katherine A.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Putnam, Philip E.; Franciosi, James P.; Garza, Jose M.; Kaul, Ajay; King, Eileen C.; Collins, Margaret H.; Kushner, Jonathan P.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Gene expression profiling provides an opportunity for definitive diagnosis but has not yet been well applied to inflammatory diseases. Herein, we describe an approach for diagnosis of an emerging form of esophagitis, eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), currently diagnosed by histology and clinical symptoms. Methods We developed an EoE diagnostic panel (EDP), comprising a 96-gene quantitative PCR array and an associated dual-algorithm that uses cluster analysis and dimensionality reduction, using a cohort of randomly selected esophageal biopsy samples from pediatric patients with EoE (n = 15) or without EoE (non-EoE controls, n = 14), subsequently vetted using a separate cohort of 194 pediatric and adult patient samples derived from both fresh or formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue: active EoE (n = 91), control (non-EoE and EoE remission, n = 57), histologically ambiguous (n = 34), and reflux (n = 12) samples. Results The EDP identified adult and pediatric patients with EoE with ~96% sensitivity and ~98% specificity, and distinguished patients with EoE in remission from controls, as well as identified patients exposed to swallowed glucorticoids. The EDP could be used with FFPE tissue RNA and distinguished patients with EoE from those with reflux esophagitis, identified by pH-impedance testing. Preliminary evidence showed that the EDP could identify patients likely to have disease relapse following treatment. Conclusions We developed a molecular diagnostic test (referred as the EDP) that identifies patients with esophagitis in a fast, objective, and mechanistic manner, offering an opportunity to improve diagnosis and treatment, and a platform approach for other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23978633

  5. Shape analysis of counts maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, M. A.; Göring, D.; Stegmann, C.; Mecke, K.

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach for source detection via structural deviations from the typical features of a random background counts map is presented. Minkowski functionals, powerful tools from integral geometry, quantify the shape of level sets of a counts map. Compared to standard techniques, which use the total number of counts only, additional morphometric information is incorporated without the need for any prior knowledge about the source. Minkowski sky maps quantify local structural deviations; they localize and visualize potential sources.

  6. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' PMID:26768195

  7. Making environmental DNA count.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  8. Mechanisms for the proliferation of eosinophilic leukemia cells by FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Kenji; Kitamura, Hajime; Hiraizumi, Kenji; Kaneko, Motoko; Takahashi, Aki; Zee, OkPyo; Seyama, Toshio; Hong, JangJa; Ohuchi, Kazuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2008-02-22

    The constitutively activated tyrosine kinase Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha}) causes eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells to proliferate. Recently, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppressed this proliferation and induced the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils in parallel with a decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation and whether the suppression of cell proliferation triggers the differentiation into eosinophils. The FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} inhibitor imatinib inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells and decreased the level of the oncoprotein c-Myc as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The proliferation of EoL-1 cells and expression of c-Myc were also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. The expression of the eosinophilic differentiation marker CCR3 was not induced by imatinib. These findings suggest that FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation of EoL-1 cells through the induction of c-Myc expression via ERK and JNK signaling pathways, but is not involved in the inhibition of differentiation toward mature eosinophils.

  9. TNF-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production in the eosinophilic cell line, EOL-1

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, L. A.; Strieter, R. M.; Evanoff, H. L.; Kunkel, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The role of eosinophils in inflammation and their mode of activation is not well understood. Eosinophil accumulation and subsequent expression of cytokines at the site of inflammation may play a role in exacerbation of inflammatory responses. In the present study, we have examined the role of TNF-α in eosinophil activation and chemokine production using a human leukaemic eosinophil cell line, EOL-1. Initial studies demonstrated that TNF-α induced the upregulation of IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA and protein. Kinetic studies indicated production of chemokines, IL-8 and MCP-1, as early as 4 h post-activation, with peak levels of chemokine produced at 8 h, and decreasing by 24 h post-TNF-α activation. When IL-10, a suppressive cytokine, was incubated with TNF-α and EOL-1 cells, no effect was observed on IL-8 and MCP-1 production. However, dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid, demonstrated potent inhibitory effects on the EOL-1-derived chemokines. These studies indicate that eosinophils may be a significant source of chemokines capable of participating in, and maintaining, leukocyte recruitment during inflammatory responses, such as asthma. PMID:18475720

  10. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression. PMID:27247599

  11. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  12. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; D'Alfonso, A J; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens.

  13. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults. PMID:27583199

  14. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults.

  15. Release of O2- and LTC4 by murine eosinophils: role of intra- and extracellular calcium.

    PubMed Central

    de Andres, B; del Pozo, V; Martin, E; Palomino, P; Lahoz, C

    1990-01-01

    Using an experimental model of mouse peritoneal eosinophilia, we investigated the role of Ca2+ in the in vitro activation of these cells challenged with specific Mesocestoides corti antigen. We have detected LTC4, a metabolite derived from arachidonic acid by way of 5'lipo-oxygenase and superoxide anion from the oxidative burst, as inflammatory mediators produced by activated eosinophils. Preincubation with hyperimmune mice serum increases the amount of LTC4 and superoxide anion in response to the antigenic extract. Release of O2- is inhibited by Verapamil (a voltage-gated calcium channel) and Quin 2 (an intracellular trapped chelator of calcium). Also, LTC4 produced by preincubated eosinophils challenged with M. corti is dramatically inhibited by Quin 2. Our results suggest an intact mechanism for calcium control for the release of these inflammatory mediators by eosinophils, after specific antigenic stimulation. PMID:1689695

  16. [Can eosinophilic bronchitis be considered as an occupational disease? Medical certification aspects].

    PubMed

    Kleniewska, Aneta; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) is a condition which can be associated with occupational exposure to low, as well as to high molecular weight allergens. The prevalence of occupational eosinophilic bronchitis is unknown and the data concerning its work-related etiology are available only from the case reports. However, there is a need to establish the principles, especially in the context of medical certification among workers occupationally exposed to allergens. This paper reviews current knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, and diagnostic procedures in the eosinophilic bronchitis. The importance of EB, especially in view of the problems emerging in the prophylactic care taken by occupational health services and the principles of medical certification when occupational etiology is suspected are also presented.

  17. Eosinophilic cellulitis and panniculitis with generalized vesicular pustular id reaction after a molten aluminum burn.

    PubMed

    Chao, Sheau-Chiou; Lee, Yi-Pei; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to aluminum are rare. Sensitization has been reported during the continuous application of aluminum-containing antiperspirants or after the injection of aluminum-adsorbed vaccines and allergen extracts containing aluminum. We report a rare case of a nonhealing ulcer at the site of an accidental molten aluminum burn that showed changes of eosinophilic cellulitis and panniculitis histologically. This process was followed by a generalized vesicular and pustular id reaction. The reactions resolved after 1 month of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Two months later, there was a relapse with bullae over the burn scar, accompanied by a pruritic oozing rash on the ears and face; the lesions were controlled again with systemic corticosteroid treatment. The clinicopathologic features suggest that the eosinophilic cellulitis with panniculitis and id reaction in the present case represents an unusual allergic reaction to aluminum. Aluminum allergy may be considered as a possible underlying process in the setting of eosinophilic cellulitis with panniculitis and id reaction.

  18. Intracellular application of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) induces exocytotic granule fusion in guinea pig eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of eosinophil secretion was studied in guinea pig eosinophils by measuring release of hexosaminidase from cell suspensions (greater than 98% pure) permeabilized with streptolysin-O and by whole-cell patch-clamp capacitance measurements. It is shown that release of eosinophil granule components occurs by an exocytotic mechanism in which individual granules fuse with the plasma membrane. Exocytosis can be induced by intracellular application of the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP- gamma-S), suggesting the involvement of a GTP-binding protein. The activation is modulated by the intracellular calcium concentration, with activation by GTP-gamma-S inducing transient elevations in the concentration of Ca2+. Thus, the nature and regulation of the release mechanism appear to be very similar to that of the mast cell and neutrophil. PMID:2137856

  19. A rare case of unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis associated with ipsilateral extragenital lichen sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aseem; Ray, Rahul; Sridhar, Jandhyala; Trehan, Arti; Khandare, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis, also known as Shulman's syndrome, is a fibrosing scleroderma-like syndrome, which is a distinct entity. A 55-year-old man, presented with progressive skin darkening, thickening, and tightening over the left lower limb since 6 months. Dermatological examination revealed a hyperpigmented indurated area on the left thigh, extending to the anterior aspect of the left leg. A well-defined hypopigmented indurated plaque was present over the left iliac region. Histopathology and imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis and lichen sclerosus. The indurated lesion on the left lower limb responded dramatically well to oral corticosteroids. This is a rare case of unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis associated with ipsilateral extragenital lichen sclerosus. PMID:27730034

  20. Clinical manifestations of Eosinophilic meningitis due to infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in children.

    PubMed

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Senthong, Vichai; Limpawattana, Panita; Auvichayapat, Narong; Tassniyom, Sompon; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2013-12-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis, caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is prevalent in northeastern Thailand, most commonly in adults. Data regarding clinical manifestations of this condition in children is limited and may be different those in adults. A chart review was done on 19 eosinophilic meningitis patients aged less than 15 years in Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Clinical manifestations and outcomes were reported using descriptive statistics. All patients had presented with severe headache. Most patients were males, had fever, nausea or vomiting, stiffness of the neck, and a history of snail ingestion. Six patients had papilledema or cranial nerve palsies. It was shown that the clinical manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis in children are different from those in adult patients. Fever, nausea, vomiting, hepatomegaly, neck stiffness, and cranial nerve palsies were all more common in children than in adults.

  1. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called "Getting…

  2. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  3. Atmospheric remote sensing to detect effects of temperature inversions on sputum cell counts in airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julie; Nair, Parameswaran; Kanaroglou, Pavlos

    2010-08-01

    Temperature inversions result in the accumulation of air pollution, often to levels exceeding air quality criteria. The respiratory response may be detectable in sputum cell counts. This study investigates the effect of boundary layer temperature inversions on sputum cell counts. Total and differential cell counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages and lymphocytes were quantified in sputum samples of patients attending an outpatient clinic. Temperature inversions were identified using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, an atmospheric sensor on the Aqua spacecraft which was launched in 2002 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. On inversion days, a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were neutrophils was observed in stable patients. There was also a statistically significant increase in the percent of cells that were macrophages, in exacerbated patients. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between temperature inversions and cell counts, controlling patients' age, smoking status, medications and meteorological variables of temperature and humidity. The analyses indicate that, in the stable and exacerbated groups, percent neutrophils and macrophages increased by 12.6% and 2.5%, respectively, on inversion days. These results suggest that temperature inversions need consideration as an exacerbating factor in bronchitis and obstructive airway disease. The effects of air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, were investigated. We identified no significant associations with any pollutant. However, we found that monthly averages of total cell counts were strongly correlated with monthly nitrogen dioxide concentrations, an association not previously identified in the literature.

  4. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  5. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Barnard, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set approximately outnumbered the first set, monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before it was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm to increment and compare quantities in sequence. This algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. PMID:25953949

  6. Inhibition of neutrophil and eosinophil induced chemotaxis by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, P. L.; Warringa, R. A.; Kok, P. T.; Kreukniet, J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Neutrophils and eosinophils infiltrate the airways in association with the allergen-induced late phase asthmatic reaction. Mobilization of these cells takes place via lipid-like and protein-like chemotactic factors. In this study platelet-activating factor (PAF), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were used as illustrative examples of both groups. Chemotaxis was studied in human neutrophils and eosinophils. The inhibitory effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were evaluated. 2. All chemotactic factors tested attracted neutrophils with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF identical to FMLP identical to LTB4. Eosinophils were only mobilized by PAF, LTB4 and ZAS with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF greater than LTB4. 3. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were equally active as the PAF antagonist BN 52021 in inhibiting the PAF-induced chemotaxis of neutrophils (IC50 approximately 10(-8) M). Both drugs were also equally active in inhibiting the chemotaxis of neutrophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7)-10(-6) M), FMLP (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M). 4. Nedocromil sodium significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by PAF (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M). The inhibitory potency of BN 52021 was similar to that of nedocromil sodium on the PAF-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils. Sodium cromoglycate was incapable of eliciting significant inhibition of these chemotactic responses. However, sodium cromoglycate significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M), whereas nedocromil sodium was ineffective. PMID:2163279

  7. Pulmonary eosinophils and their role in immunopathologic responses to formalin-inactivated pneumonia virus of mice

    PubMed Central

    Percopo, Caroline M.; Qiu, Zhijun; Phipps, Simon; Foster, Paul S.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced disease is the term used to describe the aberrant Th2 skewed responses to naturally-acquired human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infection observed in individuals vaccinated with formalin-inactivated viral antigens. Here we explore this paradigm with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a pathogen that faithfully reproduces features of severe hRSV infection in a rodent host. We demonstrate that PVM infection in mice vaccinated with formalin-inactivated antigens from PVM-infected cells (PVM Ags) yields Th2-skewed hypersensitivity, analogous to that observed in response to hRSV. Specifically, we detect elevated levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of PVM-infected mice that were vaccinated with PVM Ags, but not among mice vaccinated with formalin-inactivated antigens from uninfected cells (Ctrl Ags). Interestingly, infection in PVM Ag-vaccinated mice was associated with a ~10-fold reduction in lung virus titer and protection against weight loss when compared to infected mice vaccinated with Ctrl Ags, despite the absence of serum neutralizing antibodies. Given recent findings documenting a role for eosinophils in promoting clearance of hRSV in vivo, we explored the role of eosinophils in altering the pathogenesis of disease with eosinophil-deficient mice. We found that eosinophil deficiency had no impact on virus titer in PVM Ags-vaccinated mice, nor on weight loss or levels of CCL11 (eotaxin-1), interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-5, or IL-13 in BAL fluid. However, levels of both IL-4 and CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α) in BAL fluid were markedly diminished in PVM Ag-vaccinated, PVM-infected eosinophil-deficient mice when compared to wild type controls (246 words). PMID:19542471

  8. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  9. Counting reticulocytes by flow cytometry: use of thiazole orange.

    PubMed

    Carter, J M; McSweeney, P A; Wakem, P J; Nemet, A M

    1989-01-01

    Thiazole orange is a new fluorescent dye which will bind to the residual RNA in the cytoplasm of reticulocytes and allow their enumeration by FACS analysis. We have evaluated the use of this dye in the routine haematology laboratory. There is an excellent correlation between manual and FACS reticulocyte counts (r = 0.98) but FACS counting showed significantly higher precision (CV = 3.1) than the manual method (CV = 11.9) for single observer, 20.8% for multiple observers). Clinical specimens showed stable reticulocyte counts for 6 h if stored at 4 degrees C allowing efficient batching of samples. There was a significant fall in reticulocyte counts stored for 24 h at both 4 degrees C and 21 degrees C. Evaluation of 78 male and 76 female blood donors by FACS analysis gave normal ranges (mean % +/- 2 SD) of 0.74 +/- 0.48 and 0.84 +/- 0.56 respectively (P less than 0.005). When corrected to absolute values there was no sex difference (36 +/- 24 x 10(9)/l). Thiazole orange is an effective stain for the automated counting of reticulocytes by FACS analysis.

  10. Automated counting of bacterial colonies by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Pei-Ju; Tseng, Min-Jen; He, Zong-Sian; Li, Chia-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Research on microorganisms often involves culturing as a means to determine the survival and proliferation of bacteria. The number of colonies in a culture is counted to calculate the concentration of bacteria in the original broth; however, manual counting can be time-consuming and imprecise. To save time and prevent inconsistencies, this study proposes a fully automated counting system using image processing methods. To accurately estimate the number of viable bacteria in a known volume of suspension, colonies distributing over the whole surface area of a plate, including the central and rim areas of a Petri dish are taken into account. The performance of the proposed system is compared with verified manual counts, as well as with two freely available counting software programs. Comparisons show that the proposed system is an effective method with excellent accuracy with mean value of absolute percentage error of 3.37%. A user-friendly graphical user interface is also developed and freely available for download, providing researchers in biomedicine with a more convenient instrument for the enumeration of bacterial colonies. PMID:25451456

  11. Monocyte chemotactic protein 3 is a most effective basophil- and eosinophil-activating chemokine

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    CC chemokines constitute a novel class of cytokines that attract and activate monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as basophil and eosinophil leukocytes, with distinct target cell profiles, and are believed to be involved in the regulation of different types of inflammation. The action of the recently identified monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP- 3) on human basophil and eosinophil function was studied and compared with that of other CC chemokines. In basophils, MCP-3, MCP-1, RANTES, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha all induced cytosolic- free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) changes and, with different efficacies, chemotaxis (RANTES = MCP-3 >> MCP-1 > MIP-1 alpha), histamine release (MCP-1 = MCP-3 >> RANTES > MIP-1 alpha), and leukotriene C4 formation, after IL-3 pretreatment (MCP-1 = MCP-3 >> RANTES > MIP-1 alpha). Thus, MCP-3 was as effective as MCP-1 as an inducer of mediator release, and as effective as RANTES as a stimulus of basophil migration. In contrast to MCP-1, MCP-3 was also a stimulus for eosinophils, and induced [Ca2+]i changes and chemotaxis as effectively as RANTES, which is the most potent chemotactic cytokine for these cells. Desensitization of the transient changes in [Ca2+]i was used to assess receptor usage. In basophils, stimulation with MCP-3 prevented responsiveness to MCP-1 and RANTES, but not to MIP-1 alpha. No single CC chemokine (except for MCP-3 itself) affected the response to MCP-3, however, which was prevented only when the cells were prestimulated with both MCP-1 and RANTES. In eosinophils, by contrast, cross-desensitization between RANTES and MCP-3 was obtained. RANTES and to a lesser extent MCP-3 also desensitized eosinophils toward MIP-1 alpha. The desensitization data suggest the existence of three chemokine receptors: (a) a MCP-1 receptor expressed on basophils but not eosinophils that is activated by MCP-1 and MCP-3; (b) a RANTES receptor in basophils and eosinophils that is activated by RANTES and MCP-3; and

  12. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in association with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, S; Yamamoto, M; Nomiyama, T; Kawa, K; Takenaka, H; Tukitani, K

    2001-01-01

    This study reports on the clinical and light microscopic features of a nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with the complication of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such an association, which is possibly due to immune dysregulation. Moreover, the patient experienced remission of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis after removal of the jaw cyst. One possible explanation for the remission is that a long-lasting TH, type inflammatory response as a result of the bone defect produces effective cytokines such as interferon-gamma.

  13. A simple procedure for the purification of eosinophil peroxidase from normal human blood.

    PubMed

    Menegazzi, R; Zabucchi, G; Patriarca, P

    1986-07-24

    A simple procedure to purify human eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) is described. The method uses pure anucleated granule-rich eosinophil fragments (cytosomes) as a suitable starting material from which EPO can be quickly isolated. The enzyme obtained by this procedure has both the biochemical and the spectral properties of EPO and shows a reasonable degree of purity, as judged by its rz value. This procedure, besides its simplicity and reproducibility, offers at least two other advantages over the methods currently used for EPO purification, the possibility of isolating EPO from small amounts of normal human blood and a very high recovery of the enzyme activity.

  14. Chronic skin lichenification as unusual presentation of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, F; Loggini, B; Galimberti, S; Coceani, M; Latorre, M; Seccia, V; L'Abbate, S; Mosca, M; Pasanisi, E M; Baldini, C

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangitis (EGPA) is an uncommon ANCA-associated systemic small-vessel necrotizing vasculitis. At times, EGPA presenting manifestations can be very different from the usually recognized disease patterns. We report a 52-year-old female patient with 3 years history of itching. During the time occurred a chronic skin lichenification on her legs and gradually developed a full-blown ANCA-MPO positive EGPA in combination with blood hypereosinophilia, eosinophilic vasculitis at skin biopsy, subclinical asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:27606476

  15. Age-Related Decline of Neutrophilic Inflammation Is Associated with Better Postoperative Prognosis in Non-eosinophilic Nasal Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Jo, Ara; Jin, Hong Ryul; Eun, Kyoung Mi; Mo, Ji-Hun; Cho, Seong H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Innate and adaptive immune responses change with increasing age and affect the course of diseases. Previous study investigated immunologic alteration in Western nasal polyps (NP) which is mostly eosinophilic. However, there are no reports regarding age-related immune changes of non-eosinophilic NP (NE-NP) which is a predominant subtype in Asian population. Methods A total of 153 subjects, including 20 with control, 63 with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) without NP (CRSsNP), and 70 with CRS with NP were enrolled. Age-related changes in computed tomography (CT), cytokines and clinical information were investigated. Tissue samples were analyzed for protein levels of IL-5, IL-17A, IL-23, interferon (IFN)-γ, CCL-11, and CXCL-8, using Luminex immunoassay and for mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-17A, IL-23p19, IFN-γ, CCL-11, CXCL-1, CXCL-2, CXCL-8, and CXCR2 by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for the number of inflammatory cells. Results We observed that Lund-Mackay CT scores decreased with age in NE-NP. The number of human neutrophil elastase-positive cells and myeloperoxidase gene expression decreased in older patients with NE-NP, but not in control subjects, CRSsNP, and E-NP. Neutrophil-associated cytokines including IL-17A and IL-23, were negatively correlated with age in NE-NP at the protein and mRNA levels. Additionally, the expression of CXCR2, a receptor for CXCL-1 and CXCL-2, was decreased with age in NE-NP. However, there were no age-related changes in blood neutrophil count, and neutrophil-recruiting chemokines such as CXCL-1, CXCL-2, and CXCL-8. Elderly NE-NP patients showed better endoscopic scores at 12 months after surgery compared with the non-elderly. Conclusion Age-related decline in neutrophil inflammation may favorably affect postoperative results in elderly patients with NE-NP. PMID:26849431

  16. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  17. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  18. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  20. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.