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Sample records for absolute ethyl alcohol

  1. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  2. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  3. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  4. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  5. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  6. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  7. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  8. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving. PMID:26628164

  9. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-15

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and....1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH. (b) The ingredient meets...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  15. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  16. Higher permeability for water than for ethyl alcohol in Nitella.

    PubMed

    OSTERHOUT, W J V

    1950-03-01

    If we apply water at one end of a Nitella cell, A, and place at the other end, B, a solution of a substance which does not penetrate, such as sucrose, water enters the cell at A, passes along inside the cell, and escapes at B. But if in place of sucrose we use a substance which penetrates such as ethyl alcohol the flow of water is lessened and this fact makes it possible to measure the amount of alcohol which enters. (An increase in the size of cells placed in solutions of alcohol does not necessarily indicate that the number of mols of alcohol entering is greater than the number of mols of water leaving the cell.) The permeability for water is more than 18 times as great as for ethyl alcohol. The behavior of the 2 substances was compared in the same individual cell with a driving force which at the start was the same for both substances. The number of mols entering per second per cm.(2) of surface with a driving force of 1 atmosphere at 25 degrees C. is 0.772 (10(-6)) for water and 0.042 (10(-6)) for ethyl alcohol. The experiments indicate that the non-aqueous substance at the surface of the protoplasm has a higher partition coefficient for water than for ethyl alcohol, although the protoplasmic surface is composed of materials not miscible with water.

  17. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  18. [Influence of ethyl alcohol on diabetes pathogenesis type].

    PubMed

    Zasimowicz, Elzbieta; Wolszczak, Blanka; Zasimowicz, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Relations between metabolism of carbohydrates and ethyl alcohol consumption became a subject of many research because they occur very frequently amongst alcoholics. One of the most often and dangerous effects of abusing ethanol is hypoglycemia. It is caused by hepatic gluconeogenesis disturbed by ethyl alcohol. Chronic result of abusing alcohol is chronic pancreas inflammation (PZT), what causes disorders of exo- and endocrine function of pancreas. Endocrine function is secretion of insulin and the glucagon what regulates metabolism of absorbed compounds. Failure of beta cells of Langerhans islets causes diabetes demanding insulin therapy. The ethanol can cause recurring diabetes resulting from damage of cells of Langerhans islets but can be also the risk factor of diabetes type 2.

  19. The interaction of ethyl alcohol and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hills, B W; Venable, H L

    1982-01-01

    A serious, relatively unrecognized, occupational health problem involves the interaction of ethyl alcohol and chemical agents used in industry. Workers who drink alcohol and are exposed to certain chemical agents may experience adverse health effects such as nausea, dizziness, headache, and liver damage. This report reviews the synergistic interactions of ethanol with compounds such as the thiurams, amides, oximes, halogenated hydrocarbons, and metals. Also discussed is the effect of ethanol as a cofactor with vinyl chloride in the etiology of cancer.

  20. Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

  1. Voucher-based reinforcement for alcohol abstinence using the ethyl-glucuronide alcohol biomarker.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Michael G; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase. The percentage of negative urines was 35% during the first baseline phase, 69% during the C phase, and 20% during the return-to-baseline phase. Results suggest that EtG urine tests may be a feasible method to deliver CM to promote alcohol abstinence.

  2. Ethyl alcohol boiling heat transfer on multilayer meshed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dåbek, Lidia; Kapjor, Andrej; Orman, Łukasz J.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the problem of heat transfer enhancement with the application of multilayer metal mesh structures during boiling of ethyl alcohol at ambient pressure. The preparation of samples involved sintering fine copper meshes with the copper base in the reduction atmosphere in order to prevent oxidation of the samples. The experiments included testing up to 4 layers of copper meshes. Significant augmentation of boiling heat transfer is possible, however, considerable number of meshes actually hinders heat transfer conditions and leads to the reduction in the heat flux transferred from the heater surface.

  3. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States.... This determination is to be used to establish the ``base quantity'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol... CBERA-beneficiary countries. The base quantity to be used by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in...

  4. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month...

  5. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  6. Preoperative treatment of a parotid hemangioma with 100% ethyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Emsen, Ilteris Murat

    2008-01-01

    Hemangiomas are one of the most common childhood neoplasms, occurring in approximately 12% of infants younger than one year of age. The lesions typically appear shortly after birth, increase in size over the first year and characteristically regress over the next decade. Because hemangiomas can be visible during an important stage of a child’s social development, numerous authors have pursued alternative treatment strategies to avoid or reduce this lengthy involution process. Unfortunately, no effective medical treatment has been reported for children with large, deforming hemangiomas of the parotid gland and overlying cheek. In the present case, a patient with a large parotid hemangioma was treated preoperatively with an intralesional injection of 100% ethyl alcohol solution to reduce the size of the mass. The mass was removed 28 days later with no major postoperative complications. PMID:19949507

  7. Blood kinetics of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate in heavy drinkers during alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Morini, Luca; Polettini, Aldo; Christophersen, Asbjørg; Mørland, Jørg

    2009-07-01

    Studies of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) blood kinetics have so far been performed on healthy volunteers with ingestion of low to moderate doses of ethanol. These data are not necessarily transferable to heavy drinkers where the consumed doses of ethanol are much higher. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of EtG and ethyl sulphate (EtS) in blood in heavy drinkers after termination of alcohol ingestion. Sixteen patients from an alcohol withdrawal clinic were included directly after admission. Time of end of drinking, estimated daily intake of ethanol (EDI) and medical history were recorded. Three to five blood samples over 20-43 h were collected from each patient subsequent to admission. The median EDI was 172 g (range 60-564). The first sample was collected median 2.5 h after end of drinking (range 0.5-23.5). Two patients had levels of EtG and EtS below LOQ in all samples, the first collected 19.25 and 23.5 h after cessation of drinking, respectively. Of the remaining 14 patients, one subject, suffering from both renal and hepatic disease, showed concentrations of EtG and EtS substantially higher than the rest of the material. This patient's initial value of EtG was 17.9 mg/L and of EtS 5.9 mg/L, with terminal elimination half lives of 11.9 h for EtG and 12.5 h for EtS. Among the remaining 13 patients, the initial median values were 0.7 g/L (range 0-3.7) for ethanol, 1.7 mg/L (range 0.1-5.9) for EtG and 0.9 mg/L (range 0.1-1.9) for EtS. Elimination occurred with a median half-life of 3.3 h for EtG (range 2.6-4.3) and 3.6 h for EtS (range 2.7-5.4). In conclusion, elimination of EtG in heavy drinkers did not significantly differ from healthy volunteers, and EtS appeared to have similar elimination rate. In the present work, there was one exception to this, and we propose that this could be explained by the patient's renal disease, which would delay excretion of these conjugated metabolites. PMID:19395207

  8. Gauche Ethyl Alcohol: Laboratory Assignments and Interstellar Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.

    1997-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is known to possess a pair of closely spaced excited torsional substates (gauche+, gauche-) at an energy of approximately 57 K above the ground (trans) torsional substate. We report an extended analysis of some gauche - gauche+ Q-branch ((Delta)J = 0) transitions with a three-substate fixed frame axis method (FFAM) Hamiltonian. Our approach accounts for complex trans-gauche interactions for the first time. In addition, we are able to obtain intensities for perturbed rotational transitions, and to determine the trans to gauche+ separation to be 1185399.1 MHz. A complete ground state rotational-torsional partition function accounting for the previously neglected gauche substates is presented. Based on our analysis, a total of 14 U lines obtained towards Orion KL can now be assigned to gauche substates of ethanol. Analysis of these lines yields a rotational temperature of 223 K and a total (trans + gauche) column density of 7.0 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm. The column density is in reasonable agreement with the recent value of 2-3 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm based on observations of trans-ethanol by Ohishi et al., although there is some disparity in the rotational temperatures. Eight additional U lines in the literature are assigned to transitions of gauche ethanol.

  9. Brewing industry potential for the immediate and near-term production of fuel-grade ethyl alcohol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mulloney, J.A. Jr.

    1980-04-15

    The brewing industry is described as it relates to productive facilities and potential for fuel grade ethyl alcohol production. The brewing process is compared to the fuel grade ethyl alcohol process in a brewery. A description is given for retrofitting a brewery as a distilled spirits plant. The following are included: estimated capital requirements and alcohol costs, targets of opportunity, barriers and actions affecting brewery production of ethyl alcohol, suggested action programs, and recommended program activities. (MHR)

  10. Lignin biodegradation and the production of ethyl alcohol from cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    During the last few years our group has been engaged in developing a biochemical process for the conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethyl alcohol. Lignin is a barrier to complete cellulose saccharification in this process, but chemical and physical delignification steps are too expensive to be used at the present time. An enzymatic delignification process might be attractive for several reasons: little energy would be expected to be needed, enzymes could be recovered and reused, and useful chemicals might be produced from dissolved lignin. A number of thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi were examined for the ability to rapidly degrade lignocellulose in order to find an organism whcih produced an active lignin-degrading enzyme system. Chryosporium pruinosum and Sporotrichum pulverulentum were found to be active lignocellulose degraders, and C. pruinosum was chosen for further study. Lignin and carbohydrate were degraded when the substrate remained moistened by, but not submerged in, the liquid medium. Attempts were made to demonstrate a cell-free lignin degrading system by both extraction and pressing of cultures grown on moist lignocellulose. Carbohydrate-degrading activity was found but not lignin-degrading activity. This led us to ask whether diffusible lignin-degrading activity could be demonstrated in this organism. The data indicate that the lignin degradation system, or one or more of its components, produced by this organism is either unstable, non-diffusible, or inactive at small distances (about 1 mm) from growing hyphae. At present, studies are being conducted using diffusion cultures to select mutants of C. pruinosum that do produce a diffusible lignin degradation system. We are also examining a number of mesophilic lignin-degrading molds for this ability.

  11. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method). PMID:20457499

  12. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method).

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for quantitative detection of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danting; Zhou, Haibo; Ying, Yibin; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Ethyl carbamate, a by-product of fermentation and storage with widespread occurrence in fermented food and alcoholic beverages, is a compound potentially toxic to humans. In this work, a new approach for quantitative detection of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages, based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), is reported. Individual silver-coated gold nanoparticle colloids are used as SERS amplifiers, yielding high Raman enhancement of ethyl carbamate in three kinds of alcoholic beverages (vodka, Obstler, and white rum). The characteristic band at 1,003 cm(-1), which is the strongest and best reproducible peak in the SERS spectra, was used for quantitative evaluation of ethyl carbamate. The limit of detection, which corresponds to a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, was 9.0 × 10(-9) M (0.8 μg · L(-1)), 1.3 × 10(-7) M (11.6 μg · L(-1)), and 7.8 × 10(-8) M (6.9 μg · L(-1)), respectively. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy offers great practical potential for the in situ assessment and identification of ethyl carbamate in the alcoholic beverage industry.

  14. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  15. Laser output of nile blue A sulfate-xanthene in ethyl alcohol under coaxial flashlamp pumping*

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fugeng; Yu Chunlian

    1988-03-01

    Experimental results of laser output of nile blue A sulfate-xanthene in ethyl alcohol under coaxial flashlamp pumping are reported. Owing to the sensitization effect of rhodamine 6G the laser conversion efficiency of nile blue sulfate has been increased by 80%.

  16. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... its notice instituting this investigation in the Federal Register of March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and..., 2010 (75 FR 82069). By order of the Commission. James R. Holbein, Secretary. BILLING CODE 7020-02-P ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United...

  17. Practical use of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in postmortem cases as markers of antemortem alcohol ingestion.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjørg; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-03-01

    In postmortem toxicology, it could be difficult to determine whether a positive blood ethanol concentration reflects antemortem ingestion or postmortem synthesis of alcohol. Measurement of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been suggested as a marker of antemortem ingestion of alcohol, but EtG might degrade postmortem which could make interpretation difficult. So far, the published articles concern EtG only. Another nonoxidative metabolite, ethyl sulfate (EtS), which is more stable, has therefore been included in this study. We present a material of 36 deaths where postmortem formation of ethanol was suspected and where both EtG and EtS were measured in blood and urine to assist the interpretation. In 19 cases, EtG and EtS were positive in the body fluids analyzed. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in blood was 0.4 (range 0.1-23.2) and 0.9 mg/L (range 0.04-7.9), respectively. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in urine was 35.9 (range 1.0-182) and 8.5 mg/L (range 0.3-99), respectively. In another 16 cases, there was no trace of EtG or EtS in the specimens analyzed. In one case, there was inconsistency between the results of EtG and EtS; they were both positive in urine, while only EtS was positive in blood. This study showed that, out of 36 cases, antemortem ingestion of alcohol was very likely in 19 and unlikely in 16, according to EtG and EtS results. In the last case, the interpretation was more difficult. One possible explanation would be postmortem degradation of EtG in blood. PMID:19937334

  18. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  19. Effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate on Liver Injury Due to Acute Ethyl Alcohol Intoxication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Durgun, HM; Ozhasenekler, A; Dursun, R; Basarali, MK; Turkcu, G; Orak, M; Ustundag, M; Guloglu, C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Ethyl alcohol is a substance that is widely used worldwide and known to exert toxic effects on liver. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA) on the toxicity of a single dose of ethyl alcohol in rats. Subjects and Method: We used 32 randomly selected male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g. The rats were grouped into four groups with each group containing eight rats: Group 1: the control group, Group 2: the ethyl alcohol group, Group 3: the LOLA group and Group 4: the ethyl alcohol+LOLA group. Ethyl alcohol was administered orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 6 g/kg after diluting with distilled water. One hour after ethyl alcohol administration, LOLA was administered to pre-specified groups orally through a nasogastric tube at a dose of 200 mg/kg after diluting with distilled water. Liver tissue and blood samples were obtained from all rats 24 hours later to study total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels in liver samples, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), TAC, TOS and OSI levels in blood samples. Results: Serum TAC, TOS and OSI levels were higher in the groups that were administered ethyl alcohol. In addition, tissue TAC level was higher and TOS and OSI levels were lower in groups that were given ethyl alcohol. No significant changes were observed in serum and tissue TAC, TOS, OSI, ALT and AST levels in the LOLA administered groups. Conclusion: This study showed that LOLA was not biochemically effective and exerts no oxidative stress reducing activity in liver injury due to acute ethyl alcohol toxicity. PMID:26426168

  20. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  1. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. PMID:25137651

  2. THE PRODUCTION OF PURE ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL WITH CALCIUM CARBIDE AND ANHYDROUS COPPER SULPHATE.

    PubMed

    Lyons, R E; Smith, L T

    1925-09-01

    (1) The above is recommended as an economical, convenient and quick method for producing absolute alcohol on a laboratory scale. If the distillation is executed with free flame, excessive or careless heating must be avoided near the end of the operation because of the copper acetylide in the residue. (2) Calcium carbide is recommended over potassium permanganate or anhydrous copper sulphate as a qualitative reagent in detecting traces of water in alcohol.

  3. Acute alcohol intoxication in a child following ingestion of an ethyl-alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, James H; Radwick, Allison

    2015-07-01

    While uncommon, ingestion of ethanol-based hand sanitizers by children may be associated with significant intoxication. We report the case of a 7-year-old with acute alcohol intoxication following hand sanitizer ingestion. Alcohol elimination in this patient followed zero-order kinetics with a clearance rate of 22.5 mg/kg/h, consistent with the limited pharmacokinetic information available for children who experience alcohol intoxication from more traditional sources. PMID:25943177

  4. Ultrasound-Guided 50% Ethyl Alcohol Injection for Patients With Malleolar and Olecranon Bursitis: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Seong; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effect of ultrasound-guided ethyl alcohol injection on malleolar and olecranon synovial proliferative bursitis. Methods Twenty-four patients received ultrasound-guided 50% diluted ethyl alcohol injection at the site of synovial proliferative bursitis after aspiration of the free fluid. Results Swelling and symptoms significantly decreased in 13 of the 24 patients without any complications. Eleven patients had partial improvement in swelling and symptoms. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided alcohol injection could be an alternative therapeutic option before surgery in patients with chronic intractable malleolar and olecranon synovial proliferative bursitis. PMID:27152282

  5. [Autochthonous yeasts isolated in Tenerife wines and their influence on ethyl acetate and higher alcohol concentrations analyzed by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Salvadores, M P; Díaz, M E; Cardell, E

    1993-12-01

    A taxonomic study of yeasts present on Tenerife wines, (Tacoronte-Acentejo Specific Denomination) has been carried out. Nine species of the genera: Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, Brettanomyces, Kluyveromyces, Debaryomyces, Saccharomycodes, Hansenula, Pichia and Candida have been isolated. Parallely we analysed volatile compounds of the wines such as ethyl acetate, methanol, isobutanol and amylic alcohols by gas chromatography. Appreciable quantities of ethyl acetate were detected due to the low fermentative power of species such as Candida glabrata and Debaryomyces hansenii. The greatest concentration of amylic alcohols were found in wines containing yeast with high alcohol producing power like Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. Analysis of ethyl sulfate in raw wastewater for estimation of alcohol consumption and its correlation with drugs of abuse in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-09-19

    The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together. PMID:25103281

  7. Analysis of ethyl sulfate in raw wastewater for estimation of alcohol consumption and its correlation with drugs of abuse in the city of Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-09-19

    The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together.

  8. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: a controlled alcohol-dosing study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    L Crunelle, Cleo; Cappelle, Delphine; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2016-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor phase II metabolite of alcohol that accumulates in hair. It has been established as a sensitive marker to assess the retrospective consumption of alcohol over recent months using a cut-off of ≥7 pg/mg hair to assess repeated alcohol consumption. The primary aim was to assess whether amounts of alcohol consumed correlated with EtG concentrations in hair. Additionally, we investigated whether the current applied cut-off value of 7 pg/mg hair was adequate to assess the regular consumption of low-to-moderate amounts of alcohol. A prospective controlled alcohol-dosing study in 30 healthy individuals matched on age and gender. Individuals were instructed to drink no alcohol (N = 10), 100 g alcohol per week (N = 10) or 150 g alcohol per week (N = 10) for 12 consecutive weeks, before and after which hair was collected. Throughout the study, compliance to daily alcohol consumption was assessed by analyzing urine EtG three times weekly. Participants in the non-drinking group had median EtG concentrations of 0.5 pg/mg hair (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 pg/mg; range < 0.21-4.5 pg/mg). Participants consuming 100 and 150 g alcohol per week showed median EtG concentrations of 5.6 pg/mg hair (IQR 4.7 pg/mg; range 2.0-9.8 pg/mg) and 11.3 pg/mg hair (IQR 5.0 pg/mg; range 7.7-38.9 pg/mg), respectively. Hair EtG concentrations between the three study groups differed significantly from one another (p < 0.001). Hair EtG concentrations can be used to differentiate between repeated (low-to-moderate) amounts of alcohol consumed over a long time period. For the assessment of repeated alcohol use, we propose that the current cut-off of 7 pg/mg could be re-evaluated. PMID:26549114

  9. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods.

  10. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  11. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction for the sensitive determination of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qie Gen; Li, Wei Hong; Luo, Lin Guang

    2013-08-01

    A method based on ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME) was proposed in this contribution for the determination of ethyl carbamate (EC) in alcoholic beverages using gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. To achieve the determination of EC in alcoholic beverages, the influences on the extraction efficiency of type and volume of extraction solvent, temperature, ionic strength, alcohol content, and extraction time were studied, once the extraction solvent had been selected. The optimized conditions were 200.0 μL of chloroform at 30 °C during 5 min with 15% (m/v) sodium chloride addition. The detection limit, relative standard deviations, linear range, and recoveries under the optimized conditions were 0.03 μg L(-1), 4.2-6.1%, 0.1-50.0 μg L(-1), and 80.5-87.9%, respectively. Moreover, the feasibility of the present method was also validated by real samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that USAEME has been applied to determine a strongly hydrophilic compound in alcoholic beverages.

  12. Immunoassay for ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor: a new tool for postmortem diagnostics of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rainio, Juha; Kultti, Johanna; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Tuomi, Heidi; Ahola, Sanna; Karhunen, Pekka J; Helander, Anders; Niemelä, Onni

    2013-03-10

    Although excessive alcohol consumption plays a major role in fatal events, the role of alcohol use as a possible contributing factor at the time of death is not easy to establish due to lack of suitable biomarkers for postmortem analyses. We used an immunological approach to measure ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations from vitreous humor (VH) and serum from 58 individuals representing a forensic autopsy population of cases with either a well-documented history of excessive alcohol use (n=37) or cases without such history (n=21), according to medical and police records and blood alcohol determinations (BAC). The immunoassay was based on the Microgenics DRI-EtG EIA reagents applied on an automated Abbott Architect c8000 clinical chemistry analyzer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) was used as a reference method. At a cut-off of 0.3mg/l for VH-EtG, the immunoassay correctly identified 92% of the cases with a history of excessive alcohol use, whereas the BAC was positive (cut-off 10mg/dl) in 68% of the cases. A significant correlation emerged between VH-EtG and serum EtG (r=0.77, p<0.001) and between VH-EtG and BAC (r=0.62, p<0.001), although VH-EtG was frequently elevated also in cases with no detectable BAC. The EtG immunoassay showed a strong correlation with the LC-MS/MS reference method (r=0.94, p<0.001) and there was 100% agreement in the frequency of marker positive and negative findings between the immunoassay EtG results and the LC-MS/MS analysis of EtG and EtS. The present data indicate that the immunoassay for VH-EtG is a useful forensic tool for screening of antemortem alcohol use. PMID:23415594

  13. Ethyl-alcohol-fuel production from the Jerusalem artichoke. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, P.R.

    1983-03-01

    The project objective is to evaluate the commercial feasibility for production of fuel alcohol by fermentation of the carbohydrates in the tops of the Jerusalem artichoke. The maximum top biomass yields of the mammoth French white variety of Jerusalem artichoke was obtained at 119 days after plant emergence and maximum fresh weight of the tops was 31.6 tons per acre. During rapid growth the fresh stalks had 2% to 4% carbohydrate. After the plant reached a maximum height of 168 inches, and started to bud the stalk had a maximum of 4% carbohydrate. During blossoming the stalk carbohydrates rapidly translocated to the tuber. Single versus multiple cuttings demonstrated the maximum carbohydrate was obtained with a single harvest of the mature plants immediately following bud formation. The total carbohydrate yield from the top biomass was 1.26 tons per acre. The equivalent yield of fermentation alcohol is 180.6 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. The tuber yield at both Mesa and Toppenish, WA, was 14 to 15 tons of fresh tubers with 18% total carbohydrates. The carbohydrate yield was 2.52 tons per acre. This is equivalent to a yield of 360 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. Commercial scale fuel alcohol equipment was used to hammer mill and batch ferment tops and tubers. The steps for commercial processing of the biomass tops and tubers was discussed including extracting and fermentation of the carbohydrates to ethanol and their concentration by distillation and dehydration by molecular sieves to anhydrous fuel alcohol. The use of molecular sieves reduced the energy for dehydration of 95% ethanol to 5000 Btu per gallon. The economic feasibility and energy requirement for commercial processing was discussed.

  14. Ethyl glucuronide in hair - A highly effective test for the monitoring of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-05-10

    In Germany drink driving offenders lose their license and must prove abstinence for one year in order to regain it. In this paper we assess the newly introduced ethyl glucuronide (EtG) tests in urine and hair in this alcohol abstinence monitoring. 20% (80 out of 386) of the 3cm long hair samples were tested positive for EtG in hair, compared to only 2% (92 out of 4248 samples) in urine in the same time period. Additionally 50% of the samples positive for EtG in hair had EtG values greater than 30pg/mg hair, indicating chronic alcohol consumption in the last three months. This study shows that four EtG tests in 3cm hair lengths reveal a significantly higher percentage of drink driving offenders who fail to be sober in the rehabilitation period, than do six random EtG tests in urine. Presumably, the hair test is more adequate to monitor long term alcohol abstinence than the urine test as defined by the new driving license re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) in Germany. PMID:22019393

  15. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium from newborns for detection of alcohol abuse in a maternal health evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Burger, Pascal; Goecke, Tamme W; Fasching, Peter A; Reulbach, Udo; Bleich, Stefan; Hastedt, Martin; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2010-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) were determined in 602 meconium samples in a maternal health evaluation study for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated headspace solid phase microextraction method in combination with GC-MS was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 500 ng/g was applied for interpretation. A new and simple method was developed and validated for quantification of EtG from 10-20 mg meconium with D(5)-EtG as internal standard consisting of 30 min. extraction with methanol/water (1:1, v/v), evaporation of methanol, filtration of the aqueous solution through a cellulose filter and injection into LC-MS-MS. The limits of detection and quantification for EtG were 10 and 30 ng/g, the recovery 86.6 to 106.4% and the standard deviation of the concentrations ranged from 13% at 37 ng/g to 5% at 46,700 ng/g (N = 6). FAEE above the cut-off were found in 43 cases (7.1%) with cumulative concentrations between 507 and 22,580 ng/g and with one outlier of about 150,000 ng/g (EtG not detected). EtG was detected in 97 cases (16.3%) and concentrations between LOD and 10,200 ng/g with another outlier of 82,000 ng/g (FAEE 10,500 ng/g). Optimal agreement between the two markers was obtained with a cut-off for EtG of 274 ng/g and 547 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-negative, 33 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-positive, nine cases with FAEE-positive and EtG-negative, and seven cases with FAEE-negative and EtG-positive. Differences in physical, chemical, and biochemical properties and in the pharmacokinetic behavior are discussed as reasons for the deviating cases. In none of the 602 cases, serious alcohol consumption was reported by the mothers and no evidence for gestational ethanol exposure was observed in the medical investigation of the newborns. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG in meconium as markers for fetal

  16. Development of ethyl alcohol-precipitated silk sericin/polyvinyl alcohol scaffolds for accelerated healing of full-thickness wounds.

    PubMed

    Siritienthong, Tippawan; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2012-12-15

    Silk sericin has been recently reported for its advantageous biological properties to promote wound healing. In this study, we established that the ethyl alcohol (EtOH) could be used to precipitate sericin and form the stable sericin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds without the crosslinking. The sericin/PVA scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying and subsequently precipitating in various concentrations of EtOH. The EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds showed denser structure, higher compressive modulus, but lower water swelling ability than the non-precipitated scaffolds. Sericin could be released from the EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds in a sustained manner. After cultured with L929 mouse fibroblasts, the 70 vol% EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds showed the highest potential to promote cell proliferation. After applied to the full-thickness wounds of rats, the 70 vol% EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds showed significantly higher percentage of wound size reduction and higher extent of type III collagen formation and epithelialization, compared with the control scaffolds without sericin. The accelerated wound healing by the 70 vol% EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds was possibly due to (1) the bioactivity of sericin itself to promote wound healing, (2) the sustained release of precipitated sericin from the scaffolds, and (3) the activation and recruitment of wound healing-macrophages by sericin to the wounds. This finding suggested that the EtOH-precipitated sericin/PVA scaffolds were more effective for the wound healing, comparing with the EtOH-precipitated PVA scaffolds without sericin.

  17. The Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Spectrum of Gauche-Ethyl Alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.

    1996-01-01

    We report an investigation of the rotational-torsional spectrum of the gauche rotational isomers of ethyl alcohol in the 51-505 GHz frequency region. Over a thousand transitions between rotational levels in the gauche substates of the ground OH torsional state have been measured and assigned. These transitions involve rotational quantum numbers J and K(sub a) up to 30 and 15, respectively, and are of two types: alpha-type transitions between levels in either the gauche+ or the gauche-substate, and c-type transitions between rotational levels in the different substates. The majority of these transitions have been fit satisfactorily using a two-state Hamiltonian based on the Fixed Framework Axis Method (FFAM). The rotation, distortion, and interaction constants have been determined along with the energy difference between the two gauche substates. The derived constants can be used to predict many more transitions accurately for astronomical purposes. The J and K(sub a) region where the two-state analysis can be used has been determined. The basis for a three-state analysis including the trans substate is presented and the applicability of the FFAM approach is discussed.

  18. Ethyl alcohol (ethanol)-containing cologne, perfume, and after-shave ingestions in children.

    PubMed

    Scherger, D L; Wruk, K M; Kulig, K W; Rumack, B H

    1988-06-01

    Colognes, perfumes, and after-shaves containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) are frequently ingested by children. These products may contain from 50% to 99% ethanol. To determine if ingestion of colognes, perfumes, or after-shaves by children results in serious ethanol toxic reactions, this retrospective study was performed. One hundred twenty-three cases of children younger than 6 years old who ingested these products were reviewed. The cases were arbitrarily divided into three groups based on the amount ingested by history. Group 1 included children in whom less than 30 mL was ingested; group 2, 30 to 60 mL was ingested; and group 3, more than 60 to 105 mL was ingested. Of the 102 patients in group 1, no children experienced symptoms or signs. One of 17 children in group 2 was described by parents as sleepy but was asymptomatic one hour later. Two of four children in group 3 behaved as if intoxicated, yet blood ethanol levels were undetectable within 2 1/2 hours after ingestion. Based on our study, asymptomatic children who ingested by history less than 105 mL of a cologne, perfume, or after-shave and remain asymptomatic can be safely watched at home. All children with symptoms of intoxication need health care facility referral.

  19. Ethyl alcohol and sugar in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy)

    PubMed Central

    Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Moreno, Raphaël; Crovisier, Jacques; Colom, Pierre; Lis, Dariusz C.; Sandqvist, Aage; Boissier, Jérémie; Despois, Didier; Milam, Stefanie N.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of numerous complex organic molecules (COMs; defined as those containing six or more atoms) around protostars shows that star formation is accompanied by an increase of molecular complexity. These COMs may be part of the material from which planetesimals and, ultimately, planets formed. Comets represent some of the oldest and most primitive material in the solar system, including ices, and are thus our best window into the volatile composition of the solar protoplanetary disk. Molecules identified to be present in cometary ices include water, simple hydrocarbons, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen-bearing species, as well as a few COMs, such as ethylene glycol and glycine. We report the detection of 21 molecules in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), including the first identification of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, C2H5OH) and the simplest monosaccharide sugar glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) in a comet. The abundances of ethanol and glycolaldehyde, respectively 5 and 0.8% relative to methanol (0.12 and 0.02% relative to water), are somewhat higher than the values measured in solar-type protostars. Overall, the high abundance of COMs in cometary ices supports the formation through grain-surface reactions in the solar system protoplanetary disk. PMID:26601319

  20. Ethyl alcohol and sugar in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy).

    PubMed

    Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Moreno, Raphaël; Crovisier, Jacques; Colom, Pierre; Lis, Dariusz C; Sandqvist, Aage; Boissier, Jérémie; Despois, Didier; Milam, Stefanie N

    2015-10-01

    The presence of numerous complex organic molecules (COMs; defined as those containing six or more atoms) around protostars shows that star formation is accompanied by an increase of molecular complexity. These COMs may be part of the material from which planetesimals and, ultimately, planets formed. Comets represent some of the oldest and most primitive material in the solar system, including ices, and are thus our best window into the volatile composition of the solar protoplanetary disk. Molecules identified to be present in cometary ices include water, simple hydrocarbons, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen-bearing species, as well as a few COMs, such as ethylene glycol and glycine. We report the detection of 21 molecules in comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), including the first identification of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, C2H5OH) and the simplest monosaccharide sugar glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO) in a comet. The abundances of ethanol and glycolaldehyde, respectively 5 and 0.8% relative to methanol (0.12 and 0.02% relative to water), are somewhat higher than the values measured in solar-type protostars. Overall, the high abundance of COMs in cometary ices supports the formation through grain-surface reactions in the solar system protoplanetary disk. PMID:26601319

  1. Yeast contribution to melatonin, melatonin isomers and tryptophan ethyl ester during alcoholic fermentation of grape musts.

    PubMed

    Vigentini, Ileana; Gardana, Claudio; Fracassetti, Daniela; Gabrielli, Mario; Foschino, Roberto; Simonetti, Paolo; Tirelli, Antonio; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-05-01

    Melatonin (MEL) has been found in some medicinal and food plants, including grapevine, a commodity of particular interest for the production of wine, a beverage of economic relevance. It has also been suggested that MEL in wine may, at least in part, contribute to the health-promoting properties attributed to this beverage and, possibly, to other traditional Mediterranean foodstuffs. After a preliminary screening of 9 yeast strains in laboratory medium, three selected strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118, Torulaspora delbrueckii CBS1146(T) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii ATCC36947(T) ) were inoculated in experimental musts obtained from 2 white (Moscato and Chardonnay) and 2 red (Croatina and Merlot) grape varieties. The production of MEL, melatonin isomers (MIs) and tryptophan ethyl ester (TEE) was monitored during the alcoholic fermentation. The screening showed that the three investigated strains produced the highest concentrations of MEL and two MIs in optimal growth conditions. However, MEL and MIs were not produced in oenological conditions, but the three strains synthesized high concentrations of a new MI and TEE in musts. PMID:25726850

  2. Carrying out thermodynamic calculations and definition of the main reactions of decomposition of vapours of ethyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sechin, A. I.; Kyrmakova, O. S.; Ivanova, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Thermodynamic opportunities of course of chemical reactions of decomposition of the vapors of ethyl alcohol necessary at development of devices where these reactions will take place are considered. The entalpiyny method of calculation of constants of balance of probable chemical reactions is given in the Excel editor. Independent reactions of process of oxidation are defined. By result of thermodynamic calculation of each reaction schedules of dependence of a constant of balance on environment temperature from which follows are constructed that one reactions proceed until the end of aside formation of the final products, and others are improbable or impossible. The analysis of the received results shows that reactions of oxidation will successfully proceed in the established directions, and for an intensification of process of decomposition it is necessary to provide a supply of some energy which quantity will be sufficient for oxidation of vapors of ethyl alcohol. Results of calculations showed good convergence with programs of thermodynamic calculations like "Aster - 4" and "TERRA".

  3. A survey of levels of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages in 2009-2012, Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Hu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Results of a survey of levels of ethyl carbamate (EC) (urethane) in alcoholic beverages carried out in four successive years from 2009 to 2012 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are presented. The beverages were purchased for sampling from Hebei Province of China, including eight main areas of production. The samples comprised wines (n = 212), grain spirits (n = 143) and wine sauces (n = 164). The data show that the average EC content in these kinds of alcoholic beverages remains nearly constant over the years. The results provide valuable data for food authorities to establish maximum limits for EC in China.

  4. A project to improve the capabilities of minorities in energy fields and a cost benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, T.S.; Jones, M. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    The project being reported in this document had three components: (1) a research project to carry out cost-benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant at Tuskegee University, (2) seminars to improve the high-technology capabilities of minority persons, and (3) a class in energy management. The report provides a background on the three components listed above. The results from the research on the ethyl alcohol plant, are discussed, along with the seminars, and details of the energy management class.

  5. Diagnosis of chronic alcohol consumption. Hair analysis for ethyl-glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Jurado, C; Soriano, T; Giménez, M P; Menéndez, M

    2004-10-29

    This paper describes a procedure for the detection and quantification of ethyl-glucuronide (EtG) in hair samples. During method development the efficacy of extraction of EtG from hair was compared in four extraction methods: (a) methanol; (b) methanol:water (1:1); (c) water; and (d) water:trifluoroacetic acid (9:1). In addition, three derivatizing agents were compared as well: N,O-bistrimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA): trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) (99:1), pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) and heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA). Water was found to be the best extracting solvent and PFPA the best derivatizing agent. Both provided the highest recoveries, with cleaner extracts and more stable derivatives. The final method is as follows: about 100mg of hair are sequentially washed with water and acetone. The decontaminated sample is finely cut with scissors, then the deuterated internal standard (EtG-d5) and 2 mL of water are added. After sonication for 2 h, the sample is maintained at room temperature overnight. Derivatization is performed with PFPA. Derivatives are injected into a GC-MS system in the electronic impact mode. The method shows linearity over the range of concentrations from 0.050 to 5 ng/mg. Detection and quantification limits are 0.025 and 0.050 ng/mg, respectively. Mean recoveries for the three studied concentrations (low, medium and high) are higher than 87%. The coefficients of variation in intra- and inter-assay precision are always lower than 7%. The method is being routinely applied in our lab for the diagnosis of chronic alcohol consumption. PMID:15451088

  6. Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Ethyl Levulinate in Liquid Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Reaction pathways for the acid-catalyzed conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to ethyl levulinate (EL) in ethanol were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio high-level quantum chemical (G4MP2) calculations. Our combined studies show that the production of EL at high yields from FAL is not accompanied by stoichiometric production of diethyl either (DEE), indicating that ethoxymethyl furan (EMF) is not an intermediate in the major reaction pathway. Several intermediates were observed using an LC-MS system, and three of these intermediates were isolated and subjected to reaction conditions. The structures of two intermediates were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. One of these intermediates is EMF, which forms EL and DEE in a secondary reaction pathway. The second intermediate identified is 4,5,5-triethoxypentan-2-one, which is analogous to one of the intermediates observed in the conversion of FAL to LA in water (i.e. 4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one). Furthermore, conversion of this intermediate to EL again involves the formation of DEE, indicating that it is also part of a secondary pathway. The primary pathway for production of EL involves solvent-assisted transfer of a water molecule from the partially detached protonated hydroxyl group of FAL to a ring carbon, followed by intra-molecular hydrogen shift, where the apparent reaction barrier for the hydrogen shift is relatively smaller in ethanol (21.1 kcal/mol) than that in water (26.6 kcal/mol). PMID:25035710

  7. Utility of urinary ethyl glucuronide analysis in post-mortem toxicology when investigating alcohol-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Sundström, M; Jones, A W; Ojanperä, I

    2014-08-01

    Use and abuse of alcohol are common findings when unnatural deaths are investigated as evidenced by high blood- and urine- alcohol concentrations (BAC and UAC) at autopsy. Because ethanol is metabolized in the liver until the time of death, the autopsy BAC or UAC might be negative even though the deceased had consumed alcohol in the immediate ante-mortem period. Analysis of the non-oxidative metabolite of ethanol [ethyl glucuronide (EtG)] offers a more sensitive test of recent drinking. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of ethanol and EtG in urine samples from 972 consecutive forensic autopsies. In 425 cases (44%) both EtG and ethanol were positive, which supports ante-mortem drinking. In 342 cases (35%), both EtG and ethanol was negative, which speaks against any consumption of alcohol just before death. In 181 cases, ethanol was negative in urine (<0.2 g/kg), whereas EtG was positive (>0.5 mg/L), which points towards ingestion of alcohol some time before death. In these cases, mean and median concentrations of EtG were 53.2 mg/L and 23.7 mg/L, respectively, although there was no mention of alcohol on 131 of the death certificates. Alcohol was mentioned on death certificates as an underlying or immediate cause of death or a contributing factor in 435 (45%) cases, which rose to 566 (58%) cases when positive EtG results were included. This article demonstrates the usefulness of EtG analysis in routine post-mortem toxicology when ante-mortem drinking and alcohol-related deaths are investigated. PMID:24954799

  8. Simultaneous determination of ethyl carbamate and urea in alcoholic beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Guoxin; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Depei; Liu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    On the basis of the similar fluorescence of ethyl carbamate (EC) and urea derivatives, a high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of EC and urea in alcoholic beverages. The chromatographic separation and derivatization conditions of EC and urea were optimized. Under the established conditions, the detection limit, relative standard deviation, linear range, and recovery were 4.8 μg/L, 1.0-4.2%, 10-500 μg/L, and 93.8-104.6%, respectively, for EC; the corresponding values were 0.003 mg/L, 1.2-4.8%, 0.01-100 mg/L, and 90.7-104.8%, respectively, for urea. The method showed satisfactory values for precision, recovery, and sensitivity for both analytes and is well-suited for routine analysis and kinetic studies of the formation of EC from urea alcoholysis in alcoholic beverages.

  9. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart I... subpart M of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart M..., Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart L). (b) An appropriate BATF permit shall...

  10. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart I... subpart M of part 251, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart M..., Tobacco and Firearms Regulations (27 CFR part 251, subpart L). (b) An appropriate BATF permit shall...

  11. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  12. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

    2003-01-28

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content.

  13. Ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Mexico (tequila, mezcal, bacanora, sotol) and Guatemala (cuxa): market survey and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L). Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE) in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico.

  14. Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages from Mexico (Tequila, Mezcal, Bacanora, Sotol) and Guatemala (Cuxa): Market Survey and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Kanteres, Fotis; Kuballa, Thomas; López, Mercedes G.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a recognized genotoxic carcinogen, with widespread occurrence in fermented foods and beverages. No data on its occurrence in alcoholic beverages from Mexico or Central America is available. Samples of agave spirits including tequila, mezcal, bacanora and sotol (n=110), and of the sugarcane spirit cuxa (n=16) were purchased in Mexico and Guatemala, respectively, and analyzed for EC. The incidence of EC contamination was higher in Mexico than in Guatemala, however, concentrations were below international guideline levels (<0.15 mg/L). Risk assessment found the Margin of Exposure (MOE) in line with that of European spirits. It is therefore unlikely that EC plays a role in high rates of liver cirrhosis reported in Mexico. PMID:19440288

  15. H sub 3 PMo sub 12 O sub 40 -doped polyacetylene as a catalyst for ethyl alcohol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pozniczek, J.; Bielanski, A. ); Kulszewicz-Bajer, I.; Zagorska, M. ); Kruczala, K.; Dyrek, K. ); Pron, A. )

    1991-12-01

    A new and highly efficient catalyst was obtained by exploiting the unique ability of polyacetylene to incorporate heteropolyanions (HPA) of the Keggin type via oxidative doping. 12-Molybdophosphoric acid, 20.8 wt%, was introduced into the polymer. A uniform distribution of HPA over the cross section of the polymer film was found. However, the concentration of HPA seemed to be higher at the surface of the polymer fibers than in their bulk. The conversion of ethyl alcohol was used as a catalytic test reaction. The catalyst exhibited both acid-base activity (formation of ethylene and diethyl ether) as well as redox activity (formation of acetaldehyde). The acid-base activity was 10 times higher than that of unsupported H{sub 3}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}, and the redox activity was about 40 times higher.

  16. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Anjan Panneer; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-21

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  17. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    PubMed Central

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001–100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours. PMID:26996103

  18. Application of the Technicon Chem 1+ chemistry analyzer to the Syva Emit ethyl alcohol assay in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Urry, F M; Kralik, M; Wozniak, E; Crockett, H; Jennison, T A

    1993-09-01

    The performance of the Technicon Chem 1+ chemistry analyzer with the Syva Emit ethyl alcohol assay in plasma and urine was evaluated. Spiked specimens from 0 to 600 mg/dL were tested, and expected versus measured concentrations were monitored. Linear regression line equations of y = 0.9314x + 5.4 and y = 0.9005x + 4.6, and correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9997 and 0.9995, were obtained for plasma and urine, respectively. A limit of detection of 5 mg/dL for plasma and urine, and a limit of quantitation of 20 mg/dL for plasma and 15 mg/dL for urine were obtained. Recovery was within 10% of expected concentration from 20 to 600 mg/dL. Precision was evaluated, giving the following coefficients of variation: within-run precision: plasma, 1.31-2.20; urine, 1.16-1.21; total precision: plasma, 2.72-3.38; urine, 2.98-4.64. No carry-over was detected when alternating 600 mg/dL and negative specimens. No interference from acetone, isopropanol, or methanol was detected. No significant differences in evaporation of alcohol at two concentrations, or from the two matrices were observed. Evaporation from a small cup (200 microL) was more than twice as great as from a large cup (2 mL). The Chem 1+ was compared to a gas chromatographic method. Plasma specimens of 0-352 mg/dL produced a linear regression line of y = 1.0112x + 6.0, r = 0.9859; urine specimens of 0-313 mg/dL produced a line of y = 1.0493x - 0.3, r = 0.9910. The capability to separate positive and negative specimens at 20% around a cutoff concentration of 20 mg/dL was examined. Four hundred specimens were analyzed, with only one specimen incorrectly classified (a false positive). The Chem 1+ chemistry analyzer demonstrated reliable performance of the Emit ethyl alcohol assay of plasma and urine specimens.

  19. Fluorinated porphyrin tweezer: a powerful reporter of absolute configuration for erythro and threo diols, amino alcohols, and diamines.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyong; Tanasova, Marina; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Borhan, Babak

    2008-02-13

    A general and sensitive nonempirical protocol to determine the absolute configurations of erythro and threo diols, amino alcohols, and diamines is reported. Binding of diols to the porphyrin tweezer system is greatly enhanced by increasing the Lewis acidity of the metalloporphyrin. Supramolecular complexes formed between the porphyrin tweezer host and chiral substrates exhibited exciton-coupled bisignate CD spectra with predictable signs based on the substituents on the chiral center. The working model suggests that the observed helicity of the porphyrin tweezer is dictated via steric differentiation experienced by the porphyrin ring bound to each chiral center. A variety of erythro and threo substrates were investigated to verify this chiroptical method. Their absolute configurations were unequivocally determined, and thus a general mnemonic is provided for the assignment of chirality.

  20. Fatty acid ethyl ester concentrations in hair and self-reported alcohol consumption in 644 cases from different origin.

    PubMed

    Süsse, Silke; Selavka, Carl M; Mieczkowski, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    For diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were determined in hair samples from 644 individuals, mainly parents from child protection cases. The analysis for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate was performed according to a validated procedure consisting of external degreasing by two times washing with n-heptane, extraction with a mixture of dimethylsulfoxide and n-heptane, separation and evaporation of the n-heptane layer, headspace solid phase microextraction of the residue after addition of phosphate buffer pH 7.6 and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. For interpretation, the sum of the concentrations of the four esters C(FAEE) was used with the cut-off's 0.5 ng/mg for the proximal scalp hair segment 0-3 cm or less and 1.0 ng/mg for scalp hair samples with a length between 3 and 6 cm and for body hair. C(FAEE) ranged from 0.11 to 31 ng/mg (mean 1.77 ng/mg, median 0.82 ng/mg). The mean concentration ratio between the 4 esters was 8:45:38:9. 298 cases had C(FAEE) above the cut-off's. Self-reported drinking data were obtained in 553 of the cases in the categories abstinent (156 cases), moderate drinking (252 cases) and excessive drinking (145 cases). Median and box-plot data clearly demonstrate differentiation of these ingestor sub-populations by C(FAEE). However, in the abstinent and moderate groups the consumption was frequently underreported (37 and 110 cases positive) whereas in the group self-reported excessive drinking 32 cases were negative. Comparison of C(FAEE) with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in 139 cases and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in 136 cases showed a good agreement in CDT- and GGT positive cases (27/28 and 32/41) but a large portion of the negative CDT- and GGT-results with positive hair test (44/100 and 48/95) which is explained mainly by the much shorter time window of CDT and GGT. No significant correlation was found between persons

  1. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  2. Alterations in Ethyl Alcohol Pharmacokinetics During Oral Consumption of Malt Liquor Beverages in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert E.; Raysor, Byron R.; Kwagyan, John; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Kalu, Nnenna; Powell-Davis, Monique; Ferguson, Clifford L.; Carr, Lucinda; Scott, Denise M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Malt liquor (ML) beverages have become increasingly popular among urban minority groups, due partly to their inexpensive price and targeted advertising. We hypothesized that non-fermented by-products contained in ML beverages will alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of its ethanol content. In addition, we determined the effect of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genotypes on the PK following consumption of malt liquor beverages. Methods The study was conducted in 31 healthy adult African-American social drinkers, mean ±SD age of 22.3±1.3 years, and weight of 70.7±10.9 kg. Participants were administered ethanol, in randomized order, two-weeks apart, in the form of oral ML beverage (6%v/v), or isocaloric solution of diet soda–ethanol (DS-Etoh) beverage (6%v/v). During each session the beverage was consumed over 4 minutes and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) as well as subjective and behavioral effects of ethanol were evaluated over 180 minutes. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ethanol were calculated using Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics. The effect of ADH genotype on PK was evaluated using the Wilcoxon Signed rank test. Results Results show a slower mean rate of absorption, Ka, (0.12 vs. 0.15 min−1, p=0.03) and a longer time to reach maximum concentration, Tmax, (28 vs. 23 min. p<0.01) for the ML compared to DS-Etoh beverage. The ML beverage resulted in a larger area under the BrAC-time curve compared to DS-Etoh beverage (8.4 vs. 6.8 min*g/dL, p=0.02). There was no difference in the subjective PD effects between the 2 beverages. Conclusion Results show that exposure to ethanol following consumption of ML beverages is different compared to that following non-malt beverages in African Americans. These differences may be related to non-fermented by-products present in commercially available ML products. These PK differences do not appear to result in significant perceived alcohol PD changes, nor are they related to ADH

  3. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  4. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  5. Clinical use of meconium fatty acid ethyl esters for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities: the first reported case.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium are validated biomarkers of heavy fetal alcohol exposure that may potentially be used clinically for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities. However, until now, FAEEs have been largely used anonymously in epidemiological studies, and by child protection authorities in need for verification of heavy alcohol use in pregnancy. Here we describe the first case of a neonate identified as part of a research study on a pilot neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure. The neonate's meconium tested high for FAEEs (52 nmol/g; positive cut-off ≥ 2 nmol/g), which prompted active follow-up of the infant's development, identifying early neurocognitive problems and allowing initiation of a remedial program. PMID:22247425

  6. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  7. Fatal ethyl and methyl alcohol-related poisoning in Ankara: A retrospective analysis of 10,720 cases between 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Celik, Safa; Karapirli, Mustafa; Kandemir, Eyup; Ucar, Fatma; Kantarcı, Muhammed Nabi; Gurler, Mukaddes; Akyol, Omer

    2013-04-01

    Methyl and ethyl alcohol poisoning are still responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine ethyl and methyl alcohol poisoning related deaths in Ankara and surrounding cities between 2001 and 2011 and compare them with previous studied conducted in Turkey and other countries. For this purpose, 10,720 medico-legal autopsy cases performed in Ankara Branch of the Council of Forensic Medicine were reviewed in terms of alcohol poisonings. The deaths due to methanol and ethanol poisoning were 74 (0.69% of all medico-legal autopsies performed) and the distribution among them was 35 (47.3%) for methanol poisoning and 39 (52.7%) for ethanol poisoning. Overwhelming majority of the cases were male (n = 67, 90.5%). The mean age of the victims was 44.9 ± 10.9 years and ranging from 21 to 92 years. The age group of 35-49 years was the mostly affected. Most of the cases were seen in 2004 (n = 12, 16.2%). The levels of postmortem blood alcohol levels were available for all cases and the mean alcohol levels were 322.8 ± 155.5 mg/dL ranging from 74 to 602 mg/dL for methanol and 396.8 ± 87.1 mg/dL and ranging from 136 to 608 mg/dL for ethanol. Early diagnosis is essential for successful treatment in methanol and ethanol poisoning. Besides increased awareness, more sensitive/specific diagnostic tools, and the prompt approach to the poisoned individual should be implemented in the hospitals. PMID:23472793

  8. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as alcohol markers: estimating a reliable cut-off point by evaluation of 1,057 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Bossers, Lydia; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Herre, Sieglinde; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem, especially in Western countries. Therefore, it is important to have markers of alcohol consumption with validated cut-off points. For many years research has focused on analysis of hair for alcohol markers, but data on the performance and reliability of cut-off values are still lacking. Evaluating 1,057 cases from 2005 to 2011, included a large sample group for the estimation of an applicable cut-off value when compared to earlier studies on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair. The FAEEs concentrations in hair, police investigation reports, medical history, and the macroscopic and microscopic alcohol-typical results from autopsy, such as liver, pancreas, and cardiac findings, were taken into account in this study. In 80.2 % of all 1,057 cases pathologic findings that may be related to alcohol abuse were reported. The cases were divided into social drinkers (n = 168), alcohol abusers (n = 502), and cases without information on alcohol use. The median FAEEs concentration in the group of social drinkers was 0.302 ng/mg (range 0.008-14.3 ng/mg). In the group of alcohol abusers a median of 1.346 ng/mg (range 0.010-83.7 ng/mg) was found. Before June 2009 the hair FAEEs test was routinely applied to a proximal hair segment of 0-6 cm, changing to a routinely investigated hair length of 3 cm after 2009, as proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT). The method showed significant differences between the groups of social drinkers and alcoholics, leading to an improvement in the postmortem detection of alcohol abuse. Nevertheless, the performance of the method was rather poor, with an area under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve AUC) of 0.745. The optimum cut-off value for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair FAEEs was 1.08 ng/mg, with a sensitivity of 56 % and a specificity of 80 %. In relation to the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012

  9. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.Y.; Kwak, H.S.; Choi, J.S.; Ahn, H.K.; Oh, Y.J.; Velázquez-Armenta, E.Y.; Nava-Ocampo, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  10. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  11. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Yang, J Y; Kwak, H S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Oh, Y J; Velázquez-Armenta, E Y; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week.

  12. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  13. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  14. 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt): unsuccessful search for a marker of combined cannabis and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nadulski, Thomas; Bleeck, Simona; Schräder, Johannes; Bork, Wolf-Rainer; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    11-Nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt) can be presumed to be a mixed metabolite formed during combined consumption of cannabinoids and alcohol. In order to examine this hypothesis, THC-COOEt and its deuterated analogue D(3)-THC-COOEt were synthesized as reference substance and internal standard from the corresponding carboxylic acids and diazoethane and methods were developed for the sensitive detection of THC-COOEt in plasma and hair based on gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry after silylation with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) as well as tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS-MS) after derivatization with pentafluoropropionyl anhydride. The methods were applied for THC-COOEt determination to plasma samples from 22 drunk driving cases which contained both ethanol (0.30-2.16 mg/g) and THC-COOH (15-252 ng/mL) as well as to 12 hair samples from drug fatalities which were both positive for THC (0.09-2.04 ng/mg) and fatty acid ethyl esters as markers of chronic alcohol abuse (0.70-6.3 ng/mg). In none of these samples THC-COOEt could be found with limits of detection of 0.3 ng/mL in plasma and 2 pg/mg in hair in 11 samples using GC-NCI-MS and 0.2 pg/mg in one sample using GC-NCI-MS. Therefore, the use of this compound as a marker for combined cannabis and alcohol consumption could not be achieved. PMID:20074877

  15. Cancer risk assessment of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Brazil with special consideration to the spirits cachaça and tiquira

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a multi-site carcinogen in experimental animals and probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2A). Traces of EC below health-relevant ranges naturally occur in several fermented foods and beverages, while higher concentrations above 1 mg/l are regularly detected in only certain spirits derived from cyanogenic plants. In Brazil this concerns the sugarcane spirit cachaça and the manioc (cassava) spirit tiquira, which both regularly exceed the national EC limit of 0.15 mg/l. This study aims to estimate human exposure in Brazil and provide a quantitative risk assessment. Methods The human dietary intake of EC via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data in combination with own surveys and literature data. This data comprises the EC contents of the different beverage groups cachaça, tiquira, other spirits, beer, wine, and unrecorded alcohol (as defined by the WHO; including alcohol which is not captured in routine government statistics nor taxed). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Lifetime cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor. Results Considering differences between pot-still and column-still cachaça, its average EC content would be 0.38 mg/l. Tiquira contained a considerably higher average EC content of 2.34 mg/l. The whole population exposure from all alcoholic beverages was calculated to be around 100 to 200 ng/kg bw/day, with cachaça and unrecorded alcohol as the major contributing factors. The MOE was calculated to range between 400 and 2,466, with the lifetime cancer risk at approximately 3 cases in 10,000. An even higher risk may exist for binge-drinkers of cachaça and tiquira with MOEs of up to 80 and 15, respectively. Conclusions According to our risk assessment, EC poses a significant cancer risk for the alcohol-drinking population in Brazil, in

  16. Comparison of methods for extraction of ethyl carbamate from alcoholic beverages in gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Mirzoian, Armen; Mabud, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    A procedure to analyze ethyl carbamate (EC) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was optimized and validated. Deuterated EC (d5-EC) was added to the samples as an internal standard followed by extraction with polystyrene crosslinked polystyrene cartridges using minimal volumes of ethyl acetate. The EC response was measured in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode and found to be linear in the range between the limit of quantitation (10 micro/L) and 1000 microg/L. EC recoveries varied from 92 to 112%, with the average value of 100 +/- 8%. The procedure compared well (r2 = 0.9970) with the existing AOAC Official Method with the added benefits of minimal solvent usage and reduced matrix interferences. PMID:16915844

  17. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model. PMID:26726030

  18. Short-range order and fractal cluster structure of aggregates of barium titanate microparticles in a composite based on cyano-ethyl ester of polyvinyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasovskii, A. N.; Novikov, D. V.; Vasina, E. S.; Matveichikova, P. V.; Sychev, M. M.; Rozhkova, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of barium titanate (BaTiO3) microparticles in the matrix of cyano-ethyl ester of polyvinyl alcohol and the change in the surface energy upon introduction of shungite carbon nanoclusters into the dielectric composite have been investigated using the methods of scanning electron microscopy and contact angles. The computer processing of the electron microscopy data has demonstrated that the introduction of 0.04% shungite carbon nanoparticles into the composite leads to a decrease in the spatial homogeneity of the quasi-lattice and to an increase in the local density distribution of BaTiO3 microparticles, as well as in the correlation length corresponding to the formation of an infinite cluster of BaTiO3 particles. It has been found that, in this case, the surface energy and dielectric permittivity of the composite extremely increase.

  19. A Nonempirical Approach for Direct Determination of the Absolute Configuration of 1,2-Diols and Amino Alcohols Using Mg(II)bisporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Ikbal, Sk Asif; Dhamija, Avinash; Brahma, Sanfaori; Rath, Sankar Prasad

    2016-07-01

    We report here a simple, facile, and direct nonempirical protocol for determining the absolute stereochemistry of a variety of chiral 1,2-diols and amino alcohols at room temperature with no chemical derivatization using Mg(II)bisporphyrin as a host. Addition of excess substrates resulted in the formation of a 1:2 host-guest complex in which two substrates bind in an unusual endo-endo fashion because of interligand H-bonding within the bisporphyrin cavity leading to the formation of a unidirectional screw in the bisporphyrin moiety that allowed us an accurate absolute stereochemical determination of the chiral substrate via exciton-coupled circular dichroism (ECCD). The sign of the CD couplet has also been found to be inverted when the stereogenic center is moved by one C atom simply from the bound to an unbound functionality and thus able to discriminate between them successfully. Strong complexation of the alcoholic oxygen with Mg(II)bisporphyrin rigidifies the host-guest complex, which eventually enhances its ability to stereochemically differentiate the asymmetric center. The ECCD sign of a large number of substrates has followed consistent and predictable trends; thus, the system is widely applicable. Moreover, computational calculations clearly support the experimental observations along with the absolute stereochemistry of the chiral substrate. PMID:27231970

  20. The effect of octreotide (SMS 201-995) on experimentally induced pancreatitis with 50% ethyl alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Korun, N; Yilmazlar, T; Kaya, E; Kutlay, B

    1994-01-01

    Brattle-Boro type rats with average weight of 200 gms were used for the experiment. We established 5 groups with 10 rats in each. Group I was the control group, Group II pancreatic trauma group and Group III rats were the pancreatitis group induced by 50% alcohol. Groups IV and V were the groups in which Octreotide was injected in different time intervals after induction of pancreatitis by 50% alcohol. Amylase values were statistically significant between the control group in which Octreotide was injected in different time intervals after induction of pancreatitis by 50% alcohol. The amylase values were statistically significant between the control group and the experiments (t2 = 4.69 p < 0.001, t3 = 8.06 p < 0.00001, t4 = 4.23 p < 0.002, t5 = 4.3 p < 0.002), and it was also significant between Group III and Groups II, IV, V (t2 = 9.62 p < 0.0001, t4 = 10.26 p < 0.0001, t5 = 3.69 p < 0.005), but it was not found significant between Groups II and IV, V (t4 = 0.52 p < 0.6, t5 = 1.69 p < 0.1). Histopathologic examination of the trauma group showed congestion, minimal lymphomonocyte infiltration. Patchy necrosis and shrinkage of the acinar cells with ductal dilatation were seen in the SMS 201-995 injection groups which were more pronounced in Group V. As a conclusion SMS 201-995 is not effective to prevent the ongoing pathology of pancreatitis but the increasing values of amylase were limited on the level of simply induced traumatic pancreatitis. It may be useful in the suppression of the enzymatic production during the course of pancreatitis.

  1. Did you drink alcohol during pregnancy? Inaccuracy and discontinuity of women's self-reports: On the way to establish meconium ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as a biomarker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Anna; Grunitz, Juliane; Grimm, Jennifer; Walz, Lisa; Raabe, Eva; Goecke, Tamme W; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kratz, Oliver; Heinrich, Hartmut; Moll, Gunther H; Fasching, Peter A; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Consuming alcohol during pregnancy is one of the most verified prenatal risk factors for impaired child development. Information about the amount of alcohol consumed prenatally is needed to anticipate negative effects and to offer timely support. Women's self-reports are not reliable, often influenced by social stigmas and retrospective recall bias, causing biomarkers of intrauterine ethanol exposure to become more and more relevant. The present study compares both women's gestational and retrospective self-reports of prenatal alcohol consumption with levels of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium. Women (n = 180) gave self-reports of prenatal alcohol consumption both during their 3rd trimester (gestational self-report) and when their children were 6-8 years old (retrospective self-report). Child meconium was collected after birth and analyzed for EtG. No individual feedback of children's EtG level was given to the women. All analyses were run separately for two cut-offs: 10 ng/g (limit of detection) and 120 ng/g (established by Goecke et al., 2014). Mothers of children with EtG values above 10 ng/g (n = 42) tended to report prenatal alcohol consumption more frequently. There was no trend or significance for the EtG cut-off of 120 ng/g (n = 26) or for retrospective self-report. When focusing on women who retrospectively reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a claim to five or more consumed glasses per month made an EtG over the 10 ng/g and the 120 ng/g cut-off more probable. Women whose children were over the 10 ng/g EtG cut-off were the most inconsistent in their self-report behavior, whereas the consistency in the above 120 ng/g EtG group was higher than in any other group. The next step to establish EtG as a biomarker for intrauterine alcohol exposure is to correlate EtG values in meconium with child developmental impairments. PMID:27565755

  2. Ethylglucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate Assays in Clinical Trials, Interpretation and Limitations: Results of a Dose Ranging Alcohol Challenge Study and Two Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jatlow, Peter I.; Agro, Ann; Wu, Ran; Nadim, Haleh; Toll, Benjamin A.; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Nogueira, Christine; Shi, Julia; Dziura, James D.; Petrakis, Ismene L.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are biomarkers of recent alcohol consumption that provide objective measures of abstinence. Our goals are to better understand the impact of cutoff concentration on test interpretation, the need for measuring both metabolites, and how best to integrate test results with self-reports in clinical trials. Methods Subjects (n=18) were administered, one week apart, 3 alcohol doses calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL respectively. Urinary EtG/EtS were measured at timed intervals during a 24 hour hospitalization and twice daily thereafter. In addition, participants from 2 clinical trials provided samples for EtG/EtS and drinking histories. Cutoffs for EtG/EtS of 100/50, 200/100 and 500/250 ng/mL were evaluated. Results Twelve hours following each challenge, EtG was always positive at the 100 and 200 cutoffs, but at 24 hours sensitivity was poor at all cutoffs following the low dose, and poor after 48 hours regardless of dose or cutoff. Similarly, in the clinical trials EtG sensitivity was good for detecting any drinking during the last 24 hours at the two lowest cutoffs, but under 40% during the last 24-48 hours. Sensitivity was reduced at the 500 ng/mL cutoff. Discrepancies between EtG and EtS were few. Comparison of self- reports of abstinence and EtG confirmed abstinence indicated under-reporting of drinking. Conclusions Any drinking the night before should be detectable the following morning with EtG cutoffs of 100 or 200 ng/mL. Twenty-four hours after drinking, sensitivity is poor for light drinking, but good for heavier consumption. At 48 hours, sensitivity is low following 6 drinks or less. Increasing the cutoff to 500 ng/mL leads to substantially reduced sensitivity. Monitoring both EtG and EtS should usually be unnecessary. We recommend EtG confirmed self-reports of abstinence for evaluation of outcomes in clinical trials. PMID:24773137

  3. Wipe-test and patch-test for alcohol misuse based on the concentration ratio of fatty acid ethyl esters and squalene CFAEE/CSQ in skin surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Auwärter, V; Kiessling, B; Dyes, C

    2004-07-16

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are known to be formed in blood and almost all human tissues after alcohol consumption and to be incorporated from sebum into hair where they can be used as long-term markers for excessive alcohol consumption. In order to examine whether skin surface lipids which consist mainly of sebum are an equally useful matrix for measurement of FAEE as alcohol abuse markers, samples were collected by a wipe-test from the forehead of 13 teetotallers, 16 social drinkers, 10 death cases with known recent alcohol misuse and five death cases without indications of alcohol misuse. The samples were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate and by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector for squalene, (SQ), as a natural reference substance which the FAEE concentrations were related to. The ratio mFAEE/mSQ ranged between 0.16 and 1.12 ng/microg (mean 0.34 ng/microg) for the teetotallers and between 0.08 and 0.94 ng/microg (mean 0.37 ng/microg) for the social drinkers with no significant difference between both groups. For the alcoholics 2.4-24.2 ng/microg (mean 13.1 ng/microg) were found. For two volunteers the course of mFAEE/mSQ 2 weeks before and 3 weeks after a single high alcohol dose was pursued by daily wipe tests. A strong increase of mFAEE/mSQ occurred between 7 and 12 days after the drinking event. This delay can be explained by the transition time of about 8 days between sebum production and its appearance on the skin surface known from literature. For seven social drinkers skin surface lipid samples were also collected using drug of abuse patches of the firm PharmCheck. The ratios mFAEE/mSQ in these samples were in the same range as from the wipe-test. The comparison with the self-reported ethanol amounts consumed the week before and during the test gave no good correlation (R2 = 0.42). It can be

  4. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound. PMID:20070087

  5. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  6. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  7. Efficacy of Angelica archangelica essential oil, phenyl ethyl alcohol and α- terpineol against isolated molds from walnut and their antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Goni, Reema; Raina, Ajay Kumar Pandit; Dubey, N K

    2015-04-01

    Mold association, aflatoxin B1 contamination as well as oxidative deterioration of agri-food items during storage and processing are some global task for food industries. In view of the adverse effects of some synthetic preservatives on treated food items and subsequently on consumers health, recently plant based chemicals are encouraged by food industries as better alternatives of synthetics. The present study recommends the combination (1:1:1) of Angelica archangelica essential oil: Phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA): α- terpineol as botanical preservative against molds, aflatoxin contamination and oxidative deterioration of walnut samples. Eight mold species were procured from stored walnut samples, including some aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus strains. The combination inhibited growth of aflatoxigenic strain Aspergillus flavus NKDW-7 and aflatoxin B1 production at 2.25 and 2.0 μL mL(-1) respectively. The IC50 value of the combination was recorded as 3.89 μL mL(-1), showing strong antioxidant potential. The antifungal action of the combination showed > 90 % decrease in ergosterol content in plasma membrane of A. flavus at 2.0 μL mL(-1). The LD50 of the combination, through oral administration on mice, was 9562.9 μL kg(-1) body weight, indication favourable safety profile as a plant based preservative. The combination may be recommended as safe preservative against molds, aflatoxin contamination and oxidative deterioration of walnut samples. PMID:25829603

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  9. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... pharmacist if you are allergic to icosapent ethyl; fish, including shellfish (clams, scallops, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crab, ... and ticlopidine (Ticlid); aspirin or aspirin-containing products; beta-blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol ( ...

  10. Comparison of ethyl glucuronide in hair with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in serum as markers of chronic high levels of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Morini, Luca; Politi, Lucia; Acito, Silvia; Groppi, Angelo; Polettini, Aldo

    2009-07-01

    This study was designed with the aim to compare sensitivity and specificity of ethyl glucuronide in hair (HEtG) and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in serum as markers of heavy drinking. Eighty-six volunteers, including teetotalers, social, and heavy drinkers, were interviewed to evaluate their ethanol daily intake (EDI) during the last 2-week and 3-month periods. HEtG determination was performed by a fully validated LC-MS-MS procedure and ranged from absolute sensitivity and selectivity values for HEtG were observed considering the EDI of the last 3-months (selectivity: 1.00 for both HEtG and CDT-immunonephelometry, 0.89 and 0.78 for HEtG and CDT-HPLC, respectively; sensitivity: 1.00 vs. 0.47 for CDT-immunonephelometry; 0.98 vs. 0.51 for CDT-HPLC). Our results indicate that HEtG, as compared to CDT measured using different methods, is a selective marker of ethanol heavy chronic use providing considerably higher sensitivity. PMID:19410394

  11. Chemometric evaluation of nine alcohol biomarkers in a large population of clinically-classified subjects: pre-eminence of ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair for confirmatory classification.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Valentina; Valente, Valeria; Oliveri, Paolo; De Bernardis, Angela; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco

    2011-10-01

    An important goal of forensic and clinical toxicology is to identify biological markers of ethanol consumption that allow an objective diagnosis of chronic alcohol misuse. Blood and head hair samples were collected from 175 subjects-objectively classified as non-drinkers (N=65), social drinkers (N=51) and active heavy drinkers (N=59)-and analyzed to determine eight traditional indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and cholesterol and triglycerides in blood] and one direct biomarker [ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in head hair]. The experimental values obtained from these determinations were submitted to statistical evaluations. In particular, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and ROC curve analyses, together with principal component analysis (PCA), allowed the diagnostic performances of the various biomarkers to be evaluated and compared consistently. From these evaluations, it was possible to deduce that EtG measured in head hair is the only biomarker that can conclusively discriminate active heavy drinkers from social and non-drinkers, using a cut-off value of 30 pg/mg. In contrast, a few indirect biomarkers such as ALP, cholesterol, and triglycerides showed extremely low diagnostic abilities and may convey misleading information. AST and ALT proved to be highly correlated and exhibited quite low sensitivity and specificity. Consequently, either of these parameters can be discarded without compromising the classification efficiency. Among the indirect biomarkers, γ-GT provided the highest diagnostic accuracy, while CDT and MCV yielded high specificity but low sensitivity. It was therefore concluded that EtG in head hair is the only biomarker capable of supporting a confirmatory diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse in both forensic and clinical practice, while it was found

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. Ethyl carbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl carbamate ; CASRN 51 - 79 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  16. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  19. Ethyl alcohol use in engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    This article evaluates the use of ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines. The basic properties of ethanol are examined together with how it performs in an engine. Both spark ignition engines and diesel engines were tested with ethanol. The physical and chemical characteristics of ethanol provided a better match with the gasoline engines, although ethanol could be used to supplement diesel fuel in diesel engines.

  20. High-accuracy measurements of OH(•) reaction rate constants and IR and UV absorption spectra: ethanol and partially fluorinated ethyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Vladimir L; Khamaganov, Victor G; Martynova, Larissa E; Kurylo, Michael J

    2011-08-11

    Rate constants for the gas phase reactions of OH(•) radicals with ethanol and three fluorinated ethyl alcohols, CH(3)CH(2)OH (k(0)), CH(2)FCH(2)OH (k(1)), CHF(2)CH(2)OH (k(2)), and CF(3)CH(2)OH (k(3)) were measured using a flash photolysis resonance-fluorescence technique over the temperature range 220 to 370 K. The Arrhenius plots were found to exhibit noticeable curvature for all four reactions. The temperature dependences of the rate constants can be represented by the following expressions over the indicated temperature intervals: k(0)(220-370 K) = 5.98 × 10(-13)(T/298)(1.99) exp(+515/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(0)(220-298 K) = (3.35 ± 0.06) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) [for atmospheric modeling purposes, k(0)(T) is essentially temperature-independent below room temperature, k(0)(220-298 K) = (3.35 ± 0.06) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)], k(1)(230-370 K) = 3.47 × 10(-14)(T/298)(4.49) exp(+977/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), k(2)(220-370 K) = 3.87 × 10(-14)(T/298)(4.25) exp(+578/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and k(3)(220-370 K) = 2.48 × 10(-14)(T/298)(4.03) exp(+418/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The atmospheric lifetimes due to reactions with tropospheric OH(•) were estimated to be 4, 16, 62, and 171 days, respectively, under the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere. UV absorption cross sections of all four ethanols were measured between 160 and 215 nm. The IR absorption cross sections of the three fluorinated ethanols were measured between 400 and 1900 cm(-1), and their global warming potentials were estimated.

  1. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  2. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  3. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  4. A fully validated high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair for the proof of strict alcohol abstinence.

    PubMed

    Albermann, Maria Elena; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2010-04-01

    Hair analysis has become a powerful tool for the detection of chronic and past drug consumption. For several years, it has been possible to determine even the intake of ethanol in hair samples by detecting the ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide or fatty acid ethyl esters. Recently, new requirements were published for the use of EtG as an abstinence test (c(EtG) < 7 pg/mg) as well as for heavy-drinking detection (c(EtG) > 30 pg/mg). In order to perform abstinence tests, a sensitive LC-MS/MS procedure has been developed and fully validated according to the guidelines of forensic toxicology. The nine-point calibration curve showed linearity over the range of concentrations from 2-1,000 pg/mg. Detection and quantification limits were 1 and 4 pg/mg respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were always better than 20%. The validated procedure has successfully been applied to perform abstinence tests and to analyze hair samples from persons in withdrawal treatment. Concentrations between

  5. Experimental Determination of Densities and Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate with Alcohols (C3 and C4) at 0.3 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susial, Pedro; Estupiñan, Esteban J.; Castillo, Victor D.; Rodríguez-Henríquez, José J.; Apolinario, José C.

    2013-10-01

    The densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for the methyl acetate + 1-propanol, methyl acetate + 1-butanol, and ethyl acetate + 1-butanol mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibria data at 0.3 MPa for these binary systems were obtained using a stainless steel equilibrium still. The activity coefficients were obtained from the experimental data using the Hayden and O’Connell method and the Yen and Woods equation. The binary systems in this study showed positive deviations from ideality. The experimental VLE data were verified with the point-to-point test of van Ness using the Barker routine and the Fredenslund criterion. The different versions of the UNIFAC and the ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  6. Development of a novel solid-phase extraction, LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages: application to South African wine and spirits.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Philippus; Stander, Maria A; De Villiers, André

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a known genotoxic carcinogen that is frequently present in alcoholic beverages and is therefore a public health concern. As a consequence, maximum concentration levels for EC in these commodities are legislated in several countries. Quantitative analytical methods are therefore essential to monitor EC levels in beverages. Most published analytical methods for the determination of EC in alcoholic beverages utilise elaborate sample pre-treatment procedures to obtain injectable samples, or yield low sensitivity, for example where direct injection is used. In addition, these procedures often require large volumes of toxic solvents and are not generally applicable to diverse alcoholic beverages. This paper describes a novel procedure for the determination of EC in wines, fortified wines and spirits. The procedure is based on reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up combined with normal-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometric (NP-LC-APCI-MS/MS) analysis. This method provides a rapid, robust and simple analytical procedure suitable for the analysis of a diverse range of alcoholic beverages. The accuracy of the method (expressed as average recovery from diverse matrices) is 94.5%, with limits of detection (LODs) ranging between 0.25 and 0.63 µg l(-1) for different matrices. Benefits such as simplified sample preparation, low detection limits, low solvent consumption and good selectivity render the methodology ideally suited to study the occurrence of EC in diverse commodities. The method was applied to study the occurrence of EC in South African wines, fortified wines and spirits. South African wines, aged 1-9 years, contained 1.8-31 µg l(-1) EC (RSD = 69%, n = 106), fortified wines aged 2-34 years contained 2.8-79 µg l(-1) EC (RSD = 89%, n = 21), and brandies aged 3-20 years contained 4.4-95 µg l(-1) EC (RSD = 105%, n = 26). Factors

  7. Development of a novel solid-phase extraction, LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages: application to South African wine and spirits.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Philippus; Stander, Maria A; De Villiers, André

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a known genotoxic carcinogen that is frequently present in alcoholic beverages and is therefore a public health concern. As a consequence, maximum concentration levels for EC in these commodities are legislated in several countries. Quantitative analytical methods are therefore essential to monitor EC levels in beverages. Most published analytical methods for the determination of EC in alcoholic beverages utilise elaborate sample pre-treatment procedures to obtain injectable samples, or yield low sensitivity, for example where direct injection is used. In addition, these procedures often require large volumes of toxic solvents and are not generally applicable to diverse alcoholic beverages. This paper describes a novel procedure for the determination of EC in wines, fortified wines and spirits. The procedure is based on reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up combined with normal-phase liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometric (NP-LC-APCI-MS/MS) analysis. This method provides a rapid, robust and simple analytical procedure suitable for the analysis of a diverse range of alcoholic beverages. The accuracy of the method (expressed as average recovery from diverse matrices) is 94.5%, with limits of detection (LODs) ranging between 0.25 and 0.63 µg l(-1) for different matrices. Benefits such as simplified sample preparation, low detection limits, low solvent consumption and good selectivity render the methodology ideally suited to study the occurrence of EC in diverse commodities. The method was applied to study the occurrence of EC in South African wines, fortified wines and spirits. South African wines, aged 1-9 years, contained 1.8-31 µg l(-1) EC (RSD = 69%, n = 106), fortified wines aged 2-34 years contained 2.8-79 µg l(-1) EC (RSD = 89%, n = 21), and brandies aged 3-20 years contained 4.4-95 µg l(-1) EC (RSD = 105%, n = 26). Factors

  8. Testing for ethanol markers in hair: discrepancies after simultaneous quantification of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Nicholson, D

    2014-10-01

    The hair of 97 cases were analysed for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE, including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate) according to the Society of Hair Testing guidelines to examine the role of both tests in documenting chronic excessive alcohol drinking, particularly when the results are in contradiction. 27 (27.8%) results were EtG negative and FAEE positive, when applying the SoHT cut-offs, probably due to the use of alcohol-containing hair products. Four cases (4.1%) were EtG positive and FAEE negative that were attributed to the use of herbal lotions containing EtG. PMID:24794020

  9. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  10. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  11. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  12. Production of ethyl alcohol from tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Sreekantiah, K.R.; Rao, B.A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Ethanol was produced from starchy tubers by gelatinization in a boiling acidic solution, saccharification with Rhizopus niveus, and fermentation with Saccharomyces ellipsoideus in the presence of the saccharifying fungus. The efficiency of ethanol production from potato, tapioca, and sweet potato starch was 68, 81, and 75% respectively.

  13. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  14. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-ethyl-1-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  15. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-butanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-ethyl-1-butanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-butanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659644

  16. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved. PMID:19272096

  17. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  18. Chlorimuron-ethyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorimuron - ethyl ; CASRN 90982 - 32 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  19. [Detection and application of ethyl glucuronide in forensic toxicology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Zhuo, Xian-yi; Shen, Bao-hua

    2009-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide is a specific metabolite of ethanol. There have been plenty of articles referring its pharmacokinetics, detection and application as a specific bio-marker of alcohol intake. This article reviews various analytical methods of EtG, relationship between EtG quantification and ethanol intake, and criteria for determining chronic alcohol abuse, and origin of ethanol found in the cadavers by EtG analysis. EtG has its potential application in forensic toxicology. PMID:19397218

  20. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  1. Facts on the Effects of Alcohol. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is one of the few alcohols that humans can drink. This alcohol is a byproduct of yeast's reaction with the sugars in fruit or vegetable juice and the process stops naturally with about an 11 to 14 percent alcoholic concentration, although distillation can greatly increase the alcoholic content. Once ingested, most alcohol…

  2. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  3. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  4. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  5. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair by GC-MS and application in a population of cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Politi, Lucia; Mari, Francesco; Furlanetto, Sandra; Del Bravo, Ester; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate in hair samples was developed, validated and applied to real samples. Ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate are fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) which are known to be direct biotransformation products of ethanol. Their presence in the body fluids and tissue is therefore indicative of alcohol intake and, in particular, FAEE concentration in hair higher than 0.5 ng/mg is indicative of excessive chronic alcohol consumption. The method was applied to 80 hair samples formerly found positive for cocaine and FAEE analytical results were compared with the presence of cocaethylene, a cocaine metabolite formed only when alcohol and cocaine are used together. According to our data the two biomarkers (FAEE and cocaethylene in hair) are tools of great value in the assessment of the diagnosis of use of cocaine and ethanol. In fact, discrepancies were noted and might be related to various factors including differences in consumption habits and thus permitting to distinguish the use of both substances non-concurrently or concurrently. Also, the determination of both markers may, in some cases, discriminate the use of moderate or heavy alcohol amounts when associated with cocaine. Finally, in a population of non-cocaine-users our results support FAEE as valuable means in the assessment of excessive alcohol chronic use. PMID:21159458

  6. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  7. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A summary of the safety data available for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols in which the common characteristic structural element is one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4) to C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  8. Fragrance material review on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A summary of the safety data available for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols in which the common characteristic structural element is one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4) to C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:20659633

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  12. What Is Alcohol? And Why Do People Drink? Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Alcoholic beverages have been used throughout American history but their use has always been controversial. Ethyl alcohol is one of the few alcohols man is able to drink, although it is never full strength. The fermentation process is used to manufacture alcoholic beverages. Wines are made from a variety of fruits. Beer is made from yeast and a…

  13. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876

  14. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  15. Ethyl carbamate: analytical methodology, occurrence, formation, biological activity and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zimmerli, B; Schlatter, J

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a genotoxic compound in vitro and in vivo, it binds covalently to DNA and is an animal carcinogen. Today, EC is mainly found as a natural trace constituent in different alcoholic beverages and in fermented food items. Data on analytical methodology and the levels of EC in different food items are summarized and the daily burden of humans is estimated. Under normal dietary habits excluding alcoholic beverages, the unavoidable daily intake is 10-20 ng/kg b.w. On the basis of the evaluation of all toxicity data and its mode of action a conventional risk assessment of EC indicates that this level represents a negligible lifetime cancer risk (less than 0.0001%). Individual habits may greatly enhance the risk. Regular drinking of table wine (500 ml/day) would increase the risk up to 5 times, regular drinking of stone-fruit distillates (20-40 ml/day) would raise the calculated hypothetical tumor risk to near 0.01%. Human exposure to carcinogenic compounds should be as low as reasonably achievable. In order to take reliable measures to reduce EC levels in beverages and foods, it is crucial to know the mode of its formation. For its natural formation the presence of ethanol is absolutely required. In stone-fruit distillates hydrogen cyanide together with photochemically active substances are crucial to form EC. The main part of EC is formed after the distillation involving photochemical reactions. In wine (and probably bread) significant EC formation seems to depend on heat treatment. While in distillates hydrogen cyanide is the most important single precursor, in wine different carbamyl compounds, mainly urea, seem to be involved in EC formation. Despite this apparent difference a common EC formation pathway is discussed for all alcoholic beverages by assuming cyanic-/isocyanic acid as an important ultimate reactant with ethanol. Some ideas are presented as to the possible course of future work.

  16. Fetal alcohol exposure: consequences, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Dawn; Waterman, Emily Hubbard; Caughey, Aaron B

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent, with as many as 12% of pregnant women consuming alcohol. Alcohol intake may vary from an occasional drink, to weekly binge drinking, to chronic alcohol use throughout pregnancy. Whereas there are certain known consequences from fetal alcohol exposure, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, other effects are less well defined. Craniofacial dysmorphologies, abnormalities of organ systems, behavioral and intellectual deficits, and fetal death have all been attributed to maternal alcohol consumption. This review article considers the theoretical mechanisms of how alcohol affects the fetus, including the variable susceptibility to fetal alcohol exposure and the implications of ethanol dose and timing of exposure. Criteria for diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome are discussed, as well as new methods for early detection of maternal alcohol use and fetal alcohol exposure, such as the use of fatty acid ethyl esters. Finally, current and novel treatment strategies, both in utero and post utero, are reviewed.

  17. EPA dashes ethyl`s hopes for MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, K.

    1992-01-15

    Up until the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington) decided to deny Ethyl`s (Richmond, VA) petition to sell manganese-based gasoline additive MMT, many on Wall Street were bullish. Bets were that MMT sales could create an up to $200 million/year sales windfall for Ethyl with $60 million/year income, and push its near $26/share price up by at least 50 cts. But EPA ruled January 8 against MMT in unleaded gas due to its potential to increase hydrocarbon emissions. What kept analysts hoping is that octane enhancer MMT`s environmental impacts are mixed. An Ethyl spokesman says that MMT cut tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxide by 20% and carbon monoxide by 7%. Ethyl also points out that MMT could save as much as 85,000 barrels/day of imported oil because of lower energy requirements in blending. And the product has sold for 13 years in Canada with no reported ill health effects. But, points out Smith, Barney (New York) analyst James Wilbur, Canada is not the congested Los Angeles basin, where the unknown effects of small amounts of heavy metal manganese would show up a lot faster if every car burnt MMT. For now, the financial effect of the decision is negligible, although at some point Ethyl may have to take a write-down on its Orangeburg, NC plant.

  18. Ethyl`s MMT ready to hit the road

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.

    1996-01-03

    After spending two decades and about $30 million on the fight to sell the fuel octane booster methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), Ethyl has started marketing the product. Ethyl president and chief operating officer Thomas Gottwald says he expects a profit from MMT from the outset. {open_quotes}MMT is a gangbuster new product,{close_quotes} says Paul Raman, an analyst with S.G. Warburg (New York), {open_quotes}and it will be very profitable for Ethyl.{close_quotes} Ethyl`s effort to bring MMT to market faced pressure from EPA and automakers. EPA says MMT should not be marketed until more research is done on health effects of the manganese-based additive. US automakers oppose MMT, fearing it will damage catalytic converters. Last October Ethyl won a federal appeals court decision compelling EPA to approve MMT use. Gottwald says the MMT fight has been well worth it: {open_quotes}We fought with our eye on the bottom line.{close_quotes}

  19. The absolute path command

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less

  20. The absolute path command

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A.

    2012-05-11

    The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.

  1. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  2. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  3. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons V : 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, Earl R

    1946-01-01

    The method used for the synthesis and purification of an 8-gallon quantity of 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene from m-creosol consists in obtaining m-methylcyclohexanone from m-creosol by hydrogenation followed by oxidation, condensation of the ketone with ethylmagnesium bromide, dehydration of the tertiary alcohol obtained, and the dehydration of the olefins to 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene. A yield of 28 percent of the theoretical was obtained from 98 percent commercial m-creosol. The physical properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene are compared with selected values from the literature.

  4. The mode of action of ethyl lactate as a treatment for acne.

    PubMed

    Prottey, C; George, D; Leech, R W; Black, J G; Howes, D; Vickers, C F

    1984-04-01

    We have shown that an alcoholic lotion containing ethyl lactate when applied topically to rat skin under occlusion became localized in the follicles and sebaceous glands. When applied to human facial skin the ethyl lactate was hydrolysed to ethanol and lactic acid, and thereby lowered the skin pH. Under such conditions the growth of recoverable skin bacteria, in particular the anaerobe Propionibacterium acnes, was inhibited, and the hydrolysis of sebum to free fatty acids by lipase derived from the bacteria was greatly impaired. These effects of ethyl lactate would account for its observed clinical efficacy in acne vulgaris.

  5. Distribution and organoleptic impact of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate enantiomers in wine.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The enantiomers of ethyl 2-methylbutanoate were assayed in several wines using chiral gas chromatography (β-cyclodextrin). Analyses of 37 commercial red wines from various vintages and origins revealed the almost exclusive presence of the S-enantiomeric form. The average concentration was ∼50 μg/L, but the oldest samples were found to contain higher ethyl 2-methylbutanoate levels than the youngest wines. The olfactory threshold of a racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate (50:50, m/m) in dilute alcohol solution was 2.60 μg/L, almost twice that of the S-form, which was 1.53 μg/L. Ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate and the racemic mixture of ethyl (2R)-2-methylbutanoate and ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate had different aromatic nuances: the former was mainly defined by fruity descriptors, such as green apple (Granny Smith) and strawberry, whereas the latter had an unspecific, caustic, fruity, solvent odor. Sensory analysis revealed an enhancing effect of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied: the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool, consisting of esters found in red wines, in dilute alcohol solution alone was higher than that of the same mixture supplemented with 50 μg/L ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate. The sensory profiles of these aromatic reconstitutions highlighted the contribution of ethyl (2S)-2-methylbutanoate to black-berry-fruit descriptors. PMID:24844693

  6. Examination of sex differences in fatty acid ethyl ester and ethyl glucuronide hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Gareri, Joey; Rao, Chitra; Koren, Gideon

    2014-06-01

    Clinical studies examining performance of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in identifying excessive alcohol consumption have been primarily conducted in male populations. An impact of hair cosmetics in producing both false-negative EtG results and false-positive FAEE results has been demonstrated, suggesting a possible bias in female populations. This study evaluates FAEE-positive hair samples (>0.50 ng/mg) from n = 199 female and n = 73 male subjects for EtG. Higher FAEE/EtG concordance was observed amongst male over female subjects. Performance of multiple proposed EtG cut-off levels were assessed; amongst female samples, FAEE/EtG concordance was 36.2% (30 pg/mg), 36.7% (27 pg/mg), and 43.7% (20 pg/mg). Non-coloured hair demonstrated a two-fold increase in concordance (41.8 v. 20.8%) over coloured hair in the female cohort. FAEE levels did not differ between male and female subjects; however they were lower in coloured samples (p = 0.046). EtG was lower in female subjects (p = 0.019) and coloured samples (p = 0.026). A total of n = 111 female samples were discordant. Amongst discordant samples (EtG-negative), 26% had evidence of recent alcohol use including consultation histories (n = 20) and detectable cocaethylene (n = 9); 29% of discordant samples were coloured. False-negative risk with ethyl glucuronide analysis in females was mediated by cosmetic colouring. These findings suggest that combined analysis of FAEE and EtG is optimal when assessing a female population and an EtG cut-off of 20 pg/mg is warranted when using combined analysis. While concordant FAEE/EtG-positive findings constitute clear evidence, discordant FAEE/EtG findings should still be considered suggestive evidence of chronic excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:24817046

  7. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  8. Fuel compositions containing alcohol and saponified fatty material and method of preparing same

    SciTech Connect

    Lezcano, M.R.

    1981-11-24

    Internal combustion engine fuels are described comprising solutions of ethyl alcohol containing dissolved saponified grease and solutions of gasoline and ethyl alcohol containing dissolved saponified grease. The method of preparing the solutions comprises predissolving saponified grease in ethanol and then combining the dissolved saponified grease with ethanol or with a combination of ethanol and gasoline.

  9. ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

    2007-09-10

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

  10. S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    S - Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate ( EPTC ) ; CASRN 759 - 94 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  11. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  12. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  13. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  14. Detection of ethyl glucuronide in blood spotted on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Kaufmann, E; Thoma, D; Thierauf, A; Weinmann, W; Skopp, G; Alt, A

    2011-07-15

    This study aims to show that sensitive detection of ethyl glucuronide in dried blood spotted onto various surfaces after a period of 24h is feasible. At present, there is insufficient information how tightly ethyl glucuronide (EtG) binds to various materials and how easily it can be eluted. 4ml aliquots of blood samples obtained from seven volunteers after consumption of alcoholic beverages were applied to six different surfaces. After drying and a 24h-storage at 20±2°C the samples were re-dissolved in water, and EtG was subsequently analyzed by a LC-MS Paul-type ion trap. A comparison was made between dried and corresponding fluid samples. EtG was detectable in all subjects' samples following consumption of alcohol. EtG was also detectable after a storage time of four weeks at 4°C in whole blood that had been preserved with EDTA. EtG was detectable in all samples dried on different surfaces and its concentration remained relatively constant irrespective of the particular condition of the material. Detection of EtG in blood spots from the scene may indicate recent alcohol consumption in cases where collection of blood remained undone or could not be performed. PMID:21641739

  15. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  16. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose...

  17. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose...

  18. Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100 mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100 mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 25–50 ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,500–5,000 ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 5–1,000 and 2.5–500 ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15 %. Extraction efficiencies were 51.2–96.5 %. Matrix effects ranged from −84.7 to 16.0 %, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within ±20 % change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (−20 °C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12 h at room temperature and 72 h at 4 °C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption. PMID:24408304

  19. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  20. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  1. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  2. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  3. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  4. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  5. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction. PMID:25742923

  6. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  7. Absolute Identification by Relative Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In unidimensional absolute identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of absolute magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…

  8. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  9. Alcohol and Acetaldehyde in Public Health: From Marvel to Menace

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a serious medical and social problem. Although light to moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial to cardiovascular health, heavy drinking often results in organ damage and social problems. In addition, genetic susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease differs across the population. A number of mechanisms including direct the toxicity of ethanol, its metabolites [e.g., acetaldehyde and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs)] and oxidative stress may mediate alcoholic complications. Acetaldehyde, the primary metabolic product of ethanol, is an important candidate toxin in developing alcoholic diseases. Meanwhile, free radicals produced during ethanol metabolism and FAEEs are also important triggers for alcoholic damages. PMID:20617031

  10. Exposure assessment and risk characterisation of ethyl carbamate from Korean traditional fermented rice wine, Takju and Yakju.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Park, Sung-Kug; Yoon, Hae-Jung; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Meehye

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate is one of the most hazardous chemicals naturally occurring in food, and is present in alcoholic beverages. Korean traditional rice wine, Takju and Yakju, is frequently consumed in Korea, but there have been no studies characterising the risks of ethyl carbamate in these products. In order to assess and characterise the exposure risk of ethyl carbamate in Korean traditional rice wines, ethyl carbamate was investigated by means of GC-MS. The analytical methods were optimised and validated through determining linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, recovery and precision. A total of 283 traditional Korean rice wines, including 175 Takju and 108 Yakju samples, were analysed. Exposure assessment was performed by factoring in ethyl carbamate content, daily consumption and body weight. Daily exposures of ethyl carbamate were estimated for adults in four age groups, and risks of ethyl carbamate were characterised by the margin of exposure, which is more than 10 000. Based on this study, the risks of ethyl carbamate in Korean traditional rice wine were shown to be of low concern. PMID:26794849

  11. Catalyst-free ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zullaikah, Siti; Afifudin, Riza; Amalia, Rizky

    2015-12-01

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 °C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.

  12. Singular perturbation of absolute stability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of absolute stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on absolute stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.

  13. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  14. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  15. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  16. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  17. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  18. Molecular compressibility of some halides in alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serban, C.; Auslaender, D.

    1974-01-01

    After measuring ultrasonic velocity and density, the molecular compressibility values from Wada's formula were calculated, for alkali metal halide solutions in methyl, ethyl, butyl, and glycol alcohol. The temperature and concentration dependence were studied, finding deviations due to the hydrogen bonds of the solvent.

  19. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  20. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    PubMed

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages. PMID:27353523

  1. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  2. Disposition of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and cyclohexanone in acute poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sakata, M; Kikuchi, J; Haga, M; Ishiyama, N; Maeda, T; Ise, T; Hikita, N

    1989-01-01

    A case of coma due to the drinking of a liquid cement for polyvinyl chloride resin, containing acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, cyclohexanone and polyvinyl chloride is described. The patient also simultaneously ingested the alcoholic beverage, sake. After gastric lavage, plasma exchanges and direct hemoperfusions, the patient recovered. The concentrations of these chemicals in plasma and urine were analyzed at various time intervals to estimate the clearance. The elimination half lives for acetone and methyl ethyl ketone were 18 hours and 10 hours, respectively. Although cyclohexanone made up the largest component in the solvents, the blood level was extremely low and a large amount of cyclohexanol, a metabolite of cyclohexanone was detected in the blood and urine. The glucuronide metabolite of cyclohexanol was also estimated after the hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase. Since the conversion of cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol is known to be catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase, possible interactions between sake ingestion and cyclohexanone metabolism is proposed.

  3. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  4. Influence of Gilbert's syndrome on the formation of ethyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Laura M; Gunsilius, Leonie; Lardi, Christelle; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Thierauf-Emberger, Annette

    2015-09-01

    A drinking experiment with participants suffering from Gilbert's syndrome was performed to study the possible influence of this glucuronidation disorder on the formation of ethyl glucuronide (EtG). Gilbert's syndrome is a rather common and, in most cases, asymptomatic congenital metabolic aberration with a prevalence of about 5 %. It is characterized by a reduction of the enzyme activity of the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoform 1A1 up to 80 %. One of the glucuronidation products is EtG, which is formed in the organism following exposure to ethanol. EtG is used as a short-term marker for ethyl alcohol consumption to prove abstinence in various settings. After 2 days of abstinence from ethanol and giving a void urine sample, 30 study participants drank 0.1 L of sparkling wine (9 g ethanol). 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after drinking, urine samples were collected. 3 hours after drinking, an additional blood sample was taken, in which liver enzyme activities, ethanol, hematological parameters, and bilirubin were measured. EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS), another short-term marker of ethanol consumption, were determined in the urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); creatinine was measured photometrically. In all participants, EtG and EtS were detected in concentrations showing a wide range (EtG: 3 h sample 0.5-18.43 mg/L and 6 h sample 0.67-13.8 mg/L; EtS: 3 h sample 0.87-6.87 mg/L and 6 h sample 0.29-4.48 mg/L). No evidence of impaired EtG formation was found. Thus, EtG seems to be a suitable marker for ethanol consumption even in individuals with Gilbert's syndrome. PMID:25680552

  5. Assistance of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in the interpretation of postmortem ethanol findings.

    PubMed

    Krabseth, Hege; Mørland, Jørg; Høiseth, Gudrun

    2014-09-01

    Postmortem ethanol formation is a well-known problem in forensic toxicology. The aim of this study was to interpret findings of ethanol in blood, in a large collection of forensic autopsy cases, by use of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS). In this study, according to previously published literature, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in EtS-negative cases. Among 493 ethanol-positive forensic autopsy cases, collected during the study period, EtS was not detected in 60 (12 %) of the cases. Among cases with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of ≤ 0.54 g/kg, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in 38 % of the cases, while among cases with a BAC of ≥ 0.55 g/kg, antemortem ethanol ingestion was excluded in 2.2 % of the cases. For all cases where ethanol was measured at a concentration >1.0 g/kg, EtS was detected. The highest blood ethanol concentration in which EtS was not detected was 1.0 g/kg. The median concentrations of EtG and EtS in blood were 9.5 μmol/L (range: not detected (n.d.) 618.1) and 9.2 μmol/L (range: n.d. 182.5), respectively. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between concentration levels of ethanol and of EtG (Spearman's rho=0.671, p<0.001) and EtS (Spearman's rho=0.670, p<0.001), respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that in a large number of ethanol-positive forensic autopsy cases, ethanol was not ingested before the time of death, particularly among cases where ethanol was present in lower blood concentrations. Routine measurement of EtG and EtS should therefore be recommended, especially in cases with BAC below 1 g/kg. PMID:24935750

  6. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  7. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  8. Absolute transition probabilities of phosphorus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the absolute strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-

  9. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1995-12-19

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

  10. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

  11. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  12. Communication: Slow supramolecular mode in amine and thiol derivatives of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol revealed by combined dielectric and shear-mechanical studies.

    PubMed

    Adrjanowicz, K; Jakobsen, B; Hecksher, T; Kaminski, K; Dulski, M; Paluch, M; Niss, K

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we present results of dielectric and shear-mechanical studies for amine (2-ethyl-1-hexylamine) and thiol (2-ethyl-1-hexanethiol) derivatives of the monohydroxy alcohol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. The amine and thiol can form hydrogen bonds weaker in strength than those of the alcohol. The combination of dielectric and shear-mechanical data enables us to reveal the presence of a relaxation mode slower than the α-relaxation. This mode is analogous to the Debye mode seen in monohydroxy alcohols and demonstrates that supramolecular structures are present for systems with lower hydrogen bonding strength. We report some key features accompanying the decrease in the strength of the hydrogen bonding interactions on the relaxation dynamics close to the glass-transition. This includes changes (i) in the amplitude of the Debye and α-relaxations and (ii) the separation between primary and secondary modes.

  13. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition. PMID:26035281

  14. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  15. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  16. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  17. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641

  18. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  19. Classification images predict absolute efficiency.

    PubMed

    Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2005-02-24

    How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's absolute efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' absolute efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.

  20. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  1. [Forensic chemical investigation of alcohol-containing liquids contained polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride and diethylphthalate].

    PubMed

    Tsisanova, E S; Salomatin, E M

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism remains one of the main causes of premature death in the population of Russia. Hence, the importance of the problem of uncontrolled distribution and consumption of surrogate alcoholic products, such as alcohol-containing liquids of uncertain origin. The objective of the present study was to detect ethyl alcohol, polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride, and diethylphthalate in disinfectant liquids, biological fluids and human tissues and to analyse qualitative and quantitative composition of these materials. PMID:20821990

  2. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... oxide of ethyl, alcohol, ethanol, or spirits of wine, from whatever source or by whatever process... by the alcoholic fermentation of an infusion or decoction of pure hops, or pure extract of hops and.... ``Wine'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained by fermentation of the natural contents of...

  3. Effects of ethanol and long-chain ethyl ester concentrations on volatile partitioning in a whisky model system.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd, Emily L; Linforth, Robert S T; Cook, David J

    2012-10-10

    Ethanolic atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) was used to analyze the headspace concentrations of a test set of 14 whisky volatile compounds above a series of aqueous ethanolic solutions differing in alcohol content (5-40% ABV) and with regard to concentration of ethyl hexadecanoate (0-500 mg/L). The latter was selected to represent the long-chain ethyl esters found at various concentrations in new-make spirit. Headspace ion intensities were modeled against ethanol and ethyl hexadecanoate concentrations as factors. A separate model was prepared for each compound. Not surprisingly, ethanol content in the range of 5-40% ABV had a significant effect (P < 0.0001) on headspace volatile concentrations of all volatile compounds, whereas the ethyl hexadecanoate concentration had a selective effect of reducing headspace concentrations of the more hydrophobic compounds (log P > 2.5). This finding is discussed in terms of the "structuring" effects of ethyl hexadecanoate when present above critical micelle concentration, leading to the selective incorporation of hydrophobic volatile compounds into the interior of micelle-like structures. Data presented illustrate that dilution of whiskies to 23% ABV for "nosing" in the presence of long-chain ethyl esters is likely to change the balance of volatile compounds in the headspace and thus the perceived aroma character.

  4. Efficient and chemoselective N-acylation of 10-amino-7-ethyl camptothecin with poly(ethylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Guiotto, Andrea; Canevari, Mirta; Orsolini, Piero; Lavanchy, Olivier; Deuschel, Christine; Kaneda, Norimasa; Kurita, Akinobu; Matsuzaki, Takeshi; Yaegashi, Takeshi; Sawada, Seigo; Veronese, Francesco M

    2004-04-01

    A new poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugate of 10-amino-7-ethyl camptothecin, a potent antitumor analogue of camptothecin, has been synthesized and preliminary in vivo tests have been performed. Successful chemoselective N-acylation of 10-amino-7-ethyl camptothecin was accomplished using phenyl dichlorophosphate, a coupling reagent used in esterification of alcohols, while other coupling methods failed, due to the low nucleophilicity of the amino group in position 10. The conjugate was tested against P388 murine leukemia cell lines and resulted equipotent to CPT-11, a camptothecin analogue already in clinical use.

  5. Intermolecular interactions in mixtures of ethyl formate with methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol on density, viscosity, and ultrasonic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, S.; Mullainathan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Density (ρ), viscosity (η), and ultrasonic velocity ( U) have been measured for binary mixtures of ethyl formate with methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol at 303 K. From the experimental data, adiabatic compressibility (β), acoustic impedance ( Z), viscous relaxation time (τ), free length ( L f), free volume ( V f), internal pressure (πi), and Gibbs free energy (Δ G) have been deduced. It is shown that strength of intermolecular interactions between ethyl formate with selected 1-alcohols were in the order of methanol < ethanol < 1-propanol.

  6. Rapid Method for the Determination of the Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Water in Alcoholic Beverages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daobing; Zhong, Qiding; Li, Guohui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-10-28

    This paper demonstrates the first successful application of an online pyrolysis technique for the direct determination of oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of water in alcoholic beverages. Similar water concentrations in each sample were achieved by adjustment with absolute ethyl alcohol, and then a fixed GC split ratio can be used. All of the organic ingredients were successfully separated from the analyte on a CP-PoraBond Q column and subsequently vented out, whereas water molecules were transferred into the reaction furnace and converted to CO. With the system presented, 15-30 μL of raw sample was diluted and can be analyzed repeatedly; the analytical precision was better than 0.4‰ (n = 5) in all cases, and more than 50 injections can be made per day. No apparent memory effect was observed even if water samples were injected using the same syringe; a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9998) was found between the water δ(18)O of measured sample and that of working standards. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the mean δ(18)O value and that obtained by the traditional method (CO2-water equilibration/isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and the newly developed method in this study. The advantages of this new method are its rapidity and straightforwardness, and less test portion is required.

  7. Promotion of dropwise condensation of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, and acetone by polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Coating condensing surfaces with thin layer of nonpolar Teflon results in dropwise condensation of polar organic vapor. Greater heat transfer coefficients are produced increasing effectiveness of condensing system. Investigation shows that vapors with strong dipole moment tend to condense dropwise.

  8. The AFGL absolute gravity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in absolute gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.

  9. Familial Aggregation of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2000-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408

  10. Combination povidone-iodine and alcohol formulations more effective, more convenient versus formulations containing either iodine or alcohol alone: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Art, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Topical antiseptic formulations containing single active ingredients of alcohol and iodine are recognized by the Food and Drug Administration as "generally safe and effective" for "preparation of the skin prior to surgery" or "prior to an injection" including "catheter care, ostomy hygiene, and intravenous site preparation" (Federal Register, 1994). However, a synergistic effect results from the combination of ethyl or isopropyl alcohol and povidone-iodine. Because each active ingredient has different modes of action and performance characteristics, these combination formulations are faster acting with a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity than formulations containing povidone-iodine alone, and more persistent than formulations containing ethyl or isopropyl alcohol alone. PMID:16205497

  11. Distribution and Organoleptic Impact of Ethyl 3-Hydroxybutanoate Enantiomers in Wine.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Cameleyre, Margaux; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate were assayed in 87 commercial wines from various vintages and origins, using chiral gas chromatography (β-cyclodextrin). Generally, ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate levels were higher in red than in white wines of the same age. The average S/R enantiomeric ratio of this compound in red wine was approximately 75:25 (± 13), with an average total concentration of ∼ 450 (± 150) μg/L. In red wines, R-form levels increased gradually during aging, but no variations were observed in S-form concentrations. To our knowledge, no previous research had determined the enantiomeric distribution of this compound in wine. The olfactory threshold of the S-form in dilute alcohol solution was 21 mg/L, one-third that of the R-form: 63 mg/L. The S- and R-forms had different aromatic nuances. The olfactory threshold of their mixture (85:15, m/m) was 14 mg/L, indicating a simple additive effect in this binary mixture. Furthermore, the concentrations found in red wines were considerably below the olfactory threshold under the same experimental conditions. Sensory analysis revealed that ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate (S/R, 85:15, m/m) had an enhancing effect on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied. Sensory profiles highlighted the contribution of ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate to red-berry and fresh-fruit descriptors, despite its subthreshold concentrations.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  15. Alcohol and the heart: theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E

    1982-06-01

    It is now well established that consumption of ethyl alcohol, both acute and chronic, exerts deleterious effects on the heart. Evidence is presented that the initial event that precipitates both acute and chronic changes reflects the physical effects of alcohol on membrane phospholipids and perhaps proteins. The presence of alcohol increases membrane fluidity, a condition that leads to an adaptive change in the phospholipid composition of the membranes, with resultant greater rigidity of the membranes. The effects of alcohol on the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, when combined with other nonspecific insults, may lead to a drastic increase in calcium permeability; the resulting calcium influx may cause cell necrosis and initiate irreversibly cardiomyopathy. It is likely that changes in membrane fluidity also exert profound effects on enzyme and transport activities of membrane-bound proteins. In addition, alcohol may interact directly with the hydrophobic regions of proteins. Such interactions may play an important role not only in membrane-bound proteins, but also in alcohol-induced changes in contractile proteins of the heart. It is suggested that, in general, the effects of alcohol are similar to those of other anesthetic agents, and that the elucidation of the pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy may require a deeper understanding of the physical interaction among alcohol, phospholipids, and proteins.

  16. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  18. Alcohol-Dependent Liver Cell Necrosis in vitro: A New Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Francis A. X.; Zucker, Amy H.; Farber, John L.; Rubin, Emanuel

    1981-04-01

    In alcoholic liver injury, necrosis is involved in the progression from benign fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. However, there is no practical model of alcohol-dependent liver cell necrosis. The calcium-dependent killing of cultured rat hepatocytes by two different membrane-active hepatotoxins, galactosamine and phalloidin, is potentiated by ethyl alcohol. This indicates that some general physical effect of alcohol on cellular membranes renders cells susceptible to otherwise nonlethal injuries. The in vitro model described in this report may thus be used to search for a general mechanism underlying alcohol-related tissue injury.

  19. Mosher Amides: Determining the Absolute Stereochemistry of Optically-Active Amines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Damian A.; Tomaso, Anthony E., Jr.; Priest, Owen P.; Hindson, David F.; Hurlburt, Jamie L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of chiral reagents for the derivatization of optically-active amines and alcohols for the purpose of determining their enantiomeric purity or absolute configuration is a tool used by many chemists. Among the techniques used, Mosher's amide and Mosher's ester analyses are among the most reliable and one of the most often used. Despite this,…

  20. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  1. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2010-02-01

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected π* shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  2. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  3. Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl p - nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate ( EPN ) ; CASRN 2104 - 64 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Ha

  4. Acetone and Ethyl Acetate in Commercial Nail Polish Removers: A Quantitative NMR Experiment Using an Internal Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, David W.

    1997-12-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of commercial nail polish removers is performed on a 60 MHz NMR spectrometer. After taking NMR spectra of the polish removers, students can make peak assignments for the known components of acetone and ethyl acetate. Using these spectra, students are also able to identify the unknown alcohol present in the remover as ethanol. Quantitative analysis of either the acetone or ethyl acetate in the nail polish removers is accomplished by comparing the analyte peak intensities with that of an internal standard. The system in which deuterated acetone is used as a solvent and methylene chloride as an internal standard gave precise results for both commercial removers and for standards prepared from pure acetone or an ethyl acetate/ethanol mixture. As recovery from the standards was approximately 96 - 98% of what was anticipated, the analysis of the commercial products is also believed to be accurate.

  5. Comparison of direct and indirect alcohol markers with PEth in blood and urine in alcohol dependent inpatients during detoxication.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Skopp, G; Alt, A; Miltner, E; Jochum, Th; Daenhardt, C; Sporkert, F; Gnann, H; Weinmann, W; Thierauf, A

    2013-07-01

    The importance of direct and indirect alcohol markers to evaluate alcohol consumption in clinical and forensic settings is increasingly recognized. While some markers are used to prove abstinence from ethanol, other markers are suitable for detection of alcohol misuse. Phosphatidyl ethanol (PEth) is ranked among the latter. There is only little information about the correlation between PEth and other currently used markers (ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, carbohydrate deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and methanol) and about their decline during detoxification. To get more information, 18 alcohol-dependent patients in withdrawal therapy were monitored for these parameters in blood and urine for up to 19 days. There was no correlation between the different markers. PEth showed a rapid decrease at the beginning of the intervention, a slow decline after the first few days, and could still be detected after 19 days of abstinence from ethanol. PMID:23274938

  6. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  7. Apparatus for absolute pressure measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, R. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    An absolute pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.

  8. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  9. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic.

  10. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, C.S. Jr.; Day, J.W. Jr.

    1980-01-18

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54% of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  11. Effects of alcohol on pilot performance in simulated flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Demosthenes, T.; White, T. R.; O'Hara, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol's known ability to produce reliable decrements in pilot performance was used in a study designed to evaluate objective methods for assessing pilot performance. Four air carrier pilot volunteers were studied during eight simulated flights in a B727 simulator. Total errors increased linearly and significantly with increasing blood alcohol. Planning and performance errors, procedural errors and failures of vigilance each increased significantly in one or more pilots and in the group as a whole.

  12. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Less Toxic Than Their Parent Fatty Acids Generated during Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-04-01

    Although ethanol causes acute pancreatitis (AP) and lipolytic fatty acid (FA) generation worsens AP, the contribution of ethanol metabolites of FAs, ie, FA ethyl esters (FAEEs), to AP outcomes is unclear. Previously, pancreata of dying alcoholics and pancreatic necrosis in severe AP, respectively, showed high FAEEs and FAs, with oleic acid (OA) and its ethyl esters being the most abundant. We thus compared the toxicities of FAEEs and their parent FAs in severe AP. Pancreatic acini and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to FAs or FAEEs in vitro. The triglyceride of OA (i.e., glyceryl tri-oleate) or OAEE was injected into the pancreatic ducts of rats, and local and systemic severities were studied. Unsaturated FAs at equimolar concentrations to FAEEs induced a larger increase in cytosolic calcium, mitochondrial depolarization, and necro-apoptotic cell death. Glyceryl tri-oleate but not OAEE resulted in 70% mortality with increased serum OA, a severe inflammatory response, worse pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Our data show that FAs are more likely to worsen AP than FAEEs. Our observations correlate well with the high pancreatic FAEE concentrations in alcoholics without pancreatitis and high FA concentrations in pancreatic necrosis. Thus, conversion of FAs to FAEE may ameliorate AP in alcoholics.

  13. Levels of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in oral fluid, blood, and urine after use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid and both EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in blood and urine following intense use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine, which are proven to contain 3 mg/L EtG, 1.5 mg/L EtS, and 0.2 g/L ethanol. Twelve subjects participated in a controlled experiment. All subjects ingesting nonalcoholic wine showed urine samples negative for EtG but positive for EtS (Cmax 2.15 mg/L). All four subjects using mouthwash were negative for EtG and EtS in urine. All samples of oral fluid were negative for EtG and all samples of blood were negative for EtG and EtS. This study showed that ingestion of EtG and EtS as components of nonalcoholic wine lead to detection of urine EtS only, suggesting superior bioavailability of orally ingested EtS compared to EtG. This possibility of false-positive EtS results in urine after ingestion of nonalcoholic wine is important to remember when using EtG and EtS as relapse markers for alcohol. Finally, the study showed that a positive EtG or EtS result after accidental alcohol exposure is unlikely in blood and oral fluid. PMID:20223100

  14. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions. (a) The additive is a cellulose ether having the...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prescribed for polyethylene in § 177.1520. (1) Specifications—(i) Infrared identification. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate content. The ethyl acrylate can be determined by the infrared spectra. Prepare...

  17. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  18. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  19. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  20. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl...

  1. Tequila volatile characterization and ethyl ester determination by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón Fernando; del Carmen Estrada-Montoya, María

    2004-09-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography were used for tequila volatile characterization and ethyl ester quantitation. Several factors determined the differences in tequila volatile profiles obtained by the SPME technique, namely, sampling mode, fiber coating, and fiber exposure time. Each of these factors determined the most suitable conditions for the analysis of volatile profiles in tequila. Volatile extraction consisted of placing 40 mL of tequila in a sealed vial kept at 40 degrees C. A poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber was immersed in the liquid for 60 min and desorbed for 5 min into the gas chromatograph. The identified volatiles by mass spectrometry were mainly alcohols, esters, and ketones. The calibration curves for ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, and decanoate followed linear relationships with highly significant (p < 0.001) determination coefficients (R2 = 0.99). The coefficients of variation of less than 10% for ethyl ester concentrations indicated that the technique was reproducible. The limits of quantitation for ethyl esters were 0.05 parts per million, which were below the concentration range (0.27-15.03 ppm) found for different tequila samples. Quantitative differences in ethyl esters were found for the four most commonly known tequila types: silver, gold, aged, and extra-aged.

  2. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Zhang, Yingning; Hund, Dana K.; Maier, Steven F.; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously observed that the non-opioid morphine metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, enhances pain via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether TLR4-dependent pain enhancement generalizes to other classes of glucuronide metabolites. In silico modeling predicted that glucuronic acid alone and ethyl glucuronide, a minor but long-lasting ethanol metabolite, would dock to the same MD-2 portion of the TLR4 receptor complex previously characterized as the docking site for morphine-3-glucuronide. Glucuronic acid, ethyl glucuronide and ethanol all caused an increase in TLR4-dependent reporter protein expression in a cell line transfected with TLR4 and associated co-signaling molecules. Glucuronic acid-, ethyl glucuronide-, and ethanol-induced increases in TLR4 signaling were blocked by the TLR4 antagonists LPS-RS and (+)-naloxone. Glucuronic acid and ethyl glucuronide both caused allodynia following intrathecal injection in rats, which was blocked by intrathecal co-administration of the TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS. The finding that ethyl glucuronide can cause TLR4-dependent pain could have implications for human conditions such as hangover headache and alcohol withdrawal hyperalgesia, as well as suggesting that other classes of glucuronide metabolites could have similar effects. PMID:23348028

  3. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364

  4. Frequency-domain analysis of absolute gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svitlov, S.

    2012-12-01

    An absolute gravimeter is analysed as a linear time-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of absolute gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of time-distance coordinates, an absolute gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom absolute gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube absolute gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an absolute gravimeter analysis in the time and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.

  5. Computer assisted modeling of ethyl sulfate pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Halter, Claudia C; Aderjan, Rolf; Auwaerter, Volker; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-30

    For 12 volunteers of a drinking experiment the concentration-time-courses of ethyl sulfate (EtS) and ethanol were simulated and fitted to the experimental data. The concentration-time-courses were described with the same mathematical model as previously used for ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The kinetic model based on the following assumptions and simplifications: a velocity constant k(form) for the first order formation of ethyl sulfate from ethanol and an exponential elimination constant k(el). The mean values (and standard deviations) obtained for k(form) and k(el) were 0.00052 h(-1) (0.00014) and 0.561 h(-1) (0.131), respectively. Using the ranges of these parameters it is possible to calculate minimum and maximum serum concentrations of EtS based on stated ethanol doses and drinking times. The comparison of calculated and measured concentrations can prove the plausibility of alleged ethanol consumption and add evidence to the retrospective calculation of ethanol concentrations based on EtG concentrations. PMID:19913378

  6. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  7. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  8. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value.

  9. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C≈1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C≈1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (≈243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:23969233

  10. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  11. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  12. Theoretical study of the decomposition of ethyl and ethyl 3-phenyl glycidate.

    PubMed

    Josa, Daniela; Peña-Gallego, Angeles; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of the decomposition of ethyl and ethyl 3-phenyl glycidate in gas phase was studied by density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 methods. A proposed mechanism for the reaction indicates that the ethyl side of the ester is eliminated as ethylene through a concerted six-membered cyclic transition state, and the unstable intermediate glycidic acid decarboxylates rapidly to give the corresponding aldehyde. Two possible pathways for glycidic acid decarboxylation were studied: one via a five-membered cyclic transition state, and the other via a four-membered cyclic transition state. The results of the calculations indicate that the decarboxylation reaction occurs via a mechanism with five-membered cyclic transition state.

  13. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  14. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  15. Surface modification of hydroxyapatite. Part I. Dodecyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Borum-Nicholas, L; Wilson, O C

    2003-09-01

    The influence of esterification reactions on the surface chemistry and colloid stability of hydroxyapatite (HAP) was studied by aging nanophase HAP in dodecyl alcohol at elevated temperatures (115 degrees C and 190 degrees C). The esterified HAP particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance infra-red Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), thermal gravimetric analysis, sedimentation time studies, and electrophoretic mobility (mu) measurements in water and ethyl alcohol. DRIFTS analysis revealed that the HAP surface was modified by dodecyl groups based on the appearance of C-H stretch vibrational modes at 2962, 2930, and 2860cm(-1). Dodecyl alcohol modified HAP exhibited a larger TGA mass loss upon heating (up to 4.8%) compared to untreated HAP (2.5-3.2wt%). Sedimentation studies revealed the following stability trends: HAP dispersed in water was approximately the same as esterified HAP in water (a few hours) ethyl alcohol (1-7 days) < esterified HAP in ethyl alcohol (115 degrees C, 70h; 190 degrees C, over 65 days). The differences in colloid stability are attributed to Lewis acid/base interactions for the untreated HAP and steric stabilization effects for the nanophase HAP with surface dodecyl groups.

  16. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  17. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  18. Preschoolers' Success at Coding Absolute Size Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James

    1980-01-01

    Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and absolute sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that absolute coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)

  19. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  20. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  1. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  2. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  3. Identification of ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate in red wines, a compound involved in blackberry aroma.

    PubMed

    Falcao, L D; Lytra, G; Darriet, P; Barbe, J-C

    2012-05-01

    The aroma profile of Bordeaux red wines is known to be marked by blackberry and blackcurrant flavours; this study focused on the fresh blackberry aroma in Bordeaux red wines, using sensory gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and two-dimensional gas chromatography analysis (GC-GC-MS). A previous HPLC fractionation of red wine extracts on a C18 column produced four fractions with blackberry aromas that were then analysed by GC-O, GC-GC-MS and GC-MS. From these fractions, 10 esters, corresponding to red- or black-berry fruit descriptors, were characterised by GC-MS. Ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (ethyl leucate, EL) was identified for the first time in red and white table wines as a compound directly associated with a "fresh blackberry" aroma. Its perception thresholds were 900 and 300μg/l, respectively, in dearomatized red wine and model wine solution (alcohol 12%, pH 3.5), and the average concentration in the various wines was ∼400μg/l. Sensory omission tests highlighted the importance of this compound and identified a perceptive interaction with ethyl butanoate.

  4. Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethyl acrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safrany, A.; Biro, A.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1993-10-01

    Ethyl- and hydroxy ethyl acrylate show high reactivities with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical intermediates of water radiolysis. The electron adduct reversibly protonate with pK values of 5.7 and 7.3. The adducts may take part in irreversible protonation at the β carbon atom forming α-carboxyl alkyl radicals. Same type of radical forms in reaction of acrylates with OH: at low concentration the adduct mainly disappear in self termination reactions. Above 5 mmol dm -1 the signals showed the startup of oligomerization.

  5. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  6. [Biochemical markers for acute and chronic alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Zaba, Czesław

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the fact, that ethyl alcohol is a legal and socially accepted recreational drug its abuse may cause numerous problems for the individual and society. Casualties of car accidents caused by drunk drivers, aggressive behavior, family problems and effective less work are the main problems connected with alcohol abuse. The easiest and most effective way of proving recent alcohol consumption is confirming its presence in biological samples taken from the individual. However, the main disadvantage of this method is a short window detection for ethanol, because of its high speed of elimination process. Nowadays, in order to prevent and have a better control of alcohol abuse, markers that could provide a better view of short and long term ethanol consumption are in frequent use. Ethyl alcohol present in the body cause many qualitative and quantitative disturbances in biochemical metabolites that could be used as markers of its consumption. In practice markers of ethanol consumption are usually divided into acute (tests confirm single alcohol intake) and chronic (confirm long term alcohol consumption or lack of teetotalism). Markers of ethanol consumption are valuable alternative and complementation to customary examinations performed in medical practice and forensic medicine.

  7. Optimization of ethyl ester production assisted by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Noipin, K; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of the continuous flow potassium hydroxide-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl ester from palm oil with ultrasonic assistance. The process was optimized by application of factorial design and response surface methodology. The independent variables considered were ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and ultrasonic amplitude; and the response was ethyl ester yield. The results show that ethanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and ultrasonic amplitude have positive effect on ethyl ester yield, whereas reaction temperature has negative influence on ethyl ester yield. Second-order models were developed to predict the responses analyzed as a function of these three variables, and the developed models predicts the results in the experimental ranges studied adequately. This study shows that ultrasonic irradiation improved the ethyl ester production process to achieve ethyl ester yields above 92%. PMID:25116594

  8. An overview of alcohol testing and interpretation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anna T; Mozayani, Ashraf

    2012-02-01

    Ethanol analysis is the most commonly carried out drug testing in a forensic toxicology laboratory. Determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is needed in a multitude of situations, including in postmortem analysis, driving under the influence (DUI) and drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases, workplace drug monitoring, and probation investigations. These analyses are carried out by direct measurement of ethanol concentrations as well as of metabolic by-products, such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). This review article will discuss pharmacokinetics, including absorption, distribution, and elimination of ethanol, methods for the detection of ethanol, the effect of ethanol on human performance, the role of alcohol in injuries and fatalities, and information regarding the interactions that may occur between alcohol and other drugs. Finally, an explanation will be given on how to interpret alcohol levels as well as the extrapolation and calculation of blood alcohol levels at times prior to sample collection. PMID:22215644

  9. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  10. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  11. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  12. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  13. [What ethanol metabolites as biological markers tell us about alcohol use].

    PubMed

    Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Yegles, Michel; Preuss, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco related disorders are the two leading and most expensive causes of illness in central Europe. In addition to self reports and questionnaires, biomarkers are of relevance in diagnosis and therapy of alcohol use disorders. Traditional biomarkers such as gamma glutamyl transpeptidase or mean corpuscular volume are indirect biomarkers and are subject to influence of age, gender and non alcohol related diseases, among others.Direct ethanol metabolites such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) are direct metabolites of ethanol, that are positive after intake of ethyl alcohol. They represent useful diagnostic tools for identifying alcohol use even more accurately than traditional biomarkers. Each of these drinking indicators remains positive in serum and urine for a characteristic time spectrum after the cessation of ethanol intake--EtG and EtS in urine up to 7 days, EtG in hair for months after ethanol has left the body. Applications include clinical routine use, emergency room settings, proof of abstinence in alcohol rehabilitation programs, driving under influence offenders, workplace testing, assessment of alcohol intake in the context of liver transplantation and fetal alcohol syndrome.

  14. [Direct metabolites of ethanol as biological markers of alcohol use: basic aspects and applications].

    PubMed

    Thon, N; Weinmann, W; Yegles, M; Preuss, U; Wurst, F M

    2013-09-01

    In addition to self reports and questionnaires, biomarkers are of relevance in the diagnosis of and therapy for alcohol use disorders. Traditional biomarkers such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or mean corpuscular volume are indirect biomarkers and are subject to the influence of age, gender and non-alcohol related diseases, among others. Direct metabolites of ethanol such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) are direct metabolites of ethanol, that are positive after intake of ethyl alcohol. They represent useful diagnostic tools for identifying alcohol use even more accurately than traditional biomarkers. Each of these drinking indicators remains positive in serum and urine for a characteristic time spectrum after the cessation of ethanol intake - EtG and EtS in urine up to 7 days, EtG in hair for months after ethanol has left the body. Applications include clinical routine use, emergency room settings, proof of abstinence in alcohol rehabilitation programmes, driving under influence offenders, workplace testing, assessment of alcohol intake in the context of liver transplantation and foetal alcohol syndrome. Due to their properties, they open up new perspectives for prevention, interdisciplinary cooperation, diagnosis of and therapy for alcohol-related problems.

  15. Characterization of volatile compounds of Mezcal, an ethnic alcoholic beverage obtained from Agave salmiana.

    PubMed

    De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; González-Hernández, Lidia; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; López, Mercedes G

    2006-02-22

    Commercial mezcals (white, white with worm, rested, rested with worm, and aged) produced from Agave salmiana were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Thirty-seven compounds were identified, and nine of them were classified as major compounds of mezcal (MCM). Saturated alcohols, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and acetic acid form the MCM group. Minor compounds of mezcal group include other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, large chain ethyl esters, organic acids, furans, terpenes, alkenes, and alkynes. Most of the compounds found in mezcals in this study are similar to those present in tequilas and other alcoholic beverages. However, mezcals contain unique compounds such as limonene and pentyl butanoate, which can be used as markers for the authenticity of mezcal produced from A. salmiana. PMID:16478257

  16. Characterization of volatile compounds of Mezcal, an ethnic alcoholic beverage obtained from Agave salmiana.

    PubMed

    De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; González-Hernández, Lidia; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; López, Mercedes G

    2006-02-22

    Commercial mezcals (white, white with worm, rested, rested with worm, and aged) produced from Agave salmiana were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Thirty-seven compounds were identified, and nine of them were classified as major compounds of mezcal (MCM). Saturated alcohols, ethyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, and acetic acid form the MCM group. Minor compounds of mezcal group include other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, large chain ethyl esters, organic acids, furans, terpenes, alkenes, and alkynes. Most of the compounds found in mezcals in this study are similar to those present in tequilas and other alcoholic beverages. However, mezcals contain unique compounds such as limonene and pentyl butanoate, which can be used as markers for the authenticity of mezcal produced from A. salmiana.

  17. Ethyl Lithiodiazoacetate: Extremely Unstable Intermediate Handled Efficiently in Flow.

    PubMed

    Müller, Simon T R; Hokamp, Tobias; Ehrmann, Svenja; Hellier, Paul; Wirth, Thomas

    2016-08-16

    Ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) is one of the most prominent diazo reagents. It is frequently used in metal-carbene-type reactions. However, EDA can also be used as a nucleophile under base catalysis. Whilst the addition of EDA to aldehydes can be performed using organic bases, the addition of EDA to other carbonyl electrophiles requires the use of organometallics such as lithium diisopropylamide (LDA). The generated ethyl lithiodiazoacetate is highly reactive and decomposes rapidly, even at low temperatures. Herein, we report a continuous flow protocol that overcomes the problems associated with the instantaneous decomposition of ethyl lithiodiazoacetate. The addition of ethyl lithiodiazoacetate to ketones provides direct access to tertiary diazoalcohols in good yields.

  18. Synthesis of cinnamyl ethers from α-vinylbenzyl alcohol using iodine as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Yoshio; Uzawa, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Nishida, Tadasuke; Murakami, Keiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Reactions of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol with other alcohols using iodine as a catalyst were investigated. The corresponding cinnamyl ethers were obtained as products. This suggested that α-vinylbenzyl alcohol was converted to cinnamyl ethers via 1-phenylallyl cation. Cinnamyl ethyl ether was obtained in 75% yield by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and ethanol in acetonitrile with iodine under the following conditions: temperature = 50 °C, molar ratio of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol:ethanol:iodine = 1:3.0:0.2, and time period = 6 h. Generally, the yields of the reactions using primary alcohols were higher than those using secondary and tertiary alcohols. Ether interchange also occurred by the reaction of α-vinylbenzyl alcohol and iodine, but proceeded smoothly only when an allyl group was used as the other substituent of the starting ether.

  19. Viscosity Measurements of Ethyl Fluoride (R161) from 243 K to 363 K at Pressures up to 30 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xianyang; Gu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Jiangtao; Bi, Shengshan

    2015-11-01

    The Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments have created a schedule to replace ozone depletion substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, with chlorine-free molecules in several industrial applications. Ethyl fluoride (R161, C2H5F, 353-36-6) was found to be a potential alternative refrigerant for the replacement of controlled substances, such as R22 with excellent cycle performance. In this work, the viscosity of ethyl fluoride is reported at temperatures from 243 K to 363 K and at pressures from saturation pressure to 30 MPa. The experiment was performed with a calibrated vibrating-wire viscometer, which exhibited a combined expanded uncertainty of 2.5 % with a level of confidence of 0.95 (k = 2) for such a fluid. A scheme based on a hard-spheres model was used to correlate the experimental results. The average absolute deviation of the experimental results from the correlations for R161 is 0.88 %.

  20. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  1. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  2. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  5. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  8. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  9. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  10. Cognitive effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan; Kritikos, Minos; Tiplady, Brian

    2009-12-01

    Supplementation with creatine-based substances as a means of enhancing athletic performance has become widespread. Until recently, however, the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance has been given little attention. This study used a new form of creatine--creatine ethyl ester--to investigate whether supplementation would improve performance in five cognitive tasks, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Creatine dosing led to an improvement over the placebo condition on several measures. Although creatine seems to facilitate cognition on some tasks, these results require replication using objective measures of compliance. The improvement is discussed in the context of research examining the influence of brain energy capacity on cognitive performance. PMID:19773644

  11. Patient preferences and perspectives regarding reducing alcohol consumption: role of nalmefene

    PubMed Central

    Luquiens, Amandine; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a major public health issue. The absolute mortality burden of alcohol-attributable death has increased over the last 20 years. However, access to care remains very poor and many people with alcohol use disorder are untreated. The main limiting factor for access to care in alcohol use disorder appears to be the reluctance to engage in abstinence. Risk reduction is a developing approach in the treatment of alcohol use disorders, drawing its inspiration, with quite a delay, from the decades-long dominant approach in other substance use disorders. A paradigm shift has recently occurred that places more of an emphasis on reducing alcohol as a therapeutic strategy for patients with alcohol use disorder, to better meet the patients’ preferences and needs. The development and recent approval of nalmefene, in alcohol-dependent adults with a high drinking risk level, contributes to enlarging the therapeutic arsenal for alcohol dependence, strengthening the legitimacy of alcohol reduction strategies. PMID:25302021

  12. Patient preferences and perspectives regarding reducing alcohol consumption: role of nalmefene.

    PubMed

    Luquiens, Amandine; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a major public health issue. The absolute mortality burden of alcohol-attributable death has increased over the last 20 years. However, access to care remains very poor and many people with alcohol use disorder are untreated. The main limiting factor for access to care in alcohol use disorder appears to be the reluctance to engage in abstinence. Risk reduction is a developing approach in the treatment of alcohol use disorders, drawing its inspiration, with quite a delay, from the decades-long dominant approach in other substance use disorders. A paradigm shift has recently occurred that places more of an emphasis on reducing alcohol as a therapeutic strategy for patients with alcohol use disorder, to better meet the patients' preferences and needs. The development and recent approval of nalmefene, in alcohol-dependent adults with a high drinking risk level, contributes to enlarging the therapeutic arsenal for alcohol dependence, strengthening the legitimacy of alcohol reduction strategies.

  13. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions. (a) The additive...

  14. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  15. Meconium Indicators of Maternal Alcohol Abuse during Pregnancy and Association with Patient Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Goecke, Tamme W.; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A.; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Pragst, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. Methods. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. Results. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P < 0.01). This association was inverse in cases with EtG value above 120 ng/g. These values indicate women with most severe alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Conclusion. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established. PMID:24800249

  16. Electronic structure and normal vibrations of the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate ion pair.

    PubMed

    Dhumal, Nilesh R; Kim, Hyung J; Kiefer, Johannes

    2011-04-21

    Electronic and structural properties of the ion pair 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate are studied using density functional methods. Three locally stable conformers of the ion pair complex are considered to analyze molecular interactions between its cation and anion. Manifestations of these interactions in the vibrational spectra are discussed and compared with experimental IR and Raman spectroscopy data. NBO analysis and difference electron density coupled with molecular electron density topography are used to interpret the frequency shifts of the normal vibrations of the ion pair, compared to the free anion and cation. Excitation energies of low-lying singlet excited states of the conformers are also studied. The density functional theory results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental UV/vis absorption spectra.

  17. Synthesis of enantiopure phthalides including 3-butylphthalide, a fragrance component of celery oil, and determination of their absolute configurations.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Naito, Junpei; Uemura, Makoto; Kuwahara, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Masataka; Harada, Nobuyuki; Hiroi, Kunio

    2005-05-01

    Enantiopure phthalides 2 and 5-8 were synthesized via enantioresolution of the corresponding alcohols with a chiral auxiliary of camphorsultam dichlorophthalic acid, (1S,2R,4R)-(-)-CSDP acid 3, followed by solvolysis with KOH in MeOH and the catalytic oxidation of chiral glycols with iridium complex 28. The absolute configurations of phthalides 2 and 5-8 were determined by applying the (1)H-NMR anisotropy method of MalphaNP acid (4), 2-methoxy-2-(1-naphthyl)propionic acid, to the chiral synthetic precursory alcohols. In the case of 3-phenylphthalide (R)-(-)-7, the absolute configuration determined by the (1)H-NMR anisotropy method using MalphaNP acid 4 agreed with that by the X-ray crystallographic method. By applying these methods, 3-butylphthalide (S)-(-)-2, a fragrance component of essential oil of celery, has been synthesized in an enantiopure form, and its absolute configuration was unambiguously determined.

  18. 40 CFR 180.483 - O-[2-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-5-pyrimidinyl] O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.483 O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues. Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide O-...

  19. Spectroscopy reveals that ethyl esters interact with proteins in wine.

    PubMed

    Di Gaspero, Mattia; Ruzza, Paolo; Hussain, Rohanah; Vincenzi, Simone; Biondi, Barbara; Gazzola, Diana; Siligardi, Giuliano; Curioni, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Impairment of wine aroma after vinification is frequently associated to bentonite treatments and this can be the result of protein removal, as recently demonstrated for ethyl esters. To evaluate the existence of an interaction between wine proteins and ethyl esters, the effects induced by these fermentative aroma compounds on the secondary structure and stability of VVTL1, a Thaumatin-like protein purified from wine, was analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The secondary structure of wine VVTL1 was not strongly affected by the presence of selected ethyl esters. In contrast, VVTL1 stability was slightly increased by the addition of ethyl-octanoate, -decanoate and -dodecanoate, but decreased by ethyl-hexanoate. This indicates the existence of an interaction between VVTL1 and at least some aroma compounds produced during fermentation. The data suggest that proteins removal from wine by bentonite can result in indirect removal of at least some aroma compounds associated with them. PMID:27664648

  20. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  1. Genetics of alcoholism: simultaneous presentation of a chocolate drink diminishes alcohol preference in high drinking HAD rats.

    PubMed

    Lankford, M F; Myers, R D

    1994-10-01

    Through selective crossbreeding of the N/Nih heterogeneous stock of rats, two genetic lines of rats have been developed that are categorized by their preference for ethyl alcohol as high alcohol drinking (HAD) and low alcohol drinking (LAD) animals. Corresponding to other strains of rat bred for alcohol selection or rejection, they were subdivided on the basis of their intake of a solution of 10% alcohol vs. water. The present experiments were designed to determine whether the HAD-1 and LAD-1 lines are similar to the P and NP rats in their profile of alcohol consumption. Five successive three-bottle preference tests for alcohol drinking in the presence of water were undertaken in both HAD (n = 9) and LAD (n = 10) rats as follows: 10% alcohol for 5 days; 3-30% concentrations of alcohol increased over 11 days; the maximally preferred concentration of alcohol for 5 days; this maximally preferred concentration of alcohol plus either chocolate Slender for 5 days, or an aspartame solution for 5 days. The intake of alcohol of the LAD rats during the 10% test was 0.4 g/kg/day, whereas during the 3-30% test, the maximum intake was 1.7 g/kg/day; their maximally preferred concentrations ranged between 7% and 9% alcohol. In contrast, the intake of 10% alcohol of the HAD rats was 6.5 g/kg/day, whereas during the 3-30% test the mean daily intake was 6.6 g/kg/day; the maximally preferred solutions of the HAD rats ranged between 13 to 20%, with the mean maximum intake of 10.57 g/kg/day reached at the 20% concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. ELECTROKINETIC PHENOMENA : X. ELECTRIC MOBILITY AND CHARGE OF PROTEINS IN ALCOHOL-WATER MIXTURES.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J

    1933-01-20

    1. The electrophoretic velocities of gelatin-, egg-albumin-, and gliadin-covered quartz particles in various alcohol-water solutions are, within the limits employed in usual experimental procedures, proportional to the field strength. 2. The electrophoretic mobilities of small, irregularly shaped quartz particles covered with an adsorbed film of protein in alcohol-water solutions are equal to the electroosmotic mobilities of the liquid past similarly coated flat surfaces. Hence the size and shape of such particles does not influence their mobilities, which depend entirely on the protein film. 3. The corrected mobility and hence presumably the charge of gelatin-covered quartz particles in solutions containing 35 per cent ethyl alcohol is proportional to the combining power of the gelatin; therefore the gelatin is adsorbed with the active groups oriented toward the liquid. The same is true in 60 per cent alcohol. 4. The charge calculated by means of the Debye-Henry approximation from the mobility of gelatin in solutions containing up to 35 per cent ethyl alcohol is, in the neighborhood of the isoelectric point, proportional to the combining power of the gelatin. Therefore the dielectric constant and the viscosity of the bulk of the medium may be used in the Debye-Henry approximation Q = 6 pi eta r v(m) (1 + kappa r) to predict changes in charge from mobility. 5. In the neighborhood of the isoelectric point gelatin is probably completely ionized in buffered ethyl alcohol-water mixtures up to 60 per cent alcohol. 6. In the presence of ethyl alcohol the isoelectric point of gelatin is shifted toward smaller hydrogen ion activities. This shift, like that caused by alcohol in the isoelectric points of certain amino acids, is approximately linearly related to the dielectric constant of the medium.

  3. Mechanistic insight into alkylation of the ethyl acetoacetate anion with different ethyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, S.; Đurđević, J.; Vukosavljević, M.; Petrović, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The alkylation reactions of the ambident ethyl acetoacetate anion with C2H5X (X = F, Cl, Br, and I) in the O2, C3, and O4 positions of the anion were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G( d,p) level of theory. It was found that the ethylation reaction does not occur in the position O4, as well as with ethyl fluoride in any position of the anion, due to very high activation energies and thermodynamic instability of the hypothetic products. The activation energies for the reactions in the position O2 are lower in comparison to the position C3, but the products of the reactions in the C3 position are more stable than those in the position O4, implying that the C/O products ratio is controlled by both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, leading to the O2-product with the chloride, and C3-product with the iodide as leaving group.

  4. Parameters Affecting Ethyl Ester Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Saerens, S. M. G.; Delvaux, F.; Verstrepen, K. J.; Van Dijck, P.; Thevelein, J. M.; Delvaux, F. R.

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  5. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  6. Fatty acid ethyl esters in hair: correlation with self-reported ethanol intake in 160 subjects and influence of estroprogestin therapy.

    PubMed

    Bertol, Elisabetta; Del Bravo, Ester; Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Favretto, Donata

    2014-09-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are minor ethanol metabolites that can accumulate in hair. The performance of hair FAEEs as a biomarker that can discriminate null or moderate drinking from risky, excessive drinking was verified by evaluating the relationship between self-reported daily alcohol intake and FAEE concentration in hair. The study subjects were 160 healthy volunteers (52% female) that included teetotallers, moderate/social drinkers (< 60 g of ethanol per day), and heavy drinkers (≥ 60 g/day).The estimated daily alcohol intake (EDAI) was assessed by a specific written questionnaire aimed at estimating the measure and the frequency of alcohol drinking and at excluding confounding factors. FAEEs (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate) were extracted from the hair matrix by overnight incubation in n-hexane/dimethylsulphoxide, purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring and Electron ionization (EI) mode, using pentadeuterated internal standards. Hair samples exhibited FAEE concentrations (expressed as the sum of the four esters, CFAEE ) ranging from 0.01 to 10.78 ng/mg (average 1.16 and median 0.60 ng/mg). The EDAI was from 0 to 246 g of ethanol per day, average 28 g/day and median 15 g/day. A cut-off of 0.5 ng/mg in 3 cm of a proximal hair segment was adopted to discriminate social drinking from excessive ethanol consumption. False positive samples were identified in subjects using ethanol-containing hair lotions and women on estroprogestin therapy. Specificity of 87% was reached when the identified false positives were excluded from data elaboration. CFAEE in hair at a predetermined cut-off can be used to discriminate between moderate and excessive drinking only when confounding factors are meticulously removed.

  7. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  9. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  10. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  11. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  12. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Quantitative standards for absolute linguistic universals.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Absolute linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify absolute, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish absolute properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.

  14. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    PubMed

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  15. Molecular iodine absolute frequencies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1990-06-25

    Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its absolute frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. Absolute frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the absolute measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.

  16. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  17. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human hair by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yaldiz, Fadile; Daglioglu, Nebile; Hilal, Ahmet; Keten, Alper; Gülmen, Mete Korkut

    2013-10-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol and has been utilized as a marker for alcohol intake. This study presents development, validation and application of a new hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of EtG in human hair samples. The linearity was assessed in the range of 5-2000 pg/mg hair, with a correlation coefficient of >0.99. The method was selective and sensitive, with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.05 pg/mg and 0.18 pg/mg in hair, respectively. Differently from the extraction procedures in the literature, a fast and simple liquid-liquid method was used and highest recoveries and cleanest extracts were obtained. The method was successfully applied to 30 human hair samples which were taken from those who state they consume alcohol. EtG concentrations in the hair samples of alcohol users participated in this study, ranged between 1.34 and 82.73 pg/mg. From the concentration of EtG in hair strands 20 of the 30 subjects can be considered regular moderate drinkers. PMID:24112322

  18. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  19. Biodegradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by Acinetobacter sp. CW17.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhui; Du, Liangwei; Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Xiaomao; Tan, Huihua; Bai, Lianyang; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2012-03-01

    The pyrazosulfuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium, designated as CW17, was isolated from contaminated soil near the warehouse of the factory producing pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in Changsha city, China. The strain CW17 was identified as Acinetobacter sp. based on analyses of 94 carbon source utilization or chemical sensitivity in Biolog microplates, conventional phenotypic characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. When pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was provided as the sole carbon source, the effects of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl concentration, pH, and temperature on biodegradation were examined. The degradation rates of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at initial concentrations of 5.0, 20.0, and 50.0 mg/L were 48.0%, 77.0%, and 32.6%, respectively, after inoculation for 7 days. The growth of the strain was inhibited at low pH buffers. The chemical degradation occurs much faster at low pH than at neutral and basic pH conditions. The degradation rate of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 30°C was faster than those at 20 and 37°C by CW17 strains. Two metabolites of degradation were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Based on the identified products, strain CW17 seemed to be able to degrade pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge. PMID:22388979

  20. Ethyl Esterification for MALDI-MS Analysis of Protein Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Reiding, Karli R; Lonardi, Emanuela; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes L; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl esterification is a technique for the chemical modification of sialylated glycans, leading to enhanced stability when performing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry (MS), as well as allowing the efficient detection of both sialylated and non-sialylated glycans in positive ion mode. In addition, the method shows specific reaction products for α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids, leading to an MS distinguishable mass difference. Here, we describe the ethyl esterification protocol for 96 glycan samples, including enzymatic N-glycan release, the aforementioned ethyl esterification, glycan enrichment, MALDI target preparation, and the MS(/MS) measurement. PMID:26700047

  1. On the cause of low thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Mortén, Magnus; Hennum, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates for the thermal decomposition of ethyl halodiazoacetates (halo = Cl, Br, I) have been obtained, and reported herein are their half-lives. The experimental results are supported by DFT calculations, and we provide a possible explanation for the reduced thermal stability of ethyl halodiazoacetates compared to ethyl diazoacetate and for the relative decomposition rates between the chloro, bromo and iodo analogs. We have also briefly studied the thermal, non-catalytic cyclopropanation of styrenes and compared the results to the analogous Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions. PMID:27559411

  2. Identification of alcohol-dependent clopidogrel metabolites using conventional liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhe-Yi; Laizure, S. Casey; Herring, Vanessa L.; Parker, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE Clopidogrel (CLO) is a prodrug used to prevent ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or with myocardial infarction. A previous study found ethyl clopidogrel (ECLO) is formed by transesterification of CLO when incubated with alcohol in human liver microsomes. We hypothesize that ECLO will be subject to further metabolism and developed an assay to identify its metabolites. METHODS A liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to identify metabolites of ECLO. According to the predicted metabolic pathway of ECLO, precursor–product ion pairs were used to screen the possible metabolites of ECLO in human liver S9 fractions. Subsequently, the detected metabolites were characterized by the results of product ion scan. RESULTS In the presence of alcohol, CLO was tranesterified to ECLO, which was further oxidized to form ethylated 2-oxo-clopidogrel and several ethylated thiol metabolites including the ethylated form of the H4 active metabolite. CONCLUSIONS The ECLO formed by transesterification with alcohol is subject to metabolism by CYP450 enzymes producing ethylated forms of 2-oxo-clopidogrel and the active H4 thiol metabolite. PMID:24760569

  3. The incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo Uruguay as determined by meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Magri, Raquel; Gareri, Joey N; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of deficits known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Epidemiologic studies regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy have concentrated on North America, but recent reports have suggested that consumption is significant in many parts of the world. In Uruguay, alcohol consumption has changed into more risky and dangerous patterns and thus has a theoretical risk of having a high rate of prenatal alcohol exposure. This study characterizes the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo, Uruguay, using a novel biomarker, fatty acid ethyl esters, in meconium as well as a survey to mothers. Nine hundred five meconium samples were collected from Hospital Pereira Rossell and Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, Uruguay. A maternal questionnaire was also completed. Meconium was analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Meconium was also analyzed for other drugs of abuse using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-four percent of meconium samples were above the positive cutoff for fatty acid ethyl esters and represent those newborns with risky prenatal exposure during the final two trimesters of pregnancy. Infants with prenatal alcohol exposure were more likely to have prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.20) or any illicit drug (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-5.31). Ethyl linoleate was a significant predictor of infant birth weight along with prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal body mass index, and infant sex. This study highlights a 44% incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:20445483

  4. Biomolecules and Biomarkers Used in Diagnosis of Alcohol Drinking and in Monitoring Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nanau, Radu M.; Neuman, Manuela G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The quantitative, measurable detection of drinking is important for the successful treatment of alcohol misuse in transplantation of patients with alcohol disorders, people living with human immunodeficiency virus that need to adhere to medication, and special occupational hazard offenders, many of whom continually deny drinking. Their initial misconduct usually leads to medical problems associated with drinking, impulsive social behavior, and drunk driving. The accurate identification of alcohol consumption via biochemical tests contributes significantly to the monitoring of drinking behavior. Methods: A systematic review of the current methods used to measure biomarkers of alcohol consumption was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar databases (2010–2015). The names of the tests have been identified. The methods and publications that correlate between the social instruments and the biochemical tests were further investigated. There is a clear need for assays standardization to ensure the use of these biochemical tests as routine biomarkers. Findings: Alcohol ingestion can be measured using a breath test. Because alcohol is rapidly eliminated from the circulation, the time for detection by this analysis is in the range of hours. Alcohol consumption can alternatively be detected by direct measurement of ethanol concentration in blood or urine. Several markers have been proposed to extend the interval and sensitivities of detection, including ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine, phosphatidylethanol in blood, and ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters in hair, among others. Moreover, there is a need to correlate the indirect biomarker carbohydrate deficient transferrin, which reflects longer lasting consumption of higher amounts of alcohol, with serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, another long term indirect biomarker that is routinely used and standardized in laboratory medicine. PMID:26131978

  5. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  6. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  7. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  8. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  9. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  10. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  11. Absolute Radiometric Calibration Of The Thematic Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.; Moran, M. S.; Palmer, J. M.; Yuan, B.

    1986-11-01

    The results are presented of five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations, made in the period July 1984 to November 1985, at White Sands, New Mexico, of the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) . The 23 bandcalibrations made on the five dates show a ± 2.8% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean.

  12. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  13. Biotransformation of chemical constituents of durian wine with simultaneous alcoholic fermentation by Torulaspora delbrueckii and malolactic fermentation by Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuyun; Chua, Jian-Yong; Huang, Dejian; Lee, Pin-Rou; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2016-10-01

    This work represents the first study on the biotransformation of chemical constituents of durian wine via simultaneous alcoholic fermentation (AF) and malolactic fermentation (MLF) with non-Saccharomyces yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva and Oenococcus oeni PN4. The presence of PN4 improved the utilization of sugars but did not affect ethanol production. MLF resulted in the significant degradation of malic acid with corresponding increases in pH and lactic acid. The final concentrations of acetic acid (1.29 g/L) and succinic acid (3.70 g/L) in simultaneous AF and MLF were significantly higher than that in AF (1.05 and 1.31 g/L) only. Compared with AF, simultaneous AF and MLF significantly elevated the levels of aroma compounds with higher levels of higher alcohols (isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol), acetate esters (ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate), and ethyl esters (ethyl octanoate, ethyl dodecanoate). All the endogenous volatile sulfur compounds decreased to trace or undetectable levels at the end of fermentation. MLF accentuated the reduction of acetaldehyde and sulfides. The initially absent dipropyl disulfide was formed, then catabolized, especially in simultaneous AF and MLF. This study suggested that the simultaneous AF and MLF of non-Saccharomyces and LAB could modify the volatile compositions and potentially modulate the organoleptic properties of durian wine. PMID:27405438

  14. Synthesis of Ferrocene Oxazoline N,O ligands and Their Application in Asymmetric Ethyl- and Phenylzinc Additions to Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, Chris; Benson, Robert; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Guiry, Patrick J

    2015-10-16

    The synthesis of a range of novel gem-disubstituted ferrocene-oxazoline ligands and their application in both the asymmetric ethyl- and phenylzinc additions to aldehydes is reported. These studies reveal that gem-disubstitution of i-Pr-containing ferrocene oxazoline ligands results in increased enantioselectivity compared to their unsubstituted counterparts. Utilizing zinc catalysis, these ligands provided a wide range of secondary alcohols in yields of up to 93% with ee's of up to >99%. An interesting crystal structure of a ferrocene oxide-lithium tetramer showing lithium-nitrogen coordination in the solid state is also presented.

  15. Mitigating health risks associated with alcoholic beverages through metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages.

  16. Mitigating health risks associated with alcoholic beverages through metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages. PMID:26760759

  17. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  18. Serum/whole blood concentration ratio for ethylglucuronide and ethyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Morini, Luca; Polettini, Aldo; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Johnsen, Lene; Karinen, Ritva; Mørland, Jørg

    2009-05-01

    Serum/blood (S/B) concentration ratios for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are missing from the literature, and the aim of this study was to determine these ratios in samples from patients at admission to an alcohol rehabilitation clinic. Two blood samples were collected simultaneously, and EtG and EtS were analyzed in whole blood and serum, respectively, using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Separate calibration standards were prepared in both whole blood and serum for the calculation of whole blood and serum concentrations, respectively. Thirteen pairs of serum and whole blood were analyzed. The median S/B value for EtG was 1.69, and the range was 1.33-1.90. For EtS, the median S/B ratio was 1.30, and the range was 1.08-1.47. The S/B ratio was significantly lower for EtS than for EtG (p < 0.001). The higher concentrations of EtG and EtS in serum than in whole blood have to be considered when whole blood results obtained from forensic toxicology are compared to serum or plasma results from clinical laboratories. PMID:19470223

  19. Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in the preparation of scotch whiskey.

    PubMed

    Goss, K A; Alharethi, R; Laposata, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative ethanol metabolites present in human organs commonly damaged by ethanol abuse, have been implicated as mediators of organ damage. FAEE are additives in various foods and beverages to provide flavor or fragrance, and therefore are common dietary lipid constituents. We hypothesized that FAEE could be generated during alcoholic beverage production because fatty acids are present within microorganisms and ethanol is generated during the fermentation process. In this report, we demonstrate that FAEE are present in commercially available scotch beverages, and that in the preparation of scotch, FAEE can be produced during the fermentation reaction as a result of FAEE synthase activity in the yeast. Following ingestion of scotch, preformed FAEE are delivered to GI tract. The consequences of ingestion of FAEE in scotch, if any, remain to be determined.

  20. Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in the preparation of scotch whiskey.

    PubMed

    Goss, K A; Alharethi, R; Laposata, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative ethanol metabolites present in human organs commonly damaged by ethanol abuse, have been implicated as mediators of organ damage. FAEE are additives in various foods and beverages to provide flavor or fragrance, and therefore are common dietary lipid constituents. We hypothesized that FAEE could be generated during alcoholic beverage production because fatty acids are present within microorganisms and ethanol is generated during the fermentation process. In this report, we demonstrate that FAEE are present in commercially available scotch beverages, and that in the preparation of scotch, FAEE can be produced during the fermentation reaction as a result of FAEE synthase activity in the yeast. Following ingestion of scotch, preformed FAEE are delivered to GI tract. The consequences of ingestion of FAEE in scotch, if any, remain to be determined. PMID:10231172

  1. The influence of ethanol containing cosmetics on ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair.

    PubMed

    Martins Ferreira, Liliane; Binz, Tina; Yegles, Michel

    2012-05-10

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-volatile, direct metabolites of ethanol have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of social and chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Previous investigations have shown that the regular use of hair-care products with high alcohol content lead to an increase of FAEE concentration and consequently gave false-positive results for the determination of FAEE in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of a long-term hair treatment with EtOH containing lotion, on the EtG concentrations in hair. In this study 7 volunteer subjects (classified as either rare, social or heavy drinkers) treated the right side of their scalp every day during a one or two month period with a commercial hair tonic (Seborin), which contains 44.0% ethanol (vol%). Collection of hair specimens from both sides of the scalp was done one day before hair treatment, one week and one month after treatment (for 5 subjects also after two months of treatment). A hair segment of 3 centimeters (cm) was cut and then washed with water and acetone, and then pulverized. EtG was quantified by GC/MS after pulverization and 2h of ultrasonication in water, extraction by solid phase extraction using Oasis MAX columns and derivatization with HFBA. Measurements were done in negative chemical ionization mode using EtG-D5 as internal standard. Comparison of EtG concentration in the treated and in the non-treated hair specimens did not show any increase at the different dates of collection for the 7 subjects. In conclusion, these results show that there is no indication for an increase of EtG after use of ethanol containing hair cosmetics.

  2. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be designed and tested to meet the rules of the American Bureau of Shipping for a head of water at... liquid. (g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong...

  4. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  5. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  6. Multidimensional chromatographic approach applied to the identification of novel aroma compounds in wine. Identification of ethyl cyclohexanoate, ethyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate.

    PubMed

    Campo, E; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2006-12-29

    A multidimensional chromatographic strategy has been developed and optimized with the purpose of identifying different odorants potentially relevant to the aroma and flavor of aged wines from Madeira or Sherry. Different techniques of extraction and fractionation were studied in order to get clear olfactometric and spectrometric signals from the target odorants. The best results were obtained with a dynamic headspace extraction followed by a fractionation on a normal phase medium pressure liquid chromatography on a silicagel column. Large volumes (50 microl) of the concentrated fractions were further analyzed in a dual gas chromatography-mass spectrometric system (GC-MS) equipped with two olfactometric ports. The strategy made it possible to identify in wine by first time the presence of the powerful strawberry-smelling compound, ethyl cyclohexanoate, and of two other novel fruity esters, ethyl 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyrate and ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate. Some other unidentified odorants could be isolated and their mass spectra are given. PMID:17069823

  7. Residual behavior of quizalofop ethyl on onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Gurmail; Kumar, Rajinder; Chahil, G S; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-02-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide, is used for postemergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the dissipation kinetics of quizalofop ethyl on onion for two seasons. A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in onion and soil was developed and validated. The recoveries of quizalofop ethyl residues from onion and soil at different spiking level range from 84.81 to 92.68 %. The limit of quantification of this method was found to be 0.01 μg g(-1). The risk assessment through consumption of the onion in comparison to its acceptable daily intake which is an important parameter for the safety of the consumer was also evaluated. Standardized methodology supported by recovery studies was adopted to estimate residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil. The average initial deposits of quizalofop ethyl on onion were observed to be 0.25 and 0.33 mg kg(-1), following single application of the herbicide at 50 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The half-life values (T (1/2)) of quizalofop ethyl on onion crop were worked out to be 0.85 and 0.79 days, respectively, during 2009 and 2010. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on onion and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods.

  8. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  9. Atmospheric Oxidation Mechanisms for Diethyl Ether and its Oxidation Products, Ethyl Formate and Ethyl Acetate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon-containing compounds are present in the earth's atmosphere as the result of emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere, initiated by such oxidants as OH, ozone, and nitrate radicals, leads to potentially harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone, carbonyl species, organic acids and aerosols. Ethers and esters are two classes of compounds that contribute to the complex array of organic compounds found in anthropogenically-influenced air. Additional ester is present as a result of the oxidation of the ethers. In this paper, the oxidation of diethyl ether and its two main oxidation products, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate, are studied over ranges of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and NOx concentration, using an environmental chamber / FTIR absorption technique. Major end-products (the esters from diethyl ether; organic acids and anhydrides from the esters) are quantified, and these data are interpreted in terms of the chemistry of the various alkoxy and peroxy radicals generated. Emphasis is placed on the effects of chemical activation on the behavior of the alkoxy radicals, as well as on a novel peroxy radical rearrangement that may contribute to the observed products of ether oxidation under some conditions. Finally, the data are used, in conjunction with data on similar species, to provide a general representation of ether and ester oxidation in the atmosphere.

  10. Icosapent ethyl: a review of its use in severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther S; McCormack, Paul L

    2014-12-01

    Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa®) is a high-purity ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that is de-esterified to EPA following oral administration. Both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that have been associated with triglyceride (TG)-lowering. However, DHA has been associated with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Icosapent ethyl contains ≥96 % of the EPA ethyl ester, does not contain DHA, and is approved in the USA for use as an adjunct to diet to lower TG levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L]) hypertriglyceridemia. In a pivotal phase III trial, oral icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly decreased the placebo-corrected median TG levels by 33.1 %. It did not increase LDL-C, had favorable effects on other lipid parameters, and had a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo. Therefore, icosapent ethyl is an effective and well-tolerated agent for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia in adults. PMID:25428605

  11. Dopant effects on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol: A dual-channel impedance spectroscopy and neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lokendra P.; Raihane, Ahmed; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane; Richert, Ranko

    2015-01-01

    A two-channel impedance technique has been used to study the relaxation behavior of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with polar and non-polar dopants at the few percent concentration level over a wide temperature and frequency range. The non-polar dopants shift both the Debye and the primary structural relaxation time in the same direction, to shorter times for 3-methylpentane and to longer times for squalane, consistent with the relative glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the components. By contrast, polar dopants such as water or methanol modify the α-process towards slower dynamics and increased amplitude, while the Debye process is accelerated and with a decreased amplitude. This effect of adding water to alcohol is explained by water promoting more compact structures with reduced Kirkwood correlation factors. This picture is consistent with a shift in the neutron scattering pre-peak to lower scattering vectors and with simulation work on alcohol-water systems.

  12. Dopant effects on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol: a dual-channel impedance spectroscopy and neutron scattering study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lokendra P; Raihane, Ahmed; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane; Richert, Ranko

    2015-01-01

    A two-channel impedance technique has been used to study the relaxation behavior of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with polar and non-polar dopants at the few percent concentration level over a wide temperature and frequency range. The non-polar dopants shift both the Debye and the primary structural relaxation time in the same direction, to shorter times for 3-methylpentane and to longer times for squalane, consistent with the relative glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the components. By contrast, polar dopants such as water or methanol modify the α-process towards slower dynamics and increased amplitude, while the Debye process is accelerated and with a decreased amplitude. This effect of adding water to alcohol is explained by water promoting more compact structures with reduced Kirkwood correlation factors. This picture is consistent with a shift in the neutron scattering pre-peak to lower scattering vectors and with simulation work on alcohol-water systems.

  13. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves.

    PubMed

    Kanitkar, Akanksha; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Lima, Marybeth; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-09-01

    Transesterification of vegetable oils (from soybeans and rice bran) into methyl and ethyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A critical comparison between the two alcohols was performed in terms of yields, quality, and reaction kinetics. Parameters tested were temperature (60, 70 and 80°C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). At all tested conditions, more than 96% conversion rates were obtained for both ethanol and methanol. Use of microwave technology to assist the transesterification process resulted in faster reaction times and reduced catalyst requirement (about ten-fold decrease). Methanol required lower alcohol:oil ratios than normally used in conventional heating, whereas ethanol required higher molar ratios. All esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Methanol performed better in terms of performance and costs, while ethanol may have some environmental and safety benefits.

  14. Dopant effects on 2-ethyl-1-hexanol: A dual-channel impedance spectroscopy and neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Lokendra P.; Richert, Ranko; Raihane, Ahmed; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane

    2015-01-07

    A two-channel impedance technique has been used to study the relaxation behavior of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with polar and non-polar dopants at the few percent concentration level over a wide temperature and frequency range. The non-polar dopants shift both the Debye and the primary structural relaxation time in the same direction, to shorter times for 3-methylpentane and to longer times for squalane, consistent with the relative glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) of the components. By contrast, polar dopants such as water or methanol modify the α-process towards slower dynamics and increased amplitude, while the Debye process is accelerated and with a decreased amplitude. This effect of adding water to alcohol is explained by water promoting more compact structures with reduced Kirkwood correlation factors. This picture is consistent with a shift in the neutron scattering pre-peak to lower scattering vectors and with simulation work on alcohol-water systems.

  15. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  16. Probing absolute spin polarization at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Eltschka, Matthias; Jäck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Kondrashov, Oleg V; Skvortsov, Mikhail A; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2014-12-10

    Probing absolute values of spin polarization at the nanoscale offers insight into the fundamental mechanisms of spin-dependent transport. Employing the Zeeman splitting in superconducting tips (Meservey-Tedrow-Fulde effect), we introduce a novel spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy that combines the probing capability of the absolute values of spin polarization with precise control at the atomic scale. We utilize our novel approach to measure the locally resolved spin polarization of magnetic Co nanoislands on Cu(111). We find that the spin polarization is enhanced by 65% when increasing the width of the tunnel barrier by only 2.3 Å due to the different decay of the electron orbitals into vacuum. PMID:25423049

  17. Absolute radiometry and the solar constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).

  18. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  19. Impact of Winko on absolute discharges.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, Krishna; Swaminath, Sam; Litman, Larry C

    2004-01-01

    In Canada, case laws have had a significant impact on the way mentally ill offenders are managed, both in the criminal justice system and in the forensic mental health system. The Supreme Court of Canada's decision with respect to Winko has set a major precedent in the application of the test of significant risk to the safety of the public in making dispositions by the Ontario Review Board and granting absolute discharges to the mentally ill offenders in the forensic health system. Our study examines the impact of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision before and after Winko. The results show that the numbers of absolute discharges have increased post-Winko, which was statistically significant, but there could be other factors influencing this increase.

  20. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  1. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Jenkins III, Robert L.; Maddox, Larry

    2014-05-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < –21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > –15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of –19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at –16.75.

  2. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F.; Carpinelli, M.; Presti, D. Lo; Raffaele, L.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V.; Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S.

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  3. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  4. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  5. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  6. Relative errors can cue absolute visuomotor mappings.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2015-12-01

    When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over time. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the absolute mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several absolute visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced absolute mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned absolute mapping. PMID:26280315

  7. The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnashev, V. I.; Burnasheva, B. A.; Ruban, E. V.; Hagen-Torn, E. I.

    2014-06-01

    The absolute spectrophotometric catalog by Anita Cochran is presented in a machine-readable form. The catalog systematizes observations acquired at the McDonald Observatory in 1977-1978. The data are compared with other sources, in particular, the calculated broadband stellar magnitudes are compared with photometric observations by other authors, to show that the observational data given in the catalog are reliable and suitable for a variety of applications. Observations of variable stars of different types make Cochran's catalog especially valuable.

  8. Absolute magnitudes and kinematics of barium stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A. E.; Luri, X.; Grenier, S.; Prevot, L.; Mennessier, M. O.; Figueras, F.; Torra, J.

    1997-03-01

    The absolute magnitude of barium stars has been obtained from kinematical data using a new algorithm based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The method allows to separate a sample into groups characterized by different mean absolute magnitudes, kinematics and z-scale heights. It also takes into account, simultaneously, the censorship in the sample and the errors on the observables. The method has been applied to a sample of 318 barium stars. Four groups have been detected. Three of them show a kinematical behaviour corresponding to disk population stars. The fourth group contains stars with halo kinematics. The luminosities of the disk population groups spread a large range. The intrinsically brightest one (M_v_=-1.5mag, σ_M_=0.5mag) seems to be an inhomogeneous group containing barium binaries as well as AGB single stars. The most numerous group (about 150 stars) has a mean absolute magnitude corresponding to stars in the red giant branch (M_v_=0.9mag, σ_M_=0.8mag). The third group contains barium dwarfs, the obtained mean absolute magnitude is characteristic of stars on the main sequence or on the subgiant branch (M_v_=3.3mag, σ_M_=0.5mag). The obtained mean luminosities as well as the kinematical results are compatible with an evolutionary link between barium dwarfs and classical barium giants. The highly luminous group is not linked with these last two groups. More high-resolution spectroscopic data will be necessary in order to better discriminate between barium and non-barium stars.

  9. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  10. A Methodology for Absolute Isotope Composition Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.

    2007-12-01

    Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the absolute isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The absolute double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of time to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for absolute dating.

  11. The Carina Project: Absolute and Relative Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C. E.; Bono, G.; Walker, A. R.; Brocato, E.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Castellani, V.; Dall'Ora, M.; Marconi, M.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Pulone, L.; Ripepi, V.; Smith, H. A.

    We discuss the reduction strategy adopted to perform the relative and the absolute calibration of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) available at the 2.2m ESO/MPI telescope and of the Mosaic Camera (MC) available at the 4m CTIO Blanco telescope. To properly constrain the occurrence of deceptive systematic errors in the relative calibration we observed with each chip the same set of stars. Current photometry seems to suggest that the WFI shows a positional effect when moving from the top to the bottom of individual chips. Preliminary results based on an independent data set collected with the MC suggest that this camera is only marginally affected by the same problem. To perform the absolute calibration we observed with each chip the same set of standard stars. The sample covers a wide color range and the accuracy both in the B and in the V-band appears to be of the order of a few hundredths of magnitude. Finally, we briefly outline the observing strategy to improve both relative and absolute calibrations of mosaic CCD cameras.

  12. Characterisation of two alcohol acyltransferases from kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) reveals distinct substrate preferences.

    PubMed

    Günther, Catrin S; Chervin, Christian; Marsh, Ken B; Newcomb, Richard D; Souleyre, Edwige J F

    2011-06-01

    Volatile esters are key compounds of kiwifruit flavour and are formed by alcohol acyltransferases that belong to the BAHD acyltransferase superfamily. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to screen kiwifruit-derived expressed sequence tags with proposed acyltransferase function in order to select ripening-specific sequences and test their involvement in alcohol acylation. The screening criterion was for at least 10-fold increased transcript accumulation in ripe compared with unripe kiwifruit and in response to ethylene. Recombinant expression in yeast revealed alcohol acyltransferase activity for Actinidia-derived AT1, AT16 and the phylogenetically distinct AT9, using various alcohol and acyl-CoA substrates. Functional characterisation of AT16 and AT9 demonstrated striking differences in their substrate preferences and apparent catalytic efficiencies (V'(max)K(m)(-1)). Thus revealing benzoyl-CoA:alcohol O-acyltransferase activity for AT16 and acetyl-CoA:alcohol O-acyltransferase activity for AT9. Both kiwifruit-derived enzymes displayed higher reaction rates with butanol compared with ethanol, even though ethanol is the main alcohol in ripe fruit. Since ethyl acetate and ethyl benzoate are major esters in ripe kiwifruit, we suggest that fruit characteristic volatile profiles result from a combination of substrate availability and specificity of individual alcohol acyltransferases.

  13. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  14. Comparison of Diffusion Coefficients of Aryl Carbonyls and Aryl Alcohols in Hydroxylic Solvents. Evidence that the Diffusion of Ketyl Radicals in Hydrogen-Bonding Solvents is Not Anomalous?

    SciTech Connect

    Autrey, S Thomas ); Camaioni, Donald M. ); Kandanarachchi, Pramod H.; Franz, James A. )

    2000-12-01

    The diffusion coefficients of a benzyl-, sec-phenethyl-, and diphenylmethyl alcohol and the corresponding aryl carbonyls (benzaldehyde, acetophenone and benzophenone) were measured by Taylor's dispersion method in both ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. The experimental values are compared to published transient grating measurements of the corresponding aryl ketyl radicals (benzyl-, sec-phenethyl-, and diphenylmethyl-ketyl radical). In general, the diffusion coefficient of the aryl alcohols and the corresponding aryl ketyl radicals are equivalent within experimental error. This work shows that the diffusion of ketyl radicals is not anomalously slow and that aryl alcohols are significantly better models than the corresponding aryl ketones for analyzing the diffusion of aryl ketyl radicals in both ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. Empirical estimates of the diffusion coefficients of aryl alcohols using the Spernol-Wirtz and Wilke-Chang modifications to the Stokes-Einstein diffusion equation do not adequately account for the interactions between the aryl ketyl radicals or aryl alcohols with the hydroxylic solvents ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. The excellent agreement between the experimental diffusion coefficients of the aryl alcohols and the corresponding ketyl radicals show that the transient grating method can provide accurate estimates for the diffusion coefficients of transient species. This is especially important when a stable model is not available, for example the pyranyl radical.

  15. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  16. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  17. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  18. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  19. Alternative sampling strategies for the assessment of alcohol intake of living persons.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Natalie; Lambert, Willy E E; Samyn, Nele; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of alcohol consumption by living persons takes place in various contexts, amongst which workplace drug testing, driving under the influence of alcohol, driving licence regranting programs, alcohol withdrawal treatment, diagnosis of acute intoxication or fetal alcohol ingestion. The matrices that are mostly used today include blood, breath and urine. The aim of this review is to present alternative sampling strategies that allow monitoring of the alcohol consumption in living subjects. Ethanol itself, indirect (carbohydrate deficient transferrin, CDT%) as well as direct biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide, EtG; ethyl sulphate, EtS; fatty acid ethyl esters, FAEEs and phosphatidylethanol species, PEths) of ethanol consumption will be considered. This review covers dried blood spots (CDT%, EtG/EtS, PEths), dried urine spots (EtG/EtS), sweat and skin surface lipids (ethanol, EtG, FAEEs), oral fluid (ethanol, EtG), exhaled breath (PEths), hair (EtG, FAEEs), nail (EtG), meconium (EtG/EtS, FAEEs), umbilical cord and placenta (EtG/EtS and PEth 16:0/18:1). Main results, issues and considerations specific to each matrix are reported. Details about sample preparation and analytical methods are not within the scope of this review.

  20. Alternative sampling strategies for the assessment of alcohol intake of living persons.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Natalie; Lambert, Willy E E; Samyn, Nele; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of alcohol consumption by living persons takes place in various contexts, amongst which workplace drug testing, driving under the influence of alcohol, driving licence regranting programs, alcohol withdrawal treatment, diagnosis of acute intoxication or fetal alcohol ingestion. The matrices that are mostly used today include blood, breath and urine. The aim of this review is to present alternative sampling strategies that allow monitoring of the alcohol consumption in living subjects. Ethanol itself, indirect (carbohydrate deficient transferrin, CDT%) as well as direct biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide, EtG; ethyl sulphate, EtS; fatty acid ethyl esters, FAEEs and phosphatidylethanol species, PEths) of ethanol consumption will be considered. This review covers dried blood spots (CDT%, EtG/EtS, PEths), dried urine spots (EtG/EtS), sweat and skin surface lipids (ethanol, EtG, FAEEs), oral fluid (ethanol, EtG), exhaled breath (PEths), hair (EtG, FAEEs), nail (EtG), meconium (EtG/EtS, FAEEs), umbilical cord and placenta (EtG/EtS and PEth 16:0/18:1). Main results, issues and considerations specific to each matrix are reported. Details about sample preparation and analytical methods are not within the scope of this review. PMID:27208822

  1. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  2. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  3. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  4. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  5. Absolute rate theories of epigenetic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Onuchic, José N.; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-12-01

    Spontaneous switching events in most characterized genetic switches are rare, resulting in extremely stable epigenetic properties. We show how simple arguments lead to theories of the rate of such events much like the absolute rate theory of chemical reactions corrected by a transmission factor. Both the probability of the rare cellular states that allow epigenetic escape and the transmission factor depend on the rates of DNA binding and unbinding events and on the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Different mechanisms of escape from the stable attractors occur in the nonadiabatic, weakly adiabatic, and strictly adiabatic regimes, characterized by the relative values of those input rates. rate theory | stochastic gene expression | gene switches

  6. Characterization of the DARA solar absolute radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, W.; Suter, M.; Fehlmann, A.; Kopp, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Davos Absolute Radiometer (DARA) prototype is an Electrical Substitution Radiometer (ESR) which has been developed as a successor of the PMO6 type on future space missions and ground based TSI measurements. The DARA implements an improved thermal design of the cavity detector and heat sink assembly to minimize air-vacuum differences and to maximize thermal symmetry of measuring and compensating cavity. The DARA also employs an inverted viewing geometry to reduce internal stray light. We will report on the characterization and calibration experiments which were carried out at PMOD/WRC and LASP (TRF).

  7. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  8. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  9. Polymorphic ethyl alcohol as a model system for the quantitative study of glassy behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H. E.; Bermejo, F. J.; Fayos, R.; Dawidowski, J.; Ramos, M. A.; Vieira, S.; Schober, H.; González, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    We have performed neutron diffraction experiments as well as neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and low-temperature specific heat ( Cp) measurements, on both hydrogenated and deuterated ethanol as functions of temperature. Ethanol appears to be unique in its ability to form a rotator-phase crystal and an orientational glass in the same temperature range where the amorphous phase can be produced. We find that these two orientationally disordered crystal phases have structures and dynamics which are very similar to those of the amorphous phase at the same temperature. These are therefore glassy systems which, due to the presence of an underlying lattice and a stoichiometry identical to the amorphous phase, are ideal for quantitative study.

  10. Dependence of viscosity of suspensions of ceramic nanopowders in ethyl alcohol on concentration and temperature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results of measurements of viscosity of suspensions including yttrium oxide (Y2O3), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) and magnesium aluminum spinel (MgAl2O4) nanopowders in ethanol. Nanoparticles used in our research were either commercially available (Baikowski) or nanopowders newly developed in the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials in Warsaw, Poland. The study was conducted in a wide range of shear rates (0.01 to 2,000 s−1) and temperature interval from -15°C to 20°C. A Haake Mars 2 rheometer from Thermo Fisher, Germany, was used in the Biophysics Laboratory at Rzeszów University of Technology. Most of the samples show a non-Newtonian behaviour. It was confirmed with a Rheo-NMR system from Bruker that 10% by weight of Y2O3 suspension is a non-Newtonian fluid. In this work, we also report an unexpected behaviour of the viscosity of some samples (Y2O3 and Y3Al5O12) due to sedimentation effect. PMID:22824064

  11. Dependence of viscosity of suspensions of ceramic nanopowders in ethyl alcohol on concentration and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zyła, Gaweł; Cholewa, Marian; Witek, Adam

    2012-01-01

    : This work presents results of measurements of viscosity of suspensions including yttrium oxide (Y2O3), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) and magnesium aluminum spinel (MgAl2O4) nanopowders in ethanol. Nanoparticles used in our research were either commercially available (Baikowski) or nanopowders newly developed in the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials in Warsaw, Poland. The study was conducted in a wide range of shear rates (0.01 to 2,000 s-1) and temperature interval from -15°C to 20°C. A Haake Mars 2 rheometer from Thermo Fisher, Germany, was used in the Biophysics Laboratory at Rzeszów University of Technology. Most of the samples show a non-Newtonian behaviour. It was confirmed with a Rheo-NMR system from Bruker that 10% by weight of Y2O3 suspension is a non-Newtonian fluid. In this work, we also report an unexpected behaviour of the viscosity of some samples (Y2O3 and Y3Al5O12) due to sedimentation effect. PMID:22824064

  12. Dependence of viscosity of suspensions of ceramic nanopowders in ethyl alcohol on concentration and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żyła, Gaweł; Cholewa, Marian; Witek, Adam

    2012-07-01

    This work presents results of measurements of viscosity of suspensions including yttrium oxide (Y2O3), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12) and magnesium aluminum spinel (MgAl2O4) nanopowders in ethanol. Nanoparticles used in our research were either commercially available (Baikowski) or nanopowders newly developed in the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials in Warsaw, Poland. The study was conducted in a wide range of shear rates (0.01 to 2,000 s-1) and temperature interval from -15°C to 20°C. A Haake Mars 2 rheometer from Thermo Fisher, Germany, was used in the Biophysics Laboratory at Rzeszów University of Technology. Most of the samples show a non-Newtonian behaviour. It was confirmed with a Rheo-NMR system from Bruker that 10% by weight of Y2O3 suspension is a non-Newtonian fluid. In this work, we also report an unexpected behaviour of the viscosity of some samples (Y2O3 and Y3Al5O12) due to sedimentation effect.

  13. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  14. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    PubMed Central

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). Single samples showed contamination with DEP (275–1269 mg/l) and PHMG (515 mg/l) above levels of toxicological concern. Our detailed chemical analysis of Russian alcohols showed that the composition of vodka, samogon and medicinal alcohols generally did not raise major public health concerns other than for ethanol. It was shown, however, that concentration levels of DEP and PHMG in some surrogate alcohols make these samples unfit for human consumption as even moderate drinking would exceed acceptable daily intakes. PMID:22319254

  15. Resolution of 1- and 2-naphthylmethoxyacetic acids, NMR reagents for absolute configuration determination, by use of L-phenylalaninol.

    PubMed

    Arita, Shoko; Yabuuchi, Tetsuya; Kusumi, Takenori

    2003-08-01

    Racemic 1- and 2-naphthylmethoxyacetic acids (1NMA and 2NMA), the chiral anisotropic reagents used for absolute configuration determination of chiral secondary alcohols and primary amines, were conveniently resolved to enantiomers (>99% ee) by condensation with L-phenylalaninol (2-amino-3-phenylpropanol), chromatographic separation of the diastereomers, and hydrolysis. This method enables large-scale preparation of enantiomeric 1NMA and 2NMA. PMID:12840826

  16. NEW GROUND-STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan

    2009-09-01

    The spectrum of ethyl cyanide, or propionitrile (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN), has been repeatedly observed in the interstellar medium with large column densities and surprisingly high temperatures in hot core sources. The construction of new, more sensitive, observatories accessing higher frequencies such as Herschel, ALMA, and SOFIA have made it important to extend the laboratory data for ethyl cyanide to coincide with the capabilities of the new instruments. We report extensions of the laboratory measurements of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide in its ground vibrational state to 1.6 THz. A global analysis of the ground state, which includes all of the previous data and 3356 newly assigned transitions, has been fitted to within experimental error to J = 132, K = 36, using both Watson A-reduced and Watson S-reduced Hamiltonians.

  17. Sentinel-2/MSI absolute calibration: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonjou, V.; Lachérade, S.; Fougnie, B.; Gamet, P.; Marcq, S.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Tremas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is an optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. It is developed in partnership between the European Commission and the European Space Agency. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. It will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). CNES is involved in the instrument commissioning in collaboration with ESA. This paper reviews all the techniques that will be used to insure an absolute calibration of the 13 spectral bands better than 5% (target 3%), and will present the first results if available. First, the nominal calibration technique, based on an on-board sun diffuser, is detailed. Then, we show how vicarious calibration methods based on acquisitions over natural targets (oceans, deserts, and Antarctica during winter) will be used to check and improve the accuracy of the absolute calibration coefficients. Finally, the verification scheme, exploiting photometer in-situ measurements over Lacrau plain, is described. A synthesis, including spectral coherence, inter-methods agreement and temporal evolution, will conclude the paper.

  18. Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

    2014-09-01

    Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

  19. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  20. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations.

  1. Absolute Proper Motions of Southern Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinescu, D. I.; Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.

    1996-05-01

    Our program involves the determination of absolute proper motions with respect to galaxies for a sample of globular clusters situated in the southern sky. The plates cover a 6(deg) x 6(deg) area and are taken with the 51-cm double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. We have developed special methods to deal with the modelling error of the plate transformation and we correct for magnitude equation using the cluster stars. This careful astrometric treatment leads to accuracies of from 0.5 to 1.0 mas/yr for the absolute proper motion of each cluster, depending primarily on the number of measurable cluster stars which in turn is related to the cluster's distance. Space velocities are then derived which, in association with metallicities, provide key information for the formation scenario of the Galaxy, i.e. accretion and/or dissipational collapse. Here we present results for NGC 1851, NGC 6752, NGC 6584, NGC 6362 and NGC 288.

  2. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  3. Transient absolute robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.

    PubMed

    Enciso, German A

    2016-08-01

    Absolute robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite time the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite times, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, absolutely robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485

  4. A study of distribution of ethyl glucuronide in different keratin matrices.

    PubMed

    Pirro, V; Di Corcia, D; Pellegrino, S; Vincenti, M; Sciutteri, B; Salomone, A

    2011-07-15

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol, frequently used as a biomarker of alcohol abuse. To this purpose, EtG is preferentially determined in hair samples, using a cut-off value of 30pg/mg to discriminate between social and heavy drinkers, as recently fixed by an international consensus conference. Although this cut-off value is assumed for head hair, alternative matrices, such as pubic, axillary and chest hair, are often analyzed when head hair is not available. Previous studies suggested that determination of EtG in various keratin matrices may lead to different results; growth cycle and rate, urine contamination, distribution of sebum glands and other environmental factors are likely to contribute to these differences. We analyzed more than 2700 samples (head, pubic, chest and axillary hair) to evaluate the inter- and intra-individual distribution of the EtG concentration in the different keratin matrices. The data were interpreted on a statistical basis, on the assumption that large population data-sets will level off the average alcohol consumption of each group. From both inter- and intra-individual distribution data, significant differences were observed in EtG concentrations recorded in head, axillary and pubic hair samples. It is concluded that pubic hair cannot be utilized alternatively to head hair to prove chronic alcohol abuse, nor is axillary hair, since positive and negative biases respectively affect these determinations. In contrast, for chest hair, EtG distributions similar to head hair were found, although the large discrepancy between the examined population dimensions presently prevents any definitive conclusion. Thus, chest hair represents a promising alternative to head hair for EtG determinations, deserving further investigation on samples collected from the same individuals, in order to establish a clear correlation between their respective EtG concentrations. PMID:21511419

  5. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  6. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  7. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  8. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  9. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  10. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  11. Nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis. The alkylation of N-7 of guanine of nucleic acids of the rat by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate

    PubMed Central

    Swann, P. F.; Magee, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    1. The extent of ethylation of N-7 of guanine in the nucleic acids of rat tissue in vivo by diethylnitrosamine, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and ethyl methanesulphonate was measured. 2. All compounds produced measurable amounts of 7-ethyl-guanine. 3. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea produced tumours of the kidney in the rat. Three doses of ethyl methanesulphonate produced kidney tumours, but a single dose did not. 4. A single dose of diethylnitrosamine produced twice as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in DNA of kidney as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. A single dose of both compounds induced kidney tumours, although of a different histological type. 5. A single dose of ethyl methanesulphonate produced ten times as much ethylation of N-7 of guanine in kidney DNA as did N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea without producing tumours. 6. The relevance of these findings to the hypothesis that alkylation of a cellular component is the mechanism of induction of tumours by nitroso compounds is discussed. PMID:5145908

  12. Can ethyl glucuronide in hair be determined only in 3 cm hair strands?

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Ferreira, Liliane Martins; Yegles, Michel

    2012-05-10

    This paper addresses the suitability of ethyl glucuronide in hair (EtGH) strands other than 3cm for alcohol consumption. This issue will be addressed (a) by statistically comparing the distribution of EtGH results for 3cm hair strands to other hair strands analysed from 4126 cases and (b) by examining the stability of EtGH in an 8cm hair strand and two 12cm hair samples of two volunteers and a post-mortem case using 1cm segmental analysis. For 3464 driving license re-granting Medical and Psychological Assessment (MPA) cases, the detection of alcohol consumption using hair lengths longer than 3cm was never significantly less than for 3cm hair lengths, even up to 12cm hair lengths analysed non-segmented. For 662 non-MPA cases, where, in contrast to MPA cases, generally no abstinence was required, an increase in the EtGH positivity rate was observed with increasing hair length analysed up to 9cm, indicating that EtG-washout effects seem to play a minor role if any. For both MPA and non-MPA hair samples less than 3cm, a drastic, significant increase in the number of positive EtGH samples were observed, compared to 3cm hair lengths, strongly supportive of EtGH incorporation from sweat after a recent alcohol consumption. Segmental studies indicated that EtG is stable in the hair matrix up to 12cm long, hence supporting the above results. Even though both the statistical and the stability studies are preliminary results which need to be confirmed by other studies, they both provide evidence for the determination of alcohol consumption using EtGH in hair lengths longer than 3cm. Amendments to the Consensus of the Society of Hair Testing, the German driving license re-granting guidelines and EWDTS hair guidelines with respect to testing for abstinence and/or alcoholism are proposed for the benefit of the donors. PMID:22019395

  13. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  14. The Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Space - Sensors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Ronald Gene

    1987-09-01

    The need for absolute radiometric calibration of space-based sensors will continue to increase as new generations of space sensors are developed. A reflectance -based in-flight calibration procedure is used to determine the radiance reaching the entrance pupil of the sensor. This procedure uses ground-based measurements coupled with a radiative transfer code to characterize the effects the atmosphere has on the signal reaching the sensor. The computed radiance is compared to the digital count output of the sensor associated with the image of a test site. This provides an update to the preflight calibration of the system and a check on the on-board internal calibrator. This calibration procedure was used to perform a series of five calibrations of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). For the 12 measurements made in TM bands 1-3, the RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean is (+OR-) 1.9%, and for measurements in the IR, TM bands 4,5, and 7, the value is (+OR-) 3.4%. The RMS variation for all 23 measurements is (+OR-) 2.8%. The absolute calibration techniques were put to another test with a series of three calibration of the SPOT-1 High Resolution Visible, (HRV), sensors. The ratio, HRV-2/HRV-1, of absolute calibration coefficients compared very well with ratios of histogrammed data obtained when the cameras simultaneously imaged the same ground site. Bands PA, B1 and B3 agreed to within 3%, while band B2 showed a 7% difference. The procedure for performing a satellite calibration was then used to demonstrate how a calibrated satellite sensor can be used to quantitatively evaluate surface reflectance over a wide range of surface features. Predicted reflectance factors were compared to values obtained from aircraft -based radiometer data. This procedure was applied on four dates with two different surface conditions per date. A strong correlation, R('2) = .996, was shown between reflectance values determined from satellite imagery and low-flying aircraft

  15. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  16. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in meconium and hair-potential biomarkers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Morini, L; Marchei, E; Vagnarelli, F; Garcia Algar, O; Groppi, A; Mastrobattista, L; Pichini, S

    2010-03-20

    This study investigated ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) concentration in meconium and in maternal and neonatal hair (HEtG and HFAEEs, respectively) as potential markers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol together with meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in a cohort of 99 mother-infant dyads, 49 coming from the Arcispedale of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and 50 from the Hospital del Mar of Barcelona (Spain). FAEEs, EtG and EtS were measured in meconium samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A head space-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to test HEtG and HFAEEs in hair samples from mothers and their newborns. Eighty-two meconium samples (82.8%) tested positive for EtG, 19 (19.2%) for EtS while 22 (22.2%) showed FAEEs levels higher than 2 nmol/g, the cut-off used to differentiate daily maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy from occasional or no use. Although EtG and EtS in meconium did not correlate with total FAEEs concentration, a good correlation between EtG, EtS and ethyl stearate was observed. Moreover, EtG correlated well with ethyl palmitoleate, while EtS with ethyl laurate, myristate and linolenate. Neither maternal nor neonatal hair appears as good predictors of gestational ethanol consumption and subsequent fetal exposure in these mother-infant dyads. In conclusion, these data show that meconium is so far the best matrix in evaluating intrauterine exposure to ethanol, with EtG and EtS being potentially good alternative biomarkers to FAEEs. PMID:20060246

  17. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  18. Novel approach to the preparation of hemisuccinates of steroids bearing tertiary alcohol group.

    PubMed

    Longin, Ondřej; Černý, Ivan; Drašar, Pavel

    2015-05-01

    17β-O-Hemisuccinates of typical representatives of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids, 17β-hydroxy-17-methylandrostan-4-en-3-one, 17β-hydroxy-17-methyl-2-oxa-5α-androstan-3-one, 17β-hydroxy-17-methyl-5α-androstano-[3,2-c]pyrazole, were prepared. Several methods for the hemisuccinate preparation were tested. The indirect method using 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide coupling reagent to form an ester bond of steroid with 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl hydrogen butanedioate was finally applied. Using the selectively removable protecting group, the desired hemisuccinates of steroids bearing tertiary alcohol group were obtained.

  19. Absolute radiometric calibration of the CCRS SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulander, Lars M. H.; Hawkins, Robert K.; Livingstone, Charles E.; Lukowski, Tom I.

    1991-11-01

    Determining the radar scattering coefficients from SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image data requires absolute radiometric calibration of the SAR system. The authors describe an internal calibration methodology for the airborne Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) SAR system, based on radar theory, a detailed model of the radar system, and measurements of system parameters. The methodology is verified by analyzing external calibration data acquired over a 6-month period in 1988 by the C-band radar using HH polarization. The results indicate that the overall error is +/- 0.8 dB (1-sigma) for incidence angles +/- 20 deg from antenna boresight. The dominant error contributions are due to the antenna radome and uncertainties in the elevation angle relative to the antenna boresight.

  20. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  1. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan, M. V.; Springham, S. V.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, P.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-08-15

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f{sub n}{approx}4.1x10{sup -4} with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 8} neutrons per discharge.

  2. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  3. Absolute Measurement of Electron Cloud Density

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, M K; Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Seidl, P A; Logan, G; Bieniosek, F; Baca, D; Vay, J; Orlando, E; Vujic, J L

    2007-06-21

    Beam interaction with background gas and walls produces ubiquitous clouds of stray electrons that frequently limit the performance of particle accelerator and storage rings. Counterintuitively we obtained the electron cloud accumulation by measuring the expelled ions that are originated from the beam-background gas interaction, rather than by measuring electrons that reach the walls. The kinetic ion energy measured with a retarding field analyzer (RFA) maps the depressed beam space-charge potential and provides the dynamic electron cloud density. Clearing electrode current measurements give the static electron cloud background that complements and corroborates with the RFA measurements, providing an absolute measurement of electron cloud density during a 5 {micro}s duration beam pulse in a drift region of the magnetic transport section of the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL.

  4. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  5. Absolute calibration of remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggar, S. F.; Bruegge, C. J.; Capron, B. A.; Castle, K. R.; Dinguirard, M. C.; Holm, R. G.; Lingg, L. J.; Mao, Y.; Palmer, J. M.; Phillips, A. L.

    1985-12-01

    Source-based and detector-based methods for the absolute radiometric calibration of a broadband field radiometer are described. Using such a radiometer, calibrated by both methods, the calibration of the integrating sphere used in the preflight calibration of the Thematic Mapper was redetermined. The results are presented. The in-flight calibration of space remote sensing instruments is discussed. A method which uses the results of ground-based reflectance and atmospheric measurements as input to a radiative transfer code to predict the radiance at the instrument is described. A calibrated, helicopter-mounted radiometer is used to determine the radiance levels at intermediate altitudes to check the code predictions. Results of such measurements for the calibration of the Thematic Mapper on Landsat 5 and an analysis that shows the value of such measurements are described.

  6. Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

  7. Swarm's Absolute Scalar Magnetometer metrological performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, J.; Fratter, I.; Bertrand, F.; Jager, T.; Morales, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) has been developed for the ESA Earth Observation Swarm mission, planned for launch in November 2012. As its Overhauser magnetometers forerunners flown on Oersted and Champ satellites, it will deliver high resolution scalar measurements for the in-flight calibration of the Vector Field Magnetometer manufactured by the Danish Technical University. Latest results of the ground tests carried out to fully characterize all parameters that may affect its accuracy, both at instrument and satellite level, will be presented. In addition to its baseline function, the ASM can be operated either at a much higher sampling rate (burst mode at 250 Hz) or in a dual mode where it also delivers vector field measurements as a by-product. The calibration procedure and the relevant vector performances will be discussed.

  8. MAGSAT: Vector magnetometer absolute sensor alignment determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for accurately determining the absolute alignment of the magnetic axes of a triaxial magnetometer sensor with respect to an external, fixed, reference coordinate system. The method does not require that the magnetic field vector orientation, as generated by a triaxial calibration coil system, be known to better than a few degrees from its true position, and minimizes the number of positions through which a sensor assembly must be rotated to obtain a solution. Computer simulations show that accuracies of better than 0.4 seconds of arc can be achieved under typical test conditions associated with existing magnetic test facilities. The basic approach is similar in nature to that presented by McPherron and Snare (1978) except that only three sensor positions are required and the system of equations to be solved is considerably simplified. Applications of the method to the case of the MAGSAT Vector Magnetometer are presented and the problems encountered discussed.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  11. Alcohol-impregnated wipes as an alternative in hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Butz, A M; Laughon, B E; Gullette, D L; Larson, E L

    1990-04-01

    The antimicrobial effectiveness of four hand-wash products for health care personnel included three liquid soaps that contained 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% triclosan, or no antiseptic ingredient, respectively, and a 30% w/w ethyl alcohol-impregnated hand wipe. These products were evaluated for reduction in bacterial counts on hands after extended use of 15 handwashes per day for 5 consecutive days. The order of greatest to least log reduction among products at the end of the 5-day test period was chlorhexidine gluconate (2.01), triclosan (1.52), alcohol wipe (0.04), and control soap (0.03). Skin condition before and after handwash was assessed for each treatment group. Subjects reported less skin irritation with alcohol wipes than with the two antiseptic products. Repeated washing with alcohol wipes results in reductions in bacterial colony counts comparable with nonmedicated soap, sufficient to prevent transmission of pathogens by the hands in most situations that arise in nonacute health care settings. This evidence, in addition to increased user acceptability reported by the subjects who used alcohol wipes, suggests that alcohol wipes are an acceptable alternative to soap-and-water handwashing in nonacute health care settings.

  12. 77 FR 12740 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... plant growth regulator, trinexapac-ethyl and its primary metabolite CGA-179500, in or on grass, forage... Tolerance In the Federal Register of August 4, 2010, (75 FR 46925) (FRL-8834- 9), EPA issued a notice... Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this...

  13. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta García, María Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martín Porrero, María Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Salgado Muñoz, María Sagrario

    2010-04-01

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical. PMID:20237722

  14. 76 FR 31479 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Federal Register of June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35801) (FRL-8831- 3), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408...- ethyl. C. Revisions to Petitioned-for Tolerances In the Federal Register of December 8, 2010 (75 FR..., entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, ] October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has...

  15. 40 CFR 180.429 - Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues. 180.429 Section 180.429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED..., field, forage 0.5 Corn, field, grain 0.01 Corn, field, stover 2.0 Grain, aspirated fractions 3.0...

  16. Enantioselective Metabolism of Quizalofop-Ethyl in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yiran; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Shen, Zhigang; Liu, Hui; Jia, Zhixin; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and distribution of the enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid were studied in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The two pairs of enantiomers were determined using a validated chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. Animals were administered quizalofop-ethyl at 10 mg kg−1 orally and intravenously. It was found high concentration of quizalofop-acid in the blood and tissues by both intragastric and intravenous administration, and quizalofop-ethyl could not be detected through the whole study which indicated a quick metabolism of quizalofop-ethyl to quizalofop-acid in vivo. In almost all the samples, the concentrations of (+)-quizalofop-acid exceeded those of (−)-quizalofop-acid. Quizalofop-acid could still be detected in the samples even at 120 h except in brain due to the function of blood-brain barrier. Based on a rough calculation, about 8.77% and 2.16% of quizalofop-acid were excreted through urine and feces after intragastric administration. The oral bioavailability of (+)-quizalofop-acid and (−)-quizalofop-acid were 72.8% and 83.6%. PMID:24964043

  17. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  18. Dissociation of the Ethyl Radical: An Exercise in Computational Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassabeh, Nahal; Tran, Mark; Fleming, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A set of exercises for use in a typical physical chemistry laboratory course are described, modeling the unimolecular dissociation of the ethyl radical to form ethylene and atomic hydrogen. Students analyze the computational results both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative structural changes are compared to approximate predicted values…

  19. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta García, María Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martín Porrero, María Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabañas Galán, Beatriz; Salgado Muñoz, María Sagrario

    2010-04-01

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical.

  20. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...-ethyl in or on barley, bran; sugarcane, molasses; and wheat, bran under the Federal Food, Drug, and... affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code...

  1. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  2. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, when tested by the methods prescribed for polyethylene in... identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (ii) Quantitative determination of ethyl acrylate... less than 0.920 nor more than 0.935, as determined by ASTM method D1505-68 (Reapproved 1979),...

  3. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF IMIDAZOLIUM-BASED TETRACHLOROINDATE(III) AND THEIR APPLICATION IN THE TETRAHYDROPYRANYLATION OF ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A MW-assisted preparation of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroindate(III), [Rmim][InCl4] (R = methyl, ethyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl) and their application as recyclable catalysts for the efficient and eco-friendly protection of alcohols to form tetrahydropyranyl (TH...

  4. Characterization of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and 3 from Neurospora crassa FGSC2489.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Cheol; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2007-08-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a key enzyme in the production and utilization of alcohols. Some also catalyze the formation of carboxylate esters from alcohols and aldehydes. The ADH1 and ADH3 genes of Neurospora crassa FGSC2489 were cloned and expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli to investigate their alcohol dehydrogenation and carboxylate ester formation abilities. Homology analysis and sequence alignment of amino acid sequence indicated that ADH1 and ADH3 of N. crassa contained a zinc-binding consensus sequence and a NAD(+)-binding motif and showed 54-75% identity with fungi ADHs. N. crassa ADH1 was expressed in E. coli to give a specific activity of 289 +/- 9 mU/mg using ethanol and NAD(+) as substrate and cofactor, respectively. Corresponding experiments on the expression and activity of ADH3 gave 4 mU/mg of specific activity. N. crassa ADH1 preferred primary alcohols containing C3-C8 carbons to secondary alcohols such as 2-propanol and 2-butanol. N. crassa ADH1 possessed 5.3 mU/mg of specific carboxylate ester-forming activity accumulating 0.4 mM of ethyl acetate in 18 h. Substrate specificity of various linear alcohols and aldehydes indicated that short chain-length alcohols and aldehydes were good substrates for carboxylate ester production. N. crassa ADH1 was a primary alcohol dehydrogenase using cofactor NAD(+) preferably and possessed carboxylate ester-forming activity with short chain alcohols and aldehydes. PMID:17516063

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  6. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  7. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  8. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  9. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  10. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  11. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  12. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  13. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  14. Absolute stereostructures of three new sesquiterpenes from the fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi; Toguchida, Iwao; Ueda, Kazuho; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2002-10-01

    The 80% aqueous acetone extract and the ethyl acetate-soluble portion from the dried fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla MIQUEL were found to show inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages and antigen-induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, oxyphyllol A, and two eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes, oxyphyllols B and C, were isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion, together with 16 known constituents. The absolute stereostructures of oxyphyllols A, B, and C were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The effects of isolated components on nitric oxide production were examined, and nine constituents including oxyphyllol A and nootkatone were found to show inhibitory activity. On the other hand, five constituents inhibited the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells. PMID:12398545

  15. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  16. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  17. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  18. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  19. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  20. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  1. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  2. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  3. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  4. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  5. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  6. Incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Prince Edward Island: a population-based descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Bryanton, Janet; Boswall, Diane; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Fraser, Bonnie; Walsh, Donna; Freeman, Bridget; Koren, Gideon; Bigsby, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading preventable cause of neurodevelopmental disability in North America. The stigma associated with alcohol use and abuse during pregnancy makes it difficult to obtain information on prenatal alcohol use through self-reporting. We assessed the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Prince Edward Island to facilitate future public health initiatives addressing FASD. Methods Prenatal alcohol exposure was examined via population-based collection of meconium and analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Fatty acid ethyl esters are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol that are produced in the fetus. Meconium FAEE concentrations of 2.0 nmol/g or greater are indicative of frequent prenatal alcohol exposure during the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy. Samples were collected from 1307 neonates between Nov. 8, 2010, and Nov. 8, 2011, in hospitals in PEI, or from those born to mothers who resided in PEI but gave birth in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Samples were frozen and shipped for analysis. Fatty acid ethyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and quantified by means of deuterated internal standards. Results Of the 1307 samples collected, 1271 samples were successfully analyzed. Positive results for FAEEs were obtained in 3.1% (n = 39) of samples collected within the first 24 hours after birth. Interpretation Not all neonates exposed to heavy prenatal alcohol in utero will exhibit FASD; based on current estimates of predictive value for disease by exposure, our findings suggest that 1.3% of neonates born in PEI during this 1-year period will have FASD. In its application to an entire provincial birth cohort, this study successfully implemented a public health–centred approach for evaluating population-based risk of FASD, with implications for practice across Canada. PMID:25077128

  7. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  8. Protective effect of calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal on acute alcohol consumption related cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Güngör; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Burukoğlu, Dilek; Ozer, Mehmet Caner

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and alcoholism cause medical problems with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study we aimed to decrease the alcohol related tissue damage by inhibiting calpain activation which plays an important role in apoptosis and necrosis, in rats with cardiomyopathy induced by acute alcohol consumption. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups (control, vehicle, alcohol and alcohol + inhibitor) with 10 rats in each. Control group received isocaloric maltose while vehicle group received isocaloric maltose with DMSO, and alcohol group received 8 g/kg absolute ethanol by gavage. Inhibitor group received 20 mg/kg calpain inhibitor 1 intraperitonally prior to alcohol administration. Calpain activities, cathepsin L levels and cytochrome c release rates were significantly increased in alcohol group compared to control group (p < 0.05). Serum CK MB and BNP levels of alcohol group were excessively increased compared to control group (respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Serum BNP levels of alcohol + inhibitor group were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to alcohol group. In addition to these, histological evaluation of light microscope images and the results of DNA fragmentation and immunohistochemical caspase-3 activity results showed significant improvement of these parameters in alcohol + inhibitor group compared to alcohol group. Results of our biochemical and histological evaluation results revealed that the calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal may have an ameliorating effect on acute alcohol consumption related cardiac tissue damage due to its effects on cell death pathways. PMID:24996291

  9. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  10. Fatality from drinking denatured alcohol and hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne

    2011-06-01

    A 19-year-old non-diabetic female suffering from irritable bowel syndrome was found unconscious outdoors in the month of October. She was severely hypothermic and rushed to hospital for life-saving treatment. Evidence emerged that the victim had attempted suicide by drinking denatured alcohol (T-Red). According to the manufacturer of this product, it contains > 85% (v/v) ethanol, ~5% (v/v) acetone, 1-2% (v/v) ethyl acetate, and ∼3% (v/v) methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), but no isopropanol. A venous blood sample taken on admission to hospital contained ethanol (660 mg/100 mL), acetone (25 mg/100 mL), isopropanol (78 mg/100 mL), and MEK, although the latter was not quantified. Despite intensive care, the patient died 21 h after admission and postmortem femoral blood contained ethanol (390 mg/100 mL), acetone (14 mg/100 mL), isopropanol (53 mg/100 mL), and MEK. During oxidative metabolism of ethanol, there is a shift in the redox state of the liver to a more reduced potential as reflected in a raised NADH/NAD(+) ratio, which impacts on other NAD-dependent biochemical reactions, including reduction of acetone to isopropanol. The lower concentrations of ethanol, acetone, and isopropanol in postmortem blood compared with antemortem blood indicate the metabolism of these substances during the 21-h survival period when the patient received emergency hospital treatment. PMID:21619727

  11. Alcohol Used as Disinfectant before Venipuncture does not Lead to Sample Haemolysis or Sample Dilution

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Booloo; Sharma, Dilutpal; Mathew, Sheeja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sample haemolysis is often the leading cause of sample rejections in clinical laboratory. Isopropyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol, used as disinfectant during sample collection is often considered an important cause of sample haemolysis or sample dilution; although there is a paucity of scientific documentation verifying the same. Aim To verify whether avoidance to wipe out alcohol from the venipuncture site, before sample collection leads to sample haemolysis; or leads to sample dilution. Materials and Methods This was a prospective randomized study, where every second patient coming to the phlebotomist during the study period, in the age group of 20 to 50 years, was considered for the study. A total of 60 patients were considered for the study. For unbiased comparison sample were collected from both left upper limb (alcohol dry) and right upper limb (alcohol wet) of all the patients. Visual inspection for haemolysis was done, and serum potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and Glucose were estimated in both the set. Also experiences of patients in both limb collections were considered. Results On visual inspection none of the sample was haemolysed. 51.67% of the patients experienced same level of discomfort in both limbs (alcohol dry and alcohol wet) during venipuncture. While 28.3% experienced burning sensation in alcohol wet limb, another 20% experienced a more soothing sensation in the alcohol wet limb during venipuncture. There is no statistically significant difference in the measured value of serum K, LDH, Ca, AST, ALT and ALKP and Glucose between the two sets of sample - alcohol dry and alcohol wet. Conclusion The study concludes that avoidance to wipe alcohol before venipuncture does not lead to sample haemolysis or sample dilution. Also most patient experienced same or more soothing sensation in alcohol wet limb. Therefore sample can be

  12. Unified Effect of Hydrophobic Hydration on the Dynamics and the Structure of Water Molecules in Lower Alcohol Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Masaru; Maruyama, Kenji; Yamamuro, Osamu; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Misawa, Masakatsu

    2011-04-01

    After the analysis of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) spectra of lower alcoholic aqueous solutions, we found that the parameter α, which is the number fraction of hydrophobic hydrating water molecules, has an important role in describing the dynamics and other properties of these solutions. The diffusion coefficient D was obtained from QENS spectra using the relaxing cage model, and D was found to have the same linear relation against α for ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, i-propyl alcohol, and t-butyl alcohol (with a small deviation) aqueous solutions. The excess molar volume and average hydration number of these solutions could also be expressed with common parameters, which are independent of the alcohol species.

  13. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...